CN106234000A - Autumn capsicum and Bowl bean, early rice, Corm Eleocharitis, green soyabeans crop rotation organic cultivation method - Google Patents

Autumn capsicum and Bowl bean, early rice, Corm Eleocharitis, green soyabeans crop rotation organic cultivation method Download PDF

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CN106234000A
CN106234000A CN201610681163.XA CN201610681163A CN106234000A CN 106234000 A CN106234000 A CN 106234000A CN 201610681163 A CN201610681163 A CN 201610681163A CN 106234000 A CN106234000 A CN 106234000A
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organic
cultivation
soil
green
corm eleocharitis
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CN106234000B (en
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肖光辉
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Hu-Nan's Agriculture Information And Graduate School Of Engineering
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01CPLANTING; SOWING; FERTILISING
    • A01C21/00Methods of fertilising, sowing or planting

Abstract

The invention discloses autumn capsicum and Bowl bean, early rice, Corm Eleocharitis, green soyabeans crop rotation organic cultivation method, relate to rotation cropping technical field.Comprise the following steps: (1) selects suitable place to set up organic farming production base;(2) suitable kind is selected;(3) rotation system is: cultivation successively in the 1st year: green soyabeans autumn capsicum Bowl bean, cultivation successively in the 2nd year: early rice Corm Eleocharitis, every 2 years is 1 period of crop-rotation;(4) organic hot pepper, organic Bowl bean, organic early rice, organic Corm Eleocharitis and the rotation cropping of organic green soyabeans are carried out according to organic agriculture principle and the organic farm products mode of production and standard, and by straw-returning and retting fertilizer fertilizing soil.The practicality of this crop rotation organic cultivation method, with workable, be a kind of efficient ecological circular agriculture cultivation mode, can be applicable in In Middle And Lower Reaches of Changjiang River, have good economy, society and ecological benefits.

Description

Autumn capsicum and Bowl bean, early rice, Corm Eleocharitis, green soyabeans crop rotation organic cultivation method
Technical field
The invention belongs to rotation cropping technical field, being specifically related to autumn capsicum has with Bowl bean, early rice, Corm Eleocharitis, green soyabeans crop rotation Machine cultural method.
Background technology
First organic agriculture was proposed by European countries the twenties in 20th century, through practice and the development of decades, progressively Paid attention to by national governments.Organic agriculture is one of good approach solving food-safety problem, is described as " rising industry ", There is wide market prospect.Organic farm products is pure natural, pollution-free, the food of safe nutrition, also referred to as " ecological food Product ", it is to produce according to organic agriculture principle and the organic farm products mode of production and standard, and passes through Organic Food Attestation The agricultural product of agency qualification.Organic farming must produce according to the prescription of organic farm products and production specifications, To ensure that its product is pollution-free, feature rich in nutrition and high-quality.In recent years, organic agriculture is raw owing to having complied with improvement agricultural State environment, the world trends of the production pollution-free Organic food of high-quality, so Organic Farming is rapid, organic farming is increasingly subject to Paying attention to, and progressively develop into for a kind of emerging rising industry, Organic food has become the fashion of people's consumption.Development high-quality The production of the agricultural product such as organic hot pepper, not only can improve the economic benefit of Producer, and can be that consumer's physical and mental health carries For ensureing.
Fructus Capsici (Capsicum annuum L.) belongs to Solanaceae Capsicum 1 year or limited herbaceos perennial, in originating in South America torrid areas, in the most incoming China, generally cultivates all over China now, is that China is only second to Chinese cabbage Second largest vegetable crop, for the popular vegetable of people's eating, is also good flavoring agent.Fructus Capsici is nutritious, containing protein, The mineral such as vitamin, organic acid, pigment, capsaicin and the calcium of human body needs, phosphorus, ferrum, in Fructus Capsici, ascorbic content is vegetables Dish occupies first.Capsaicin energy appetite stimulator in Fructus Capsici, capsanthin have good antioxidation.Eat Fructus Capsici in right amount to have Stomach invigorating, aid digestion, prevent cholelithiasis, improve cardiac function, blood circulation promoting, blood sugar lowering, lowering blood-fat and reducing weight, warming the stomach are dispeled cold, anti- Flu, the dietary function such as also pain relieving heat radiation, skin beauty treatment, radioprotective, growth encourage longevity.China is to occupy the Fructus Capsici first of the whole world to produce With consumption big country, whole nation Fructus Capsici sown area more than more than 140 ten thousand hectares, account for more than the 1/10 of China's vegetable crop cultivated area, produce Measure 27,000,000 tons, the output value reach 27,000,000,000 yuan (Sun Guosheng, Ma Zhihu, Sun Chunqing, etc. Fructus Capsici continuous cropping in early spring no-tillage cultivation technology. in State's melon dish, 2015,28 (1): 55-56), so Fructus Capsici plays an important role in China's vegetable basket project construction.Fructus Capsici is Warm season vegetable, is weak to frost, and its growth promoter requires warm weather, stronger illumination and good ventilation condition, its growth Phase is long, and the supply phase of gathering is long, and yield is high, profitable, in In Middle And Lower Reaches of Changjiang River by interval sowing, and the cultivation of mating protection ground, Annually cultivating supply can be carried out.But Fructus Capsici happiness temperature, happiness light, Xi Shui, happiness is fertile, be afraid of flood, the low temperature in In Middle And Lower Reaches of Changjiang River spring Rainy sparse sunlight weather easily causes fruit drop, and the best fruiting period, rich water was under-supply or also hold when meeting high temperature and drought, rainy wet weather Easily there is fruit drop, and pest and disease damage harm is serious under the conditions of unfavourable weather, generally uses chemical fertilizer, pesticide during cultivated peppers It is more and be unable to reach the requirement of organic farming, so the organic farming of Fructus Capsici is little at present.Warmhouse booth stubble in early spring is organic peppery Green pepper cultivation technique (Mu Tingjun. Agriculture in Xinjiang science and technology, 2011 (5): 69) and organic hot pepper cultivation technique (Fang Yubing. Anhui agronomy Circular, 201l, 17 (14): 171-172) contribution is, it is proposed that the organic farming of Fructus Capsici;Have a disadvantage in that, typically will Employing facility plastic greenhouse is cultivated, and is all not set up rational rotation system, and Fructus Capsici is weak to continuous cropping, must when carrying out organic farming Organic farming production base must be initially set up, if plant Fructus Capsici in same plot year after year, on the one hand pathogen can be caused to accumulate, Cause the soil-borne diseases such as bacterial wilt serious;On the other hand in close soil layer, identical nutrient substance is absorbed due to root system, Continuous cropping can cause soil lack some element and make soil physical and chemical property deteriorate, and is susceptible to continuous cropping obstacle.Owing to Fructus Capsici is general Require to carry out the crop rotation of more than 2~3 years or rice field-upland field rotation, above-mentioned Fructus Capsici organic cultivation method be difficult in actual production to apply or It is difficult to be truly realized organic farming.Therefore, carry out must formulating during Fructus Capsici organic farming the rotation plan fertilizing soil of science with Reduce the pest and disease damage radix in soil, effectively to prevent and treat the generation of the soil-borne diseases such as bacterial wilt and soil continuous cropping obstacle.Bulbus Allii, Two kinds five of Fructus Capsici 1 year receives organic cultivation method (application number 201410465914.5, application publication number CN 104255243 A) Contribution is, it is proposed that Fructus Capsici and Bulbus Allii crop rotation carry out the technical scheme of organic farming;Have a disadvantage in that, annual in same piece of land Producing 1 batch of Fructus Capsici, every 1 batch of Fructus Capsici and 1 batch of Bulbus Allii crop rotation, owing to the crop rotation time is the shortest, the generation of pest and disease damage is still the tightest , in cultivation, there is bigger risk, and employ the chemical agents such as 10% tertiary sodium phosphate in weight, the most truly Organic farming.
Green soyabeans (Glycine max) makes again Fresh edible soybean, the i.e. Semen sojae atricolor of tender pod, seed of gathering drum expire to the first ripe phase Between young pod make vegetable eat, for annual herb legume.Green soyabeans is nutritious food, plants containing abundant Thing albumen, the mineral of multiple beneficial, vitamin and dietary fiber.Green soyabeans contains abundant potassium, can alleviate hot weather and cause Fatigue and weak and appetite decline, be particularly suitable for summer eat;Ferrum in green soyabeans is prone to absorb, and can supplement ferrum as child One of food;The dietary fiber content of green soyabeans is up to 4.0%, can not only improve constipation, also helps the fall of blood pressure and cholesterol Low.Possibly together with trace functional components flavone compound in green soyabeans, can improve the discomfort of Woman climacteric, preventing and treating sclerotin is dredged Pine.In green soyabeans, the linoleic acid plus linolenic acid content of unsaturated fatty acid such as needed by human is apparently higher than other kinds of vegetable, can To improve lipid metabolism, contribute to reducing triglyceride and cholesterol in human body.Lecithin in green soyabeans is that brain development can not One of nutrition lacked, contributes to improving the memory of brain and level of intelligence.So green soyabeans (Fresh edible soybean) is deep by south The traditional characteristics vegetable that resident likes, early-maturing Maodou of especially sowing in spring, owing to listing morning, quality better, market price is high, economic effect Benefit is notable.The demand of quick freezing process type Fresh edible soybean (green soyabeans) is increased sharply by international market in recent years, especially Japan, Korea Spro State and country in Southeast Asia increase the demand of organic green soyabeans food is anxious, organic green soyabeans at home, international market have huge market Potentiality.Develop organic green soyabeans and produce the vegetable basket that i.e. can enrich urban and rural residents, farmers' income can be improved again, be effectively improved city The quality of life of the villeggiatura people, it is also possible to foreign exchange earning.Therefore, organic green soyabeans produces as one emerging Soybean Industry of China, There is huge development potentiality and competitiveness in the international market, be a modern efficient agriculture oriented for export and foreign exchange earnings, it is possible to produce huge economy Benefit and social benefit, prospect is the most wide.Although at present China's organic green soyabeans cultivation has multiple (organic see: a kind of green soyabeans Implantation methods, CN 104025873 A;A kind of implantation methods of organic green soyabeans, CN 105393743 A), but these cultural methods Organic farming the most truly because these implantation methods due to do not use rational crop rotation and in the course of cultivation The most more or less employ chemical fertilizer or pesticide.Green soyabeans is weak to continuous cropping, if organic with other crops when carrying out organic farming Cultivation carries out crop rotation, sets up rational rotation system, not only contributes to the organic farming of green soyabeans, and green soyabeans takes advantage of straw after gathering Stalk, bean leaf are poured water as early as possible to plough a field time also dark green and are ploughed under in soil, can improve straw green manuring fertilizer efficiency, it is possible to foster and apply fertilizer and improve soil, Increasing soil organic matter content, improve soil fertility structure, reduce the occurrence degree of pest and disease damage, be also beneficial to other crops has Machine is cultivated.
Semen Pisi sativi (Pisum sativum) is that one likes the leguminous herbaceous plant that cools, for the fourth-largest legume crop in the world.Semen Pisi sativi Rich in multiple nutritional components such as rich in protein, dietary fiber, provitamin As, the resistance of human body can be improved, help digest Deng;Provitamin A in Semen Pisi sativi can be converted into vitamin A in vivo, has the effect of moist skin;Rich in vitamin in Semen Pisi sativi In C and energy decomposer, the enzyme of nitrosamine, can have anticancer, protective effect on cancer risk with decomposing nitrosamine.Bowl bean gather haricot stripping grain make For a kind of delicious vegetables in season in spring, liked by more and more people, had been enter into the vegetable basket of more and more people.Bowl bean is adopted Receive haricot listing to eat raw as vegetable, the most good in economic efficiency, but also can allow the growth of stubble, beneficially succession crop early. Bowl bean root has root nodule bacteria fixed nitrogen, with luxuriant foliage and spreading branches in leafy profusion, easily becomes thoroughly decomposed, and is important green manure, the Bowl bean straw pressure after haricot of gathering Green grass or young crops makees green manure, is high-quality fertilizer, beneficially fertilizing soil, increases soil fertility.Bowl bean has stronger tolerance to cold, is development The elite crop that winter kind produces.Bowl bean planted in fall Overwintering Growth, growth stage temperature is low, and pest and disease damage occurs few, cultivation management Relatively easy, low cost, planting benefit is good.But Semen Pisi sativi is weak to continuous cropping, if carrying out efficent rotation with Fructus Capsici, Oryza sativa L. etc., then There are good economy, society and ecological benefits.
Oryza sativa L. (Oryza sativa) is the most important cereal crops in the Yangtze river basin, is also to carry out floods and droughts with vegetables such as Fructus Capsicis Crop rotation and carry out the chief crop of rotation cropping with aquatic vegetables such as Corm Eleocharitiss.Although the production method of organic rice has multiple at present (see: Xia Lili etc. area, Baoying County organic paddy rice cultivation technique. modern agriculture science and technology, 2013 (23): 58,63;A kind of high yield has The production method of machine rice, CN 103733929 B;The production technology of a kind of organic fragrant rice, CN 103250606 B), but mostly because of Do not use scientific and reasonable crop rotation and fertility cultivation, existence fertilizer the most in various degree is not enough and long potential difference, yield poorly, The problem of Pest organism harm weight.Although Oryza sativa L. is the crop of resistance to continuous cropping, but owing to the production of organic rice can not use chemical agent Preventing and treating, long-term continuous cropping also results in the accumulation of field pathogen and the increase of insect density, passes through rice field despite the use of The methods such as duck culturing, Trionyx sinensis Wiegmann, shrimp and fish control the generation of field insect pest, have employed Chinese herbal medicine fluid seed soaking, plant insecticide prevention The multiple method such as spray and carry out the preventing and treating of pest and disease damage, but occur also to there will be pest and disease damage than the more serious time at pest and disease damage cannot The problem controlled, thus cause Severe Reduction, even occur cultivating unsuccessfully.Therefore, Oryza sativa L. organic farming is also necessary implementation section Learn rational crop rotation, particularly carry out rice field-upland field rotation.Fructus Capsici carries out rice field-upland field rotation with Oryza sativa L., not only contributes to improve the soil in rice field Earth physicochemical character, increases fertility of land and fertilizer efficiency, and can effectively suppress the diseases such as pepper ralstonia solanacearum, anthrax, epidemic disease, reduces disease pest Crop smothering occurs, moreover it is possible to improves rice yield and significantly improves economic benefit, having significant economic benefit and ecological benefits.
Corm Eleocharitis (Eleocharis dulcis) belongs to Cyperaceae Eleocharis, is shallow water perennial root herbaceous plant, with ground Lower bulb makees fruit or vegetable eats, and can eat raw or prepared food, also can process canning or make to extract the raw material of starch.Corm Eleocharitis has heat clearing away The good effects of pathogenic fire purging, both can clearing away heat and promoting production of body fluid, can supplement the nutrients again, Corm Eleocharitis also have prevent acute infectious disease function, measles, Epidemic cerebrospinal meningitis more incident spring, Corm Eleocharitis is good diseases prevention food.Corm Eleocharitis is universal in the cultivation of Yangtze river basin each province, water chestnut The meat of shepherd's purse is pure white, and the crisp taste of matter is sweet, and how tasty and refreshing juice is, nutritious, rich in the various mineral elements of needed by human body and vitamin, Aminoacid, containing protein, fat, crude fibre, carotene, vitamin B, vitamin C, ferrum, calcium, phosphorus and carbohydrate etc., Have the good reputation of underground pear from ancient times, northerner regard as south of the River Radix Ginseng, therefore cultivate the better economic benefit of Corm Eleocharitis.Corm Eleocharitis is weak to Continuous cropping, many and Oryza sativa L. crop rotation, but Corm Eleocharitis is relatively low with the economic benefit of Oryza sativa L. crop rotation, and Corm Eleocharitis and Fructus Capsici enter crop rotation the most economic effect Benefit preferably, and can also improve Soil structure, culture fertility, reduces the occurrence degree of disease pest and weed, reduces agriculture chemical consumption, Can improve product quality and yield, it is thus possible to significantly improve economic benefit.
Summary of the invention
It is an object of the invention to provide autumn capsicum and Bowl bean, early rice, Corm Eleocharitis, green soyabeans crop rotation organic cultivation method, pass through Fructus Capsici carries out scientific and reasonable floods and droughts wheel with legume green soyabeans and Bowl bean, field crop Oryza sativa L. and efficient aquatic crops Corm Eleocharitis Making, in addition to can increasing economic efficiency, it is often more important that can reduce Weed infestation, that destroys disease pest source grows environment with fall The occurrence degree of low pest and disease damage, improves soil fertility structure, the reparation of promotion soil environment;1 batch is cultivated within 1 period of crop-rotation Green soyabeans and 1 batch of Bowl bean, it is the most good in economic efficiency that haricot of gathering makees vegetable, but also can allow stubble, beneficially succession crop early Growth, using the straw of green soyabeans and Bowl bean as green manure plough under in soil can fertilizing soil, by straw collecting after every batch of crop harvesting Rear heap make fertilizer or on the spot also field also can fertilizing soil, preferably achieve the recovery of organic matter, improve soil fertility, The benign cycle of crop cultivation can be formed, to maintain balance and the bio-diversity of farmland ecosystem, thus reach organic The purpose of cultivation." the Organic food technology that crop rotation organic cultivation method of the present invention is promulgated in strict accordance with State Environmental Protection Administration Specification " (HJ/T80-2001) cultivate, can cultivate in same organic farming production base organic hot pepper, Bowl bean, early rice, Corm Eleocharitis and green soyabeans.
Autumn capsicum and Bowl bean, early rice, Corm Eleocharitis, green soyabeans crop rotation organic cultivation method, comprise the following steps:
(1) suitable place is selected to set up organic farming production base;
(2) suitable kind is selected: capsicum variety selects heat-resisting, disease-resistant, strong stress resistance, wide adaptability, growth potential is relatively strong, By force, high yield, high-quality, commodity are good for concentration, the ability of bearing fruit of bearing fruit, and are suitable for locality cultivation and the Early-mid ripening kind of the market demand, wrap Include: Hunan grind No. 3, Hunan grind No. 12, Hunan grind No. 13;Bowl bean Fruit variety high yield, Resistant, tolerance to cold are relatively strong, wide adaptability, bear pods Rate is high and the improved seeds of the Relatively centralized that bears pods, including: Ah pole gram this, little blue or green pod, Hangzhou spend in vain, Chengdu winter Semen Pisi sativi, middle pea 4 Number, middle pea 6;Disease and insect resistance is strong, resistant to lodging, wide adaptability, yielding ability are good in early-paddy brown rice selection, meter Zhi Hao, suitably locality are raw The improved seeds of state environment, prioritizing selection is through the organic paddy rice seed of Organic certification agency qualification;Corm Eleocharitis Fruit variety is disease-resistant, anti- Inverse property is strong, and bulb is big, skin is thin, taste is sweet, matter fine slag is few, is suitable for the high yield of locality cultivation, fine quality, including: Hubei Province shepherd's purse 1, osmanthus Hoof 2, Xiaogan Corm Eleocharitis, 91-33 Corm Eleocharitis, Guilin Horse hoof, Shayang County Corm Eleocharitis, Tuanfeng County Corm Eleocharitis, Huichang County Corm Eleocharitis, Yuhang Radix Campylotropis Hirtella (Herba Myrsines Africanae), Suzhou Corm Eleocharitis;Varieties of vegetable soybean selects that plant type is compact, concentrations that bear pods, the big pod of grain are full, fine and tender taste, disease and insect resistance relatively by force, wide adaptability, product Amount is high, commodity is good, be suitable for the Early-mid ripening kind of local ecological condition cultivation, including: Taiwan 75, Taiwan 753, Taiwan 292, day This wealth and rank, the fresh 08-16 that revives, blue or green crisp No. 2, blue or green crisp No. 5, Soviet Union's bean 5, spring green;
(3) rotation system is: cultivation successively in the 1st year: green soyabeans autumn capsicum Bowl bean, cultivation successively in the 2nd year: early rice water chestnut Shepherd's purse, every 2 years is 1 period of crop-rotation;
(4) carry out organic hot pepper, organic Bowl bean according to organic agriculture principle and the organic farm products mode of production and standard, have Machine early rice, organic Corm Eleocharitis and the rotation cropping of organic green soyabeans, and by straw-returning and retting fertilizer fertilizing soil.
Organic farming production base described in step (1) is that traffic convenience, irrigation and drainage are convenient, away from city and industrial and mining area, life State condition is good, heavy metal free and pesticide residual contamination, away from soot and other polluter and traffic backbone, and have can The agricultural producing areas of continuous production ability, soil environment quality requires to be not less than " standard of soil environment quality " (GB 15618- 1995) secondary standard in, irrigation water water quality meets the regulation of " agricultural irrigation water quality standard " (GB 5084-2005), and environment is empty Makings amount is not less than the secondary standard in " ambient air quality " (GB 3095-2012);Each organic farming production base Cultivated area not less than 10 hectares, production base is linked to be sheet, has integrity, and organic production base is handed over the conventional plot that produces Obvious isolation strip or buffer strip is had at boundary.
Kind described in step (2) all selects the seed processed without banned substance, prohibits the use of transgenic seed.
Described organic farming includes following measures:
In whole cultivation, prohibit the use of including pesticide, chemical fertilizer, herbicide, hormone or growth regulator Artificial chemistry synthetic, does not use technique for gene engineering and products thereof, many with the balance and biology maintaining farmland ecosystem Sample;
Application of organic fertilizers, plantation legume is only allowed to foster and apply fertilizer soil as green manure and straw-returning in whole cultivation Earth, fertilizer uses one or more in fertilizer, efficient organic fertilizer and the bio-bacterial manure fully become thoroughly decomposed, except using animal excreta Just and outside plant retting fertilizer, green manure, plant ash, cake fertilizer, biogas manure, moreover it is possible to use potassium breeze, ground phosphate rock, calcium chloride, also can make With through the organic fertilizer of Organic certification agency qualification and microbial manure;
The plant protection policy of " putting prevention first, integrated control " is implemented in the preventing and treating of disease pest and weed, from whole farmland production environment Ecosystem sets out, the various prophylactico-therapeutic measures of integrated use, creates and is unfavorable for that disease pest and weed grows, is conducive to the procreation of all kinds of natural enemies Environmental condition, reduces the loss that disease pest and weed causes, and based on integrated pest control in agriculture, uses biological and physical method preventing and treating, The pesticide not using synthetic carries out chemical prevention, when there being pest and disease damage to occur, utilizes the mineral or plant allowing to use Medicament carrys out prevention and elimination of disease and pests, it is possible to use rotenone, the Pyrethrum of plant origin, prosparol and kieselguhr, and includes Bacillus thuringensis, Bt preparation carry out the preventing and treating of pest and disease damage at interior microorganism and preparation thereof, it is possible to use sulfur, Calx, stone are thio The prevention and elimination of disease and pests such as agent, Bordeaux mixture;
Stablizing of farmland ecosystem to be maintained, it is impossible to cause environmental pollution and ecological disruption, often Plant residue will be cleared up in time after stubble crop harvesting, heap after straw collecting is made fertilizer or goes back field fertilizing soil on the spot, Making the agriculture Organic substance including straw all be integrated into utilizing, the garbage that can not degrade including agricultural film all returns Receive and be used.
Described in step (4) organic hot pepper cultivation be: after previous crops green soyabeans is gathered field pour water immediately and using straw as Green manure ploughs under to be taken advantage of high temperature and macerates rotten straw fertilizing soil in soil, then cultivate 1 batch of autumn capsicum after draining dry field, solarization soil of turning over, including: Select adapted varieties, cultivate anosis strong sprout, in good time field planting, field management and gather.
Described cultivation is anosis, and strong sprout is: in using Shading net covering and measure nursery of taking shelter from rain at the beginning of late June~7 months, one As use nutritive cube or 50 hole seedling culture hole plate nursery, use seedbed need to heel in when seedling grows 3~4 true leaves when broadcasting sowing nursery In the seedling culture hole plate of hole, nutritive cube/50, if suitably light seeding, can not heel in;During nursery sunshading and temperature reducing to be strengthened with keep away Rain measure and water management, prevent seedling excessive growth;Strong sprout, standard was: growth of seedling is healthy and strong, well developed root system, had 5~7 very Leaf, seedling age is less than 35 days.
Described organic hot pepper cultivation is: use zanjon height bedding cultivation, selects anosis strong sprout in by the end of July~early August selects Afternoon or cloudy day covering with ground sheeting field planting, every mu of field planting 3000~4500 strain, mid or late September starts to gather, and can gather 11 always Month.
The fertilization principle of described organic hot pepper cultivation, based on base manure, is rationally topdressed, by the 70% of total fertilization amount~ 80% be used as base manure, every mu execute decomposed dung 2000~3000kg, cake fertilizer 150~200kg or become thoroughly decomposed person poultry muck 2500~ 3000kg, ground phosphate rock 30~50kg, potassium breeze 20~30kg, apply furrow face after ploughing deeply before whole ground;Light rear weight before topdressing, with full The foot nutritional need persistently yielded positive results of Fructus Capsici, field planting point is watered for 1~2 time after surviving and is executed 10%~20% and become thoroughly decomposed night soil or biogas slurry 300~500kg as carrying seed manure, and the fruit growth after bearing fruit imposes 20%~30% collection period and becomes thoroughly decomposed night soil or biogas slurry 2~4 Secondary, each 300~500kg, or the cake fertilizer 60~120kg that becomes thoroughly decomposed of spreading manuer in holes.
The water management of described organic hot pepper cultivation is: seedling-slowing stage rehydration 1 time after field planting, early stage temperature is high, evaporation capacity Greatly, water preferably diligent, it should be noted that ensure uniform moisture supply, pour water and should carry out when sooner or later cooling;Phase of bearing fruit, water supply to be ensured was filled Foot;Rainy season must carry out the work that digs trenches to drain the water away, and prevents flood stain to hinder root.
Organic Bowl bean cultivation described in step (4) is: mid-October after gather later stage or the end of gathering of autumn capsicum ~mid-November retain on pepper cultivation furrow the no-tillage direct bunch planting of original mulch film interplanting Bowl bean (peppery in every two strains of often row Fructus Capsici Program request 1 cave Bowl bean, every drill seeding kind 2 row Bowl bean in the middle of green pepper), clean rural area after gathering end to Fructus Capsici in November in time and strengthen Bowl bean Management, in mid-April next year, end of gathering allows stubble to haricot, is ploughed under in soil as green manure by the straw after haricot of gathering and trains Fertile soil, then 1 batch of early rice of cultivation.
The cultivation of above-mentioned organic Bowl bean is typically sowed in mid-October~mid-November, uses bunch planting, every bunch planting 3~4 kinds Son, it is ensured that more than planting density l ten thousand strain/mu, during sowing, every mu is mixed and stirred become thoroughly decomposed with ground phosphate rock 20~40kg, potassium breeze 10~20kg Lid seed manure made by barnyard manure or farmyard manure or burnt dust-ashes 1000~1500kg.
Rice growing organic morning described in step (4) is: after previous crops Bowl bean is gathered, Bowl bean straw is ploughed under soil of fostering and apply fertilizer in soil Earth, cultivates 1 batch of early rice after using sufficient base manure in conjunction with ploughing soil;Early rice selects the kind of suitable local environment in late March ~early April seeding and seedling raising, mid or late April rice transplanting, early rice harvesting after immediately Caulis et Folium Oryzae is ploughed under Tanaka take advantage of high temperature macerate rotten Caulis et Folium Oryzae training Fertile soil.
Above-mentioned organic rice growing employing morning water-raised seedling method concentrates seedling, and rice seedling bed combines prior to seeding and turns over every mu for 3~5 days Execute the high-quality fertilizer 1000~2000kg that fully becomes thoroughly decomposed, ground phosphate rock 30~50kg or cake fertilizer 150kg makees base manure;3 the most below the moon Ten days~early April are sowed, and the length of time rice seedlings grow controlled within 30 days.
Above-mentioned organic morning, rice growing carried out the rational application of fertilizer, in conjunction with ploughing soil according to front rush, middle control, the most steady fertilization principle The farm organic fertilizers 1000~2000kg such as every mu of barnyard manure executing fully to become thoroughly decomposed or cake fertilizer 100~150kg, ground phosphate rock 30~50kg do Base manure;After transplanting 4~5 days every mu impose and become thoroughly decomposed cake fertilizer 100~150kg or organic commercial fertilizer 50~100kg makees tillering fertilizer, shine After the rehydration of field, horse back every mu executes the cake fertilizer 50~100kg or organic commercial fertilizer about 50kg that becomes thoroughly decomposed as ear manuer.
Organic Corm Eleocharitis cultivation described in step (4) is: after the harvesting of previous crops early rice, Caulis et Folium Oryzae ploughs under Tanaka immediately and takes advantage of high temperature and macerate Rotten Caulis et Folium Oryzae fertilizing soil, cultivates 1 batch of Corm Eleocharitis after using sufficient base manure in conjunction with arable land;Corm Eleocharitis selects to be suitable for the kind of locality cultivation, April Early and middle ten days begins with two-phase method and cultivates anosis strong sprout, mid or late July field planting, and early Febuary in mid or late November to next year gathers.
The cultivation of above-mentioned two-phase method is anosis strong sprout: formerly year Corm Eleocharitis Later growth, growth selection neat and consistent, tiller divide Strain field strong, without lodging, without disease pest harm makees seed field, select full, epidermis is smooth and color and luster consistent, individual big the most uniform, Terminal bud and lateral bud are complete, healthy and strong, without wound, rot, have the bulb of this varietal characteristic, use stage nursery (drought Seedling) and two Stage nursery (rice seedling bed Seedling) two-phase method nursery;First stage nursery (upland nursery) is: April early and middle ten days select wind sheltering to Sun, loosing soil, fertile nonirrigated farmland or vegetable garden soil, hoe pine table soil about 10cm, it is made into furrow wide 100~the seedbed of 150cm, plants shepherd's purse and use Clean clear water soaks 18~24 hours, takes out in neatly coming seedbed after draining open fire and carries out upland nursery, holding of periodically watering Ground moistening is to lifting, and early stage takes Small plastic shed and lid plastic sheeting carries out accelerating germination, transplants extremely when kind of top dome bud length 20~25cm Rice seedling bed carries out second stage nursery;Second stage nursery (rice seedling bed nursery) is: select irrigation and drainage abundant paddy field convenient, organic, After using sufficient base manure, water is ploughed and is made into seedling field, in mid or late May carrying out in the seedling replanting in cultivating seedlings in dry land seedbed to rice seedling bed Rice seedling bed nursery, when height of seedling reaches 35~more than 40cm, field planting during cladode thick more than 0.5cm.
The principle of " front control steady, middle, then attack " is grasped in the fertilising of above-mentioned organic Corm Eleocharitis cultivation, and base manure to be used sufficient, in conjunction with turning over The farm organic fertilizer such as farmyard manure or decomposed dung 2000~3000kg or person poultry muck 1000~2000kg of becoming thoroughly decomposed are executed in every mu of soil Or the rapeseed cake 150~200kg that becomes thoroughly decomposed, separately adding ground phosphate rock 40kg, potassium breeze 20kg makees base manure, acid heavier soil is when ploughing Quick lime 50~100kg/ mu to be executed;Early stage of topdressing based on nitrogenous fertilizer, the later stage based on potash fertilizer, topdress after field planting 7 for the 1st time ~10 days, transplanting combines the 1st intertillage every mu and executes the night soil 400~500kg that becomes thoroughly decomposed after turning green, to promote early tiller plant division, and the 2nd Secondary topdress every 10~15 days, execute in conjunction with weeding every mu and become thoroughly decomposed cake fertilizer 70~80kg or plant ash 100~200kg promotes envelope row, the 3rd Secondary topdress at JIUYUE early and middle ten days, execute the cake fertilizer 100kg or methane liquid 750kg that becomes thoroughly decomposed for every mu, separately add potassium breeze 20kg, to promote knot shepherd's purse.
Organic green soyabeans cultivation described in step (4) is: previous crops Corm Eleocharitis is turned over after gathering solarization soil, uses sufficient after base manure in 3 months The last ten-days period~the suitable varieties of vegetable soybean of early and middle ten days direct sowing culture in April, the in good time pinching of full-bloom stage, before early July, green soyabeans is gathered end Allow stubble, field pour water immediately, green soyabeans straw is ploughed under as green manure and soil is taken advantage of high temperature macerates rotten straw fertilizing soil, then cultivate 1 Stubble autumn capsicum.
The application process of above-mentioned base manure is: previous crops Corm Eleocharitis is turned over after gathering solarization soil, and executing, in conjunction with whole every mu, farmers' of becoming thoroughly decomposed has Machine fertile 1000~1500kg, ground phosphate rock 50kg makees base manure.
Above-mentioned organic green soyabeans cultivation include outdoor cropping and plastic film mulching cultivation, outdoor cropping typically in late March to April Early and middle ten days is sowed, and plastic film mulching cultivation is typically sowed in mid or late March;Using bunch planting, general density is about every mu of 20,000 strains, Reference line away from 30~40cm, spacing in the rows 15~25cm, every bunch planting 2~3;During sowing every mu with ground phosphate rock 20~40kg, potassium breeze 10~20kg mix and stir decomposed dung or farmyard manure or burnt dust-ashes 1000~1500kg makees lid seed manure.
The in good time pinching of above-mentioned full-bloom stage is: in the pinching of full-bloom stage later stage, will extract 1~2cm by stem terminal bud, make nutrient collection Middle supply soybean pod, and make soybean pod full seed, maturation consistent, beneficially concentration is gathered and improves yield.
Crop rotation organic cultivation method of the present invention is particularly well-suited to In Middle And Lower Reaches of Changjiang River.
The present invention has following good effect: Fructus Capsici is a kind of solanaceous vegetables being weak to continuous cropping, to the requirement of rich water relatively Height, and pest species is many, harm weight, due to the reason such as accumulation of pathogen during continuous cropping, the soil-borne disease such as bacterial wilt Occur ratio more serious, be susceptible to soil continuous cropping obstacle, along with the increase of Cultivation time during Fructus Capsici continuous cropping, chemical fertilizer, the making of pesticide Consumption to increase year by year and can be only achieved expected yield, even if using chemical fertilizer, pesticide the most in a large number, also there will be the underproduction year by year Phenomenon, so Fructus Capsici common cultivation is extremely difficult to the requirement of organic farming, if first Fructus Capsici organic farming to be carried out must build Vertical scientific and reasonable rotation system.Green soyabeans and Bowl bean are all weak to continuous cropping, green soyabeans and Bowl bean to be carried out rationally with the crop such as Fructus Capsici, Oryza sativa L. Crop rotation, not only improves the organic farming of green soyabeans and Bowl bean, can foster and apply fertilizer again and improve soil, beneficially Fructus Capsici, Oryza sativa L. etc. other The organic farming of rotation crop.Corm Eleocharitis is also weak to continuous cropping, and Corm Eleocharitis and Fructus Capsici carry out rice field-upland field rotation not only better economic benefit, and Soil structure, culture fertility can also be improved, reduce the occurrence degree of pest and disease damage.Although Oryza sativa L. is the crop of resistance to continuous cropping, but for a long time Continuous cropping also results in the accumulation of field pathogen and the increase of insect density.The present invention uses Fructus Capsici and legume green soyabeans and bowl Bean, field crop Oryza sativa L. and efficient aquatic crops Corm Eleocharitis carry out scientific and reasonable rice field-upland field rotation, except improving soil profit By rate, outside increasing yield per unit area and improving product quality, increase economic efficiency, it is often more important that formed by rice field-upland field rotation Distinct floods and droughts ecological environment, is possible not only to reduce Weed infestation, and that destroys disease pest source grows environment to reduce pest and disease damage Occurrence degree, but also can equalize and utilize soil nutrient, improve soil physico-chemical property and soil fertility structure, form soil The change that physicochemical character etc. are had complementary advantages, promotes the reparation of soil environment;1 batch of green soyabeans and 1 batch of bowl is cultivated within 1 period of crop-rotation Bean, it is the most good in economic efficiency that haricot of gathering makees vegetable, but also can allow the growth of stubble, beneficially succession crop early, by hair The straw of bean and Bowl bean ploughs under in soil as green manure can fertilizing soil, it is possible to reach that province is fertile, the purpose of high yield;Meanwhile, every batch of work After thing results, heap after straw collecting made fertilizer or go back field fertilizing soil on the spot, preferably achieving the recovery of organic matter, Add soil with organic matter content, improve soil fertility, the benign cycle of crop cultivation can be formed, maintain agricultural ecological The balance of system and bio-diversity, it is ensured that sustainable development of agricultural production, thus reach the purpose of organic farming.The present invention is tight Lattice are cultivated according to prescription and the production specifications of organic farm products, by selecting the place being suitable for set up organic cultivation Training production base, select suitable kind, cultivate anosis strong sprout, timely field planting, use the various comprehensive skill of feasible field management Art measure, makes full use of the resources such as light, heat, water, gas, fertilizer, creates and is conducive to Fructus Capsici, Bowl bean, early rice, Corm Eleocharitis and green soyabeans growth to send out Educate and be unfavorable for the environmental condition that disease pest and weed occurs, can cultivate in same organic farming production base organic hot pepper, Bowl bean, Early rice, Corm Eleocharitis and green soyabeans.Within 1 period of crop-rotation, the yield of 1 batch of organic autumn capsicum is 2000~3200kg/ mus, and 1 batch organic The haricot yield of Bowl bean is 750~950kg/ mus, and the yield of 1 batch of organic early rice is 480~560kg/ mus, 1 batch of organic Corm Eleocharitis Yield be 1500~2500kg/ mus, the fresh pod yield of 1 batch of organic green soyabeans is 700~900kg/ mus.The Fructus Capsici of production, bowl Bean, early rice, Corm Eleocharitis and green soyabeans not only quality is excellent, meets the prescription of organic farm products, and yield is high, with conventional cultivation Yield does not has notable difference.The science of technology of this crop rotation organic cultivation method rationally, practicality with workable, be a kind of height Effect ecological circulation agriculture cultivation model, has good society, economy and ecological benefits, and can promote in In Middle And Lower Reaches of Changjiang River should With.
Detailed description of the invention
Below embodiment is had can the essence of the present invention to be described in detail, without limiting the present invention.
Embodiment 1
1. select suitable place to set up organic farming production base
Select traffic convenience, irrigation and drainage convenient, away from city and industrial and mining area (general requirement is at a distance of more than 10 kilometers), ecological bar Part is good, heavy metal free and pesticide residual contamination, away from the polluter such as soot (pollution-free source within least 5 kilometers of periphery) with Traffic backbone, and the agricultural producing areas with sustainable production capacity set up organic farming production base.Production base soil Earth environmental quality requirement is not less than the secondary standard in " standard of soil environment quality " (GB 15618-1995), and requires ground Gesture is invigorating, the physicochemical property of soil is good, water conservation fertilizer-preserving ability is strong, deep fertile, the effective soil layer of soil layer reaches more than 60cm, soil row Water venting capability is good, biological activity strong, the content of organic matter is more than 15g/kg.Irrigation water water quality meets " field irrigation water quality mark Accurate " regulation of (GB 5084-2005), it is desirable to cleaning of having abundant water resources, water quality is excellent, canal system is supporting.Ambient air quality is not less than Secondary standard in " ambient air quality " (GB 3095-2012), it is desirable to air cleaner.Organic production base should have Certain scale, general cultivated area is not less than 10 hectares.Production base should be linked to be sheet, have integrity, can not be mingled with therebetween into The plot that row routine produces, but allow to there is organic conversion plot.Production base requires opposed flattened, the good supporting ditch system of excavation, Reach in field that outside field, irrigation canals and ditches are unimpeded, fill defecation profit.Organic production base with conventional produce plot intersection must have significantly every From band, such as river, irrigation canals and ditches etc..If plot, edge is likely polluted by neighbouring conventional plot and is affected, then must be organic And buffer strip or the physical barrier of about 10m are set between conventional plot, the most contaminated to ensure organic plot.In view of certain A little materials can remain the quite a long time in the environment, conventional production systems typically require 2 years to organic production conversion Transition period, after the agricultural product such as the Fructus Capsici cultivated thereafter results could as organic products, the Fructus Capsici of cultivation in i.e. the 3rd year and other Agricultural product are only organic farm products.
2. prescription and production specifications according to organic farm products produce
Produce principle according to organic agriculture, to follow the course of nature and based on ecological principle, use breeding to combine, follow The agricultural technology of a series of sustainable developments such as ring regeneration, the balance maintaining farmland ecosystem and bio-diversity produces, In whole cultivation, prohibit the use of the artificial synthetics matter such as pesticide, chemical fertilizer, herbicide, hormone or growth regulator, Do not use technique for gene engineering and products thereof.
(1) improvement of soil fertility and proper use of fertilizer
In order to ensure the sustainable production capacity in organic production base, fostering and apply fertilizer of soil is extremely important.Green soyabeans and Bowl bean are After important vegetable, grain, feedstuff and green manure dual-purpose crop, green soyabeans and Bowl bean results, green manure fertilizer efficiency height is done in stem stalk green manuring, can have Effect ground improves soil physical and chemical property, improves soil organic matter content, is enriched with and increases soil nutrient, is effectively improved soil fertile Power, can be that succession crop provides multiple available nutrient, reaches the purpose that land used is increased soil fertility and promoted the agriculture cultivation that organises, so In 1 period of crop-rotation, 1 batch of green soyabeans of plantation and 1 batch of Bowl bean are possible not only to obtain higher economic benefit, and can also culture fertility, Supplementing nutrient for soil, improve Soil structure, the production for agricultural product such as organic hot pepper is taken a firm foundation.Only allow to have used Machine is fertile and plants the green manure such as legume and straw-returning fertilizing soil, will use fertilizer, the efficient organic fertilizer fully become thoroughly decomposed And bio-bacterial manure.The fertilizer such as chicken manure, pig manure need to carry out harmless treatment in 2 months before administration, fertilizer is mixed wet rear accumulation and sends out Ferment so that it is fully become thoroughly decomposed.Shortcoming slowly is discharged, it is possible to use allow use to have admittedly for fertilizer early stage available nutrient The microorganism fertilizers such as nitrogen, phosphorus decomposing, the root nodule bacteria of potassium decomposing effect, bacillus cereus, photosynthetic bacteria and phosphorus-solubilizing bacteria, through the activity of probiotics Accelerate nutrients release, promote the crop effective utilization to nutrient.The fertilizer type used is allowed to macerate except animal wastes and plant Outside composting, green manure, plant ash, cake fertilizer, biogas manure, it be also possible to use the materials such as potassium breeze, ground phosphate rock, calcium chloride, it is possible to use warp The organic fertilizer of Organic certification agency qualification and microbial manure.
(2) disease pest and weed integrated control
Implement the plant protection policy of " putting prevention first, integrated control ", from the ecosystem of whole farmland production environment, combine Close and use various prophylactico-therapeutic measuress, create the environmental condition being unfavorable for that disease pest and weed grows, is conducive to the procreation of all kinds of natural enemies, reduce disease The loss that Cordyceps evil causes, based on integrated pest control in agriculture, uses biological and physical method preventing and treating, does not use synthetic Pesticide carries out chemical prevention.Cultural control mainly by select resistance kind, carry out efficent rotation, cultivate of the right age anosis Strong sprout, use various possible cultivation technique measure to carry out the cultivation management of science, create be conducive to crop growth and not It is beneficial to the environmental condition that disease pest and weed occurs, to strengthen the resistant to diseases and insects of plant.It is raw that biological and physical control is to try to protection Producing the ecological environment in base, maintain the ecological balance of nature, the hostile insect in Appropriate application sky carries out Biological control;Utilize insect The intrinsic light that becomes, the taste that becomes are to catch and kill insect, and every 2~3 hectares of production base to be installed 1 solar insect-killing light (frequency ventilating type is killed Worm lamp HLD-01) carry out insect-killing trapping.When pest and disease damage occurs more serious, it is possible to use allow some mineral and the plant used Medicament carrys out prevention and elimination of disease and pests, also can use rotenone, the Pyrethrum of plant origin, prosparol and kieselguhr with limitation, And microorganism and preparation thereof such as bacillus thuringensis, Bt preparation etc. carry out the preventing and treating of pest and disease damage, it is possible to use sulfur, stone with limitation The prevention and elimination of disease and pests such as ash, lime sulfur, Bordeaux mixture.
(3) protection base ecological environment
Require in process of production not cause environmental pollution and ecological disruption, so will be timely after every batch of crop harvesting Cleaning plant residue, thoroughly sweeps, cleans base, is all transported by plant invalid body and destroys or buried, to reduce disease outside base Insect pest radix.Heap after straw collecting made fertilizer or goes back field fertilizing soil on the spot, making agricultural Organic substance all quilts such as straw Comprehensive utilization.The garbage that agricultural film etc. can not be degraded all to reclaim and to be used.
3. work out scientific and reasonable rotation plan and carry out organic farming
Fructus Capsici is weak to continuous cropping, and during continuous cropping, not only the soil-borne disease such as bacterial wilt occurs serious, and is susceptible to soil even Making obstacle, the most then the underproduction, Chong Zehui garden has no harvest, so must formulate the rotation plan of science during Fructus Capsici organic farming, sets up and closes The rotation system of reason, to control disease pest harm and to prevent the generation of soil continuous cropping obstacle.Through years of researches and production practices, grind Study carefully and summed up In Middle And Lower Reaches of Changjiang River autumn capsicum organic farming rotation system and be: green soyabeans autumn capsicum Bowl bean the (the 1st Year) early rice Corm Eleocharitis (the 2nd year), 1 period of crop-rotation is 2 years.1st year first cultivation 1 batch of green soyabeans, green soyabeans gather after field immediately Pour water and straw is ploughed under as green manure and soil is taken advantage of high temperature macerate rotten straw fertilizing soil, then plant after draining dry field, solarization soil of turning over Train 1 batch of autumn capsicum, after gather later stage or the end of gathering of autumn capsicum mid-October~mid-November on pepper cultivation furrow Retain that original mulch film is no-tillage directly sows 2 row Bowl bean between two strain Fructus Capsicis, after gathering end to Fructus Capsici in November, clean rural area in time And strengthen the management of Bowl bean, straw is ploughed under, as green manure, soil of fostering and apply fertilizer in soil after spring end next year gathers haricot by Bowl bean immediately Earth, then 1 batch of early rice of cultivation, plough under Caulis et Folium Oryzae Tanaka immediately after early rice harvesting and take advantage of high temperature and macerate rotten Caulis et Folium Oryzae fertilizing soil, then cultivate 1 Stubble Corm Eleocharitis, Corm Eleocharitis is cultivated by above-mentioned rotation cropping pattern after gathering again.
(1) autumn capsicum organic production
1. adapted varieties is selected
In the case of current China has obtained the organic hot pepper seed of certification the most, should select to process without banned substance Seed, prohibit the use of transgenic seed.Selecting heat-resisting, disease-resistant, strong stress resistance, wide adaptability, growth potential is relatively strong, collection of bearing fruit In, ability of bearing fruit strong, high yield, high-quality, commodity are good, are suitable for locality cultivation and the Early-mid ripening capsicum variety of the market demand, as led to Cross kind Hunan of Hunan Province's crop varietal approval committee to grind No. 3 (authorization name: Hunan green pepper No. 2), Hunan and grind No. 12 (authorizations Name: Hunan green pepper No. 15), Hunan grind kinds such as No. 13 (authorizations names: Hunan green pepper No. 21).
2. suitably anosis strong sprout is cultivated ahead of time
The seedling raise period of In Middle And Lower Reaches of Changjiang River organic hot pepper autumn culture can advance to and sow at the beginning of late June~7 months.One As use nutritive cube or 50 hole seedling culture hole plate nursery.If using seedbed to broadcast sowing nursery, can not heel in during suitable light seeding;But When sowing closeer, then need to carry out 1 time heeling in when seedling grows 3~4 true leaves, nutritive cube or 50 hole seedling culture hole plates can be heeled in In.Annual high temperature, arid season at a time when nursery, sunshine is strong, time have storm, Shading net covering to be used and the measure of taking shelter from rain Nursery, to prevent seedling excessive growth.High temperature season is big due to evaporation capacity, seedbed to be paid special attention to moisturizing, prevents the dead Seedling of arid.Strong sprout Standard is: growth of seedling is healthy and strong, and well developed root system has 5~7 true leaves, and seedling age is usually no more than 35 days.
3. base manure, in good time field planting are used sufficient
The bedding of whole ground and basal dressing: after previous crops green soyabeans is gathered, pour water immediately and ploughed under in soil as green manure by straw in field (must first the removing mulch film of plastic film mulching cultivation) is taken advantage of high temperature and is macerated rotten straw fertilizing soil, then draining dry field, solarization soil of turning over.Fixed Using sufficient base manure before planting, base manure should account for the 70%~80% of total fertilizer application amount, executes decomposed dung 2000~3000kg, cake fertilizer for general every mu 150~200kg or person poultry muck 2500~3000kg of becoming thoroughly decomposed, ground phosphate rock 30~50kg, potassium breeze 20~30kg, fertile according to soil Power situation can increase and decrease as one sees fit.Acid heavier soil is also wanted every mu and is executed quick lime 50~100kg.Typically after ploughing deeply 1 time, execute base Fertile with the bedding of whole ground, furrow width (wrapping a gutter) 1.1~1.2m, furrow ditch depth 20~30cm, and hold successfully and enclose ditch and Yao Gou, accomplish furrow Ditch, waist ditch and enclose Gou Gougou and communicate in order to draining.Base manure typically all applies furrow face, the most wholely, covering with plastic film before whole ground.
In time field planting: the suitable Planting time of In Middle And Lower Reaches of Changjiang River is by the end of July~early August.Every furrow field planting 2 row, strain Away from 28~36cm, every mu of field planting 3000~4500 strain, afternoon or cloudy day field planting should be selected, after field planting, water field planting water immediately, the 2nd day Also want the morning 1 water of teeming to ensure that seedling survives.
4. field management
The rational application of fertilizer: field planting point is watered for 1~2 time after surviving and executed 10%~20% and become thoroughly decomposed night soil or biogas slurry 300~500kg is made For carrying seed manure.And often gather after the 1st, 2 layers of fruit are occupied stably and should impose appropriate instant nitrogenousfertilizer depending on plant growing way situation after 1~2 time, one As can impose 20%~30% and become thoroughly decomposed night soil or biogas slurry 2~4 times, each 300~500kg, or spread manuer in holes become thoroughly decomposed cake fertilizer 60~ 120kg, then fills 1 water.Topdressing amount must be front light rear heavy, to meet the nutritional need that Fructus Capsici persistently yields positive results, strengthens result Reserve strength.
Water management: seedling-slowing stage rehydration 1 time after field planting, early stage temperature is high, and evaporation capacity is big, waters the most diligent, it should be noted that ensure Uniform moisture is supplied, and pours water and should carry out when sooner or later cooling;The phase of bearing fruit to ensure the abundance that supplies water;Rainy season must carry out trench digging Drainage works, prevents flood stain to hinder root.
It addition, be also noted that and erase the following side shoot of a green pepper in time, to reduce nutrient consumption, make nutrient centralizedly supply fruit, Improve fruit-setting rate, promote growth of young.
Disease pest and weed is prevented and treated: must the most early prevent pest and disease damage, should be based on integrated pest control in agriculture, by selecting Resistant Kind and disease-free seed, employing temperature scald seed soaking (i.e. to be put into seed in 55 DEG C of warm water of seed weight 3~4 times, is stirred continuously about 15 minutes, after water temperature is down to room temperature, continue seed soaking 4~5 hours, then sowing or directly sowing after accelerating germination) kill the surface of the seed The pathogenic bacteria carried, carry out reasonable rice field-upland field rotation, execute appropriate quick lime regulation acid-base value, cultivate anosis strong sprout, in good time field planting, employing Zanjon height plot of land film mulching and planting, rational close planting, reinforcement rich water quality management make plant strain growth stalwartness, prevent the science such as field hydrops Cultivation management, creates and is conducive to chili growth to grow and be unfavorable for the environmental condition that disease pest and weed occurs, to strengthen the anti-of plant Disease pest ability;Check in time, find that diseased plant is pulled out immediately, burns or buried, in cave, spread fertilizer over the fields Calx;Cleaning rural area, removing field Between with periphery weeds, reduce disease pest propagating source etc..Next to that use biological and physical control, as utilized coccinella septempunctata, beautiful aphid little The natural enemies such as honeybee are prevented eliminating aphis;With frequency ventilating type insecticidal lamp, the yellow insect-killing trapping such as plate, backboard, as installed solar insect-killing light (frequently Ventilating type insecticidal lamp HLD-01) carry out insect-killing trapping, or every mu is hung yellow plate that 30~40 block specifications are 25cm × 40cm and backboard lures Murder worm;Can also be used with Silver Grey Mulching Film covering and keep away aphid, with sweet-and-sour liquid, gyplure trapping diamondback moth, Prodenia litura etc.;Work as pest and disease damage When occurring heavier, the plant source Biocidal antibacterial such as soft soap, matrine or local growing plants can be used (Herba Houttuyniae, big Bulbus Allii, Herba Menthae, tansy, Melia azedarach L. etc.) extractant carrys out pest control, as eliminated aphis and acarid with the tansy liquid of 30g/L (fresh weight) is anti-, uses Herba Alii fistulosi Bulbus Allii mixed liquor and the generation of the pre-preventing disease and pest of Bulbus Allii leachate;Also the deinsectization of rotenone, plant origin can be used with limitation Chrysanthemum, prosparol and kieselguhr, and microorganism and preparation thereof are as used Bt preparation, HD-l bacillus thuringiensis or polyhedrosis The pest controls such as virus, can also be used with the controlling disease such as Bordeaux mixture.Prevention and control of weeds typically utilizes covering with ground sheeting to suppress weed growth, Use artificial weeding if desired.
Gather the most in time
Just can gather when Fructus Capsici is fully expanded at fruit, fruit is harder and color of the leather is bright, door green pepper and green pepper should suitably be carried Early gather, and note the most repeatedly gathering, in order to avoid affecting plant strain growth and affecting yield as far as possible.General in mid or late September Gather, can gather to November always.The Quality of Capsicum produced is excellent, yield is high, meets the production requirement of organic hot pepper, general yield It is 2000~3200kg/ mus.
Selecting Hunan to grind No. 3 capsicum varieties, (CK selects to use organic farming alternating method of the present invention and conventional cultivation method The soil cultivation of solanaceous crops, every mu of sealing fertilizer 50kg, calcium superphosphate 50kg, ammonium hydrogencarbonate 30kg was not planted in nearly 3 years Make base manure, sealing fertilizer 30kg or carbamide 20kg to topdress;Chemical agent is used to carry out the prevention and control of plant diseases, pest control no less than 4 times) carry out Contrast test, the area of each process is 8m × 20m, if 3 times are repeated.Result of the test shows: organic cultivation method of the present invention The disease pest harm of the 1st~the 3rd period of crop-rotation is the lightest, and yield is the most more stable, and low unlike CK, also have the most year by year The trend increased;Meanwhile, the product quality of organic farming alternating method of the present invention significantly improves than CK, reaches the mark of organic products Standard, but the product quality of CK can only achieve non-harmful standard (being shown in Table 1).
Table 1 Hunan is ground No. 3 Fructus Capsicis and is used organic farming alternating method of the present invention and conventional cultivation method (CK) to carry out cultivation in autumn Yield and quality and the pest and disease damage of training a situation arises comparison sheet
(2) Bowl bean organic production
Bowl bean is the rear work of autumn capsicum, and its organic production is as follows.
1. Fruit variety and seed treatment
Selection high yield, Resistant, tolerance to cold are relatively strong, wide adaptability, Pod Bearing Percentage are high and the improved seeds of the Relatively centralized that bears pods, As Ah pole gram this, little blue or green pod, Hangzhou spend in vain, the kind such as Chengdu winter Semen Pisi sativi, middle pea 4, middle pea 6.Should select without disabling thing The seed that matter processes, prohibits the use of transgenic seed.
1~2 day is first basked seeds to improve seed vitality and water absorbing capacity, it is ensured that emerge neat before sowing.Temperature is used to scald leaching again Kind, seed soaking in the warm water of 55 DEG C will be put within 10~15 minutes, kill the pathogenic bacteria that seed carries by seed, be stirred continuously to water temperature and drop To about 30 DEG C, soak seed the most again about 1 hour.Then dress seed with root nodule bacteria, every mu with nitragin 10~20 grams, with Just can sow after seed mixing, i.e. mix and i.e. use.
2. begin sowing in good time
The previous crops of Bowl bean is Fructus Capsici, applies fertilizer more during due to cultivated peppers, also has more remaining fertilizer not to be finished in soil, And the loosing soil cultivating Fructus Capsici is breathed freely, can be with zero-tillage direct-sowing cultivating Bowl bean, typically without basal dressing, as long as with the matting that becomes thoroughly decomposed Lid seed manure made by fertilizer or farmyard manure or burnt dust-ashes.
Typically sow in mid-October~mid-November, open field soil.After gather later stage or the end of gathering of autumn capsicum On pepper cultivation furrow, original mulch film is retained no-tillage directly in every two strain Fructus Capsicis of often row Fructus Capsici mid-October~mid-November Middle program request 1 cave Bowl bean, every drill seeding kind 2 row Bowl bean, use bunch planting, every bunch planting 3~4 seeds, it is ensured that planting density l ten thousand strain with Upper/mu.After planting cover decomposed dung or farmyard manure or burnt dust-ashes 2~3cm.During general sowing every mu with ground phosphate rock 20~ 40kg, potassium breeze 10~20kg mix and stir decomposed dung or farmyard manure or burnt dust-ashes 1000~1500kg makees lid seed manure.Peppery to November Green pepper is gathered after terminating and cleans rural area in time, Pepper stalk is collected heap after break process and makes fertilizer, and strengthen Bowl bean Management.
3. field management
Look into Seedling after emerging in time to fill a vacancy, middle weeding 1~2 times, before surviving the winter, carry out 1 ridging, heat-preserving anti-freezing.Cultivate peppery Generally it is not required to topdress during soil cultivation Bowl bean after green pepper, if seedling stage, Seedling colour cast was yellow, is presented with fertilizer deficiency symptom, can fit and execute 1 seed manure, executes thin person poultry muck 500kg or decomposed manure 500~800kg promotion growth of seedling stalwartness and root nodule shape for every mu Become.Also can suitably impose flower, pod fertilizer in early flowering season and fruiting period, thin person poultry muck, methane liquid or the cake fertilizer etc. that becomes thoroughly decomposed can be used. The Sheng that bears pods phase soil often to keep moistening, and the rainfall of the Yangtze river basin is abundant, except the most typically need not pour water, like rain special year Water excess draining in time should drop stain, and the rainy day carries out ditch cleaning drainage works.Climing property kind starts support as plant height 30cm, can will carry The branch (removing blade) of the little bamboo stem of the tip or band branch is inserted in the ranks or bracing wire is drawn climing, or cleans field after previous crops Fructus Capsici gathers end During garden, every strain Fructus Capsici has a mind to retain 1~3 bigger side shoot as nature support, in order to Bowl bean plant climbs growth.
Disease pest and weed prevent and treat: disease pest and weed preventing and treating mainly use cultural control, pest and disease damage can by select Resistant kind, Select disease-free seed to begin sowing in good time, efficent rotation, rational close planting and timely support draw and climing improve field ventilation and penetrating light condition, hold successfully Drain ditch in the field reduces field humidity, pulls out diseased plant, sick leaf and sick pod in time, cleans the measure preventing and treatings such as rural area after results in time; Weed growth is prevented by plastic film mulching cultivation.Reasonable utilization biology and physical control, Protect natural enemies, create and be conducive to sky simultaneously The environmental condition of enemy's existence, uses frequency ventilating type insecticidal lamp, colour table trapping adult, hangs silver grey film bar repellent aphid etc..
4. timely collecting
When soybean pod grows to 8~9 ripe, the seed in soybean pod is fully grown up and is gathered during tympanites.Typically start in March next year Gather, end of gathering about mid-April, the fresh pod of every per mu yield 750~950kg.Haricot removes mulch film immediately after gathering, field fills Water, ploughs under fertilizing soil in soil, then 1 batch of early rice of cultivation using straw as green manure.
(3) early rice organic production
Cultivation early rice anosis strong sprout the most in good time
Fruit variety: disease and insect resistance is strong, resistant to lodging, wide adaptability, yielding ability are good in selection, meter Zhi Hao, suitable local ecology Environment, quality reach country and plant the excellent non-transgenic early-paddy brown rice of substandard, and prioritizing selection is through Organic certification agency qualification Organic paddy rice seed.
Begin sowing in good time, cultivate tiller strong sprout: during presoaking and germinating, about 10 hours can be soaked seed to kill seed with 1% lime water The pathogenic microorganism on surface, carries out presoaking and germinating after cleaning with clear water according to a conventional method;Or kill the surface of the seed with the boiling hot seed soaking of temperature Pathogen, will put in 55 DEG C of warm water and soak seed 10~20 minutes by seed, and be stirred continuously, water temperature is down to after room temperature routinely Method carries out presoaking and germinating, and accelerating germination shows money or valuables one carries unintentionally can sow to broken breast.
General use water-raised seedling method to concentrate seedling, rice seedling bed within 3~5 days, combine prior to seeding turn over every mu execute fully become thoroughly decomposed excellent Matter fertilizer 1000~2000kg, ground phosphate rock 30~50kg or cake fertilizer 150kg make base manure.Typically broadcast at late March~early April Kind, after planting keep seedling bed to moisten, based on diaphragm seal insulation, moisturizing to 1.5 leaves;Alternation of wetting and drying after 2 leaf 1 hearts, fills Horse race water, fine day takes off film ventilation seedling exercising the most afterwards, prevents rice shoot from burning, and after 3 leaf phases, fine day starts to take off lid seedling exercising at night day, moves Plant first 3 days and all take off film;Within 5~7 days before transplanting, imposing dilute night soil or methane liquid in right amount, the length of time rice seedlings grow controlled within 30 days.
2. land for growing field crops prepares and rice transplanting
Land for growing field crops prepares: previous crops is Bowl bean, and Bowl bean straw ploughs under soil of having fostered and apply fertilizer in soil, base manure not BITAI during cultivation early rice Many, execute general with ploughing soil every mu the farm organic fertilizers 1000~2000kg such as the barnyard manure that fully becomes thoroughly decomposed or cake fertilizer 100~ 150kg, ground phosphate rock 30~50kg make base manure.After turning over keep 3~3.3cm water layers harrow a field, plough rake whole after prepare rice transplanting.
Rice transplanting in time: typically in mid or late April rice transplanting, uses and manually plants or transplanting.Reference Strains line-spacing 17cm × 20cm, Planting Densities 1.8 ten thousand~2.2 ten thousand root and stem of certain plants/mu, every root and stem of certain plants is inserted the suckering plant of 2~3 paddy, is participated Basic Seedling 70,000~10 for every mu Ten thousand.
3. field management
The rational application of fertilizer: according to front rush, middle control, the most steady fertilization principle, suitably executes tillering fertilizer in the case of base manure abundance With take the circumstances into consideration to use fringe granulated fertilizer.General after transplanting 4~5 days every mu impose become thoroughly decomposed cake fertilizer 100~150kg or organic commercial fertilizer 50~ 100kg makees tillering fertilizer, and after dry field rehydration, horse back every mu executes the cake fertilizer 50~100kg or organic commercial fertilizer about 50kg that becomes thoroughly decomposed as fringe Fertile.
Water management: should make full use of filling draining to regulate the water in rice field, fertilizer, air and heat, create the field of suitable paddy growth Between miniclimate.Water management accomplishes there is water cutting seedling, and the shallow water root and stem of certain plants, tiller alive, Seedling foot dry field (i.e. reaches about 200,000/mu when Seedling number Time start dry field), to moisten after dry field rehydration, keep dry and wet irrigation method, note rice shoot turn green after draining in 2~3 days Open field, to cultivate good root system, open field 2~after 3 days again answer shallow water, the later stage can not be dehydrated too early, in order to avoid affecting mass of 1000 kernel.
4. disease pest and weed preventing and treating
Preferentially use cultural control, by select disease-resistant variety, efficent rotation, cultivation strengthen seedling, rational close planting, enrich organic Fertile, remove the Healthy culture measures such as weeds, Scientific Regulation rich water, in good time dry field in time and improve field microclimate so that it is ventilate thoroughly Light is good, strengthens the resistance of plant self, reduces the generation of pest and disease damage;Thoroughly remove irrigation canals and ditches the edge of a field weeds, Oryza sativa L. residuum, subtract The place that few pest and disease damage grows;By measures such as rational close planting, the water and fertilizer managements increasing Basic Seedling and science, make Oryza sativa L. early envelope OK, reach to suppress the purpose of weed growth;Manually cut weeds control crop smothering by farming weed eradication and using.Next to that use biology With physical control, pest natural enemy such as birds, batrachia, Aranea, parasitic wasp etc. are utilized to control the population quantity of insect, as when rice field moth Trichogramma releases preventing and treating rice leaf roller, striped rice borer and yellow rice borer when worm insect population radix reaches 100/mu;Prevented by duck-raising enclosed paddy fields Control the insect pests such as planthopper, striped rice borer, yellow rice borer and control weeds in field;Use frequency ventilating type insecticidal lamp trapping striped rice borer, leaf roll snout moth's larva, The insects such as non-glutinous rice plant hopper, mini pest uses yellow card's trap.Can be selected for when pest and disease damage is more serious through Organic certification agency qualification Biological pesticide preparation prevent and treat, as with bacillus subtilis wettable powder preventing and treating rice blast and false smut, with Bt preparation, Chemical control striped rice borer, the rice leaf roller such as azadirachtin preparation, with preventing and treating rice such as matrine, azadirachtin preparation, beauveria fungus preparations Plant hopper.
5. gather in the crops
Early rice is typically ripe in mid or late July, gathers in the crops in time after maturation, it is desirable to single receipts, singles, single solarization, single storage, after drying Unified sale.Average per mu yield 480~560kg.
(4) Corm Eleocharitis organic production
1. land for growing field crops prepares
Caulis et Folium Oryzae ploughs under after the harvesting of previous crops early rice Tanaka immediately take advantage of high temperature and macerate rotten Caulis et Folium Oryzae fertilizing soil, remove field and surrounding Ridge weeds and stubble.The farm organic fertilizer such as farmyard manure or decomposed dung 2000~3000kg or corruption is executed in conjunction with real tillage every mu Ripe person poultry muck 1000~2000kg or the rapeseed cake 150~200kg that becomes thoroughly decomposed, separately add ground phosphate rock 40kg, potassium breeze 20kg makees base manure. Acid heavier soil quick lime 50~100kg/ mu to be executed when ploughing.Two plough two rakes, make face, field smooth, keep active soil stratum 20~25cm, and keep 2~5cm shoaling layers, accomplish that face, field is smooth, mud work, clay fertilizer, grass are clean, water foot treats field planting.
2. cultivation Corm Eleocharitis anosis strong sprout
Fruit variety: select disease-resistant, strong stress resistance, bulb is big, skin is thin, taste is sweet, matter fine slag is few, is suitable for the height of locality cultivation Product, high-quality Corm Eleocharitis kind, such as Hubei Province shepherd's purse 1, osmanthus hoof 2, Xiaogan Corm Eleocharitis, 91-33 Corm Eleocharitis, Guilin Horse hoof, Shayang County Corm Eleocharitis, Tuanfeng County's water chestnut The improved seeds such as shepherd's purse, Huichang County Corm Eleocharitis, Yuhang Radix Campylotropis Hirtella (Herba Myrsines Africanae), Suzhou Corm Eleocharitis.
Reserving seed for planting and plant shepherd's purse and select: formerly year Corm Eleocharitis Later growth, growth selection neat and consistent, tiller plant division are strong, without falling Volt, without disease pest endanger field make seed field.Profile rounding, epidermis is taken without damaged, terminal bud lateral bud sturdy sound, skin when gathering Dark brown, single bulb weight more than 20g, the bulb storage with institute's cultivar feature are passed the winter, it is also possible to preserve at field wintering March in next year has dug direct nursery.
Nurturing staff: the Yangtze river basin preferably uses two-phase method nursery, i.e. one stage nursery (drought Seedling) and two-stage nursery (seedling Tian Miao) two-phase method nursery, need to plant shepherd's purse 110~200 for every mu of land for growing field crops, sowing quantity 2.0~5.0kg.A. first stage nursery (drought Ground nursery): typically at early and middle ten days selection in April hidding and sunny side, loosing soil, fertile nonirrigated farmland or vegetable garden soil, hoe pine table soil is about 10cm, broken for thin for soil hoe hoe, is made into furrow wide 100~the seedbed of 150cm;Corm Eleocharitis digging after that preserve or field wintering preserve Middle reselection is full, epidermis is smooth and color and luster consistent, and individual big uniform, terminal bud and lateral bud are complete, healthy and strong, without wound, rot, have The bulb of this varietal characteristic, soaks 18~24 hours with clean clear water, takes out and drains open fire, according to line-spacing 15~20cm, spacing in the rows 5 ~8cm neatly comes in seedbed, making terminal bud upwards, uniform fold thin sand and soil after the water of spray vola, thickness is advisable to cover terminal bud, fixed Phase waters holding ground moistening to lifting;Early stage takes Small plastic shed because of the low need of temperature and lid plastic sheeting carries out accelerating germination, after entering May Available Shading net covering prevents direct sunlight from burning seedling, transplants to rice seedling bed when kind of top dome bud length 20~25cm and carries out second-order Duan Yumiao.B. second stage nursery (rice seedling bed nursery): typically select irrigation and drainage abundant paddy field convenient, organic mid-May, often Mu is executed and is become thoroughly decomposed farm organic fertilizer 2000~3000kg or become thoroughly decomposed dung polluted water 1500~2000kg or the cake fertilizer 150kg that becomes thoroughly decomposed makees base manure, Turn over seedling field by the soil water plough be made into pasty state, accomplish that the flat mud in field is rotten;In mid or late May, in cultivating seedlings in dry land seedbed, lifting moves Plant, Reference Strains line-spacing 40~50cm × 50~60cm, every cave 1 young plant;Early stage water irrigating depth 2~3cm after transplanting seedlings, should not surpass the most deeply Crossing 4cm, the later stage depth of water keeps 3~5cm;Topdress seedling stage and preferably gently execute duty and execute, transplant latter about 15 days every mu water and execute 30% loose stool water Or dilute methane liquid 500~1000kg, and weed Fender grass, every about 10 days every mu water again and execute 30% loose stool water or dilute methane liquid 500 ~1000kg;After 30~40 days, height of seedling reaches 35~more than 40cm, field planting during cladode thick more than 0.5cm.
3. field planting in good time
General in mid or late July field planting, at the latest less than the beginning of autumn.1 clump, every cave during field