The present invention relates to VTOL (VTOL) aircraft substituted, its can vertically take-off and landing, present hovering shape
State, rotates around any spatial axis, moves the most in any direction, and with than known helicopter in flight forward
The efficiency high with four-axle aircraft/Multi-axis aircraft reaches higher flight speed.Aircraft according to the present invention substantially by
Aircraft fuselage forms, and multiple propeller unit on aircraft fuselage, preferably 3 to 10 propeller unit can be around
It is perpendicular to the axis of the rotation axis of propeller and is pivoted independently from each other.In a further preferred embodiment, flight
Device fuselage is supplemented with pivotable wing element, and wing element provides similar with plane flying device for aircraft in flight forward
Be embodied as having four propeller unit four-axle aircraft (such as, KR 101199536, EP 2497555 (D '
Haeryer Frederic)、US 2011/0299732(Jonchery Claire)、WO 2013/1445078(Callou
Francois)、KR 20120065546(Joo Byung Kyu)、KR100812756(Kang Min Sung)、KR
100812755(Kang Min Sung)、CZ 26152(Klekner Ota)、CN 20132236591(Chen Jiayan)、RU
2500577 (Kuzmich Borzenko Jakov)) or there is the flight of Multi-axis aircraft more than four propeller unit
Device corresponds to prior art, and the most each propeller unit is rigidly connected to aircraft respectively.The thrust of each propeller and rotation
Wing moment of torsion is change, and aircraft is controlled by the change of revolution speed of propeller or pitch.Therefore, the side that aircraft can limit
Formula takes off vertically and lands, and rotates around vertical axis, or pivots around axis of pitch, and flies on the direction limited
OK.In this case, in flight forward, produce vertical lift via propeller, and proportional force component is by whole
Aircraft is used for actual flight forward around the inclination limiting angle.This type of system has the disadvantages that, i.e. relatively small ratio
The power of example can be used for flight forward and has relatively low flight forward speed associated with it and/or poor efficiency.
From the known a kind of configuration of KR 20120060590 (Jung Seul), wherein propeller unit can be relative to aircraft
Vertical axis pivot 90 ° so that aircraft can move along the direction limited on the ground by means of each wheel rotated freely of frame
Position.In state of flight, according to this description, generate vertical lift in known manner via propeller unit.
From the known a kind of configuration of CN 103359283 (Xian Bin), wherein aircraft is embodied as having three propeller lists
Unit, described propeller unit can be additionally carried out pivoting.
From DE 202013008284 (Siegfried) known a kind of configuration with four rotors, wherein three
Less rotor is arranged in relatively low degree, and a bigger rotor is disposed in the plane above relatively low degree.By
In the additional flow guiding unit below less rotor, and/or via the pivoting action of less rotor, aircraft can be additionally
Limit heading on controlled.
From the known a kind of four-axle aircraft configuration of ES 2326201 (Porras Vila), its four rigid arrangement of display
Propeller unit and four pivotable flow guiding units below propeller unit so that the air-flow of spiral warp can be controlled court
Forwards or towards rear.But, flow guiding unit is not suitable as wing.
From the known a kind of aircraft configuration of US 5,000,398 (Rashev Michael S.), wherein, use rigid arrangement
Rotor unit generate vertical lift, and can use additional engine generate forward thrust.The fuselage providing aircraft is used for
Accommodate bigger load (such as, aircraft), but there is not the wing on practical significance.
From the known a kind of aircraft configuration of US 5,419,514 (Ducan Tery A.), it is implemented as that there is aircraft machine
Body, aircraft fuselage has four wings, wherein, each end that the ducted fan implemented pivotly is arranged in wing
On.Wing is rigidly connected to aircraft fuselage.
From the known a kind of aircraft configuration of EP 2 690 012 (Fink Axel), it is implemented as there is aircraft fuselage also
And there are four wings, wherein, approx the mass cg on aircraft fuselage is provided with main rotor, implements pivotly
The front two ends that are arranged in wing of ducted fan (Mantelpropeller has the blower fan of cover) in each on.Wing rigidity
Be connected to aircraft fuselage.
From the known a kind of aircraft configuration of EP 2 690 011 (Fink Axel), it is implemented as there is aircraft fuselage also
And there are four wings, and wherein, approx the mass cg on aircraft fuselage being provided with main rotor, propeller is in flight
Be arranged in rigidly on direction in the bigger wing in front portion of wing each on.Wing is rigidly coupled to aircraft fuselage.
From the known a kind of aircraft configuration of EP 2 690 010 (Fink Axel), it is implemented as there is aircraft fuselage also
And there are two wings, and wherein, approx the mass cg on aircraft fuselage being provided with main rotor, wing is via dual
Fuselage connect, thrust propeller be arranged in rigidly in the rear portion wing of wing each on.Wing is rigidly connected to flight
From the known a kind of aircraft configuration of EP 2 666 718 (Eglin Paul), it is implemented as there is flight forebody also
And there are four wings, wherein, approx the mass cg on aircraft fuselage is provided with the master being embodied as coaxial rotor
Rotor, propeller is arranged on the bigger wing in front portion of wing on heading rigidly.Wing is rigidly connected to flight
From the known a kind of aircraft configuration of RU 2502641 (Durov Dmitrij Sergeevich), it is by being arranged in parallel
Two aircraft fuselages constitute and there are two wings, wherein three rotors are arranged on aircraft fuselage, ducted fan
It is arranged in rigidly on the rear portion wing of wing and generates forward thrust.Wing is rigidly connected to aircraft fuselage.
The known a kind of aircraft configuration of KR 20130126756 (Kroo Ilan), is implemented as having aircraft fuselage also
And there are four wings, wherein, the vertical spin oar of multiple arranged in series is transversely disposed on aircraft fuselage, and propeller is firm
Be arranged in two, the rear portion wing of wing to property each on.Wing is rigidly connected to aircraft fuselage.
From the known a kind of all-wing aircraft design of CN 103318410 (Wang Jin), it is implemented as that there are two pivotable spirals
Oar and can perform to take off vertically and land and also advance forward.
From the known a kind of Flight Vehicle Design of US 20130327879 (Scott Mark W.), it is implemented as that there is main rotor
With the helicopter of tail rotor, tail rotor can pivot around its rotary shaft.Pivotable tail rotor stabilized flight device floating state, and
And can additionally generate horizontal thrust on heading.
From the known a kind of Flight Vehicle Design of RU 2500578 (Nikolaevich Pavlov Sergej), it is implemented as tool
There is aircraft fuselage, there are two propeller unit, and there are two pivotable wings in Background Region, wherein, closely
As mass centre on aircraft fuselage is provided with main rotor, propeller unit is laterally arranged about aircraft fuselage
In front area and parallel with heading, for forward thrust.
Arranging from WO 2003/029075 (Milde Karl F.Jr.) known multiple aircraft, wherein rigid wing is arranged
On aircraft fuselage, and multiple ducted fan is connected respectively to wing or is integrated into wing, and these fan conduits add
Be embodied as that there is flow guiding unit.
From the known a kind of aircraft of DE 1481620 (Lariviere Jan Soulez), two of which rigid wing is arranged
On aircraft fuselage, on each end that pivotable ducted fan is arranged in aircraft fuselage, described ducted fan
Realization is taken off vertically and lands also flight forward, but can not realize the smooth transition from floating state to flight forward.
From the known a kind of aircraft of US 8,016,226 (Wood Victor A.), it is by having integrated rigid wing
Aircraft fuselage forms, and wherein, four pivotally-mounted ducted fans are integrated in wing, and provide aileron and lifting
Rudder, for stablizing in flight forward.In the configuration, rigid wing causes high flow resistance in vertically climbing.
From the known a kind of aircraft configuration of US 8,152,096 (Smith Frick A.), it is by having flying of rigid wing
Row device fuselage forms, and be additionally equipped with on two additional wings on fuselage and in aircraft front part can pivot
The ducted fan turned.In the configuration, rigid wing causes high flow resistance in vertically climbing and causes instability.
From the known a kind of aircraft configuration of US 6,892,980 (Kawai Hideharu), it is by aircraft fuselage and two
The rigid wing structure composition of laterally-elongated, wherein, wing structure forms four turnings, and pivotable jet engine is arranged in
On each in turning.In the second embodiment variant, multiple engine arrangement being downwardly oriented are in the wing root of conventional passenger plane.
In the configuration, rigid wing causes high flow resistance in vertically climbing and causes instability.
From the known a kind of aircraft configuration of US 3,335,977 (Melitz Ludwig F.), wherein, two rigid wings
Be arranged on aircraft fuselage, in each zone line that pivotable ducted fan is arranged in rigid wing, described in lead
Manage-style fan realization is taken off vertically and lands also flight forward, but can not realize the steady mistake from floating state to flight forward
From the known a kind of aircraft configuration of US 3,360,217 (Trotter John C.), wherein, four rigid wing cloth
Put on aircraft fuselage, on each end that pivotable ducted fan is arranged in rigid wing, described ducted fan
Realization is taken off vertically and lands also flight forward, but can not realize the smooth transition from floating state to flight forward.Additional
Jet engine be integrated in the wing of rear portion for flight forward.
The known a kind of aircraft of AT 503689 (Naderhirn Michael), it is made up of rigidity all-wing aircraft fuselage, rigidity
All-wing aircraft fuselage has three the pivotable electromotors being integrated in wing.
From the known a kind of aircraft configuration of US 3,084,888 (Hertel H.), wherein, two rigid wings and multiple
Motivation is arranged on aircraft fuselage, and described rigid wing and electromotor are pivotably and realization is taken off vertically and land the most oriented
From the known a kind of aircraft configuration of DE 1926568 (Nachod James Henning), wherein, two rigidity machines
The wing is arranged on aircraft fuselage, and pivotable propeller is positioned on the end of aircraft fuselage, and for forward thrust
Engine arrangement is in the tail region of aircraft so that the also flight forward that takes off vertically and land is possible, but can not
Flight forward smoothly it is transitioned into from floating state.
The known a kind of aircraft configuration of US 20130256465 (Smith Dudley E.), wherein, two rigid wing cloth
Putting on aircraft fuselage, pivotable rotor is arranged on the end of aircraft fuselage, described rotor realize take off vertically and
Land and also have flight forward, but the smooth transition from floating state to flight forward can not be realized.
From the known a kind of aircraft configuration of WO 2005/037644 (Dzerins Peteris), being implemented as having can pivot
Turn the Multi-axis aircraft of the propeller arranged so that the also flight forward that takes off vertically and land is possible, but can not glide
, because there is not wing element in flight.
From the known a kind of aircraft configuration of DE 102011113731 (Euer Hartmut), wherein, two rigid wing cloth
Putting on aircraft fuselage, rigid wing supports pivotable electromotor, and further, pivotable electromotor is at rear portion
Region is arranged on aircraft fuselage so that the also flight forward that takes off vertically and land is achieved, and also realize from
Floating state is to the smooth transition of flight forward.
From the known a kind of aircraft configuration of EP 2 669 195 (Euer Hartmut), wherein, multiple driving rotors are arranged
On pivotal arm on aircraft fuselage, drive rotor to realize taking off vertically and landing also flight forward, and drive rotor
It is pressed against fuselage or wing in the second position, or is contained in fuselage or wing, and described aircraft is implemented into and had
Vertical and lateral tail units is for stablizing in mission phase.In another embodiment variant, wing can around transverse to
The axis of the longitudinal axis of aircraft is pivoted.
All known aircraft configuration are respectively provided with following shortcoming: lack efficiency in flight forward, and/or lack
Around complete 360 ° of navigabilities of every radical space axis, and/or lack stablizing from floating state to flight forward
The purpose of the present invention is for limiting a kind of aircraft, and this aircraft can take off vertically and land, and presents floating state, encloses
Rotate around every radical space axis, move the most in any direction, and with than known helicopter and four in flight forward
The efficiency that axle aircraft/Multi-axis aircraft is high realizes higher flight speed.This aircraft is during taking off and in the landing phase
Between will be the compactest.In the case of propeller unit breaks down due to unit failure or shortage fuel, this flight
Device will can realize safe landing by automatic rotatory power.
According to the present invention, this purpose so reaches, i.e. wing can at least in part relative to aircraft fuselage and solely
Stand on each propeller unit to pivot.
Owing to multiple propeller unit are arranged such that they can pivot relative to the aircraft fuselage of rigidity and independent
The thrust vectoring that ground generates can be gone up directed in any direction, and the direction of thrust vectoring is approximately parallel in flight forward
Heading aligns.On fuselage the most additional wing is set in the case of, flight forward generates required lift, and phase
Higher efficiency is reached in flight forward for known helicopter and four-axle aircraft/Multi-axis aircraft.Further preferably
Embodiment variant in, each wing can pivot around rotary shaft so that in vertically climb (taking off vertically) and/or land behaviour
Vertical period can reach higher efficiency and precision.
The number of propeller unit is 3 to 10, thus, just real with in the flight attitude higher than critical flight speed
The aircraft of replacement that show stability, that only have two propeller unit is compared so that taking off vertically and the vertical landing phase
Between, in floating state, and from floating state to forward advance or from the transition range proceeding forward to floating state,
Stabilized flight attitude is the most all possible.
Additionally, use greater number of propeller unit, can preferably tolerate the fault of single propeller.
Propeller unit is preferably provided in wing.Propeller unit layout in wing realizes the sky to aircraft
The specific aim impact of aerodynamics.
The layout of each propeller unit alternatively provided in overall aircraft structure or in wing respectively realize with
The appropriateness collision of barrier, and without damage aircraft risk (such as, contact dike, be docked in vertical wall, fly over building
Between little opening, such as window ...).
Propeller unit being arranged in protect-ing frame structure adds aircraft under the appropriate collision situation of barrier
Safety, and achieve and can contact aircraft in operation, and without the risk that personnel are damaged.
In preferred embodiment modification, propeller unit can be arranged so that they can pivot relative to aircraft fuselage
One pivoting angle, this pivoting angle is for the most about 90 ° from centre position.Therefore, except taking off vertically and landing
And beyond in flight forward, thrust reversing is possible, on the one hand this significantly improve agility, the most real
Show and be drawn onto on fixing underlying surfaces.
Propeller unit can pivot around pivot axis relative to aircraft fuselage, and pivot axis is parallel to the horizontal stroke of aircraft
Arrange to axis, and this is applicable to each single propeller unit independently so that the most extreme flight control and having
Turning to of minimum turning radius is achieved.
Can so reach the agility of aircraft and the auxiliary of navigability, i.e. propeller unit is relative to aircraft
Fuselage is installed universally.
The increase of fail safe or the reduction of aircraft complexity are achieved in, i.e. propeller unit is electrically driven also
And can individually be controlled.
The electric power transmission that simplifies being realized to single propeller unit by power supply is possible.Due to current typical electricity
The limited capacitance of accumulator (battery) and high weight, so providing AC-battery power source in further embodiment modification, mixing electricity
Source is made up of fuel cell or internal combustion engine and electromotor for generating electric energy.
Piloted vehicle and the mileage of unmanned vehicle and use time have great importance, for
This additionally provides solaode for generating electric energy.
By means of at least one oil-engine driven propeller unit, there is self-powered mileage on board the aircraft
Can be favourable with the use time.
On the one hand the aircraft agility that increases and the on the other hand high efficiency in flight forward by following so
Be possibly realized, i.e. wing can pivot around an axis relative to aircraft fuselage, and described axis is relative to the lateral shaft of aircraft
Line is arranged in parallel or acutangulates layout, and in economic flight forward, an adjustment angle can adjust wing, described
Adjust angle and realize minimum possible flow resistance with optimal lift.
By make wing be arranged to they collapsible and may be provided in extremely the narrowest space take-off and landing and
Also has the least radar signature.
Higher height is arrived by following such one-tenth than using known helicopter/four-axle aircraft/Multi-axis aircraft
For possible, i.e. wing is movable to spiral helicine pivot position, in this position, and/or encloses around its vertical axis at aircraft
In the case of the axle being parallel to vertical axis (but in aircraft exterior) rotates, generate vertical lift, to use by the low energy
Carry out climb (being similar to eagle aloft " spiral ").
The present invention will be explained in more detail based on Fig. 1 to Fig. 5 below:
Fig. 1 illustrates the aircraft according to the present invention, and it includes that aircraft fuselage 1, outer protection framework 2 (are not definitely to need
Want), multiple, preferably 4 propeller unit 3, the pivoting unit 4 for each propeller unit 3, headings 6, this flight
Direction 6 can be by possible around vertical axis 7, axis of pitch 8 and longitudinal axis 9 of the position of propeller unit and aircraft
Rotary motion limits.
Fig. 2 illustrates the aircraft according to the present invention, its pivoting unit 4 with propeller unit 3 and pivot member 4 ', its
Middle pivoting angle can be more than +/-180 °.
Fig. 3 illustrates the top view of the aircraft according to embodiments of the invention modification, and it has wing 5, and wing 5 is rigidity
, or according to further embodiment modification, wing 5 can pivot a pivoting angle 5 along pivotal axis 5 ' ", wherein pivoting angle
5 " preferably in the range of +/-90 °.Aircraft is positioned on the heading 6 in advancing forward, and propeller unit 3 exists
Align on heading.
Fig. 4 illustrates the side view of the aircraft according to Fig. 3 according to the present invention.Wing 5 is by adjusting angle 5 " with flight
It is adjusted, for generating optimal lift in opposite directionly.
Fig. 5 illustrates the aircraft being in optimal flight forward according to the present invention, and it has the most controlled wing 5,
These wings 5 are arranged on aircraft fuselage 1.Propeller unit 3 and pivoting unit 4 can be protected by protect-ing frame structure 2.Flight
Device fuselage 1 and protect-ing frame structure 2 can have aerodynamic shape.
Fig. 6 illustrates the aircraft according to the present invention, and it has laterally folded wing, for the least external dimensions,
As such as needed for landinging control in little space.
Fig. 7 illustrates the aircraft according to the present invention, and it has the wing adjusted in the opposite direction so that aircraft can quilt
It is arranged around vertical axis to rotate, vertically moves being similar to propeller, or break down in propeller unit
In the case of can be simultaneously set in downward direction rotating in 6 of free-falling in vertical direction around vertical axis,
And can absorb, in mode timely, the shock that the resistant function of wing dropping is caused when utilizing rotating energy.
Fig. 8 illustrates the aircraft in further embodiment modification according to the present invention, wherein single aircraft list
Unit 3 is directly arranged on wing, and this aircraft has folded wing, for the safety during take-off process or in little space
Stably stand on the ground during landing.
Fig. 9 illustrates the aircraft in the further embodiment modification according to Fig. 8 according to the present invention, and wherein each is independent
Propeller unit 3 be directly arranged on wing, and wing has launched after take-off process.
Figure 10 illustrates the aircraft in the further embodiment modification according to Fig. 8 according to the present invention, and wherein each is single
Only propeller unit 3 is directly arranged on wing, and has launched in the flight forward that wing is after take-off process, its
The behavior in this takeoff phase of the middle aircraft is similar to conventional planar aircraft (such as, the power flide with low flow resistance
The basic sides of the present invention also resides in aircraft and can be embodied as without afterbody or the surface of stability.