CN106226590A - A kind of synchronous phase measuring in power system method - Google Patents

A kind of synchronous phase measuring in power system method Download PDF

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Publication number
CN106226590A
CN106226590A CN201610569235.1A CN201610569235A CN106226590A CN 106226590 A CN106226590 A CN 106226590A CN 201610569235 A CN201610569235 A CN 201610569235A CN 106226590 A CN106226590 A CN 106226590A
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China
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phase
pmu
spectral line
main spectral
spectrum
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罗蓬
郝晓光
赵宇皓
李铁成
何磊
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State Grid Corp of China SGCC
Electric Power Research Institute of State Grid Hebei Electric Power Co Ltd
Hebei Electric Power Construction Adjustment Test Institute
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State Grid Corp of China SGCC
Electric Power Research Institute of State Grid Hebei Electric Power Co Ltd
Hebei Electric Power Construction Adjustment Test Institute
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Priority to CN201610569235.1A priority Critical patent/CN106226590A/en
Publication of CN106226590A publication Critical patent/CN106226590A/en
Pending legal-status Critical Current

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    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01RMEASURING ELECTRIC VARIABLES; MEASURING MAGNETIC VARIABLES
    • G01R19/00Arrangements for measuring currents or voltages or for indicating presence or sign thereof
    • G01R19/25Arrangements for measuring currents or voltages or for indicating presence or sign thereof using digital measurement techniques
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01RMEASURING ELECTRIC VARIABLES; MEASURING MAGNETIC VARIABLES
    • G01R23/00Arrangements for measuring frequencies; Arrangements for analysing frequency spectra
    • G01R23/02Arrangements for measuring frequency, e.g. pulse repetition rate; Arrangements for measuring period of current or voltage
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01RMEASURING ELECTRIC VARIABLES; MEASURING MAGNETIC VARIABLES
    • G01R25/00Arrangements for measuring phase angle between a voltage and a current or between voltages or currents
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02EREDUCTION OF GREENHOUSE GAS [GHG] EMISSIONS, RELATED TO ENERGY GENERATION, TRANSMISSION OR DISTRIBUTION
    • Y02E40/00Technologies for an efficient electrical power generation, transmission or distribution
    • Y02E40/70Smart grids as climate change mitigation technology in the energy generation sector
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02EREDUCTION OF GREENHOUSE GAS [GHG] EMISSIONS, RELATED TO ENERGY GENERATION, TRANSMISSION OR DISTRIBUTION
    • Y02E60/00Enabling technologies; Technologies with a potential or indirect contribution to GHG emissions mitigation
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y04INFORMATION OR COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGIES HAVING AN IMPACT ON OTHER TECHNOLOGY AREAS
    • Y04SSYSTEMS INTEGRATING TECHNOLOGIES RELATED TO POWER NETWORK OPERATION, COMMUNICATION OR INFORMATION TECHNOLOGIES FOR IMPROVING THE ELECTRICAL POWER GENERATION, TRANSMISSION, DISTRIBUTION, MANAGEMENT OR USAGE, i.e. SMART GRIDS
    • Y04S10/00Systems supporting electrical power generation, transmission or distribution
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y04INFORMATION OR COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGIES HAVING AN IMPACT ON OTHER TECHNOLOGY AREAS
    • Y04SSYSTEMS INTEGRATING TECHNOLOGIES RELATED TO POWER NETWORK OPERATION, COMMUNICATION OR INFORMATION TECHNOLOGIES FOR IMPROVING THE ELECTRICAL POWER GENERATION, TRANSMISSION, DISTRIBUTION, MANAGEMENT OR USAGE, i.e. SMART GRIDS
    • Y04S10/00Systems supporting electrical power generation, transmission or distribution
    • Y04S10/22Flexible AC transmission systems [FACTS] or power factor or reactive power compensating or correcting units

Abstract

The present invention relates to technical field of electric power automation, particularly to a kind of synchronous phase measuring in power system method.The measuring method of the present invention based on whole phase FFT (all phase FFT, apFFT) " phase invariance " realizes the accurate estimation to phase angle, and the correction utilizing time shift phase difference method to realize frequency is estimated, and then the measurement of completion system phasor.Facts have proved, this algorithm, without making an uproar or estimated accuracy in the case of low noise is close to unbiased esti-mator, is compared with the most widely used algorithm, and institute's extracting method all has a distinct increment in estimated accuracy, real-time, and do not increase extra operand and hardware cost, it is simple to Project Realization.

Description

A kind of synchronous phase measuring in power system method
Technical field
The present invention relates to technical field of electric power automation, particularly to a kind of synchronous phase measuring in power system method.
Background technology
Along with developing rapidly of China's intelligent grid construction, the safe and stable operation of electrical network becomes particularly important, builds complete Net dynamic stability Monitoring and control system also becomes current system urgent problem.Based on global positioning system (GPS) The synchronization that synchronous phasor measurement unit (PMU) uses high accuracy time signal to realize node data each to wide area power system is adopted Collection, advances the fast development of WAMS (WAMS).Existing a large amount of PMU are applied to electrical network dynamic state estimator, fault The fields such as location, wide area protection, on-line parameter estimation, its certainty of measurement will directly affect the performance of above-mentioned application.
Synchronous phasor measurement is estimated mainly for frequency, phase angle, amplitude, and the most practical PMU algorithm included Zero detection method, Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT) method, Kalman filtering method, Wavelet Transform etc., wherein DFT algorithm due to its Harmonic responses good under static conditions, is widely used in the PMU device of different electric pressure.But, when system is transported When the sampled data that line frequency deviation 50Hz, PMU receive cannot meet integer-period sampled condition, the frequency spectrum of DFT algorithm itself Leakage, frequency alias problem will cause the parameter estimation such as frequency, phase place to there is bigger error, have a strong impact on PMU algorithm performance.Though So can improve the precision of the parameter estimation such as frequency by adjusting data window length, but too increase bigger computational burden simultaneously. Additionally, part PMU uses the DFT recursive improved to realize phasor measurement, estimated frequency error can be reduced, but this algorithm still cannot It is fully solved spectrum leakage and frequency alias problem, and needs to assume that signal amplitude is constant, it is impossible to be well suited in dynamic electrical network Condition.
Summary of the invention
For above technical problem, the invention provides a kind of synchronous phase measuring in power system method.
The technical scheme is that
A kind of synchronous phase measuring in power system method, comprises the following steps:
Electric current that PMU is received by step 1, voltage observed quantity carry out the data sampling of two groups of regular lengths, it is thus achieved that two groups PMU sequence:
Described in two groups, PMU sequence length is 2N+1, and time delay is n0
Step 2 carries out the double window all phase FFT spectrum analysis of a length of N respectively to PMU sequence described in two groups, according to main spectral line k* The phase spectrum at place, can obtain the phase contrast expression formula of PMU sequence described in two groups:
Wherein, 2n0k*π/N is main spectral line k*Place numeral angular frequency 2k*π/N is n through size0Time delay after phase difference compensation Value.
Step 3 is released the PMU signal frequency after phase compensation according to formula 3 and is estimated and main spectral line k*On frequency deviation value table Reach formula:
Wherein,For Frequency Estimation, d ω is main spectral line k*On frequency deviation value.
Step 4 is according to main spectral line k*On frequency deviation value d ω PMU sampled signal amplitude is estimated, for double window apFFT Analysis of spectrum, has
Wherein,For Amplitude Estimation, d ω is main spectral line k*On frequency deviation value, Y (k*) it is that observation signal is at main spectral line k*Place All phase spectrum, Fg(d ω) is the result of calculation that main spectral line frequency deviation value substitutes into window function all phase expression formula.
Concrete, in step 1, data sampling is non-integer-period sampled.
Concrete, step 4 have employed hanning window function and carry out double window apFFT analysis of spectrum, corresponding electric current, voltage Amplitude rectification estimates that expression formula is:
Wherein,For Amplitude Estimation, d ω is main spectral line k*On frequency deviation value, Y (k*) it is that observation signal is at main spectral line k*Place All phase spectrum.
A kind of PMU phasor measurement system, turns including the tested analog quantity in front end access circuit, signal conditioning circuit, synchronization A/D Parallel operation, microprocessor and external system.Front end analogue amount accesses circuit and is made up of voltage transformer summation current transformer, and signal is adjusted Reason circuit is made up of integrated operational amplifier and digital regulation resistance, and digital regulation resistance is the feedback resistance of integrated operational amplifier. The input of the output termination integrated operational amplifier of voltage transformer summation current transformer, the outfan of integrated operational amplifier Connect the input synchronizing A/D converter, synchronize the outfan of the output termination microprocessor of A/D converter, the one of microprocessor The control end of individual output termination digital regulation resistance, external system connects the input/output terminal of microprocessor.
Concrete, in PMU phasor measurement system, microprocessor is ARM9LPC3250 type microcontroller.
Concrete, synchronizing A/D converter in PMU phasor measurement system is the sampling A/D conversion of ADS8568 type 8 Channel Synchronous Device.
Beneficial effects of the present invention: the measuring method of the present invention is based on whole phase FFT (all-phase FFT, apFFT) " phase invariance " realizes the accurate estimation to phase angle, and the correction utilizing time shift phase difference method to realize frequency is estimated, and then complete The measurement of one-tenth system phasor.It was verified that this algorithm is without making an uproar or estimated accuracy in the case of low noise is close to unbiased esti-mator, and mesh Front widely used algorithm is compared, and institute's extracting method all has a distinct increment in estimated accuracy, real-time, and does not increase extra fortune Calculation amount and hardware cost, it is simple to Project Realization.
Accompanying drawing explanation
Fig. 1 is the flow chart of synchronous phase measuring in power system method in the present invention.
Fig. 2 is the circuit theory diagrams of PMU phasor measurement system in the present invention.
Fig. 3 is the signal processing flow figure of double window apFFT.
Fig. 4 is tradition windowing FFT amplitude and phase spectrum.
Fig. 5 is double window apFFT amplitude and phase spectrum.
Fig. 6 is to test signal and apFFT spectrum thereof in embodiment.
Detailed description of the invention
Build PMU phasor measurement system with reference to Fig. 2, carry out phasor measurement based on apFFT with reference to Fig. 1.PMU phasor measurement System by the tested analog quantity in front end access circuit, signal conditioning circuit, synchronization A/D converter, ARM9LPC3250 microprocessor and External system is constituted.Wherein front end analogue amount access main circuit to be made up of voltage, current transformer, is responsible for tested exchange letter Number isolate before access system, improve the safety of whole measurement system.Analog signal conditioner circuit is put by integrated computation Big device and digital regulation resistance composition, be amplified processing to voltage, current signal, and digital regulation resistance is in the control of arm processor Under carry out feedback resistance regulation, it is achieved automatically changeable fluid is measured.Synchronize A/D and can be selected for ADS8568 type 8 passage of TI company Synchronized sampling A/D converter.LPC3250 is the microcontroller with ARM9 kernel of a technical grade, and operating frequency exists 200MHz, is control and the arithmetic core of this PMU measurement system, and the FLASH memory of plug-in SPI type is used for storing metrical information And systematic parameter, Ethernet interface is used for realizing realizing data with remote machine communication and uploads, and SDRAM is for storing and performing concrete Test main program code.Equipment is configured with LCD color LCD screen and matrix keyboard, it is achieved parameter setting, result queries, function choosing The local function such as selecting, waveform shows, SD card is used for measured parameter or the waveform etc. that longer-term storage user selects.
The ARM9 its main operational unit of PMU performs the phasor measurement algorithm based on apFFT that the present invention proposes, flow process such as figure Shown in 1.In Fig. 1, the signal processing flow graph of double window apFFT computing unit is as shown in Figure 3.Convolution window w with a length of 2N-1cTo defeated Enter sample windowing, the two segment data translation superpositions being spaced apart N are generated N number of new data sample y (n), (n=0,1 ..., N-1), Again y (n) is carried out FFT and i.e. obtain analysis of spectrum result.In Fig. 3, N=4.
Convolution window w in Fig. 3c=[wc(-N+1),…,wc(-1),wc(0),wc(1),…,wc(N-1)]TBy front window f with turn over The rear window b convolution turned forms, it may be assumed that
Corresponding Fourier transformation meets
Wc(e)=F (e)B(e-jω)=F (e)B*(e) formula 9
Front window f and rear window b is made to be symmetry-windows, then wcAlso it is symmetry-windows, it may be assumed that wc(n)=wc(-n).According to convolution window shape Formula is different, and apFFT can be divided into window windowless, single and three kinds of situations of double window.
It can be seen that all phase FFT spectrum analysis considers all N kind section FFTs of a length of N comprising sampling point x (0) comprehensively Analysis of spectrum situation.The result of above-mentioned organic synthesis has derived some characteristic properties of apFFT, as amplitude spectrum suppresses leaking performance, And phase place flat distribution characteristic etc. near spectral peak.Although it is noted that apFFT considers N kind sample section FFT analysis of spectrum Situation, but only need to carry out 1 FFT and can complete, more traditional PMU algorithm does not increases extra operand, and engineer applied is respond well.
Analyze embodiment in terms of algorithm performance two under the conditions of signal phase estimation performance with harmonic wave below and measure mutually The technique effect of metering method.
1. signal phase estimates performance
Utilizing measurement apparatus of the present invention to estimate the current waveform phase parameter gathered, acquisition sequence is one and comprises The compound cosine currents sampling of 3 different frequency compositions and initial phase
Wherein, ω1=20.0,ω2=60.2,ω3=100.4,N=256.Its correspondence Windowing FFT and double window apFFT spectrum are the most as shown in Figure 4, Figure 5.Here window function have employed hanning window (raised cosine window), Expression formula is as follows:
As shown in Figures 4 and 5, in terms of amplitude spectrum, whole phase FFT has preferably suppression leakage energy compared to traditional FFT Power, within the energy leakage caused due to the crosstalk between non-integer-period sampled and multi-frequency composition is controlled two spectral lines. Phase spectrum aspect, traditional FFT phase spectrum is relatively mixed and disorderly, only at k=20 (integer-period sampled), spectrum close to theoretical value 10 °, At k=60, at 100, measure phase place and deviate bigger with true phase.And apFFT phase spectrum presents near tested component frequencies The flat distribution of rule, i.e. has " phase invariance ", it is not necessary to any error correction can directly reflect the first phase of each component, There is in terms of stationary signal phase estimation certain advantage.Table 1 is the phase measurement of two kinds of spectral analysis methods.
Table 1 traditional FFT contrasts (N=256) with whole phase FFT phase spectrum
2. algorithm performance under harmonic condition
Signal source uses three synchronized phasor test device testers of high accuracy, meets " GB/T26862-2011 power train System synchronous phasor measuring device inspection criterion ", " Q/GDW416-2010 synchronous phase measuring in power system device (PMU) tests skill Art specification " etc. standard-required.Tested current signal fundamental frequency is 50.5Hz, and phase angle is 40 °, and contain frequency is 200Hz simultaneously With two current harmonics compositions of 300Hz, the expression formula of this signal is:
X (t)=5cos (50.5 × 2 π t/fs+40π/180)+0.25cos(200×2πt/fs)+1.75cos(300×2π t/fs) formula 12
This current signal is carried out double window apFFT analysis of spectrum as shown in Figure 6.It is utilized respectively measurement apparatus of the present invention and often The frequency of this signal, phase place, range parameter are estimated by rule algorithm PMU device, and comparing result is as shown in table 2.
Signal parameter estimation result tested by table 2
The above results shows, compares with traditional algorithm for estimating based on DFT, the double window apFFT phasor that the present invention proposes Measurement Algorithm has the highest estimated accuracy, and suppression noise immune is strong.
Measured electric current, voltage parameter span are not limited by the phasor measurement method that the present invention proposes, harvester Without carrying out integer-period sampled to signal, facilitate engineering construction.Although additionally, apFFT considers N kind sample section FFT spectrum point Analysis situation, but only need to carry out 1 FFT and can complete, more traditional PMU algorithm does not increases extra operand, and engineer applied effect is good Good.
The above embodiment is only the preferred embodiments of the present invention, and and the feasible enforcement of non-invention exhaustive.Right For persons skilled in the art, to its done any showing on the premise of without departing substantially from the principle of the invention and spirit The change being clear to, within all should being contemplated as falling with the claims of the present invention.

Claims (6)

1. a synchronous phase measuring in power system method, it is characterised in that it comprises the following steps:
Electric current that PMU is received by step 1, voltage observed quantity carry out the data sampling of two groups of regular lengths, it is thus achieved that two groups of PMU sequences Row:
Described in two groups, PMU sequence length is 2N+1, and time delay is n0
Step 2 carries out the double window all phase FFT spectrum analysis of a length of N respectively to PMU sequence described in two groups, according to main spectral line k*The phase at place Position spectrum, can obtain the phase contrast expression formula of PMU sequence described in two groups:
Wherein, 2n0k*π/N is main spectral line k*Place numeral angular frequency 2k*π/N is n through size0Time delay after phase difference compensation value;
Step 3 is released the PMU signal frequency after phase compensation according to formula 3 and is estimated and main spectral line k*On frequency deviation value expression formula:
Wherein,For Frequency Estimation, d ω is main spectral line k*On frequency deviation value;
Step 4 is according to main spectral line k*On frequency deviation value d ω PMU sampled signal amplitude is estimated, for double window apFFT spectrum point Analysis, has
Wherein,For Amplitude Estimation, d ω is main spectral line k*On frequency deviation value, Y (k*) it is that observation signal is at main spectral line k*The full phase at place Position spectrum, Fg(d ω) is the result of calculation that main spectral line frequency deviation value substitutes into window function all phase expression formula.
A kind of synchronous phase measuring in power system method the most according to claim 1, it is characterised in that data acquisition in step 1 Sample is non-integer-period sampled.
A kind of synchronous phase measuring in power system method the most according to claim 1, it is characterised in that have employed in step 4 Hanning window function carries out double window apFFT analysis of spectrum, and the correction of corresponding electric current, voltage magnitude estimates that expression formula is:
Wherein,For Amplitude Estimation, d ω is main spectral line k*On frequency deviation value, Y (k*) it is that observation signal is at main spectral line k*The full phase at place Position spectrum.
4. a PMU phasor measurement system, it is characterised in that it includes that the tested analog quantity in front end accesses circuit, signal condition electricity Road, synchronization A/D converter, microprocessor and external system, described front end analogue amount accesses circuit by voltage transformer and electric current Transformer forms, and described signal conditioning circuit is made up of integrated operational amplifier and digital regulation resistance, and described digital regulation resistance is The feedback resistance of integrated operational amplifier, the output termination integrated operational amplifier of described voltage transformer summation current transformer Input, the output termination of described integrated operational amplifier synchronizes the input of A/D converter, described synchronization A/D converter The outfan of output termination microprocessor, the control end of one of described microprocessor output termination digital regulation resistance, described outside Portion's system connects the input/output terminal of microprocessor.
A kind of PMU phasor measurement system the most according to claim 4, it is characterised in that described microprocessor is ARM9LPC3250 type microcontroller.
A kind of PMU phasor measurement system the most according to claim 4, it is characterised in that described synchronization A/D converter is ADS8568 type 8 Channel Synchronous sampling A/D converter.
CN201610569235.1A 2016-07-19 2016-07-19 A kind of synchronous phase measuring in power system method Pending CN106226590A (en)

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CN109557355A (en) * 2018-10-29 2019-04-02 太平湾发电厂 Arrester resistance current on-line monitoring method based on hanning window phase difference method
CN110297199A (en) * 2019-07-05 2019-10-01 中国地质大学(武汉) A kind of caesium optical pumped magnetometer frequency measurement method and system based on whole phase FFT
CN110967574A (en) * 2019-10-17 2020-04-07 国网甘肃省电力公司电力科学研究院 Island fault diagnosis method and system based on improved node phase angle difference calculation method
CN112255457A (en) * 2020-09-22 2021-01-22 天津电气科学研究院有限公司 Phase angle difference measuring method suitable for automatic quasi-synchronization device
CN113552857A (en) * 2021-07-20 2021-10-26 中国电力科学研究院有限公司 Automatic excitation detection method and system in autonomous controllable intelligent substation

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CN109557355A (en) * 2018-10-29 2019-04-02 太平湾发电厂 Arrester resistance current on-line monitoring method based on hanning window phase difference method
CN110297199A (en) * 2019-07-05 2019-10-01 中国地质大学(武汉) A kind of caesium optical pumped magnetometer frequency measurement method and system based on whole phase FFT
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CN112255457A (en) * 2020-09-22 2021-01-22 天津电气科学研究院有限公司 Phase angle difference measuring method suitable for automatic quasi-synchronization device
CN112255457B (en) * 2020-09-22 2022-06-07 天津电气科学研究院有限公司 Phase angle difference measuring method suitable for automatic quasi-synchronization device
CN113552857A (en) * 2021-07-20 2021-10-26 中国电力科学研究院有限公司 Automatic excitation detection method and system in autonomous controllable intelligent substation

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