CN106226590A  A kind of synchronous phase measuring in power system method  Google Patents
A kind of synchronous phase measuring in power system method Download PDFInfo
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 CN106226590A CN106226590A CN201610569235.1A CN201610569235A CN106226590A CN 106226590 A CN106226590 A CN 106226590A CN 201610569235 A CN201610569235 A CN 201610569235A CN 106226590 A CN106226590 A CN 106226590A
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 G—PHYSICS
 G01—MEASURING; TESTING
 G01R—MEASURING ELECTRIC VARIABLES; MEASURING MAGNETIC VARIABLES
 G01R19/00—Arrangements for measuring currents or voltages or for indicating presence or sign thereof
 G01R19/25—Arrangements for measuring currents or voltages or for indicating presence or sign thereof using digital measurement techniques

 G—PHYSICS
 G01—MEASURING; TESTING
 G01R—MEASURING ELECTRIC VARIABLES; MEASURING MAGNETIC VARIABLES
 G01R23/00—Arrangements for measuring frequencies; Arrangements for analysing frequency spectra
 G01R23/02—Arrangements for measuring frequency, e.g. pulse repetition rate; Arrangements for measuring period of current or voltage

 G—PHYSICS
 G01—MEASURING; TESTING
 G01R—MEASURING ELECTRIC VARIABLES; MEASURING MAGNETIC VARIABLES
 G01R25/00—Arrangements for measuring phase angle between a voltage and a current or between voltages or currents

 Y—GENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSSSECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSSREFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
 Y02—TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
 Y02E—REDUCTION OF GREENHOUSE GAS [GHG] EMISSIONS, RELATED TO ENERGY GENERATION, TRANSMISSION OR DISTRIBUTION
 Y02E40/00—Technologies for an efficient electrical power generation, transmission or distribution
 Y02E40/70—Smart grids as climate change mitigation technology in the energy generation sector

 Y—GENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSSSECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSSREFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
 Y02—TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
 Y02E—REDUCTION OF GREENHOUSE GAS [GHG] EMISSIONS, RELATED TO ENERGY GENERATION, TRANSMISSION OR DISTRIBUTION
 Y02E60/00—Enabling technologies; Technologies with a potential or indirect contribution to GHG emissions mitigation

 Y—GENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSSSECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSSREFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
 Y04—INFORMATION OR COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGIES HAVING AN IMPACT ON OTHER TECHNOLOGY AREAS
 Y04S—SYSTEMS INTEGRATING TECHNOLOGIES RELATED TO POWER NETWORK OPERATION, COMMUNICATION OR INFORMATION TECHNOLOGIES FOR IMPROVING THE ELECTRICAL POWER GENERATION, TRANSMISSION, DISTRIBUTION, MANAGEMENT OR USAGE, i.e. SMART GRIDS
 Y04S10/00—Systems supporting electrical power generation, transmission or distribution

 Y—GENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSSSECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSSREFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
 Y04—INFORMATION OR COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGIES HAVING AN IMPACT ON OTHER TECHNOLOGY AREAS
 Y04S—SYSTEMS INTEGRATING TECHNOLOGIES RELATED TO POWER NETWORK OPERATION, COMMUNICATION OR INFORMATION TECHNOLOGIES FOR IMPROVING THE ELECTRICAL POWER GENERATION, TRANSMISSION, DISTRIBUTION, MANAGEMENT OR USAGE, i.e. SMART GRIDS
 Y04S10/00—Systems supporting electrical power generation, transmission or distribution
 Y04S10/22—Flexible AC transmission systems [FACTS] or power factor or reactive power compensating or correcting units
Abstract
The present invention relates to technical field of electric power automation, particularly to a kind of synchronous phase measuring in power system method.The measuring method of the present invention based on whole phase FFT (all phase FFT, apFFT) " phase invariance " realizes the accurate estimation to phase angle, and the correction utilizing time shift phase difference method to realize frequency is estimated, and then the measurement of completion system phasor.Facts have proved, this algorithm, without making an uproar or estimated accuracy in the case of low noise is close to unbiased estimator, is compared with the most widely used algorithm, and institute's extracting method all has a distinct increment in estimated accuracy, realtime, and do not increase extra operand and hardware cost, it is simple to Project Realization.
Description
Technical field
The present invention relates to technical field of electric power automation, particularly to a kind of synchronous phase measuring in power system method.
Background technology
Along with developing rapidly of China's intelligent grid construction, the safe and stable operation of electrical network becomes particularly important, builds complete
Net dynamic stability Monitoring and control system also becomes current system urgent problem.Based on global positioning system (GPS)
The synchronization that synchronous phasor measurement unit (PMU) uses high accuracy time signal to realize node data each to wide area power system is adopted
Collection, advances the fast development of WAMS (WAMS).Existing a large amount of PMU are applied to electrical network dynamic state estimator, fault
The fields such as location, wide area protection, online parameter estimation, its certainty of measurement will directly affect the performance of abovementioned application.
Synchronous phasor measurement is estimated mainly for frequency, phase angle, amplitude, and the most practical PMU algorithm included
Zero detection method, Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT) method, Kalman filtering method, Wavelet Transform etc., wherein DFT algorithm due to its
Harmonic responses good under static conditions, is widely used in the PMU device of different electric pressure.But, when system is transported
When the sampled data that line frequency deviation 50Hz, PMU receive cannot meet integerperiod sampled condition, the frequency spectrum of DFT algorithm itself
Leakage, frequency alias problem will cause the parameter estimation such as frequency, phase place to there is bigger error, have a strong impact on PMU algorithm performance.Though
So can improve the precision of the parameter estimation such as frequency by adjusting data window length, but too increase bigger computational burden simultaneously.
Additionally, part PMU uses the DFT recursive improved to realize phasor measurement, estimated frequency error can be reduced, but this algorithm still cannot
It is fully solved spectrum leakage and frequency alias problem, and needs to assume that signal amplitude is constant, it is impossible to be well suited in dynamic electrical network
Condition.
Summary of the invention
For above technical problem, the invention provides a kind of synchronous phase measuring in power system method.
The technical scheme is that
A kind of synchronous phase measuring in power system method, comprises the following steps:
Electric current that PMU is received by step 1, voltage observed quantity carry out the data sampling of two groups of regular lengths, it is thus achieved that two groups
PMU sequence:
Described in two groups, PMU sequence length is 2N+1, and time delay is n_{0}。
Step 2 carries out the double window all phase FFT spectrum analysis of a length of N respectively to PMU sequence described in two groups, according to main spectral line k^{*}
The phase spectrum at place, can obtain the phase contrast expression formula of PMU sequence described in two groups:
Wherein, 2n_{0}k^{*}π/N is main spectral line k^{*}Place numeral angular frequency 2k^{*}π/N is n through size_{0}Time delay after phase difference compensation
Value.
Step 3 is released the PMU signal frequency after phase compensation according to formula 3 and is estimated and main spectral line k^{*}On frequency deviation value table
Reach formula:
Wherein,For Frequency Estimation, d ω is main spectral line k^{*}On frequency deviation value.
Step 4 is according to main spectral line k^{*}On frequency deviation value d ω PMU sampled signal amplitude is estimated, for double window apFFT
Analysis of spectrum, has
Wherein,For Amplitude Estimation, d ω is main spectral line k^{*}On frequency deviation value, Y (k^{*}) it is that observation signal is at main spectral line k^{*}Place
All phase spectrum, F_{g}(d ω) is the result of calculation that main spectral line frequency deviation value substitutes into window function all phase expression formula.
Concrete, in step 1, data sampling is nonintegerperiod sampled.
Concrete, step 4 have employed hanning window function and carry out double window apFFT analysis of spectrum, corresponding electric current, voltage
Amplitude rectification estimates that expression formula is:
Wherein,For Amplitude Estimation, d ω is main spectral line k^{*}On frequency deviation value, Y (k^{*}) it is that observation signal is at main spectral line k^{*}Place
All phase spectrum.
A kind of PMU phasor measurement system, turns including the tested analog quantity in front end access circuit, signal conditioning circuit, synchronization A/D
Parallel operation, microprocessor and external system.Front end analogue amount accesses circuit and is made up of voltage transformer summation current transformer, and signal is adjusted
Reason circuit is made up of integrated operational amplifier and digital regulation resistance, and digital regulation resistance is the feedback resistance of integrated operational amplifier.
The input of the output termination integrated operational amplifier of voltage transformer summation current transformer, the outfan of integrated operational amplifier
Connect the input synchronizing A/D converter, synchronize the outfan of the output termination microprocessor of A/D converter, the one of microprocessor
The control end of individual output termination digital regulation resistance, external system connects the input/output terminal of microprocessor.
Concrete, in PMU phasor measurement system, microprocessor is ARM9LPC3250 type microcontroller.
Concrete, synchronizing A/D converter in PMU phasor measurement system is the sampling A/D conversion of ADS8568 type 8 Channel Synchronous
Device.
Beneficial effects of the present invention: the measuring method of the present invention is based on whole phase FFT (allphase FFT, apFFT)
" phase invariance " realizes the accurate estimation to phase angle, and the correction utilizing time shift phase difference method to realize frequency is estimated, and then complete
The measurement of onetenth system phasor.It was verified that this algorithm is without making an uproar or estimated accuracy in the case of low noise is close to unbiased estimator, and mesh
Front widely used algorithm is compared, and institute's extracting method all has a distinct increment in estimated accuracy, realtime, and does not increase extra fortune
Calculation amount and hardware cost, it is simple to Project Realization.
Accompanying drawing explanation
Fig. 1 is the flow chart of synchronous phase measuring in power system method in the present invention.
Fig. 2 is the circuit theory diagrams of PMU phasor measurement system in the present invention.
Fig. 3 is the signal processing flow figure of double window apFFT.
Fig. 4 is tradition windowing FFT amplitude and phase spectrum.
Fig. 5 is double window apFFT amplitude and phase spectrum.
Fig. 6 is to test signal and apFFT spectrum thereof in embodiment.
Detailed description of the invention
Build PMU phasor measurement system with reference to Fig. 2, carry out phasor measurement based on apFFT with reference to Fig. 1.PMU phasor measurement
System by the tested analog quantity in front end access circuit, signal conditioning circuit, synchronization A/D converter, ARM9LPC3250 microprocessor and
External system is constituted.Wherein front end analogue amount access main circuit to be made up of voltage, current transformer, is responsible for tested exchange letter
Number isolate before access system, improve the safety of whole measurement system.Analog signal conditioner circuit is put by integrated computation
Big device and digital regulation resistance composition, be amplified processing to voltage, current signal, and digital regulation resistance is in the control of arm processor
Under carry out feedback resistance regulation, it is achieved automatically changeable fluid is measured.Synchronize A/D and can be selected for ADS8568 type 8 passage of TI company
Synchronized sampling A/D converter.LPC3250 is the microcontroller with ARM9 kernel of a technical grade, and operating frequency exists
200MHz, is control and the arithmetic core of this PMU measurement system, and the FLASH memory of plugin SPI type is used for storing metrical information
And systematic parameter, Ethernet interface is used for realizing realizing data with remote machine communication and uploads, and SDRAM is for storing and performing concrete
Test main program code.Equipment is configured with LCD color LCD screen and matrix keyboard, it is achieved parameter setting, result queries, function choosing
The local function such as selecting, waveform shows, SD card is used for measured parameter or the waveform etc. that longerterm storage user selects.
The ARM9 its main operational unit of PMU performs the phasor measurement algorithm based on apFFT that the present invention proposes, flow process such as figure
Shown in 1.In Fig. 1, the signal processing flow graph of double window apFFT computing unit is as shown in Figure 3.Convolution window w with a length of 2N1_{c}To defeated
Enter sample windowing, the two segment data translation superpositions being spaced apart N are generated N number of new data sample y (n), (n=0,1 ..., N1),
Again y (n) is carried out FFT and i.e. obtain analysis of spectrum result.In Fig. 3, N=4.
Convolution window w in Fig. 3_{c}=[w_{c}(N+1),…,w_{c}(1),w_{c}(0),w_{c}(1),…,w_{c}(N1)]^{T}By front window f with turn over
The rear window b convolution turned forms, it may be assumed that
Corresponding Fourier transformation meets
W_{c}(e^{jω})=F (e^{jω})B(e^{jω})=F (e^{jω})B^{*}(e^{jω}) formula 9
Front window f and rear window b is made to be symmetrywindows, then w_{c}Also it is symmetrywindows, it may be assumed that w_{c}(n)=w_{c}(n).According to convolution window shape
Formula is different, and apFFT can be divided into window windowless, single and three kinds of situations of double window.
It can be seen that all phase FFT spectrum analysis considers all N kind section FFTs of a length of N comprising sampling point x (0) comprehensively
Analysis of spectrum situation.The result of abovementioned organic synthesis has derived some characteristic properties of apFFT, as amplitude spectrum suppresses leaking performance,
And phase place flat distribution characteristic etc. near spectral peak.Although it is noted that apFFT considers N kind sample section FFT analysis of spectrum
Situation, but only need to carry out 1 FFT and can complete, more traditional PMU algorithm does not increases extra operand, and engineer applied is respond well.
Analyze embodiment in terms of algorithm performance two under the conditions of signal phase estimation performance with harmonic wave below and measure mutually
The technique effect of metering method.
1. signal phase estimates performance
Utilizing measurement apparatus of the present invention to estimate the current waveform phase parameter gathered, acquisition sequence is one and comprises
The compound cosine currents sampling of 3 different frequency compositions and initial phase
Wherein, ω_{1}=20.0,ω_{2}=60.2,ω_{3}=100.4,N=256.Its correspondence
Windowing FFT and double window apFFT spectrum are the most as shown in Figure 4, Figure 5.Here window function have employed hanning window (raised cosine window),
Expression formula is as follows:
As shown in Figures 4 and 5, in terms of amplitude spectrum, whole phase FFT has preferably suppression leakage energy compared to traditional FFT
Power, within the energy leakage caused due to the crosstalk between nonintegerperiod sampled and multifrequency composition is controlled two spectral lines.
Phase spectrum aspect, traditional FFT phase spectrum is relatively mixed and disorderly, only at k=20 (integerperiod sampled), spectrum close to theoretical value 10 °,
At k=60, at 100, measure phase place and deviate bigger with true phase.And apFFT phase spectrum presents near tested component frequencies
The flat distribution of rule, i.e. has " phase invariance ", it is not necessary to any error correction can directly reflect the first phase of each component,
There is in terms of stationary signal phase estimation certain advantage.Table 1 is the phase measurement of two kinds of spectral analysis methods.
Table 1 traditional FFT contrasts (N=256) with whole phase FFT phase spectrum
2. algorithm performance under harmonic condition
Signal source uses three synchronized phasor test device testers of high accuracy, meets " GB/T268622011 power train
System synchronous phasor measuring device inspection criterion ", " Q/GDW4162010 synchronous phase measuring in power system device (PMU) tests skill
Art specification " etc. standardrequired.Tested current signal fundamental frequency is 50.5Hz, and phase angle is 40 °, and contain frequency is 200Hz simultaneously
With two current harmonics compositions of 300Hz, the expression formula of this signal is:
X (t)=5cos (50.5 × 2 π t/f_{s}+40π/180)+0.25cos(200×2πt/f_{s})+1.75cos(300×2π
t/f_{s}) formula 12
This current signal is carried out double window apFFT analysis of spectrum as shown in Figure 6.It is utilized respectively measurement apparatus of the present invention and often
The frequency of this signal, phase place, range parameter are estimated by rule algorithm PMU device, and comparing result is as shown in table 2.
Signal parameter estimation result tested by table 2
The above results shows, compares with traditional algorithm for estimating based on DFT, the double window apFFT phasor that the present invention proposes
Measurement Algorithm has the highest estimated accuracy, and suppression noise immune is strong.
Measured electric current, voltage parameter span are not limited by the phasor measurement method that the present invention proposes, harvester
Without carrying out integerperiod sampled to signal, facilitate engineering construction.Although additionally, apFFT considers N kind sample section FFT spectrum point
Analysis situation, but only need to carry out 1 FFT and can complete, more traditional PMU algorithm does not increases extra operand, and engineer applied effect is good
Good.
The above embodiment is only the preferred embodiments of the present invention, and and the feasible enforcement of noninvention exhaustive.Right
For persons skilled in the art, to its done any showing on the premise of without departing substantially from the principle of the invention and spirit
The change being clear to, within all should being contemplated as falling with the claims of the present invention.
Claims (6)
1. a synchronous phase measuring in power system method, it is characterised in that it comprises the following steps:
Electric current that PMU is received by step 1, voltage observed quantity carry out the data sampling of two groups of regular lengths, it is thus achieved that two groups of PMU sequences
Row:
Described in two groups, PMU sequence length is 2N+1, and time delay is n_{0}；
Step 2 carries out the double window all phase FFT spectrum analysis of a length of N respectively to PMU sequence described in two groups, according to main spectral line k^{*}The phase at place
Position spectrum, can obtain the phase contrast expression formula of PMU sequence described in two groups:
Wherein, 2n_{0}k^{*}π/N is main spectral line k^{*}Place numeral angular frequency 2k^{*}π/N is n through size_{0}Time delay after phase difference compensation value；
Step 3 is released the PMU signal frequency after phase compensation according to formula 3 and is estimated and main spectral line k^{*}On frequency deviation value expression formula:
Wherein,For Frequency Estimation, d ω is main spectral line k^{*}On frequency deviation value；
Step 4 is according to main spectral line k^{*}On frequency deviation value d ω PMU sampled signal amplitude is estimated, for double window apFFT spectrum point
Analysis, has
Wherein,For Amplitude Estimation, d ω is main spectral line k^{*}On frequency deviation value, Y (k^{*}) it is that observation signal is at main spectral line k^{*}The full phase at place
Position spectrum, F_{g}(d ω) is the result of calculation that main spectral line frequency deviation value substitutes into window function all phase expression formula.
A kind of synchronous phase measuring in power system method the most according to claim 1, it is characterised in that data acquisition in step 1
Sample is nonintegerperiod sampled.
A kind of synchronous phase measuring in power system method the most according to claim 1, it is characterised in that have employed in step 4
Hanning window function carries out double window apFFT analysis of spectrum, and the correction of corresponding electric current, voltage magnitude estimates that expression formula is:
Wherein,For Amplitude Estimation, d ω is main spectral line k^{*}On frequency deviation value, Y (k^{*}) it is that observation signal is at main spectral line k^{*}The full phase at place
Position spectrum.
4. a PMU phasor measurement system, it is characterised in that it includes that the tested analog quantity in front end accesses circuit, signal condition electricity
Road, synchronization A/D converter, microprocessor and external system, described front end analogue amount accesses circuit by voltage transformer and electric current
Transformer forms, and described signal conditioning circuit is made up of integrated operational amplifier and digital regulation resistance, and described digital regulation resistance is
The feedback resistance of integrated operational amplifier, the output termination integrated operational amplifier of described voltage transformer summation current transformer
Input, the output termination of described integrated operational amplifier synchronizes the input of A/D converter, described synchronization A/D converter
The outfan of output termination microprocessor, the control end of one of described microprocessor output termination digital regulation resistance, described outside
Portion's system connects the input/output terminal of microprocessor.
A kind of PMU phasor measurement system the most according to claim 4, it is characterised in that described microprocessor is
ARM9LPC3250 type microcontroller.
A kind of PMU phasor measurement system the most according to claim 4, it is characterised in that described synchronization A/D converter is
ADS8568 type 8 Channel Synchronous sampling A/D converter.
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Cited By (5)
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CN109557355A (en) *  20181029  20190402  太平湾发电厂  Arrester resistance current online monitoring method based on hanning window phase difference method 
CN110297199A (en) *  20190705  20191001  中国地质大学（武汉）  A kind of caesium optical pumped magnetometer frequency measurement method and system based on whole phase FFT 
CN110967574A (en) *  20191017  20200407  国网甘肃省电力公司电力科学研究院  Island fault diagnosis method and system based on improved node phase angle difference calculation method 
CN112255457A (en) *  20200922  20210122  天津电气科学研究院有限公司  Phase angle difference measuring method suitable for automatic quasisynchronization device 
CN113552857A (en) *  20210720  20211026  中国电力科学研究院有限公司  Automatic excitation detection method and system in autonomous controllable intelligent substation 
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Publication number  Priority date  Publication date  Assignee  Title 

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