CN106187004B - A kind of ecological permeable concrete and preparation method thereof - Google Patents

A kind of ecological permeable concrete and preparation method thereof Download PDF

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Publication number
CN106187004B
CN106187004B CN201610524041.XA CN201610524041A CN106187004B CN 106187004 B CN106187004 B CN 106187004B CN 201610524041 A CN201610524041 A CN 201610524041A CN 106187004 B CN106187004 B CN 106187004B
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gypsum
major ingredient
component
quality
permeable concrete
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CN106187004A (en
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李涛
方爱华
程雲
周琳
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Shanghai daily ecological science and Technology Development Co Ltd
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Shanghai Daily Ecological Science And Technology Development Co Ltd
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    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C04CEMENTS; CONCRETE; ARTIFICIAL STONE; CERAMICS; REFRACTORIES
    • C04BLIME, MAGNESIA; SLAG; CEMENTS; COMPOSITIONS THEREOF, e.g. MORTARS, CONCRETE OR LIKE BUILDING MATERIALS; ARTIFICIAL STONE; CERAMICS; REFRACTORIES; TREATMENT OF NATURAL STONE
    • C04B28/00Compositions of mortars, concrete or artificial stone, containing inorganic binders or the reaction product of an inorganic and an organic binder, e.g. polycarboxylate cements
    • C04B28/14Compositions of mortars, concrete or artificial stone, containing inorganic binders or the reaction product of an inorganic and an organic binder, e.g. polycarboxylate cements containing calcium sulfate cements
    • C04B28/145Calcium sulfate hemi-hydrate with a specific crystal form
    • C04B28/147Calcium sulfate hemi-hydrate with a specific crystal form beta-hemihydrate
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C04CEMENTS; CONCRETE; ARTIFICIAL STONE; CERAMICS; REFRACTORIES
    • C04BLIME, MAGNESIA; SLAG; CEMENTS; COMPOSITIONS THEREOF, e.g. MORTARS, CONCRETE OR LIKE BUILDING MATERIALS; ARTIFICIAL STONE; CERAMICS; REFRACTORIES; TREATMENT OF NATURAL STONE
    • C04B11/00Calcium sulfate cements
    • C04B11/02Methods and apparatus for dehydrating gypsum
    • C04B11/028Devices therefor characterised by the type of calcining devices used therefor or by the type of hemihydrate obtained
    • C04B11/036Devices therefor characterised by the type of calcining devices used therefor or by the type of hemihydrate obtained for the dry process, e.g. dehydrating in a fluidised bed or in a rotary kiln, i.e. to obtain beta-hemihydrate
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C04CEMENTS; CONCRETE; ARTIFICIAL STONE; CERAMICS; REFRACTORIES
    • C04BLIME, MAGNESIA; SLAG; CEMENTS; COMPOSITIONS THEREOF, e.g. MORTARS, CONCRETE OR LIKE BUILDING MATERIALS; ARTIFICIAL STONE; CERAMICS; REFRACTORIES; TREATMENT OF NATURAL STONE
    • C04B11/00Calcium sulfate cements
    • C04B11/26Calcium sulfate cements strating from chemical gypsum; starting from phosphogypsum or from waste, e.g. purification products of smoke
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C04CEMENTS; CONCRETE; ARTIFICIAL STONE; CERAMICS; REFRACTORIES
    • C04BLIME, MAGNESIA; SLAG; CEMENTS; COMPOSITIONS THEREOF, e.g. MORTARS, CONCRETE OR LIKE BUILDING MATERIALS; ARTIFICIAL STONE; CERAMICS; REFRACTORIES; TREATMENT OF NATURAL STONE
    • C04B11/00Calcium sulfate cements
    • C04B11/26Calcium sulfate cements strating from chemical gypsum; starting from phosphogypsum or from waste, e.g. purification products of smoke
    • C04B11/262Calcium sulfate cements strating from chemical gypsum; starting from phosphogypsum or from waste, e.g. purification products of smoke waste gypsum other than phosphogypsum
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C04CEMENTS; CONCRETE; ARTIFICIAL STONE; CERAMICS; REFRACTORIES
    • C04BLIME, MAGNESIA; SLAG; CEMENTS; COMPOSITIONS THEREOF, e.g. MORTARS, CONCRETE OR LIKE BUILDING MATERIALS; ARTIFICIAL STONE; CERAMICS; REFRACTORIES; TREATMENT OF NATURAL STONE
    • C04B11/00Calcium sulfate cements
    • C04B11/26Calcium sulfate cements strating from chemical gypsum; starting from phosphogypsum or from waste, e.g. purification products of smoke
    • C04B11/262Calcium sulfate cements strating from chemical gypsum; starting from phosphogypsum or from waste, e.g. purification products of smoke waste gypsum other than phosphogypsum
    • C04B11/264Gypsum from the desulfurisation of flue gases
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C04CEMENTS; CONCRETE; ARTIFICIAL STONE; CERAMICS; REFRACTORIES
    • C04BLIME, MAGNESIA; SLAG; CEMENTS; COMPOSITIONS THEREOF, e.g. MORTARS, CONCRETE OR LIKE BUILDING MATERIALS; ARTIFICIAL STONE; CERAMICS; REFRACTORIES; TREATMENT OF NATURAL STONE
    • C04B2111/00Mortars, concrete or artificial stone or mixtures to prepare them, characterised by specific function, property or use
    • C04B2111/00241Physical properties of the materials not provided for elsewhere in C04B2111/00
    • C04B2111/00284Materials permeable to liquids
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C04CEMENTS; CONCRETE; ARTIFICIAL STONE; CERAMICS; REFRACTORIES
    • C04BLIME, MAGNESIA; SLAG; CEMENTS; COMPOSITIONS THEREOF, e.g. MORTARS, CONCRETE OR LIKE BUILDING MATERIALS; ARTIFICIAL STONE; CERAMICS; REFRACTORIES; TREATMENT OF NATURAL STONE
    • C04B2111/00Mortars, concrete or artificial stone or mixtures to prepare them, characterised by specific function, property or use
    • C04B2111/20Resistance against chemical, physical or biological attack
    • C04B2111/29Frost-thaw resistance
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C04CEMENTS; CONCRETE; ARTIFICIAL STONE; CERAMICS; REFRACTORIES
    • C04BLIME, MAGNESIA; SLAG; CEMENTS; COMPOSITIONS THEREOF, e.g. MORTARS, CONCRETE OR LIKE BUILDING MATERIALS; ARTIFICIAL STONE; CERAMICS; REFRACTORIES; TREATMENT OF NATURAL STONE
    • C04B2201/00Mortars, concrete or artificial stone characterised by specific physical values
    • C04B2201/50Mortars, concrete or artificial stone characterised by specific physical values for the mechanical strength

Abstract

The invention discloses a kind of novel ecological pervious concretes, the pervious concrete is using industry byproducts such as industry by-product gypsum, steel slag, construction waste, tailing sandstones as primary raw material, the disadvantage and intensity with higher that traditional pervious concrete production energy consumption can be overcome high, materials are easy, cost is relatively low, preparation process is simple, does not need high-temperature calcination, is good for the environment.

Description

A kind of ecological permeable concrete and preparation method thereof
Technical field
The present invention relates to novel ecological pervious concrete and its preparation method of completing the square, belongs to construction material and solid waste utilizes Field.
Background technique
Normal concrete road pavement is simple, low in cost, brings great convenience, but and natural soils to people's trip It compares, Common Concrete Pavement lacks the ability of breathing and rain penetration, also brings such as underground water to the ecological environment in city The a series of environmental problems such as position decline, ground settlement, tropical island effect, urban waterlogging.Pervious concrete is met the tendency of regarding to the issue above And it gives birth to.
Pervious concrete is also referred to as celluar concrete, and substantially one kind is by aggregate, cementitious material, water and additive etc. Building materials made of mixing and stirring, intensity are mainly to bond aggregate and shape by the cementitious material for the hardening for being wrapped in aggregate surface At.Pervious concrete has good permeable, noise-reducing performance, is primarily used to making dykes and dams, shore protection, pavement, large size The road shoulder and partition etc. of square and green building.
Pervious concrete is promoting city function, keeps urban ecological environment, builds in " sponge city ", builds green building Etc. play a significant role.
In terms of alleviating waterlogging problem.Because pervious concrete pavement has good water penetration and certain water storage function Can, moisture penetration can be made to underground, mitigate the burden of rainy season drainage system, reduce surface gathered water, mitigate pressure of drainning off floodwaters.
In terms of ecological functions.Pervious concrete pavement can make full use of rainwater, increase earth's surface relative humidity, supplement city The increasingly depleted groundwater resources in city improve the life condition of urban surface plant and edaphon, adjust the ecological balance, right Eliminating urban soil desertification phenomenon has certain effect.
In terms of alleviating urban heat land effect.Pervious concrete can increase urban water-through and vapor permeation area, reinforce earth's surface The heat and exchange of moisture of air adjust urban climate, reduce surface temperature, can alleviate city " tropical island effect " problem.
In terms of suction is made an uproar.Due to the porosity of pervious concrete, there is certain absorbability to city noise, creates peace Quiet comfortable life and traffic environment.
Function in the slope protections such as river, dykes and dams, roadbed.Pervious concrete can be widely used in river, dykes and dams, roadbed etc. In slope protection, rainwash speed can be slowed down.It, can due to concentrating portions soil and microorganism in the mesh hole of pervious concrete Environment is created to plant growth, realizes the ecology of concrete road surface.
Currently, for permeable road and the pervious concrete on ground, there are mainly three types of types:
For cement pervious concrete using portland cement as cementitious material, this Cost of Concrete is low, and production is simple, is suitable for Large area road pavement, durability is good, but since hole is more, intensity, wearability and frost resistance are poor.
Macromolecule pervious concrete is using pitch or macromolecule resin as cementitious material, compared with cement pervious concrete, tool There is high-strength advantage.But organic cementitious material weatherability difference is easy aging, temperature with higher under atmospheric environment effect Sensibility is easy softening trickling, water permeability is made to be affected.
It is sintered permeable product to mix and stir with the mineral such as granular ceramic tile, feldspar, kaolin, clay and slurry, idiosome is pressed into, through height Temperature is sintered.Such seepy material intensity is high, wearability is good, requires the expenditure of energy in excellent durability but sintering process, at This height is not suitable for mating formation on a large scale.
Summary of the invention
In view of the above drawbacks of the prior art, technical problem to be solved by the invention is to provide a kind of novel ecological is saturating Water coagulation soil, the pervious concrete is based on the industry byproducts such as industry by-product gypsum, steel slag, construction waste, tailing sandstone Want raw material, the disadvantage and intensity with higher that traditional pervious concrete production energy consumption can be overcome high, materials be easy, cost compared with Low, preparation process is simple, does not need high-temperature calcination, is good for the environment.
Ecological permeable concrete provided by the invention includes following component by percentage to the quality:
Modified gypsum cementitious material 10-25%
Aggregate 70-88%
Water 2-8%;
Wherein, the modified gypsum cementitious material includes major ingredient and building additive, and the major ingredient includes with quality percentage Than the following component of meter:
The building additive, to be calculated relative to the permillage of major ingredient quality, comprising:
Further, the gypsum refers to that desulfurized gypsum, ardealite, the one-component in fluorgypsum or mixture add through calcining Work and formed with calcium sulfate gypsum as main component;The mixture refer in three kinds of components the mixing of any two kinds of components or Three kinds of component mixing;Preferably, in any two kinds of component mixtures, any component quality accounting is 0-50%;Preferably, exist In three kinds of component mixtures, any component quality accounting 0-35%.
The miberal powder is the product after mineral powder processing, and the chemical component of ground blast furnace slag is more stable, with normal silicate water Mud is very close, has good hydration activity, under alkaline excitation can quickly aquation to improve the early strength of material, The waste of Metallurgical Factory's generation is utilized simultaneously.
The steel-making slag powder is the waste residue of steel-making, hardness with higher.Ground steel slag under alkaline condition can with aquation, The present invention utilizes the Ca (OH) after clinker aquation2Or other alkali-activators, improve the wearability of material.Preferably, institute Stating ground steel slag is the level-one steel-making slag powder for meeting relevant national standard.
Cement in the eco-concrete component can increase substantially cementitious material compressive property, while improve material Water resistance;Preferably, the cement is P.O425 or 525 ordinary portland cements.
The retarder and water-reducing agent are building additive, and building additive can significantly improve novel ecological concrete Mechanical property and stability are indispensable component parts.
The water retention property of material can be improved in the cellulose ether, reduces the contraction distortion of mortar.
The PP fiber is also referred to as polypropylene fibre, the development for the microcrack that can be formed at barrier material hardening initial stage, thus Improve anti-crack ability, the barrier performance of material.
In a kind of better embodiment of the invention, the gypsum in the major ingredient is desulfurized gypsum, and major ingredient includes with matter Measure the following component of score meter:
The building additive, to be calculated relative to the permillage of major ingredient quality, comprising:
In another of the invention preferable embodiment, the gypsum in the major ingredient is the mixed of desulfurized gypsum and ardealite Object is closed, major ingredient includes following component based on mass fraction:
The building additive, to be calculated relative to the permillage of major ingredient quality, comprising:
Wherein, desulfurized gypsum is more preferably 15-25%, and ardealite is more preferably 15-25%.
In another preferably embodiment of the invention, the gypsum in the major ingredient is desulfurized gypsum, ardealite, fluorite The mixture of three kinds of components of cream, major ingredient include following component based on mass fraction:
The building additive, to be calculated relative to the permillage of major ingredient quality, comprising:
Wherein, desulfurized gypsum is more preferably 8-13%, and ardealite is more preferably 8-12.5%, and fluorgypsum is into one Step preferably 8-12.5%.
Aggregate of the present invention can be steel slag, construction waste, any one in tailing sandstone.The steel slag is steel-making The waste residue of discharge, the particle formed after being sieved after grinding according to different-grain diameter;The construction waste is discarded in building waste Concrete and discarded masonry are hammered or are ground, and are then sieved according to different-grain diameter, thick, the fine aggregate of formation;The CHARACTERISTICS OF TAILINGS SAND Stone refers to that the waste that mining generates, physical and chemical performance are stablized, and tailings stone is by broken and sorting process, the grain of formation The different particle of diameter.
Preferably, above-mentioned aggregate is divided into different-grain diameter group, can carry out according to different engineering demands by levigate, screening Gradation.Preferably, the fine aggregate volume in mass ratio that partial size is 1-3mm is 0-25%, and partial size is that 3-10mm coarse aggregates press quality It is 75-100% than volume.It is weighed, is added separately in blender, through stirring according to the proportion of above-mentioned raw materials Can be realized pour, be smooth, maintenance processes, obtain eco-concrete provided by the invention.
The present invention also provides a kind of preparation methods of above-mentioned novel ecological pervious concrete comprising step:
1) modified gypsum cementitious material is prepared;
2) oven-dried aggregate is prepared;
3) each raw material of major ingredient, building additive and aggregate are mixed evenly according to the ratio.
The concrete dry powder of above-mentioned preparation can be used after mixing before with the water centainly matched.
Further, the method for gypsum plaster is prepared described in step 1) are as follows: first by industry byproduct desulfurized gypsum and/ Or after ardealite and/or fluorgypsum are pre-processed, is directly dried after drying or mixing, then calcine, grind, finally cool down old Change.Two-step method gypsum calcination system can be used to complete in the preparation method.
The two-step method, which refers to, separately carries out drying course and calcination process, dries and calcines in the two-step method gypsum Locellus carries out in calcination system, which is in the technical foundation of gypsum fluidized bed furnace, using pneumatic conveying drying and fluidizing calcination What technology was realized.It is dried simultaneously by heat-conducting medium using calcining waste heat, energy consumption can be further decreased.
Wherein, the main component of desulfurized gypsum and ardealite is dihydrate gypsum, gypsum master obtained after drying and calcining Wanting ingredient is β-semi-hydrated gypsum (plaster of paris), dihydrate gypsum (gypsum) is formed after water suction again to reach certain strong Degree, semi-hydrated gypsum have the characteristic of fast solidifying.
Preferably, the temperature of the gypsum plaster drying is 50~100 DEG C, and more excellent is 70~80 DEG C, and optimal is 75 ℃;The time of the drying is 1~2 hour.
Preferably, the temperature of the calcining is 130~180 DEG C, and optimal is 150 DEG C;The time of the calcining is 1~3 small When, optimal is 2 hours.
Preferably, the drying and the calcining are carried out using the tail steam of power plants generating electricity in step 1), makes full use of money " zero-emission " has been accomplished while guaranteeing gypsum performance in source.It is further preferred that the waste heat using the calcining carries out institute Drying is stated, to further decrease energy consumption.
Preferably, by each raw material of major ingredient, building additive and graded sand profession dry powder mortar production line in step 3) It is mixed evenly.
The present invention has following features and advantage:
Pervious concrete proposed by the present invention, properties are excellent, and compression strength is not less than 32.0MPa, and Split-tension of Rolled is strong Degree is not less than 6.0MPa, and coefficient of permeability is not less than 3.0 × 10-2Cm/s, frost resistance can reach D35 index, wearability mill hole length Degree is not more than 30mm.
The present invention replaces conventional cement, natural gravel as the main raw material(s) for preparing pervious concrete using Industrial Solid Waste, The added value for substantially increasing industry byproduct, environmental pollution caused by the production and natural gravel for reducing conventional cement are exploited And destruction, materials are easy, and reduce the production cost of pervious concrete, are suitble to a wide range of use.
Specific embodiment
Gypsum in embodiment is Shanghai pit hole mouth power plant gypsum;Cement uses 425 ordinary portland cements;Retarder is adopted With German TRICOSAL Retardan P;Gypsum uses three auspicious G15 water-reducing agents with high-efficiency water-reducing agent of poly-carboxylic acid;Cellulose ether is adopted 400 cellulose ether of MHPC produced with Hercules company;Slag powders use the S95 ground granulated blast furnace slag of Baosteel production, steel Ground-slag uses the level-one steel-making slag powder of Baosteel production.
The production method of test specimen and test mode GBT 25993-2010 permeable pavement brick according to national standards in embodiment It is carried out with relevant regulations in porous pavement plate.
Embodiment one:
Three component of pervious concrete: modified gypsum cementitious material 20%, aggregate 75%, water 5%.
The component of modified gypsum cementitious material major ingredient are as follows: gypsum 40%, slag powders 30%, steel-making slag powder 20%, cement 10%, Wherein gypsum is one-component desulfurized gypsum;
Build additive and its permillage to major ingredient quality are as follows: retarder 2 ‰, water-reducing agent 2 ‰, cellulose 0.5 ‰;
Aggregate is steel slag, coarse aggregate size 3-5mm, volume 100%;
Performance is as follows:
Embodiment two:
Three component of pervious concrete: modified gypsum cementitious material 10%, aggregate 88%, water 2%.
The component of modified gypsum cementitious material major ingredient are as follows: gypsum 40%, slag powders 30%, steel-making slag powder 20%, cement 10%, Wherein gypsum is that desulfurized gypsum and ardealite 1:1 in mass ratio are mixed;
Build additive and its permillage to major ingredient quality are as follows: retarder 2 ‰, water-reducing agent 3 ‰, cellulose 0.5 ‰, PP Fiber 1 ‰;
Aggregate is steel slag, fine aggregate 1-3mm of partial size, volume 25%, 3-5mm of coarse aggregate size, volume 75%;
Performance is as follows:
Embodiment three:
Three component of pervious concrete: modified gypsum cementitious material 20%, aggregate 75%, water 5%.
The component of modified gypsum cementitious material major ingredient are as follows: gypsum 30%, slag powders 35%, steel-making slag powder 25%, cement 10%, Wherein gypsum is desulfurized gypsum, ardealite and fluorgypsum 1:1:1 in mass ratio mixing;
Build additive and its permillage to major ingredient quality are as follows: retarder 2 ‰, water-reducing agent 2 ‰, cellulose 1 ‰, PP are fine Tie up 2 ‰;
Aggregate is steel slag, fine aggregate partial size 1-3mm, volume 10%, coarse aggregate size 3-5mm, volume 90%;
Performance is as follows:
Example IV:
Three component of pervious concrete: modified gypsum cementitious material 20%, aggregate 75%, water 5%.
The component of modified gypsum cementitious material major ingredient are as follows: gypsum 40%, slag powders 30%, steel-making slag powder 20%, cement 10%, Wherein gypsum is that desulfurized gypsum and ardealite 1:1 in mass ratio are mixed;
Build additive and its permillage to major ingredient quality are as follows: retarder 2 ‰, water-reducing agent 2 ‰, cellulose 2 ‰, PP are fine Tie up 5 ‰;
Aggregate is construction waste, fine aggregate partial size 1-3mm, volume 15%, coarse aggregate size 3-5mm, volume 85%;
Performance is as follows:
From above-described embodiment, it can be concluded that, novel ecological concrete provided by the invention is had the advantage that
1) industry byproducts such as desulfurized gypsum, ardealite, fluorgypsum, steel slag, construction waste are largely utilized, accelerate work The consumption of industry byproduct and solid waste realizes that the circulation comprehensive of solid waste resource utilizes;
2) the tail steam calcination and drying generated using power plants generating electricity has accomplished energy-saving and emission-reduction, environmentally protective;
3) flexural strength, coefficient of permeability, frost resistance etc. are above national standard, have good mechanical property;
4) raw material are cheap, are easily obtained, and quality is stablized, and product cost is excellent, helps to promote the use of a large area;
Therefore novel ecological concrete of the invention is the excellent selection as water-permeable brick and porous pavement.
The preferred embodiment of the present invention has been described in detail above.It should be appreciated that those skilled in the art without It needs creative work according to the present invention can conceive and makes many modifications and variations.Therefore, all technologies in the art Personnel are available by logical analysis, reasoning, or a limited experiment on the basis of existing technology under this invention's idea Technical solution, all should be within the scope of protection determined by the claims.

Claims (8)

1. a kind of ecological permeable concrete, it is characterised in that including following component by percentage to the quality:
Modified gypsum cementitious material 10-25%
Aggregate 70-88%
Water 2-8%;
Wherein, the modified gypsum cementitious material includes major ingredient and building additive, and the major ingredient includes by percentage to the quality Following component:
The building additive, to be calculated relative to the permillage of major ingredient quality, comprising:
2. a kind of ecological permeable concrete, it is characterised in that including following component by percentage to the quality:
Modified gypsum cementitious material 10-25%
Aggregate 70-88%
Water 2-8%;
Wherein, the modified gypsum cementitious material includes major ingredient and building additive, and the gypsum in the major ingredient is desulfurized gypsum With the mixture of ardealite, major ingredient includes following component based on mass fraction:
The building additive, to be calculated relative to the permillage of major ingredient quality, comprising:
3. a kind of ecological permeable concrete, it is characterised in that including following component by percentage to the quality:
Modified gypsum cementitious material 10-25%
Aggregate 70-88%
Water 2-8%;
Wherein, the modified gypsum cementitious material includes major ingredient and building additive, the gypsum in the major ingredient be desulfurized gypsum, The mixture of three kinds of ardealite, fluorgypsum components, major ingredient include following component based on mass fraction:
The building additive, to be calculated relative to the permillage of major ingredient quality, comprising:
4. the preparation method of the ecological permeable concrete as described in claims 1 or 2 or 3, it is characterised in that comprising steps of
1) modified gypsum cementitious material is prepared;
2) oven-dried aggregate is prepared;
3) each raw material of major ingredient, building additive and aggregate are mixed evenly according to the ratio.
5. the preparation method of ecological permeable concrete as claimed in claim 4, it is characterised in that prepare stone described in step 1) The method of mastic gel material are as follows: after first industry byproduct desulfurized gypsum and/or ardealite and/or fluorgypsum are pre-processed, It is directly dried after drying or mixing, then calcines, grind, last cooling and aging;The preparation method can be used two-step method gypsum and forge Burning system is completed.
6. the preparation method of ecological permeable concrete as claimed in claim 5, it is characterised in that the gypsum plaster dries Dry temperature is 50~100 DEG C.
7. the preparation method of ecological permeable concrete as claimed in claim 5, it is characterised in that the temperature of the calcining is 130 ~180 DEG C.
8. the preparation method of ecological permeable concrete as claimed in claim 5, it is characterised in that sent out in step 1) using power plant The tail steam of electricity carries out the drying and the calcining.
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