CN106172095A - A kind of selection of big specification ChangJiang River crab breeding - Google Patents

A kind of selection of big specification ChangJiang River crab breeding Download PDF

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CN106172095A
CN106172095A CN201610525545.3A CN201610525545A CN106172095A CN 106172095 A CN106172095 A CN 106172095A CN 201610525545 A CN201610525545 A CN 201610525545A CN 106172095 A CN106172095 A CN 106172095A
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breeding
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selection
crab
eriocheir sinensis
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CN106172095B (en
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管卫兵
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Huaian Suze Ecological Agriculture Co
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    • Y02A40/81Aquaculture, e.g. of fish

Abstract

The present invention relates to the selection of a kind of big specification ChangJiang River crab breeding, including: select ecological seedling rearing in earth ponds production base;Set up Growth base;The carrying out selecting culture of Chinese mitten crab main product area cultural technique high is unified into Eriocheir sinensis cultivation;Big specification is selected to carry out pairing breeding as parent from becoming Eriocheir sinensis culture pond;Second Year repeats above step, Long-term selection more than 4 years, it is achieved the incubation of big specification breeding;Using cultured population is main to carry out selection-breeding, thus obtain stable and high yields, the big specification ChangJiang River crab breeding that is suitable under artificial cultivation environment.The method of the present invention is different from the breeding objective only carried out from form and genetic diversity angle.The present invention is formed and a set of be different from existing conventional method and carry out the technical system of ChangJiang River big specification crab fine-variety breeding, it is achieved the Second Revolution of crab industry, healthy and stable for whole nation crab industry, and rural poverty is rescued and tired provided science and technology to support.

Description

A kind of selection of big specification ChangJiang River crab breeding
Technical field
The invention belongs to the technical field of aquatic products fine-variety breeding method, particularly to one big specification ChangJiang River crab The selection of breeding.
Background technology
Crab is one of China's most important freshwater aquiculture kind, occupies highly importantly in China's fishery economic Position.Recent two decades comes, and China's culture of Chinese mitten crab industry growth momentum is very swift and violent, and within 1993, national crab yield reaches 1.75 ten thousand tons, Within 1994, being 3.12 ten thousand tons, within 2000, more than 200,000 tons, 2009 annual productions reach 28.73 ten thousand tons, the national crab yield by 2013 More than 700,000 tons, the output value reaches more than 400 hundred million yuan.Along with the continuous expansion of whole nation culture of Chinese mitten crab area, culture of Chinese mitten crab industry is for excellent The demand of matter seed is the most increasing.
China's culture of Chinese mitten crab industry is started in the mid-1960s in last century, carries out people by the natural juvenile crab in extensive collection the Changjiang river Work Releasing and enhancing, has promoted the fast development of China's crab aquatic breeding.Along with the continuous expansion of culture of Chinese mitten crab scale, Yangtze River Water It is that natural juvenile crab resource drastically fails.Within 1984, rise, the extensive utilization in China of the Liaohe River, the Oujiang River water system crab, break The natural distributed general layout of each water system crab, directly affects the hereditary constitution of entrance of Changjiang River parent's Eriocheir sinensis resource, consequently leads to the Changjiang river The germ plasm resource of water system crab mixes.Since the nineties in 20th century, along with the continuous expansion of culture of Chinese mitten crab scale, seedlings of milieu crab needs The amount of asking is significantly increased.In order to reduce cost, many nursery units select small river crab outside seed breeding, and unordered introduction Water system parent Eriocheir sinensis and juvenile crab are for Seedling production.Different water system colonies frequently introducing a fine variety and blindly releasing, and people that may be present Work cultured population, to the escape phenomenon of natural water, exacerbates the kind matter severity of mixing up of each water system natural water area crab.Crab is supported Grow strain kind matter mix, degenerate problem drastically influence the whole nation crab industry sustainable development.
As cradle and the main producing region of crab, Jiangsu is the area that China's crab industry development is the fastest, and Jiangsu crab produces Amount and the output value the most all account for more than half of whole nation crab total output.So far, existing more than the 400 ten thousand mu of crabs in Jiangsu are supported Grow area, Eriocheir sinensis kind need to be thrown in every year more than 4,000,000,000.Nearly 300 of existing crab scale seedling raising field, Jiangsu, be concentrated mainly on the shining sun, Such as coastal areas such as east, breed juvenile crab amount year up to 500,000 kilograms.At present, there is also due to big specification crab parent's seedling-raising technique A lot of not enough, simultaneously because lack the Supervision Measures for crab seedling rearing parent's mass, many crab seedling rearings field, Jiangsu Province is general All over select the small river crab of about 100g as parent Eriocheir sinensis, and the culture pond mouth that most parent Eriocheir sinensis is selected from raiser various places, parent Source is extremely chaotic, the selection standard also disunity of parent Eriocheir sinensis, and the health having had a strong impact on Jiangsu or even whole nation crab industry can be held Supervention exhibition.Owing to big specification crab parent exists cost height, the problem that oogenesis is easily miscarried, and numerous breeding field boundary blindly pursues warp Ji benefit and high yield, select small dimension parent, close relative parent nearby, even use heterozygosis parent, cause a crab kind matter generation Not as a generation, there is serious degeneration, become Eriocheir sinensis small dimension, precured.Become the average commercial specification of Eriocheir sinensis from the 150g of nineteen ninety 200g is down to 80g about the 110g of 1999 quickly.
" photosynthetic No. 1 " crab breeding of new variety is that the method for the Liaohe River water system crab big specification new varieties of representative has been correlated with Patent report, plants Eriocheir sinensis, family cultivation, unexpected mass incident, circulation selection-breeding including preferably basis, it is provided that plant Eriocheir sinensis, produce the big specification Liaohe River Eriocheir sinensis.The one-tenth Eriocheir sinensis specification of the crab colony of this method selection-breeding by generation improve, the first generation become Eriocheir sinensis compared with the wild species crab of the Liaohe River, specification Improving 25.98%, survival rate improves 48.59%.This project collects the Yellow River, Haihe River, the Liaohe River, the crab individuality institute of Yalu River water system Based on the parental population set up, by setting up excellent crab basic population, it is selected to be effectively improved economic worth Character is criterion for breeding, carries out adapting to the selection-breeding of northern area nature situation crab breeding and extensive Multiplication and extension.Project is filled Point utilize Panjin natural resources, science and technology advantage, in being applied to the excellent colony selected in time produce, collection scientific research, production, Service is integrated, and makes crab seedling rearing, cultivates this industry and develop to optimum sustainable direction.
For the situation of ChangJiang River crab, each R&D institution carries out the selection-breeding of correlation merit one after another;Through continuous 3 generations Unexpected mass incident, " Soviet Union Eriocheir sinensis No. " F3 presents ChangJiang River crab feature for breeding population, shows high-quality, high yield, degeneration-resistant etc. excellent Good economic characters .F3 present Dual differentiation for the female Eriocheir sinensis of breeding population, and average weight is 150g, 120g, male Eriocheir sinensis average weight 150g. Gaochun paint bridge Pueraria lobota man's spring uses modern quantity genetics principle, parallel unexpected mass incident technology and molecular mark technology, Selection-breeding Eriocheir sinensis breeding.Eriocheir sinensis " cv. Changjiang No. 1 ", " the Changjiang river 2 " impact that Jiangsu fresh water is cultivated are relatively big, wherein No. 2 original seeds that make use of Holland carry out selection-breeding, and in Jiangsu, much there is bigger popularization in area.
Eriocheir sinensis " cv. Changjiang No. 1 " is with bodily form characteristic standard, healthy anosis ChangJiang River original seed Eriocheir sinensis Based on colony, be main criterion for breeding with the speed of growth, form through continuous 5 generation unexpected mass incident.This kind fast growth, 2 The Eriocheir sinensis speed of growth is become age to improve 16.70%;Morphological characteristic is notable, and carapace is wider than the long ovalize of carapace, and build is good;Specification is whole Together, Body Weight Variation coefficient female, male is respectively less than 10%.Eriocheir sinensis " the Changjiang river 2 " carapace substantially swells, and margo frontalis has 4 points Tooth, between cog is incised deeply, placed in the middle one deep especially, in " U " or " V " shape, side is incised deeply, the point that carapace is connected with the 3rd side tooth Thorn-like is protruding substantially, and the 4th side tooth is obvious, has the allusion quotation of pure Eriocheir sinensis in ChangJiang River " the blue or green back of the body, white tripe, gold pawl, yellow hair " Type feature.Under identical cultivating condition, with compared with the Eriocheir sinensis in ChangJiang River of selection-breeding, " the Changjiang river 2 " forms growth Speed improves about 19.4%, average individual specification increase about 18.5%;Become Eriocheir sinensis cultured population neat specification, male and female Body Weight Variations system Number is respectively less than 10%, stabilization characteristics of genetics.
" sea, river 21 " strain that Shanghai Ocean University professor Wang Chenghui cultivates, establishes a kind of supporting selection-breeding of Eriocheir sinensis The selection of system, the original parent of supporting breeding line derives from the wild Eriocheir sinensis in the Changjiang river of main stream of the Yangtze, therefrom screens Go out the individuality original parent for breeding that kind of matter is pure, meet Eriocheir sinensis in ChangJiang River feature;Then with body weight, volume tooth Incubation target a length of with step, sets up supporting breeding line;Finally use group breeding method that each supporting breeding line is carried out Parallel selection-breeding, optimizes the genotype of each system, improves the incubation character of each system.Other parts patent research discloses in ChangJiang River The general method of China's Eriocheir kind matter purification and rejuvenation, the most basic flow process, does not embody the technical concept of core.Other grinds Study carefully, be a little sport technique segment in breeding system, such as big specification parent culture etc.;Also have research by growth stage not 3 years relatively large river crabs of growth are obtained with area cultivation.
In actual production, above-mentioned relevant kind of matter stability is not highly desirable, produces through for many years, actual cultivation on market Family is bought these kinds and is carried out that cultivate and few, is mostly Jiangsu and the relevant crab major project support of Shanghai related scientific research unit Cultivation basis in actual production, and the masses do not produce cultivation basis the most widely, cause kind of matter not form bigger son For population size, fine-variety breeding enters a kind of unsustainable stage, causes government to support energetically, and actually market manifestation is put down Flat, it's a normal phenomenon;The sci-tech innovation ability setting up certain performance private enterprise of this reaction system of scientific and technical innovation;Separately These breeding researches outer all highlight a pure viewpoint of kind matter, become the selection-breeding emphasis of crab breeding.Pure ChangJiang River Steamed crab mainly show as build unfold, appendage longer, this is the key character of a current selection and use of important crab.Separately Outer emphasizing exactly, to environment resistance feature, such as oxygen of the anti-end, is done the indexs such as ammonia nitrogen and is carried out kind of a matter selection;One of them feature, by force Adjust the length of appendage, the standard that appendage length not necessarily selects in fact.And the thickness of crab build shell on the back or width represent Density be probably more structurally sound index because the price standard that culture of Chinese mitten crab is sold is not size, but weight specification, have The Eriocheir sinensis foot of a chela or cloth foot due to longer, occupy the major part of health body weight;But the possible body weight of the offspring of selection-breeding is to not being weightening finish Ability is the strongest.Crab shell on the back weight ratio that the index that physical characteristic combines with body weight chooses is relative may not be Height, part part is on appendage;It is not the highest with offspring's then overall rate of body weight gain of the selection of this feature;Why?Be by In the crab of natural water area, such as ChangJiang River, over 10000000 year, crab has adapted to the process that migration migrates, and shows as longer attached Limb, relatively long appendage is narrower shell on the back, mainly for adapting to the most fixing health in current, keeps one in river bed, the Changjiang river Individual easily along the direction of fall sea water stream, owing to the Yangtze river basin is longer, crab is traced back and drops sea reason and is required for light build.
Research shows that the crab of three water systems has the biggest difference at body thickness and step length, has reacted this environment and has caused Evolution result;(1) is distinguished from mode of appearance. ChangJiang River Eriocheir sinensis: build is in irregularly, like oval, children's Eriocheir sinensis stage body Thin and more flat, the tapering length of toes of fourth, fifth step, forehead tooth is relatively sharp-pointed, and central two between cog depressions are deep.The of second step Two joint segments rings exceed eye locations when getting up.(2). Liaohe River water system Eriocheir sinensis: build is close with ChangJiang River, children's Eriocheir sinensis stage bodily form Thicker, the toes point of the 5th step is short and thick, and forehead tooth is more blunt, and the intermediate recess of central authorities is shallower, the second step second joint section When ring gets up slightly above or parallel eye locations.(3). the Oujiang River water system Eriocheir sinensis: the closely upright shape of the bodily form, children's Eriocheir sinensis stage body is thicker than the Liao Dynasty Eriocheir sinensis, the toe point of the 4th, five steps is shorter, and turn white color, and forehead tooth is blunt, and fovea centralis is inconspicuous, the second joint section of the second step Less than eye locations when ring gets up.
The crab build of these three water system has the biggest difference, but heredity aspect difference is little, it is difficult to divide into different Population, the epigenetic difference caused mainly due to environmental condition difference;On the contrary, environment affirmative in crab artificial cultivation environment Being different from wild environment, the most taller product, cultivation density is higher;The fast-growth so emphasized and synchronization shelling;Long Phase high density often adapts to highdensity life in getting along, and lives with peacefully from each other, and the foot of a chela is relevant can degenerate on the contrary;Manually Selection-breeding outward appearance be the evolution with its body be opposing, be difficult to select be suitable for breeding out.
Chinese prawn breeding research finds that body length and body weight are negative correlation.Other morphologys in addition to body length refer to Mark and body weight positive correlation, show that these indexs can synchronize improvement, and increase body length and synchronize to reduce other indexs.So Selecting other forms such as width is even more important index, and slender form but can not realize the target that body weight increases.
As chicken farm selects chicken kind, conformation trait is required;Build typically has large, medium and small three kinds, wherein with Yellow (numb) plumage broiler economic worth of small-sized high-quality is higher, should select the body of broiler according to different cultivars and different consumption habit Type.No matter which kind of build, be desirable that little, neck is short, chest breadth, shin are short, shin is thin, trunk is plentiful.Length, thickness and face for shin Color, system of selection is that first to select body weight the most individual, more therefrom selects that shin is short and individuality thin, that color is partially yellow, wherein to public affairs The selection standard of chicken shin length is suitably lowerd, and to ensure that cock has enough body weight, hen then strengthens selection pressure, selects as far as possible The individuality that shin is short and thin, it is a little to allow, because offspring is affected relatively small by hen body weight that its body weight reduces accordingly.Remove Outside body size and the length of shin, thickness and color, every hat of the most all selecting and remain is red, and Body steep length is moderate, tail is short, the sliding light of hair Body, correspondingly adheres to the individuality eliminating narrow long, the tail too wing of body body, feather is fluffy.
Birds, as a example by pigeon, the body size of pigeon is decided by the directly heredity of previous generation and the day of raiser's day after tomorrow Often management has the relatedness of its certainty.Will necessarily be bigger than previous generation as long as the next generation is caught up with in nutrition, the good management gone round and begun again, Getting off Columba livia group for a long time will necessarily be bigger than normal.Additionally latitude also can affect the size of build: the north is due to the winter It is colder, and pigeon must be kept out the cold by eating substantial amounts of food.And south weather is relatively warm alive, the amount of eating does not has the north big;Under Chang Shijian Carry out build and just have obvious difference.Distance resistance to Xiang Columba livia is just to have many famous experts: Belgium Fan Buli Anna;Lei Erbaer; The western father-in-law of France and Luo Erlang etc., these famous experts select when seed selection the kind that build is bigger public especially, particularly have the kind of arrogance Public.And these kind of Gongdu has a common feature, this is to catch feeling the slimmest and the most graceful on hand.This and the crab of different water systems Strain growth differences is consistent reason with morphological differences.ChangJiang River crab grand duke's build is relatively big, but the most relatively may be used Can be the slimmest and the most graceful, be that framework is big, actually trunk be the most thick and heavy, so can be the slimmest and the most graceful, be conducive to quickly tracing back and dropping The migration in sea;Otherwise, what Producer was more liked is thick and heavy crab, and carcass cutability is high, and weight gain is in hgher efficiency.
Inbreeding is selection-breeding, one of the important method keeping and breeding excellent breeding stock and plant original seed (including selfing line).? In cattle breeding work, the inbreeding mode using family breeding and line breeding etc. relatively to relax, cultivate many famous Excellent domestic animal kind, as Britain shorthorn, carry out this special sheep and new Huaihe River pig etc. of China.Some crop often utilize many generations high Degree inbreeding method, combine select cultivation different genotype inbred line (including selfing line), and preferentially copulation to hybridize The cenospecies that advantage is strong.This method applied by Semen Maydis, hence it is evident that improve yield.In animal husbandry, it is possible to set up by height inbreeding Highly purified inbred line, carries out commercial crossbreeding, manufacturer's moral character poultry the most again between inbred line.This method is chicken In commodity production widely used.
Always advocating to take the mode breeding of close relative, educate match, value is blood lineage and the heredity of pigeon.It is all near for planting racing homer pigeon Parent, hybridization, close relative alternately make;Based on close relative, the mode that hybridization is auxiliary educates public canopy competition Columba livia.Basic skills is: hybridization- The close relative of close relative-be hybridized-again, sometimes needs continuous close relative, sometimes can hybridize many generations.The most reliable inbred, can be only achieved and carry Pure, concentrate without inbred, it is impossible to producing new quality, inbred is that the skill utilizing breed improvement reaches The means of high genetic worth.Close relative improves quality, and hybridization improves body constitution.Additionally long-term intensive manufacture, personality docility is also one Individual important indicator, weak for crab aggressivity, entirety is casted off a skin synchronization, and after specification synchronizes, survival rate will increase substantially.
Summary of the invention
The technical problem to be solved is to provide the selection-breeding of a kind of big specification ChangJiang River crab breeding, this selection-breeding To whole big specification crab from seed to becoming Eriocheir sinensis breeding process to carry out omnidistance management and control, high-quality management, efficiently produce, form a set of river The breeding technique system of Eriocheir sinensis big specification strain, it is achieved the lifting of crab description, thus the lifting and upgrading for this industry is changed In generation, provides service, forming of final guarantee raiser high-quality crab in seed link, improves the yield of big specification crab, improves profit Profit.
A kind of selection of the big specification ChangJiang River crab breeding of the present invention, including:
(1) ecological seedling rearing in earth ponds production base is selected in coastal area;Juvenile crab is cultivated based on Tu Chi cultivation, with bionical The mode of state ensures juvenile crab healthy growth;
(2) set up efficient Growth base in Xie Zhong main producing region, river mouth or culture of Chinese mitten crab main producing region, keep efficient Nutritional need;Wherein, yield is cultivated at every mu more than 300 jin;
(3) raiser that culture of Chinese mitten crab main product area cultural technique is high is selected to carry out being unified into Eriocheir sinensis cultivation;Wherein, juvenile crab is every Per mu yield more than 100 jin, Eriocheir sinensis kind yield is more than 500 pounds/acre, and crab yield is at every mu more than 300 jin, and big specification Eriocheir sinensis ratio is at 5- More than 7 one-tenth;
(4) the one-tenth Eriocheir sinensis culture pond of various places selects big specification parent (male Eriocheir sinensis more than 4 liang, female Eriocheir sinensis more than 3.5 liang) to match Breeding;
(5) Second Year repeats step (1)~step (4), selects more than 4 years with this standard long-term, it is achieved big specification breeding Incubation;
(6) using cultured population is that master carries out selection-breeding, changes using the natural strain of ChangJiang River as Juvenile stage;To guarantee Selecting applicable highdensity, the big specification crab kind of high viability: use big specification cultured population for years to breed, with weight Figureofmerit is main, and high yield is main to carry out selection-breeding high-survival rate quality, and high genetic diversity is auxiliary to carry out ChangJiang River crab selection-breeding.
In described step (1), there is water source preferable, free of contamination nursery production base, has isolation with other base water body, To avoid the cross-contamination at relevant water source.
District off sea, described nursery production base is close together, to obtain excellent sea water water source, also to have abundance simultaneously High-quality water source of fresh water, to ensure the sea water of the most suitable salinity of nursery preparation, to ensure the needs that seedlings of milieu crab produces.
Described nursery link input is managed, production link such as sterilization, dechlorination, and ovigerous crab sterilization all uses ecological Reagent, as in sodium hyposulfite and the chlorine dioxide sterilization to nursery pond;Use the tea seed cake sterilization to the Zoothamnium etc. of ovigerous crab.
Described step (2) is cultivated yield at 500 jin every mu.
In described step (3), big specification Eriocheir sinensis ratio is more than 7 one-tenth.
Described step is paired in (4): public 6 liang of female 4 liang of *, the big specification such as female 3.5 liang of * public affairs 4-5 two or public 4 liang of female 3 liang of * Combination.
It is suitably introduced into the male Eriocheir sinensis of the preferable specification of external source or female Eriocheir sinensis during described pairing, increases in this year selfing line Come.
Described step (5) medium-term and long-term selection 5 years, 9 one-tenth is big specification Eriocheir sinensis.
In described step (6), Breeding Process is: the first round selects, survival rate a height of main selection criteria thick and heavy with build, Rather than the length of cloth foot-shape state;Second takes turns selection carries out ChangJiang River morphological characteristic as selecting mark on the basis of the first round again Standard, thus selection-breeding becomes the steamed crab kind of original ChangJiang River further.
The present invention includes: select earth pond ecological nursery production base;Use Ecology method to cultivate crab parent, use dish The preparations such as the dregs of rice carry out the sterilizations such as Zoothamnium;Main difference region is selected to carry out detaining the cultivation of Eriocheir sinensis;In the whole nation, zones of different carries out this Button Eriocheir sinensis carries out forming of crab as seed;Juvenile crab-button Eriocheir sinensis-one-tenth Eriocheir sinensis three cultivates link substantially ecology, scientific, select The raiser selecting higher level participates in, and throws something and feeds and breeding environment is the most excellent, and whole process is created a favorable environment, optimal to obtain Under the conditions of rather than adverse circumstances under show preferable colony, as the parent of nursery;It is main choosing with weight and survival rate Select index and carry out breeding rather than with morphological index such as step length of natural population etc. as index;Inbreeding method is used to repeat Several generation selection-breeding obtain homozygous line, reselection and natural or other source parent and suitably hybridize, repeatedly in strain Portion carries out the selection of good strain, thus avoid backcrossing can not in the case of kind matter isozygoty.
Growth in the present invention with become Eriocheir sinensis cultivation and need higher, the more ripe base of cultural technique to cultivate;Not with length River natural waterway seed is for selecting basis, but carries out breeding under breeding environment for many years based on Cultivars;With selection System carries out the selection-breeding again of offspring, selects the male Eriocheir sinensis of bigger specification and female Eriocheir sinensis to match, to realize kind of matter selfing purification (brother and sister Hybridization), to obtain relatively stable hereditary moral character;The index of selection and use, mainly with body weight for prioritizing selection standard, and not with Form, such as step length, volume profile of tooth state is selection and use standard.
In the present invention, the cultivation of big specification Eriocheir sinensis kind is to carry out, to promote species under cultivation high density case naturally Adaptability is carried out, thus obtains the crab strain of body weight specification under suitable high density, artificial environment, high.Breach original The breeding technique route of all ChangJiang Rivers or Liaohe River water system, these researchs original are all characterized as selection-breeding mark with imitative natural population Standard, these features preferably can not be embodied under artificial environment, the index of the maximum that the most not necessarily increases weight, and only exists In the case of Body Mass Index chooses, just optimize the indexs such as other form, meat or resistance, be only correct road.
The present invention, in Breeding Process, is different from and domestic utilizes baclccrossing techniques or the high mistake genetic breeding side of genetic diversity Formula, utilizes big specification crab self-fertilization family (sff) technology and unexpected mass incident technology to combine, and inbred makes crab new varieties character permissible Constantly being isozygotied, by cultivating link, such as crab seedling rearing in earth ponds natural selection, in Growth, small dimension Eriocheir sinensis kind is superseded, In becoming Eriocheir sinensis to cultivate, big Eriocheir sinensis is elected to be three links of parent and carries out the height in a life cycle and eliminate weak person, thus fine quality river Eriocheir sinensis emerges from, then by inbred selection-breeding generation upon generation of, is isozygotied by excellent genes, it is achieved stable crab improved variety.Middle The big specification crab parent that part can also be selected excellent hybridizes, and such as the male Eriocheir sinensis of super large-scale, plants other product of matter to increase The multiformity of property.At home and abroad first, by crab seedling rearing, Growth, becomes Eriocheir sinensis cultivation to tie mutually with breeding of new variety mode to project Closing, set up breeding colony, enabling new varieties to continue selection-breeding achievement continuous transformation rapidly is the productivity.
Original research is all characterized as selection-breeding standard with imitative natural population, and these features can not obtain relatively under artificial environment Good embodiment, the index of the maximum that the most not necessarily increases weight, only in the case of Body Mass Index chooses, just optimize other shape The indexs such as state, meat or resistance, are only correct road.
Beneficial effect
In the present invention, the cultivation of big specification Eriocheir sinensis kind can cultivate in conjunction with efficient ecological, to obtain nature cultivation high density In the case of the adaptability of species carry out, thus obtain the crab strain of body weight specification under suitable high density, artificial environment, high; Breach the breeding technique route of original all ChangJiang Rivers or Liaohe River water system, it is achieved the lifting of crab description, thus Lifting and upgrading for this industry provide service, forming of final guarantee raiser high-quality crab in seed link, improve The yield of big specification crab, improves profit.The present invention ultimately forms the technology of a set of ChangJiang River big specification crab fine-variety breeding System, it is achieved the Second Revolution of crab industry, healthy and stable for whole nation crab industry, rural poverty is rescued and tired is provided science and technology Hold.
Accompanying drawing explanation
Fig. 1 is ChangJiang River big specification crab fine-variety breeding Technology Roadmap.
Detailed description of the invention
Below in conjunction with specific embodiment, the present invention is expanded on further.Should be understood that these embodiments are merely to illustrate the present invention Rather than restriction the scope of the present invention.In addition, it is to be understood that after having read the content that the present invention lectures, people in the art The present invention can be made various changes or modifications by member, and these equivalent form of values fall within the application appended claims equally and limited Scope.
Embodiment 1
(1) big specification river crab ecologic nursery base selects and builds: have again the place of high-quality freshwater resources closing on sea water Build seedling rearing in earth ponds base (shining sun HUANGLONG port);In seedling raising process, system carries out the water quality such as micro-pore oxygenation technology, microbial ecological agent The means such as regulation and control, bait optimization (as added the big artemia of frost in saltern) improve juvenile crab quality and yield.By controlling nutrition, friendship Join the measures such as environment and regulate and control big specification parent's Eriocheir sinensis coefficient of condition and egg load;Strengthen the management such as parent's Eriocheir sinensis Wintering Period water quality, water temperature and nutrition, Improve the overwintering survival rate of big specification ovigerous crab.
(2) big specification crab Growth construction of base: in culture of Chinese mitten crab main producing region or be best suitable for cultivating the place of Eriocheir sinensis kind Set up Growth base (Chongming, Jintan, ground, Xinghua three), use and improve the condition of water quality in Growth pond, the ecological ring of improvement Border condition, set up the measures such as novel bait feeding pattern progressively reach raising children Eriocheir sinensis survival rate, cultivate high-quality big specification Eriocheir sinensis kind Purpose.
(3) big specification crab commodity crab cultivation base is built: in Sihong, Jintan, national crab main producing region, three, Xinghua is built Vertical big specification crab breeding forms base, on the basis of expanding kind of source, provides bigger high-quality kind matter to lose for follow-on selection-breeding Pass colony.
(4) select rapidly on the basis of (1)-(3) better, the kind matter offspring of big specification, for high-quality parent This, it is achieved the innovation ability of China's crab breeding and overall technology level, create and there is bigger competitiveness and Geng Gao reputation High-quality ChangJiang River crab brand.The annual such process in (1)-(3) that repeats, the big specification river that 5 years implementation above are relatively stable Eriocheir sinensis strain;Setting up a crab industrial development system centered by big specification seedlings of milieu crab is cultivated, with big specification, high yield is Mainly select purpose, high-quality juvenile crab can be crossed and take the development of high-quality Eriocheir sinensis kind production base to, thus in several culture of Chinese mitten crab main producing regions Carry out big specification crab breeding and become forming of Eriocheir sinensis.
(5) on the basis of weight target selection-breeding success, build crab new varieties Core Germplasms storehouse, increase other high-quality character Secondary selection-breeding.Collect and preserve the excellent strain that crab genetic breeding center is cultivated, use molecular marker and phenotype special Inherited characteristic and the situation of change of economic characters of multiple means monitoring warehouse-in breeding such as levy.
(6) on the basis of (5), build the breeding basic population that genetic diversity is abundant, carry out germ plasm resource preservation, The work such as cultivation, carry out totally-enclosed isolation and preserve.Aquatic animal multiple characters is combined breeding technique and is applied to ChangJiang River China Among Eriocheir new lines selection-breeding work.
(7) crab new varieties expanding propagation popularization system is set up according to set breeding objective and the selection plan tallied with the actual situation Slightly, crab breeding group and productive group are built.A complete skill production system is set up by the strength of three links of society;Success Ground forms a fairly large production, teaching & research and studies carefully community, successfully realizes the selection of big specification breeding, associated production link benefit Comprehensive it is significantly improved.Forming a yield height, specification is big, and the crab breeding of quality better selects good system.

Claims (10)

1. a selection for big specification ChangJiang River crab breeding, including:
(1) ecological seedling rearing in earth ponds production base is selected;
(2) Growth base is set up;Wherein, yield is cultivated at every mu more than 300 jin;
(3) raiser that culture of Chinese mitten crab main product area cultural technique is high is selected to carry out being unified into Eriocheir sinensis cultivation;Wherein, the every per mu yield of juvenile crab More than 100 jin, Eriocheir sinensis kind yield is more than 500 pounds/acre, and crab yield is at every mu more than 300 jin, and big specification Eriocheir sinensis ratio becomes at 5-7 Above;
(4) Eriocheir sinensis culture pond is become to select big specification parent to carry out pairing breeding;
(5) Second Year repeats step (1)~step (4), Long-term selection more than 4 years, it is achieved the incubation of big specification breeding;
(6) using cultured population is that master carries out selection-breeding, obtains big specification ChangJiang River crab breeding.
The selection of a kind of big specification ChangJiang River crab breeding the most according to claim 1, it is characterised in that described In step (1), there is water source preferable, free of contamination nursery production base, has isolation with other base water body.
The selection of a kind of big specification ChangJiang River crab breeding the most according to claim 2, it is characterised in that described Nursery production base offset off sea from close to, have abundance high-quality water source of fresh water.
The selection of a kind of big specification ChangJiang River crab breeding the most according to claim 1, it is characterised in that described In step (1) production link of nursery carry out disinfection, dechlorination and ovigerous crab sterilization.
The selection of a kind of big specification ChangJiang River crab breeding the most according to claim 1, it is characterised in that described Step (2) is cultivated yield at 500 jin every mu.
The selection of a kind of big specification ChangJiang River crab breeding the most according to claim 1, it is characterised in that described In step (3), big specification Eriocheir sinensis ratio is more than 7 one-tenth.
The selection of a kind of big specification ChangJiang River crab breeding the most according to claim 1, it is characterised in that described Step is paired in (4): public 6 liang of female 4 liang of *, female 3.5 liang of * public affairs 4-5 two or public 4 liang of female 3 liang of *;Wherein, during described pairing Introduce external source hero Eriocheir sinensis or female Eriocheir sinensis.
The selection of a kind of big specification ChangJiang River crab breeding the most according to claim 7, it is characterised in that described In step (4), big specification parent is: male Eriocheir sinensis more than 4 liang, female Eriocheir sinensis more than 3.5 liang.
The selection of a kind of big specification ChangJiang River crab breeding the most according to claim 1, it is characterised in that described Step (5) medium-term and long-term selection 5 years, 9 one-tenth is big specification Eriocheir sinensis.
The selection of a kind of big specification ChangJiang River crab breeding the most according to claim 1, it is characterised in that institute Stating Breeding Process in step (6) is: the first round selects, survival rate a height of main selection criteria thick and heavy with build;Second takes turns selection ChangJiang River morphological characteristic is carried out again as the further selection-breeding of selection and use standard on the basis of the first round.
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