CN106152974A - A kind of heterodyne system six degree of freedom grating movement measurement system - Google Patents

A kind of heterodyne system six degree of freedom grating movement measurement system Download PDF

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Publication number
CN106152974A
CN106152974A CN201610443546.3A CN201610443546A CN106152974A CN 106152974 A CN106152974 A CN 106152974A CN 201610443546 A CN201610443546 A CN 201610443546A CN 106152974 A CN106152974 A CN 106152974A
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light
grating
measurement
bundle
axis
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林杰
李丹阳
关健
金鹏
谭久彬
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Harbin Institute of Technology
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Harbin Institute of Technology
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    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01BMEASURING LENGTH, THICKNESS OR SIMILAR LINEAR DIMENSIONS; MEASURING ANGLES; MEASURING AREAS; MEASURING IRREGULARITIES OF SURFACES OR CONTOURS
    • G01B11/00Measuring arrangements characterised by the use of optical means
    • G01B11/02Measuring arrangements characterised by the use of optical means for measuring length, width or thickness
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01BMEASURING LENGTH, THICKNESS OR SIMILAR LINEAR DIMENSIONS; MEASURING ANGLES; MEASURING AREAS; MEASURING IRREGULARITIES OF SURFACES OR CONTOURS
    • G01B11/00Measuring arrangements characterised by the use of optical means
    • G01B11/26Measuring arrangements characterised by the use of optical means for measuring angles or tapers; for testing the alignment of axes

Abstract

A kind of heterodyne system six degree of freedom grating movement measurement system, including single-frequency laser light source, electrooptic modulator, light splitting part, polarization splitting prism, measurement arm quarter-wave plate, measures arm dioptric element, reference arm quarter-wave plate, reference arm dioptric element, two dimension reflective reference grating, two-dimentional reflective measurement grating, unpolarized spectroscope, Photoelectric Inspect & Signal Processing parts, analyzer, position sensing and Signal Processing Element;The most unpolarized spectroscope, analyzer and position sensing and Signal Processing Element can measure the change of the four bundle diffractometry light facula positions caused due to two-dimentional reflective measurement grating tiny inclination angle, and then realize the accurate measurement to two-dimentional reflective measurement grating tiny inclination angle.The present invention can not only measure two-dimentional reflective measurement grating along x-axis, y-axis, the big stroke straight-line displacement of z-axis three degree of freedom, and can measure the two-dimentional reflective measurement grating tiny inclination angle around x-axis, y-axis and z-axis three degree of freedom.

Description

A kind of heterodyne system six degree of freedom grating movement measurement system
Technical field
The present invention relates to a kind of grating movement measurement system, particularly to a kind of heterodyne system six degree of freedom grating motion measurement System.
Background technology
Multi-shaft precise displacement platform is widely used in Ultra-precision Turning equipment and ultra precise measurement instrument, and The core component equipped as these, directly affects the precision of Ultra-precision Turning and measurement.Such as, at the core of semi-conductor industry The heart produces in equipment litho machine, during ultra-precision table system is used for carrying substrates and completes load, exposure, zapping, unloading piece High speed ultraprecise motion.The kinematic accuracy of ultra-precision table system directly decides the processing essence of processed semiconductor chip Spend, and then the quality and performance to semiconductor chip has a great impact.Additionally, it is micro-in scanning imagery formulas such as confocal microscopes In mirror, multi-shaft precise displacement platform is often used for carrying testing sample and completing scanning motion.The motion of multi-shaft precise displacement platform Precision directly decides the scanning accuracy of sample, and then affects the accuracy that sample is measured.Therefore, to multi-shaft precise displacement platform Motion accurately measure and control just to seem increasingly important.
The ultraprecise motion of multi-shaft precise displacement platform often has multiple degrees of freedom, big stroke, displacement resolving power is high, precision is high Etc. feature.And in systems in practice, due to the objective reality of machining error, multi-shaft precise displacement platform can not be managed That thinks moves along a straight line along axle, it means that certainly exist the deflection around axle along axle while it moves.Although it is this around axle The inclination angle of deflection is the most small, but still can cause very important measurement error in ultraprecise motion measurement.Therefore, at multiaxis In the ultraprecise operating measurement of precision displacement table, it is necessary to these tiny inclination angles are measured.
In order to meet these measurement demands, lot of domestic and foreign scholar has carried out substantial amounts of research, and devises multiple difference Measurement system.Displacement measurement resolving power up to nanometer or sub-nanometer scale laser interferometer because have simultaneously high accuracy, The advantage of wide range, is widely used in the displacement measurement of ultraprecise displacement platform.But, there is multi-degree of freedom measurement in laser interferometer The problems such as structure is complicated, it is big to take up room, certainty of measurement is the most affected by environment.Which has limited its surpassing at multi-shaft precise displacement platform Application in precise motion measurement.Developed rapidly from the 1950's, and be widely used in numerous electromechanical equipment In grating displacement measuring system, because it has the advantages such as resolving power height, simple in construction, measurement result be the most affected by environment, quilt Numerous scholars are considered as the solution of multiaxis ultraprecise motion measurement and are widely studied.Japanese scholars Kimura Akihide etc. People is at paper " the A sub-nanometric three-axis surface encoder with short-period delivered planar gratings for stage motion measurement.Precision Engineering 36,576-585 (2012). take the lead in proposing a kind of three-dimensional grating displacement measurement system based on diffraction light principle of interference in ", only use a light Learn read head and a two-dimentional reflective planar grating, it is possible to measure simultaneously displacement platform in the x-direction, y direction and three, z direction The straight-line displacement of degree of freedom, but this system can cause when measuring the straight-line displacement in z direction measuring light and reference interference of light Region diminishes, and therefore the z of system is limited to the size of beam diameter to straight-line displacement range, it is impossible to realize z to big stroke straight line The measurement of displacement.In order to solve this problem, the auto-collimation structure of grating is introduced and surveys by woods outstanding person of Harbin Institute of Technology et al. Amount system so that system is measured light and kept constant with the interference region of reference light when measuring the straight-line displacement in z direction, Jin Erji The earth extends the z of system to straight-line displacement range, and correlational study achievement is published in paper " Grating encoder for wide range three-axis displacement measurement.Proceedings of SPIE 9446, 944602 (2015). in ".But, above-mentioned measurement system all cannot measure grating around x-axis, y-axis and z-axis three degree of freedom Micro-corner.And, these systems are required to use baroque four-way prism group detecting structure to carry out interference signal Detection, this significantly limit these systems especially and further expands and then realize the ability of outer corner measurement.In order to realize three axles Measuring while displacement and micro-corner, Li Xinghui of northeastern Japan university et al. is at paper " the A Six-delivered degree-of-freedom Surface Encoder for Precision Positioning of a Planar Motion Stage.Precision Engineering 37,771-781 (2013). propose one in " and three axial rakes can be surveyed Six degree of freedom grating displacement measuring system, but this system yet suffers from realizing the big stroke straight-line displacement of z direction and measures Problem.
Summary of the invention
In order to solve the problems referred to above, it is an object of the invention to provide a kind of heterodyne system six degree of freedom grating motion measurement system System, compares this system of prior art and can not only measure the big stroke straight line along x-axis, y-axis and z-axis direction three degree of freedom simultaneously Displacement, and the micro-corner around x-axis, y-axis and z-axis three degree of freedom can be measured.
The object of the present invention is achieved like this:
A kind of heterodyne system six degree of freedom grating movement measurement system, including single-frequency laser light source, electrooptic modulator, spectrum part Part, polarization splitting prism, measurement arm quarter-wave plate, measurement arm dioptric element, reference arm quarter-wave plate, reference arm folding Optical element, two-dimentional reflective measurement grating, two dimension are reflective with reference to grating, unpolarized spectroscope, Photoelectric Inspect & Signal Processing Parts, analyzer, position sensing and Signal Processing Element;
Described two dimension reflective measurement grating is reflective with two dimension identical with reference to grating surface topography, two-dimentional reflective measurement X direction cycle and the y direction cycle of grating are d;The two dimension reflective z direction cycle with reference to grating and y direction cycle are d;The described refractive power angle in measurement arm dioptric element x direction and the refractive power angle in y direction are θ, reference arm dioptric element z direction Refractive power angle and the refractive power angle in y direction be also θ, and meet 2dsin θ=± λ, in formula, λ is the ripple of single-frequency laser light source Long;
What described single-frequency laser light source was launched is linear polarization single-frequency laser, and polarization direction and z-axis are 45 degree, through quick shaft direction Export heterodyne laser after parallel with z-axis electrooptic modulator modulation, this heterodyne laser by polarization direction along the s wavelength-division of y-axis Amount is constituted along the p wave component of z-axis with polarization direction, and has one between s wave component and p wave component with electrooptic modulator institute The phase contrast that the modulation voltage loaded changes and changes;
Heterodyne laser is divided into, through light splitting part, the directional light that four bundle light intensity are equal, wherein the relay direction of two-beam with Xoy plane is parallel, the relay direction of another two-beam is parallel with xoz plane, and this four bundles directional light is after polarization splitting prism, often A branch of s wave component is reflected 90 degree, is formed and measure light, and the most a branch of p wave component is transmitted, forms reference light;
The four bundle directional lights measuring light are the measurement arm 1/4th of 45 degree through quick shaft direction and measurement light polarization direction The most measured arm dioptric element deviation after wave plate, four bundles after deviation are measured the direction of propagation of two-beam in light and are parallel to yoz and put down Face, the direction of propagation of another two-beam are parallel to xoz plane, and the direction of propagation is parallel to two bundle measurement light of yoz plane and is incident to two Tie up reflective measurement grating and be diffracted to+1 order diffraction measurement light and-1 order diffraction measurement light, the direction of propagation in y direction respectively It is parallel to two bundles of xoz plane measure light and be incident to two-dimentional reflective measurement grating and be diffracted to+1 grade of x direction respectively and spread out Penetrating measurement light and-1 order diffraction measures light, four bundle diffractometry light are propagated along the opposite direction in respective incident light propagation direction respectively, And again pass by measurement arm dioptric element and measure arm quarter-wave plate, now the polarization direction of four bundle diffractometry light is along x Axle is also transmitted through unpolarized spectroscope by polarization splitting prism, and four bundle diffractometry light of unpolarized spectroscope transmission are incident to light Electrical resistivity survey is surveyed and Signal Processing Element surface, and the polarization direction of four bundle diffractometry light of unpolarized dichroic mirror is along z-axis, through thoroughly Light direction also along after the analyzer of z-axis, is incident to position sensing and Signal Processing Element surface;
Four bundle directional lights of reference light are the reference arm 1/4th of 45 degree through quick shaft direction and reference light polarization direction All being referenced arm dioptric element deviation after wave plate, in four bundle reference lighies after deviation, the relay of two-beam is oriented parallel to xoy and puts down Face, the relay of another two-beam are oriented parallel to xoz plane, and the direction of propagation is parallel to two bundle reference lighies of xoy plane and is incident to two Tie up reflective+1 order diffraction reference light with reference to grating and being diffracted to y direction respectively and-1 order diffraction reference light, the direction of propagation Being parallel to two bundle reference lighies of xoz plane, to be incident to two dimension reflective with reference to grating and be diffracted to+1 grade of x direction respectively and spread out Penetrating reference light and-1 order diffraction reference light, four bundle reference diffraction light are propagated along the opposite direction in respective incident light propagation direction respectively, And again pass by reference arm dioptric element and reference arm quarter-wave plate, now the polarization direction of four bundle reference diffraction light is along y Axle is also reflexed to unpolarized spectroscope by polarization splitting prism, and four bundle reference diffraction light of unpolarized spectroscope transmission are incident to light Electrical resistivity survey survey and Signal Processing Element surface, unpolarized dichroic mirror four bundle reference diffraction light polarization direction along y-axis because The printing opacity direction of analyzer is vertical with y-axis, so this four bundles reference diffraction light is stopped completely by analyzer;
The two bundle diffractometry light in x direction and the two bundle reference diffraction light in x direction are at Photoelectric Inspect & Signal Processing parts Surface forms two groups of interference, and the two bundle diffractometry light in y direction and the two bundle reference diffraction light in y direction are at photodetection and signal Processing component surface forms another two groups of interference;When other elements reflective measurement grating motionless, two-dimentional is transported along x-axis, y-axis and z-axis Time dynamic, Photoelectric Inspect & Signal Processing parts export x direction, y direction and the straight-line displacement of z direction three degree of freedom respectively;
It is incident to the only four bundle diffractometry light on position sensing and Signal Processing Element surface, when other elements are motionless, Two dimension reflective measurement grating around x-axis, y-axis and z-axis produce micro-corner time, position sensing and the four of Signal Processing Element surface The facula position of bundle diffractometry light can produce corresponding change, position sensing and Signal Processing Element by detection facula position Change, and export the two-dimentional reflective measurement grating micro-corner around x-axis, y-axis and z-axis three degree of freedom respectively.
Above-mentioned a kind of heterodyne system six degree of freedom grating movement measurement system, described single-frequency laser light source is that the line of collimation is inclined Shake semiconductor laser or the linear polarization single-frequency gas laser of outgoing termination optical fiber.
Above-mentioned a kind of heterodyne system six degree of freedom grating movement measurement system, described light splitting part is in following three kinds of structures One: first, described light splitting part is made up of two-dimensional transmission grating, reflecting mirror, shading diaphragm, described two-dimensional transmission grating z The screen periods in direction and y direction is equal, and heterodyne laser is incident to two-dimensional transmission grating diffracted, z direction and y direction ± 1 order diffraction light is reflected mirror deviation and forms, by shading diaphragm, the exiting parallel light that four bundle light intensity are equal, other grades times Diffraction light is blocked diaphragm and filters;Second, described light splitting part is made up of two-dimensional transmission grating, prism, shading diaphragm, and described two Dimension transmission grating z direction and the screen periods in y direction are equal, and heterodyne laser is incident to two-dimensional transmission grating diffracted, z side To with y direction ± 1 order diffraction light forms the four bundle equal exiting parallel light of light intensity through prism deviation and by shading diaphragm, its The diffraction light of his level time is blocked diaphragm and filters;3rd, described light splitting part by two-dimensional transmission grating, cross transmission grating, Shading diaphragm forms, and described two-dimensional transmission grating screen periods on z direction and y direction is equal, described cross transmission light The surface texture of grid is by four orthogonal decussate textures waiting cycle one-dimensional grating structure to form, the light of cross transmission grating Grid cycle is equal with the screen periods of two-dimensional transmission grating, and heterodyne laser is incident to two-dimensional transmission grating diffracted, z direction With y direction ± 1 order diffraction light through the z direction one-dimensional grating structure of cross transmission grating and y direction one-dimensional grating structure again Forming the exiting parallel light that four bundle light intensity are equal after secondary diffraction, the diffraction light of other grades times is blocked diaphragm and filters.
Above-mentioned a kind of heterodyne system six degree of freedom grating movement measurement system, described measurement arm dioptric element is following three kinds One in structure: first, described measurement arm dioptric element includes stopping diaphragm and refractive power reflecting mirror, and the described direction of propagation is parallel The two bundle horizontal survey light in yoz plane are incorporated to by deviation ± θ the direction of propagation after stopping diaphragm and refractive power reflecting mirror respectively Being incident upon two-dimentional reflective measurement grating generation diffraction, the described direction of propagation is parallel to two bundle horizontal survey light of xoz plane and passes through After stopping diaphragm and refractive power reflecting mirror, the direction of propagation is respectively by deviation ± θ and be incident to two-dimentional reflective measurement grating and spread out Penetrate;Second, described measurement arm dioptric element includes stopping diaphragm and refractive prism, and the described direction of propagation is parallel to yoz plane Two bundle horizontal survey light after stopping diaphragm and refractive prism the direction of propagation respectively by deviation ± θ and to be incident to two dimension reflective Measuring grating generation diffraction, the described direction of propagation is parallel to two bundle horizontal survey light of xoz plane through stopping diaphragm and refractive power After prism, the direction of propagation is respectively by deviation ± θ and be incident to two-dimentional reflective measurement grating generation diffraction;3rd, described measurement arm Dioptric element is by cross four step transmission grating and stops that diaphragm forms, the surface knot of described cross four step transmission grating Structure is by four orthogonal cross structures waiting cycle one-dimensional four step grating structures to form, the light of cross four step transmission grating Grid cycle is 2 times of the screen periods of two-dimentional reflective measurement grating, and two bundles that the described direction of propagation is parallel to yoz plane are parallel Measure light direction of propagation after cross four step transmission grating, respectively by deviation ± θ, then to be incident to after diaphragm through stopping The reflective measurement grating generation diffraction of two dimension, the described direction of propagation is parallel to two bundle horizontal survey light of xoz plane through cross After shape four step transmission grating, the direction of propagation is respectively by deviation ± θ, then is incident to two-dimentional reflective measurement after stopping diaphragm Grating generation diffraction, the diffraction light of other grades times is blocked diaphragm to be stopped.
Above-mentioned a kind of heterodyne system six degree of freedom grating movement measurement system, described reference arm dioptric element is for measuring arm folding One in three kinds of structures that optical element uses.
Above-mentioned a kind of heterodyne system six degree of freedom grating movement measurement system, described position sensing and Signal Processing Element by 4 four-quadrant Position-Sensitive Detectors and angle measurement signal processing circuit are constituted, and 4 four-quadrant Position-Sensitive Detectors are used for detecting The change of four bundle diffractometry light facula positions, angle measurement signal processing circuit is used for calculating and export two-dimentional reflective measurement grating The micro-corner produced around x-axis, y-axis and z-axis.
The present invention has the advantages that relative to prior art
The system uses electrooptic modulator produce heterodyne laser as the measurement light source used by system, therefore in system The required detection of Photoelectric Inspect & Signal Processing parts be heterodyne system interference signal, so at the photodetection of system and signal Reason parts, without using baroque four-way prism group detecting structure, which strongly simplifies the structure of system, for system Realize six freely to measure and lay a good foundation.Meanwhile, the system uses unpolarized spectroscope, analyzer and position sensing and signal Processing component, makes four bundle diffractometry light be incident to position sensing and Signal Processing Element, therefore can accurately measure due to two Tie up the change of the four bundle diffractometry light facula positions that reflective measurement grating is caused around the tiny inclination angle of x-axis, y-axis and z-axis, The geometrical relationship between inclination angle and four bundle diffractometry light facula position changes according to two-dimentional reflective measurement grating, Ke Yishi Now two-dimentional reflective measurement grating is accurately measured while the tiny inclination angle of x-axis, y-axis and z-axis three degree of freedom.Therefore originally Significantly providing the benefit that of invention proposes a kind of new can simultaneously measuring along x-axis, y-axis and z-axis direction three degree of freedom Big stroke straight-line displacement and the heterodyne system six degree of freedom grating motion around the micro-corner of x-axis, y-axis and z-axis three degree of freedom are surveyed Amount system, and the present invention also retains z to the big advantage of displacement.
Accompanying drawing explanation
Fig. 1 is the structural representation of a kind of heterodyne system six degree of freedom grating movement measurement system of the present invention;
Fig. 2 is the xoz directional profile figure of the first structure of light splitting part of the present invention;
Fig. 3 is the xoz directional profile figure of the second structure of light splitting part of the present invention;
Fig. 4 is the structural representation of the third structure of light splitting part of the present invention;
Fig. 5 is the xoz directional profile figure that the present invention measures the first structure of arm dioptric element;
Fig. 6 is the xoz directional profile figure that the present invention measures the second structure of arm dioptric element;
Fig. 7 is the xoz directional profile figure that the present invention measures the third structure of arm dioptric element;
Fig. 8 is the structural representation of cross four step transmission grating used by the present invention;
In figure: 1 single-frequency laser light source;2 electrooptic modulators;3 light splitting parts;31 two-dimensional transmission gratings;321— Reflecting mirror;322 prisms;323 cross transmission gratings;33 shading diaphragms;4 polarization splitting prisms;51 measure arm Quarter-wave plate;52 reference arm quarter-wave plates;61 measure arm dioptric element;611 stop diaphragm;612 foldings Light reflection mirror;613 refractive prisms;614 cross four step transmission gratings;62 reference arm dioptric elements;71 two dimensions Reflective measurement grating;72 two dimensions are reflective with reference to grating;81 unpolarized spectroscopes;82 analyzers;91 smooth electrical resistivity surveys Survey and Signal Processing Element;92 position sensors and Signal Processing Element.
Detailed description of the invention
Below in conjunction with the accompanying drawings the detailed description of the invention of the present invention is described in further detail.
Embodiment one
The heterodyne system six degree of freedom grating movement measurement system of the present embodiment, structural representation is as shown in Figure 1.This measurement system System include single-frequency laser light source 1, electrooptic modulator 2, light splitting part 3, polarization splitting prism 4, measure arm quarter-wave plate 51, Measure arm dioptric element 61, reference arm quarter-wave plate 52, reference arm dioptric element 62, two-dimentional reflective measurement grating 71, Two dimension is reflective to be visited with reference to grating 72, unpolarized spectroscope 81, Photoelectric Inspect & Signal Processing parts 91, analyzer 82, position Survey and Signal Processing Element 92;
Described two dimension reflective measurement grating 71 is reflective with two dimension identical with reference to grating 72 surface topography, and two dimension is reflective X direction cycle and the y direction cycle of measuring grating 71 are d;The two dimension reflective z direction cycle with reference to grating 72 and y direction Cycle is d;X direction refractive power angle and the y direction refractive power angle of described measurement arm dioptric element 61 are θ, reference arm refractive power The z direction refractive power angle of element 62 and y direction refractive power angle are also θ, and meet 2dsin θ=± λ, and in formula, λ is single-frequency laser The wavelength of light source 1;
What described single-frequency laser light source 1 was launched is linear polarization single-frequency laser, and polarization direction and z-axis are 45 degree, through fast axle side After parallel with z-axis electrooptic modulator 2 modulation, export heterodyne laser, this heterodyne laser by polarization direction along the s ripple of y-axis Component and polarization direction are constituted along the p wave component of z-axis, and have one between s wave component and p wave component with electrooptic modulator The phase contrast that the modulation voltage that 2 are loaded changes and changes;
Heterodyne laser is divided into the directional light that four bundle light intensity are equal, wherein the relay direction of two-beam through light splitting part 3 Relay direction parallel with xoy plane, another two-beam is parallel with xoz plane, and this four bundles directional light is through polarization splitting prism 4 After, the most a branch of s wave component is reflected 90 degree, is formed and measure light, and the most a branch of p wave component is transmitted, forms reference light;
The four bundle directional lights measuring light are the measurement arm 1/4th of 45 degree through quick shaft direction and measurement light polarization direction The most measured arm dioptric element 61 deviation after wave plate 51, four bundles after deviation are measured the direction of propagation of two-beam in light and are parallel to Yoz plane, the direction of propagation of another two-beam are parallel to xoz plane, and the direction of propagation is parallel to two bundles of yoz plane and measures light incidence + 1 order diffraction measurement light to two-dimentional reflective measurement grating 71 and being diffracted to y direction respectively and-1 order diffraction measurement light, pass Broadcast be oriented parallel to xoz plane two bundle measure light be incident to two-dimentional reflective measurement grating 71 and be diffracted to x direction respectively + 1 order diffraction measure light and-1 order diffraction measure light, four bundle diffractometry light respectively along the negative side in respective incident light propagation direction To propagation, and again pass by measurement arm dioptric element 61 and measure arm quarter-wave plate 51, now four restrainting diffractometry light Polarization direction is transmitted through unpolarized spectroscope 81 along x-axis and by polarization splitting prism 4, and four bundles of unpolarized spectroscope 81 transmission spread out Penetrate measurement light and be incident to Photoelectric Inspect & Signal Processing parts surface 91, four bundle diffractometry light of unpolarized spectroscope 81 reflection Polarization direction along z-axis, through printing opacity direction also along after the analyzer 82 of z-axis, be incident to position sensing and Signal Processing Element table Face 92;
Four bundle directional lights of reference light are the reference arm 1/4th of 45 degree through quick shaft direction and reference light polarization direction All being referenced arm dioptric element 62 deviation after wave plate 52, in four bundle reference lighies after deviation, the relay of two-beam is oriented parallel to Xoy plane, the relay of another two-beam are oriented parallel to xoz plane, and the two bundle reference lighies that the direction of propagation is parallel to xoy plane are incident To reflective+1 order diffraction reference light with reference to grating 72 and being diffracted to y direction respectively of two dimension and-1 order diffraction reference light, pass Broadcast and be oriented parallel to two bundle reference lighies of xoz plane to be incident to two dimension reflective with reference to grating 72 be diffracted to x direction respectively + 1 order diffraction reference light and-1 order diffraction reference light, four bundle reference diffraction light respectively along the negative side in respective incident light propagation direction To propagation, and again pass by reference arm dioptric element 62 and reference arm quarter-wave plate 52, now four restraint reference diffraction light Polarization direction reflexes to unpolarized spectroscope 81 along y-axis and by polarization splitting prism 4, and four bundles of unpolarized spectroscope 81 transmission spread out Penetrate reference light and be incident to Photoelectric Inspect & Signal Processing parts surface 91, four bundle reference diffraction light of unpolarized spectroscope 81 reflection Polarization direction along y-axis because the printing opacity direction of analyzer 82 is vertical with y-axis, thus this four bundle reference diffraction light by analyzer 82 stop completely;
The two bundle diffractometry light in x direction and the two bundle reference diffraction light in x direction are at Photoelectric Inspect & Signal Processing parts 91 surfaces form two groups of interference, and the two bundle diffractometry light in y direction and the two bundle reference diffraction light in y direction are at photodetection and letter Number processing component 91 surface forms another two groups of interference;When other elements reflective measurement grating 71 motionless, two-dimentional along x-axis, y-axis and During z-axis motion, Photoelectric Inspect & Signal Processing parts 91 export x direction, y direction and the straight line of z direction three degree of freedom respectively Displacement;
Be incident to the only four bundle diffractometry light on position sensing and Signal Processing Element 92 surface, when other elements not Dynamic, two-dimentional reflective measurement grating 71 when x-axis, y-axis and z-axis produce micro-corner, position sensing and Signal Processing Element 92 The facula position of the four bundle diffractometry light on surface can produce corresponding change, position sensing and Signal Processing Element 92 will detection The change of facula position, and export two-dimentional reflective measurement grating respectively around small turn of x-axis, y-axis and z-axis three degree of freedom Angle.
Above-mentioned a kind of heterodyne system six degree of freedom grating movement measurement system, described single-frequency laser light source 1 is the line of collimation Polarization semiconductor laser.
Above-mentioned a kind of heterodyne system six degree of freedom grating movement measurement system, described position sensing and Signal Processing Element 92 Being made up of 4 four-quadrant Position-Sensitive Detectors and angle measurement signal processing circuit, 4 four-quadrant Position-Sensitive Detectors are used for visiting Surveying the change of four bundle diffractometry light facula positions, angle measurement signal processing circuit is used for calculating and export two-dimentional reflective measurement light The micro-corner that grid produce around x-axis, y-axis and z-axis.
Embodiment two
The present embodiment is different from embodiment one to be, described single-frequency laser light source 1 is the linear polarization list of outgoing termination optical fiber Frequently gas laser.
Embodiment three
The heterodyne system six degree of freedom grating movement measurement system of the present embodiment is identical with the overall structure of embodiment one.Its In, the concrete structure of light splitting part 3 is as shown in Figure 2.This light splitting part 3 is by two-dimensional transmission grating 31, reflecting mirror 321, shading light Door screen 33 composition, z direction and the y direction screen periods of described two-dimensional transmission grating 31 are equal, and heterodyne laser is incident to two dimension thoroughly Penetrate grating 31 diffracted, z direction and y direction ± 1 order diffraction light is reflected mirror 321 deviation and formed by shading diaphragm 33 The exiting parallel light that four bundle light intensity are equal, the diffraction light of other grades times is blocked diaphragm 33 and filters.
Embodiment four
The heterodyne system six degree of freedom grating movement measurement system of the present embodiment is identical with the overall structure of embodiment one.Its In, the concrete structure of light splitting part 3 is as shown in Figure 3.This light splitting part 3 is by two-dimensional transmission grating 31, prism 322, shading diaphragm 33 compositions, z direction and the y direction screen periods of described two-dimensional transmission grating 31 are equal, and heterodyne laser is incident to two-dimensional transmission Grating 31 is the most diffracted, z direction and y direction ± 1 order diffraction light forms four bundles through prism 322 deviation and by shading diaphragm 33 The exiting parallel light that light intensity is equal, the diffraction light of other grades times is blocked diaphragm 33 and filters.
Embodiment five
The heterodyne system six degree of freedom grating movement measurement system of the present embodiment is identical with the overall structure of embodiment one.Its In, the concrete structure of light splitting part 3 is as shown in Figure 4.This light splitting part 3 is by two-dimensional transmission grating 31, cross transmission grating 323, shading diaphragm 33 forms, and the described two-dimensional transmission grating 31 screen periods on z direction and y direction is equal, described cross The surface texture of shape transmission grating 323 is by four orthogonal decussate textures waiting cycle one-dimensional grating structure to form, cross The screen periods of transmission grating 323 is equal with the screen periods of two-dimensional transmission grating 31, and heterodyne laser is incident to two-dimensional transmission Grating 31 is the most diffracted, z direction and y direction ± 1 order diffraction light is through the z direction one-dimensional grating knot of cross transmission grating 323 The exiting parallel light that four bundle light intensity are equal, the diffraction light of other grades times is formed after structure and y direction one-dimensional grating structure diffraction again It is blocked diaphragm 33 to filter.
Embodiment six
The heterodyne system six degree of freedom grating movement measurement system of the present embodiment is identical with the overall structure of embodiment one.Its In, measure the concrete structure of arm dioptric element 61 as shown in Figure 5.This measurement arm dioptric element 61 includes stopping diaphragm 611 and folding Light reflection mirror 612, the two bundle horizontal survey light that the described direction of propagation is parallel to yoz plane are anti-through stopping diaphragm 611 and refractive power After penetrating mirror 612, the direction of propagation is respectively by deviation ± θ and be incident to two-dimentional reflective measurement grating 71 diffraction, described propagation side occur To be parallel to two bundle horizontal survey light of xoz plane after stopping diaphragm 611 and refractive power reflecting mirror 612 direction of propagation respectively by Deviation ± θ is also incident to two-dimentional reflective measurement grating 71 diffraction occurs.
Embodiment seven
The heterodyne system six degree of freedom grating movement measurement system of the present embodiment is identical with the overall structure of embodiment one.Its In, measure the concrete structure of arm dioptric element 61 as shown in Figure 6.This measurement arm dioptric element 61 includes stopping diaphragm 611 and folding Light prism 613, the described direction of propagation is parallel to two bundle horizontal survey light of yoz plane through stopping diaphragm 611 and refractive prism After 613, the direction of propagation is respectively by deviation ± θ and be incident to two-dimentional reflective measurement grating 71 diffraction occurs, and the described direction of propagation is put down Row in two bundle horizontal survey light of xoz plane after stopping diaphragm 611 and refractive prism 613 direction of propagation respectively by deviation ± θ is also incident to two-dimentional reflective measurement grating 71 diffraction occurs.
Embodiment eight
The heterodyne system six degree of freedom grating movement measurement system of the present embodiment is identical with the overall structure of embodiment one.Its In, measure the concrete structure of arm dioptric element 61 as shown in Figure 5.This measurement arm dioptric element 61 is by cross four step transmission light Grid 614 and stop diaphragm 611 form, and the surface texture of described cross four step transmission grating 614 is to be waited the cycle one by four Tieing up the orthogonal cross structure of four step grating structure compositions, the screen periods of cross four step transmission grating 614 is that two dimension is anti- Formula of penetrating measures 2 times of screen periods of grating 71, and the described direction of propagation is parallel to two bundle horizontal survey light of yoz plane through ten After font four step transmission grating 614, the direction of propagation is respectively by deviation ± θ, then it is anti-to be incident to two dimension after stopping diaphragm 611 Formula of penetrating is measured grating 71 and is occurred diffraction, the described direction of propagation to be parallel to two bundle horizontal survey light of xoz plane through cross four After step transmission grating 614, the direction of propagation is respectively by deviation ± θ, then is incident to two-dimentional reflective survey after stopping diaphragm 611 There is diffraction in amount grating 71, the diffraction light of other grades times is blocked diaphragm 611 to be stopped.
The heterodyne system six degree of freedom grating movement measurement system of above example, reference arm dioptric element 62 is for being embodied as The one measured in arm dioptric element 61 structure described in example six, specific embodiment seven, specific embodiment eight.
For the concrete numerical value of refractive power angle, θ involved in above related embodiment, those skilled in the art can root Rational choice is carried out, so need not enumerate at this according to being actually needed.
The present invention is not limited to above-mentioned preferred forms, and anyone should learn the structure made under the present invention enlightens Change or method are improved, and every have same or like technical scheme with the present invention, each fall within protection scope of the present invention it In.

Claims (6)

1. a heterodyne system six degree of freedom grating movement measurement system, it is characterised in that: include single-frequency laser light source (1), electric light Manipulator (2) light splitting part (3), polarization splitting prism (4), measurement arm quarter-wave plate (51), measurement arm dioptric element (61), reference arm quarter-wave plate (52), reference arm dioptric element (62), two-dimentional reflective measurement grating (71), two dimension are instead Formula of penetrating is with reference to grating (72), unpolarized spectroscope (81), Photoelectric Inspect & Signal Processing parts (91), analyzer (82) and position Detection and Signal Processing Element (92);
Described two dimension reflective measurement grating (71) is reflective with two dimension identical with reference to grating (72) surface topography, and two dimension is reflective X direction cycle and the y direction cycle of measuring grating (71) are d;The two dimension reflective z direction cycle with reference to grating (72) and y The direction cycle is d;X direction refractive power angle and the y direction refractive power angle of described measurement arm dioptric element (61) are θ, reference The x direction refractive power angle of arm dioptric element (62) and y direction refractive power angle are also θ, and meet 2dsin θ=± λ, and in formula, λ is The wavelength of single-frequency laser light source (1);
What described single-frequency laser light source (1) was launched is linear polarization single-frequency laser, and polarization direction and z-axis are 45 degree, through quick shaft direction Export heterodyne laser after parallel with z-axis electrooptic modulator (2) modulation, this heterodyne laser by polarization direction along the s ripple of y-axis Component and polarization direction are constituted along the p wave component of z-axis, and have one between s wave component and p wave component with electrooptic modulator (2) phase contrast that the modulation voltage loaded changes and changes;
Heterodyne laser is divided into, through light splitting part (3), the directional light that four bundle light intensity are equal, wherein the relay direction of two-beam with Xoy plane is parallel, the relay direction of another two-beam is parallel with xoz plane, and this four bundles directional light is through polarization splitting prism (4) After, the most a branch of s wave component is reflected 90 degree, is formed and measure light, and the most a branch of p wave component is transmitted, forms reference light;
The four bundle directional lights measuring light are the measurement arm quarter-wave plate of 45 degree through quick shaft direction and measurement light polarization direction (51) the most measured arm dioptric element (61) deviation after, four bundles after deviation are measured the direction of propagation of two-beam in light and are parallel to Yoz plane, the direction of propagation of another two-beam are parallel to xoz plane, and the direction of propagation is parallel to two bundles of yoz plane and measures light incidence + 1 order diffraction measurement light to two-dimentional reflective measurement grating (71) and being diffracted to y direction respectively and-1 order diffraction measurement light, The direction of propagation is parallel to two bundle measurement light of xoz plane and is incident to two-dimentional reflective measurement grating (71) and is diffracted to x respectively + 1 order diffraction in direction measures light and-1 order diffraction measures light, and four bundle diffractometry light are respectively along respective incident light propagation direction Opposite direction is propagated, and again passes by measurement arm dioptric element (61) and measure arm quarter-wave plate (51), now four bundle diffraction The polarization direction of measurement light is transmitted through unpolarized spectroscope (81), unpolarized spectroscope along x-axis and by polarization splitting prism (4) (81) four bundle diffractometry light of transmission are incident to Photoelectric Inspect & Signal Processing parts (91) surface, unpolarized spectroscope (81) The polarization direction of four bundle diffractometry light of reflection along z-axis, through printing opacity direction also along after the analyzer (82) of z-axis, is incident to position Put detection and Signal Processing Element (92) surface;
Four bundle directional lights of reference light are the reference arm quarter-wave plate of 45 degree through quick shaft direction and reference light polarization direction After be all referenced arm dioptric element (62) deviation, in four bundle reference lighies after deviation, the relay of two-beam is oriented parallel to xoy and puts down Face, the relay of another two-beam are oriented parallel to xoz plane, and the direction of propagation is parallel to two bundle reference lighies of xoy plane and is incident to two Tie up reflective+1 order diffraction reference light with reference to grating (72) and being diffracted to y direction respectively and-1 order diffraction reference light, propagate The two bundle reference lighies being oriented parallel to xoz plane are incident to two dimension reflective reference grating (72) and are diffracted to x direction respectively + 1 order diffraction reference light and-1 order diffraction reference light, four bundle reference diffraction light respectively along the negative side in respective incident light propagation direction To propagation, and again pass by reference arm dioptric element (62) and reference arm quarter-wave plate (52), now four bundle reference diffractions The polarization direction of light reflexes to unpolarized spectroscope (81) along y-axis and by polarization splitting prism (4), and unpolarized spectroscope (81) is saturating The four bundle reference diffraction light penetrated are incident to Photoelectric Inspect & Signal Processing parts (91) surface, and unpolarized spectroscope (81) reflects The polarization direction of four bundle reference diffraction light is along y-axis, because the printing opacity direction of analyzer (82) is vertical with y-axis, so this four bundle spreads out Penetrate reference light to be stopped completely by analyzer (82);
The two bundle diffractometry light in x direction and the two bundle reference diffraction light in x direction are in Photoelectric Inspect & Signal Processing parts (91) Surface forms two groups of interference, and the two bundle diffractometry light in y direction and the two bundle reference diffraction light in y direction are at photodetection and signal Processing component (91) surface forms another two groups of interference;When other elements reflective measurement grating (71) motionless, two-dimentional is along x-axis, y-axis When moving with z-axis, Photoelectric Inspect & Signal Processing parts (91) export x direction, y direction and z direction three degree of freedom respectively Straight-line displacement;
It is incident to the only four bundle diffractometry light on position sensing and Signal Processing Element (92) surface, when other elements are motionless, Two dimension reflective measurement grating (71) around x-axis, y-axis and z-axis produce micro-corner time, position sensing and Signal Processing Element (92) The facula position of the four bundle diffractometry light on surface can produce corresponding change, position sensing and Signal Processing Element (92) and will visit Survey the change of facula position, and export micro-around x-axis, y-axis and z-axis three degree of freedom of two-dimentional reflective measurement grating (71) respectively Small angle tower.
2. a kind of heterodyne system six degree of freedom grating movement measurement system as claimed in claim 1, it is characterised in that: described single-frequency LASER Light Source (1) is linear polarization semiconductor laser or the linear polarization single-frequency gas laser of outgoing termination optical fiber of collimation.
3. a kind of heterodyne system six degree of freedom grating movement measurement system as claimed in claim 1, it is characterised in that: described light splitting Parts (3) are the one in following three kinds of structures: first, and described light splitting part (3) is by two-dimensional transmission grating (31), reflecting mirror (321), shading diaphragm (33) composition, the z direction of described two-dimensional transmission grating (31) and the screen periods in y direction are equal, heterodyne Formula laser light incident to two-dimensional transmission grating (31) diffracted, z direction and y direction ± that 1 order diffraction light is reflected mirror (321) is inclined Rolling over and pass through shading diaphragm (33) and form the exiting parallel light that four bundle light intensity are equal, the diffraction light of other grades times is blocked diaphragm (33) filter;Second, described light splitting part (3) is made up of two-dimensional transmission grating (31), prism (322), shading diaphragm (33), institute The screen periods stating the z direction of two-dimensional transmission grating (31) and y direction is equal, and heterodyne laser is incident to two-dimensional transmission grating (31) and diffracted, z direction and y direction ± 1 order diffraction light forms four through prism (322) deviation and by shading diaphragm (33) Exiting parallel light equal for Shu Guangqiang, the diffraction light of other grades times is blocked diaphragm (33) and filters;3rd, described light splitting part (3) it is made up of two-dimensional transmission grating (31), cross transmission grating (323), shading diaphragm (33), described two-dimensional transmission grating (31) screen periods on z direction and y direction is equal, and the surface texture of described cross transmission grating (323) is by four Deng the orthogonal decussate texture of cycle one-dimensional grating structure composition, the screen periods of cross transmission grating (323) is saturating with two dimension The screen periods penetrating grating (31) is equal, and heterodyne laser is incident to two-dimensional transmission grating (31) diffracted, z direction and y side To ± 1 order diffraction light through the z direction one-dimensional grating structure of cross transmission grating (323) and y direction one-dimensional grating structure again Forming the exiting parallel light that four bundle light intensity are equal after secondary diffraction, the diffraction light of other grades times is blocked diaphragm (33) and filters.
4. a kind of heterodyne system six degree of freedom grating movement measurement system as claimed in claim 1, it is characterised in that: described measurement Arm dioptric element (61) is the one in following three kinds of structures: first, and described measurement arm dioptric element (61) includes stopping diaphragm (611) and refractive power reflecting mirror (612), the described direction of propagation is parallel to two bundle horizontal survey light of yoz plane through stopping diaphragms (611) and refractive power reflecting mirror (612) direction of propagation afterwards respectively by deviation ± θ and be incident to two-dimentional reflective measurement grating (71) send out Gaining interest and penetrate, the described direction of propagation is parallel to two bundle horizontal survey light of xoz plane through stopping diaphragm (611) and refractive power reflecting mirror (612) afterwards the direction of propagation respectively by deviation ± θ and be incident to two-dimentional reflective measurement grating (71) occur diffraction;Second, described Measuring arm dioptric element (61) to include stopping diaphragm (611) and refractive prism (613), the described direction of propagation is parallel to yoz plane Two bundle horizontal survey light after stopping diaphragm (33) and refractive prism (613) direction of propagation respectively by deviation ± θ also incidence To two-dimentional reflective measurement grating (71), diffraction occurring, the described direction of propagation is parallel to two bundle horizontal survey light warps of xoz plane Cross stop diaphragm (33) and refractive prism (613) direction of propagation afterwards respectively by deviation ± θ and be incident to two-dimentional reflective measurement light There is diffraction in grid (71);3rd, described measurement arm dioptric element (61) is by cross four step transmission grating (614) and stops light Door screen (611) composition, the surface texture of described cross four step transmission grating (614) is to be waited cycle one-dimensional four step light by four The orthogonal cross structure of grid structure composition, the screen periods of cross four step transmission grating (614) is two-dimentional reflective measurement 2 times of the screen periods of grating (71), the described direction of propagation is parallel to two bundle horizontal survey light of yoz plane through cross four Step transmission grating (614) direction of propagation afterwards is respectively by deviation ± θ, then is incident to two dimension reflection after stopping diaphragm (611) Formula is measured grating (71) and diffraction is occurred, and the described direction of propagation is parallel to two bundle horizontal survey light of xoz plane through cross four Step transmission grating (614) direction of propagation afterwards is respectively by deviation ± θ, then is incident to two dimension reflection after stopping diaphragm (611) Formula is measured grating (71) and is occurred diffraction, the diffraction light of other grades times to be blocked diaphragm (611) stop.
5. a kind of heterodyne system six degree of freedom grating movement measurement system as claimed in claim 1, it is characterised in that: described reference Arm dioptric element (62) is to measure the one in three kinds of structures that arm dioptric element (61) uses.
6. a kind of heterodyne system six degree of freedom grating movement measurement system as claimed in claim 1, it is characterised in that: described position Detection and Signal Processing Element (92) are made up of 4 four-quadrant Position-Sensitive Detectors and angle measurement signal processing circuit, 4 four-quadrants Extreme position sensing detector is for the change of detection four bundle diffractometry light facula position, and angle measurement signal processing circuit is used for calculating And export the micro-corner that two-dimentional reflective measurement grating produces around x-axis, y-axis and z-axis.
CN201610443546.3A 2016-06-20 2016-06-20 A kind of heterodyne system six degree of freedom grating movement measurement system Pending CN106152974A (en)

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