CN106140847A - A kind of magnesium alloy compressional deformation processing unit (plant) and processing method - Google Patents

A kind of magnesium alloy compressional deformation processing unit (plant) and processing method Download PDF

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Publication number
CN106140847A
CN106140847A CN201610513989.5A CN201610513989A CN106140847A CN 106140847 A CN106140847 A CN 106140847A CN 201610513989 A CN201610513989 A CN 201610513989A CN 106140847 A CN106140847 A CN 106140847A
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China
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magnesium alloy
cavity die
extrusion
punch
frustum
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CN201610513989.5A
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Chinese (zh)
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CN106140847B (en
Inventor
卢立伟
伍贤鹏
刘雁峰
盛坤
尹振入
刘龙飞
唐果宁
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湖南科技大学
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    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B21MECHANICAL METAL-WORKING WITHOUT ESSENTIALLY REMOVING MATERIAL; PUNCHING METAL
    • B21CMANUFACTURE OF METAL SHEETS, WIRE, RODS, TUBES OR PROFILES, OTHERWISE THAN BY ROLLING; AUXILIARY OPERATIONS USED IN CONNECTION WITH METAL-WORKING WITHOUT ESSENTIALLY REMOVING MATERIAL
    • B21C23/00Extruding metal; Impact extrusion
    • B21C23/02Making uncoated products
    • B21C23/04Making uncoated products by direct extrusion
    • B21C23/06Making sheets
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B21MECHANICAL METAL-WORKING WITHOUT ESSENTIALLY REMOVING MATERIAL; PUNCHING METAL
    • B21CMANUFACTURE OF METAL SHEETS, WIRE, RODS, TUBES OR PROFILES, OTHERWISE THAN BY ROLLING; AUXILIARY OPERATIONS USED IN CONNECTION WITH METAL-WORKING WITHOUT ESSENTIALLY REMOVING MATERIAL
    • B21C23/00Extruding metal; Impact extrusion
    • B21C23/32Lubrication of metal being extruded or of dies, or the like, e.g. physical state of lubricant, location where lubricant is applied
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B21MECHANICAL METAL-WORKING WITHOUT ESSENTIALLY REMOVING MATERIAL; PUNCHING METAL
    • B21CMANUFACTURE OF METAL SHEETS, WIRE, RODS, TUBES OR PROFILES, OTHERWISE THAN BY ROLLING; AUXILIARY OPERATIONS USED IN CONNECTION WITH METAL-WORKING WITHOUT ESSENTIALLY REMOVING MATERIAL
    • B21C25/00Profiling tools for metal extruding
    • B21C25/02Dies
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B21MECHANICAL METAL-WORKING WITHOUT ESSENTIALLY REMOVING MATERIAL; PUNCHING METAL
    • B21CMANUFACTURE OF METAL SHEETS, WIRE, RODS, TUBES OR PROFILES, OTHERWISE THAN BY ROLLING; AUXILIARY OPERATIONS USED IN CONNECTION WITH METAL-WORKING WITHOUT ESSENTIALLY REMOVING MATERIAL
    • B21C29/00Cooling or heating work or parts of the extrusion press; Gas treatment of work
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B21MECHANICAL METAL-WORKING WITHOUT ESSENTIALLY REMOVING MATERIAL; PUNCHING METAL
    • B21CMANUFACTURE OF METAL SHEETS, WIRE, RODS, TUBES OR PROFILES, OTHERWISE THAN BY ROLLING; AUXILIARY OPERATIONS USED IN CONNECTION WITH METAL-WORKING WITHOUT ESSENTIALLY REMOVING MATERIAL
    • B21C29/00Cooling or heating work or parts of the extrusion press; Gas treatment of work
    • B21C29/003Cooling or heating of work
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C22METALLURGY; FERROUS OR NON-FERROUS ALLOYS; TREATMENT OF ALLOYS OR NON-FERROUS METALS
    • C22FCHANGING THE PHYSICAL STRUCTURE OF NON-FERROUS METALS AND NON-FERROUS ALLOYS
    • C22F1/00Changing the physical structure of non-ferrous metals or alloys by heat treatment or by hot or cold working
    • C22F1/06Changing the physical structure of non-ferrous metals or alloys by heat treatment or by hot or cold working of magnesium or alloys based thereon

Abstract

The invention discloses a kind of magnesium alloy compressional deformation processing unit (plant) and processing method, the magnesium alloy compressional deformation processing unit (plant) of the present invention, including punch, upper cavity die and lower cavity die, upper cavity die is positioned at the top of lower cavity die, and is provided with passage between lower cavity die;The center of upper cavity die is provided with through hole, and punch is inserted in the through hole of upper cavity die center;Being provided with the frustum of a cone corresponding to through hole on lower cavity die upper surface, frustum of a cone cross section is up-small and down-big.The present invention uses the extruding bilateral flowing crimp of frustum Strong shear, the thinning effect of magnesium alloy crystal grain can either be greatly enhanced, the comprehensive mechanical property making magnesium alloy materials is improved, it is capable of again not reducing extrusion speed under low-temp. extrusion state, improves the production efficiency of magnesium alloy compressional deformation processing.

Description

A kind of magnesium alloy compressional deformation processing unit (plant) and processing method

Technical field

The invention belongs to Magnesium alloy AZ91D field, particularly to a kind of magnesium alloy compressional deformation processing unit (plant) and processing Method.

Background technology

The density of magnesium and magnesium alloy is low, is material the lightest in metal current structural material, and has specific strength and than just Degree is high, electromagnetic shielding capability is strong, machinability good and the shock resistance advantage such as by force.At automobile, space flight and aviation, telecommunications Have broad application prospects with the field such as lightweight manufacture, become that loss of weight is energy-conservation and the preferred material of protection environment, be described as " green engineering material " of 21 century.But magnesium is the metal of close-packed hexagonal structure, its axle ratio (c/a) value is 1.623, close to preferable Solid matter value 1.633, under room temperature, slip system is few, and plastic deformation ability is poor, is easily caused brittle fracture, and cold-forming property is bad. The forming method of magnesium alloy is mainly to be cast into master at present, but its as-cast structure coarse grains, mechanical property is relatively low.In order to improve Its mechanical property and thinning microstructure.Can be good at Refining Mg Alloy crystal grain by hot extrusion processed, sample is by three { 10 are promoted to the effect of compressive stress1}<110 > pyramidal surface and { l00}<110 > nonbasal slip system such as prismatic surface is swashed Live, thus its plasticity can not only be improved, also can improve its intensity.The focus of crystal grain refinement always material supply section educational circles research is asked Topic, is greatly increased with the reduction of crystallite dimension according to famous Hell-Petch formula polycrystal yield strength, and elongation percentage Also significantly improve, be preferable material reinforcement mode.Crimp is exactly the thinning microstructure that one of which is more satisfactory, improves it The mode of texturing of mechanical property.Its mechanical property of part that squeezing and pressing method produces is much higher compared with what casting die produced, and surface Highly polished, can be used for the fields such as automobile bearing part, defence and military and space flight and aviation.The development of China's deformed magnesium alloy material with Develop still at an early stage, lack high-performance magnesium-alloy plate, rod and section bar, nowadays high-performance magnesium-alloy material still rely upon into Mouthful, the product for civilian use not yet carries out Devoting Major Efforts To Developing.Therefore, research and development function admirable, the deformed magnesium alloy material of multi-size Seem particularly significant.

At present, the extrusion deformation process of magnesium alloy in commercial production, its extrusion ratio is typically at 10~100 changes, magnesium alloy The extrusion temperature of blank is usually 300~450 DEG C, and extrusion speed is usually 0.1m/min~2.5m/min, and extrusion temperature is with crowded Pressure speed is directly proportional, and extrusion temperature is the lowest, and extrusion speed is the slowest, if extrusion temperature reduces, extrusion speed subtracts the most therewith Slowly, the molding effect of magnesium alloy, by impacted, cause the material squeezed out crackle occur, affects product quality.The most normal The Equal Channel Angular Pressing that crimp mode is ECAE (Equal channel angular extrusion) of magnesium alloy, Seeing Fig. 1, this is a kind of large plastometric set processing method utilizing pure shear grain refinement and grain deformation, the magnesium alloy that will be extruded Blank 8, is extruded by the unidirectional isometrical squeezing passage 10 bent on extrusion die 9 at an angle of 90, makes magnesium alloy blank at one Under the pressure of pressure ram 7, isometrical squeezing passage one end move to the other end, make magnesium alloy blank through isometrical squeezing passage 90 ° of corners time, by detrusion, by magnesium alloy grains, improve the mechanical property of the magnesium alloy materials being extruded, but Be this extrusion ratio be 1, extrusion temperature is 200~350 DEG C, and extrusion speed is 0.1~1.5m/min, and it often extrudes a time After, magnesium alloy crystallite dimension degree of refinement is inconspicuous, and need to extrude through multi-pass can be by magnesium alloy grains to less Size.As the magnesium alloy blank that crystal grain is 230 μm used ECAE technology crimp at 300 DEG C, need to squeezing through eight passages Pressure, the crystallite dimension of magnesium alloy can be only achieved below 8 μm;Magnesium alloy blank that crystal grain is 40 μm is used ECAE when 250 DEG C Technology crimp, need to be through the extruding of eight passages, and the crystallite dimension of magnesium alloy can be only achieved about 1 μm.Although the method energy Enough realize magnesium alloy grains to the least degree, but because it uses the extrusion process sequence of multi-pass many, every time Extrusion time is the most relatively long, and production efficiency is low, and production cost is high;And due to the extrusion speed of ECAE technology be 0.1~ 1.5m/min, if to improve unidirectionally extruded extrusion speed, can product quality decline again.Therefore, need in industrialized production In the case of improving production efficiency, ECAE technology there will naturally be deficiency.

Summary of the invention

In order to solve above-mentioned technical problem, the present invention provides a kind of magnesium alloy compressional deformation processing unit (plant) and processing method, It uses the extruding bilateral flowing crimp of frustum Strong shear, can either be greatly enhanced the thinning effect of magnesium alloy crystal grain, make The comprehensive mechanical property of magnesium alloy materials is improved, and is capable of again not reducing extrusion speed under low-temp. extrusion state, carries The production efficiency of high magnesium alloy compressional deformation processing.

The technical solution used in the present invention is: a kind of magnesium alloy compressional deformation processing unit (plant), including punch, upper cavity die and under Die, upper cavity die is positioned at the top of lower cavity die, and is provided with passage between lower cavity die;The center of upper cavity die is provided with through hole, punch It is inserted in the through hole of upper cavity die center;It is provided with the frustum of a cone, on frustum of a cone cross section corresponding to through hole on lower cavity die upper surface Little lower greatly.

A kind of magnesium alloy extrusion deforming processing method utilizing above-mentioned magnesium alloy compressional deformation processing unit (plant), including as follows Step:

1) magnesium alloy blank is carried out Homogenization Treatments;

2) punch, upper cavity die and lower cavity die are heated, and uniform application profit in the channel lumens between upper cavity die 3 and lower cavity die 6 Lubrication prescription;Then assemble to be placed on by upper cavity die and lower cavity die and be fixed on extruder workbench;

3) magnesium alloy blank after Homogenization Treatments is heated, is then placed in the through hole of the upper cavity die center heated, Then punch is inserted in through hole;

4) extruder pressure head drive punch extrusion magnesium alloy blank, make magnesium alloy blank by frustum shear backward upper cavity die and The squeezing passage flowing crimp of both sides between lower cavity die, extrusion ratio is 8~60.

In above-mentioned magnesium alloy extrusion deforming processing method, the concrete operation method of step 1) is as follows: by magnesium alloy blank It is heated to 380~450 DEG C and is incubated 10~25 hours.

In above-mentioned magnesium alloy extrusion deforming processing method, step 2) in punch, upper cavity die and lower cavity die are heated to 180 DEG C~420 DEG C.

In above-mentioned magnesium alloy extrusion deforming processing method, step 2) in lubricant use gasoline, machine oil, graphite, The mixture of one or more in glass, molybdenum bisuphide or vegetable oil.

In above-mentioned magnesium alloy extrusion deforming processing method, magnesium alloy blank is heated to 200 DEG C~450 by step 3) ℃。

In above-mentioned magnesium alloy extrusion deforming processing method, in step 4), the pressure head of extruder drives punch with 0.1~4m/ The speed of min, the extruding force extrusion magnesium alloy blank of 150MPa~2000MPa.

Compared with prior art, the invention has the beneficial effects as follows:

It is provided with the frustum of a cone corresponding to through hole on the lower cavity die upper surface of the present invention, when magnesium alloy blank extrudes, sheet material upper Portion is by 90 ° of corners of upper cavity dieShear action, meanwhile, the bottom of sheet material by the rotational angle theta shear action at frustum top, one Part coarse grain, under the effect of shearing force, is fractured into a series of subgrain with low-angle boundary, and subgrain is by along squeezing The elongated tissue that becomes band in pressure direction, another part occurrence dynamics recrystallization, make crystal grain tentatively refine;Due to turning of frustum top Angle θ is obtuse angle, and its shear action is weaker than 90 ° of corners of upper cavity die, the upper part of sheet material has preferably refinement than lower part Effect, at blank after the corner bottom frustum, sheet material lower part continues to produce shearing strain, promotes bigger crystal grain to continue broken Or occurrence dynamics recrystallization, grain structure obtains refinement again;Finally, it is possible to obtain the extruding of grain structure fine uniform up and down Sheet material.Additionally, the present invention can with flexible design extrusion ratio, the upper bottom surface radius R of frustum, frustum height H and frustum angle, θ, with Controlling the shearing strain quantity of the top and the bottom of sheet material, with the increase of shearing strain quantity, intracrystalline dislocation density sharply increases, and lattice is abnormal Become aggravation, so that new grain nucleation increased number, make grain structure can obtain degree of depth refinement.The inventive method can carry significantly The uniform thinning effect of crystal grain of high processed magnesium alloy plate, and be capable of under low-temp. extrusion state, do not reduce extruding speed Degree, improves the production efficiency of magnesium alloy compressional deformation processing.

Following table is the mechanical property parameters using the present invention that AZ31 magnesium alloy blank carries out extruding the product of gained, all Product is all to obtain for 10.18 times in extrusion ratio.The grain refining effect figure of its product is the most as Figure 4-Figure 6.

Accompanying drawing explanation

Fig. 1 is the structural representation of the present invention.

Fig. 2 is the structural representation of existing pressurizing unit.

Fig. 3 is AZ31 magnesium alloy micro-organization chart after 15 hours Homogenization Treatments of 400 DEG C of insulations.

Fig. 4 is the grain refining effect figure that the AZ31 magnesium alloy blank temperature 260 DEG C present invention extrudes generation.

Fig. 5 is the grain refining effect figure that the AZ31 magnesium alloy blank temperature 370 DEG C present invention extrudes generation.

Fig. 6 is the grain refining effect figure that the AZ31 magnesium alloy blank temperature 410 DEG C present invention extrudes generation.

In figure: 1-pressure head;2-punch;3-upper cavity die;4-blank;The 5-frustum of a cone;6-lower cavity die;7-pressure ram;8-passage; The isometrical angle mold of 9-.

Detailed description of the invention

The present invention is further illustrated below in conjunction with the accompanying drawings.

As it is shown in figure 1, the magnesium alloy compressional deformation processing unit (plant) of the present invention, including punch 2, upper cavity die 3 and lower cavity die 6, Upper cavity die 3 is positioned between the top of lower cavity die 6, and lower cavity die 6 and is provided with passage 8.The center of upper cavity die 3 is provided with through hole, punch 2 It is inserted in the through hole of upper cavity die 3 center.It is provided with the frustum of a cone 5, the frustum of a cone 5 corresponding to through hole on the upper surface of lower cavity die 6 Cross section is up-small and down-big.

Utilize above-mentioned magnesium alloy compressional deformation processing unit (plant), the magnesium alloy extrusion deforming processing method of the present invention include as Lower step:

1) magnesium alloy blank is heated to 380~450 DEG C and is incubated 10~25 hours, magnesium alloy blank is carried out Homogenization Treatments.

2) punch 2, upper cavity die 3 and lower cavity die 6 are heated to 180 ~ 420 DEG C, and between upper cavity die 3 and lower cavity die 6 Uniform application lubricant in passage 8;Lubricant uses in gasoline, machine oil, graphite, glass, molybdenum bisuphide or vegetable oil The mixture of one or more.Then upper cavity die 3 and lower cavity die 6 are fixed on vertical extrusion machine worktable.

3) magnesium alloy blank through Homogenization Treatments is heated to 200 DEG C~450 DEG C.It is then placed in upper heated In the through hole of die 3 center, then punch 2 is inserted in through hole.

4) by the pressure head 1 of extruder drive punch 2 with 0.1~4m/min speed, the extruding force of 150MPa~2000MPa Extrusion magnesium alloy blank, makes magnesium alloy blank be sheared the channel flow of both sides between backward upper cavity die and lower cavity die by frustum and squeezes Compressive strain, extrusion ratio is 8~60.

Embodiment 1:

Seeing Fig. 1, the present embodiment uses the extrusion die of frustum Strong shear extruding bilateral flowing forming, to AZ31 magnesium on extruder Sheet alloy carries out crimp processing.First magnesium alloy blank is heated to 380 DEG C of insulations and within 25 hours, carries out Homogenization Treatments, Through the ingot casting of Homogenization Treatments, make the chemical composition of ingot casting and tissue more uniform.Before extruding, mould is heated to 240 DEG C After, at mould squeezing passage intracavity uniform application lubricant, described lubricant is No. 74 steam cylinder oils and the granularity of 30% of 70% The lubricant that the graphite of 400 mesh mixes, is then fixed on upper cavity die 3, lower cavity die 6 on the workbench of extruder, will be through The magnesium alloy blank crossing Homogenization Treatments is heated to 260 DEG C, and extrusion ratio is 8, is placed in the extrusion chamber 4 of the mould heated, The depression bar 1 of extruder drives upper male mould 2 with the speed of 1m/min, extrudes, from magnesium alloy base with the pressure of 610Mpa~685Mpa The upper end of material carries out the depression bar 1 of constant speed extruding, i.e. extruder and drives upper male mould 2 to grant downwards pressure motion, makes magnesium alloy blank Frustum flowing to mold cavity bottom surface, produces Strong shear deformation.Eventually flow to the forming recess passage of two radial directions and molding, Its extrusion ratio is the ratio of sectional area and the two radially sectional area sum of die cavity passage of the vertical die cavity of extrusion die.

Embodiment 2

With reference to Fig. 1, the present embodiment uses squeezing of the frustum Strong shear extruding bilateral flowing forming with above example same type Compression mould, extrusion ratio is 30, first has to blank when 400 DEG C of insulation 15h carry out Homogenization Treatments to eliminate casting before extruding The various dendrite stayed and intermetallic compound (as shown in Figure 3).Mould heating-up temperature is 350 DEG C, and the lubricant used is The lubricant that the molybdenum bisuphide of No. 74 steam cylinder oils of 70% and granularity 400 mesh of 30% mixes, will be through Homogenization Treatments Magnesium alloy blank be heated to 370 DEG C, extrusion speed is: 4m/min, and extruding force scope is between 1000~1085MPa, specifically Implementation process be: the blank after Homogenization Treatments is put in extrusion chamber 4, by extruder depression bar apply pressure drive punch 2 move downward, by punch 2 extrusion billet make magnesium alloy blank to frustum flow, produce Strong shear deform backward upper cavity die and under Between die, the channel flow molding of both sides obtains extrusion molding goods.Use the goods that above-mentioned pressing method extrudes should water rapidly Cold, prevent crystal grain from growing up.Along with the reduction of extrusion temperature, extrusion speed also should reduce.

Embodiment 3

The present embodiment uses the extrusion die of the frustum Strong shear extruding bilateral flowing forming with above example same type, squeezes Pressure ratio is 60, first has at 450 DEG C of insulation 10h, blank is carried out Homogenization Treatments before extruding, and stay during to eliminate casting is each Plant dendrite and intermetallic compound.Mould heating-up temperature is 420 DEG C, the lubricant used be granularity be the glass of 109 ~ 190 μm Glass lubricant, is heated to 450 DEG C by the magnesium alloy blank through Homogenization Treatments, and extrusion speed is: 2m/min, extruding force scope Between 1710~1790MPa, concrete implementation process is: put into by the blank after Homogenization Treatments in extrusion chamber 4, by extruding The depression bar of machine applies pressure and drives punch 2 to move downward, punch 2 extrusion billet make magnesium alloy blank flow to frustum, produce Strong shear deforms the channel flow molding of both sides between backward upper cavity die and lower cavity die and obtains extrusion molding goods.Use above-mentioned squeezing The goods of pressure method extrusion should water-cooled rapidly, prevent crystal grain from growing up.Along with the reduction of extrusion temperature, extrusion speed also should reduce.

The corner of the mold cavity of the present invention and radius of corner can be revised, and wherein radius of corner should be in appropriate scope Interior is that 0.5mm~5mm effect is preferable.

The present invention is not limited solely to process various magnesium alloy sheet, it is also possible to lead to according to the die cavity of the radial direction of mould setting Road structure, uses suitable mould structure, it is also possible to squeeze out the magnesium alloy materials (such as bar, tubing etc.) of variform.

Claims (7)

1. a magnesium alloy compressional deformation processing unit (plant), is characterized in that: include punch, upper cavity die and lower cavity die, and upper cavity die is positioned at The top of lower cavity die, and between lower cavity die, it is provided with passage;The center of upper cavity die is provided with through hole, and punch is inserted into upper cavity die center In the through hole at place;Being provided with the frustum of a cone corresponding to through hole on lower cavity die upper surface, frustum of a cone cross section is up-small and down-big.
2. utilize a magnesium alloy extrusion deforming processing method for magnesium alloy compressional deformation processing unit (plant) described in claim 1, Comprise the steps:
Magnesium alloy blank is carried out Homogenization Treatments;
Punch, upper cavity die and lower cavity die are heated, and uniform application lubrication in the channel lumens between upper cavity die 3 and lower cavity die 6 Agent;Then assemble to be placed on by upper cavity die and lower cavity die and be fixed on extruder workbench;
3) magnesium alloy blank after Homogenization Treatments is heated, is then placed in the through hole of the upper cavity die center heated, Then punch is inserted in through hole;
4) extruder pressure head drive punch extrusion magnesium alloy blank, make magnesium alloy blank by frustum shear backward upper cavity die and The squeezing passage flowing crimp of both sides between lower cavity die, extrusion ratio is 8~60.
Magnesium alloy extrusion deforming processing method the most according to claim 2, the concrete operation method of step 1) is as follows: by magnesium Alloy blank is heated to 380~450 DEG C and is incubated 10~25 hours.
Magnesium alloy extrusion deforming processing method the most according to claim 2, step 2) in by punch, upper cavity die and lower cavity die It is heated to 180 DEG C~420 DEG C.
Magnesium alloy extrusion deforming processing method the most according to claim 2, step 2) in lubricant use gasoline, machine The mixture of one or more in oil, graphite, glass, molybdenum bisuphide or vegetable oil.
Magnesium alloy extrusion deforming processing method the most according to claim 2, is heated to 200 by magnesium alloy blank in step 3) DEG C~450 DEG C.
Magnesium alloy extrusion deforming processing method the most according to claim 2, in step 4), the pressure head of extruder drives punch Speed with 0.1~4m/min, the extruding force extrusion magnesium alloy blank of 150MPa~2000MPa.
CN201610513989.5A 2016-07-04 2016-07-04 A kind of magnesium alloy compressional deformation processing unit (plant) and processing method CN106140847B (en)

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CN110000322A (en) * 2019-04-25 2019-07-12 湖南科技大学 A kind of large plastometric set prepares high-performance magnesium-alloy device and preparation method

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Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
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CN110000322A (en) * 2019-04-25 2019-07-12 湖南科技大学 A kind of large plastometric set prepares high-performance magnesium-alloy device and preparation method

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