CN106134556A - Control row in runoff nitrogen phosphorus lattice field, rice field intercepts removal system and application process thereof with farmland diafiltration combination - Google Patents

Control row in runoff nitrogen phosphorus lattice field, rice field intercepts removal system and application process thereof with farmland diafiltration combination Download PDF

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Publication number
CN106134556A
CN106134556A CN201610759788.3A CN201610759788A CN106134556A CN 106134556 A CN106134556 A CN 106134556A CN 201610759788 A CN201610759788 A CN 201610759788A CN 106134556 A CN106134556 A CN 106134556A
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diafiltration
field
farmland
vertical shaft
nitrogen phosphorus
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CN106134556B (en
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周明耀
陈义浦
于贤磊
窦超银
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Yangzhou University
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Yangzhou University
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01BSOIL WORKING IN AGRICULTURE OR FORESTRY; PARTS, DETAILS, OR ACCESSORIES OF AGRICULTURAL MACHINES OR IMPLEMENTS, IN GENERAL
    • A01B77/00Machines for lifting and treating soil
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01BSOIL WORKING IN AGRICULTURE OR FORESTRY; PARTS, DETAILS, OR ACCESSORIES OF AGRICULTURAL MACHINES OR IMPLEMENTS, IN GENERAL
    • A01B79/00Methods for working soil
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C02TREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02FTREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02F9/00Multistage treatment of water, waste water, or sewage
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E02HYDRAULIC ENGINEERING; FOUNDATIONS; SOIL SHIFTING
    • E02BHYDRAULIC ENGINEERING
    • E02B11/00Drainage of soil, e.g. for agricultural purposes
    • E02B11/005Drainage conduits
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E03WATER SUPPLY; SEWERAGE
    • E03BINSTALLATIONS OR METHODS FOR OBTAINING, COLLECTING, OR DISTRIBUTING WATER
    • E03B3/00Methods or installations for obtaining or collecting drinking water or tap water
    • E03B3/02Methods or installations for obtaining or collecting drinking water or tap water from rain-water
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C02TREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02FTREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02F1/00Treatment of water, waste water, or sewage
    • C02F1/28Treatment of water, waste water, or sewage by sorption
    • C02F1/286Treatment of water, waste water, or sewage by sorption using natural organic sorbents or derivatives thereof
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C02TREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02FTREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02F2101/00Nature of the contaminant
    • C02F2101/10Inorganic compounds
    • C02F2101/105Phosphorus compounds
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C02TREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02FTREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02F2101/00Nature of the contaminant
    • C02F2101/10Inorganic compounds
    • C02F2101/16Nitrogen compounds, e.g. ammonia
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C02TREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02FTREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02F3/00Biological treatment of water, waste water, or sewage
    • C02F3/34Biological treatment of water, waste water, or sewage characterised by the microorganisms used
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02ATECHNOLOGIES FOR ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02A20/00Water conservation; Efficient water supply; Efficient water use
    • Y02A20/108Rainwater harvesting

Abstract

The invention discloses a kind of agricultural run-off nitrogen phosphorus lattice field control row and intercept removal system, including ridge, adjustable folding formula downflow weir, continuous filter, haydite filter layer, diafiltration bank protection, underground horizontal diafiltration body, straw vertical shaft and drainage channel with farmland diafiltration combination;Ridge is positioned at lattice field surrounding, and adjustable folding formula downflow weir is located between ridge and drainage channel;Continuous filter is positioned at adjustable folding formula downflow weir water outlet, is provided with haydite filter layer in pond, connects with macromolecular fibre net diafiltration bank protection;Underground horizontal diafiltration body is below plough sole, and by wrapping up in permeable geotextiles outside corrugation plastic closed drain and crop material diafiltration material forms, deep layer straw vertical shaft is placed in above hidden pipe and coupled, and shallow-layer straw vertical shaft is placed between hidden pipe.The invention also discloses the application process of said system.The farmland surface hydrology is regulated and stored and subsurface infiltration and control draining and be closely connected by the present invention, it is achieved that to farmland surface, interflow subsurface drainage nitrogen phosphorus comprehensively efficiently intercept removal, pollutants removal rate is more than 70%.

Description

Runoff nitrogen phosphorus lattice field, rice field is controlled row and is intercepted removal system with farmland diafiltration combination and answer Use method
Technical field
The present invention relates to agricultural non-point pollution Treatment process field, specifically a kind of runoff nitrogen phosphorus lattice field, rice field control row and agriculture Field diafiltration combination intercepts removal system and application process thereof.
Background technology
The situation is tense for China's agricultural pollution, and water environment degradation situation is serious, and the discharge of agricultural run-off nitrogen phosphorus, is to cause periphery The major reason of water bodies of rivers and lakes rich peasant field nutrient laden.Agricultural run-off nitrogen and phosphorus pollution has potentiality, intermittent and large in number and widely distributed etc. Distinguishing feature, controls that difficulty is big, involves a wide range of knowledge, puts into many and take effect slow.Especially south China rice make area, superpower rainfall and Unreasonable irrigation and drainage, makes this farmland pollution problem more prominent.Paddy soil is through long-term cultivation, by colter and heavy burden Stick grain when extruding and precipitation to amass with water precipitating and formed, the hardest, the permeable and plough sole of poor air permeability occurs, not only hinders The growth of crop root, causes soil environment to deteriorate, and reduces the water-retention water holding capacity of soil, shortens farmland underground footpath simultaneously The leak path of stream, weakens the percolation of agricultural land soil, more increases the loss of agricultural run-off nitrogen and phosphorus pollutants, footpath, farmland Stream nitrogen and phosphorus pollution administers the difficult problem becoming in the urgent need to address.Therefore, for there being plough sole paddy soil feature, with rice check field For unit, exploitation had both been effectively improved soil environment situation, can effectively control again farmland surface, interflow subsurface drainage regulation and control and the combination of nitrogen phosphorus Diafiltration intercepts " the control row-farmland diafiltration of the lattice field " system removed, to making full use of rainwater resource, saving duty, control agriculture Track and field stream pollutant emission, improve Regional Water Environment tool be of great significance.
Summary of the invention
It is an object of the invention to provide a kind of runoff nitrogen phosphorus lattice field, rice field control row and intercept removal system with farmland diafiltration combination And application process.System includes two major parts, and one is that control row in runoff lattice field, rice field removes with the combination diafiltration interception of nitrogen phosphorus System, two is that farmland underground runoff nitrogen phosphorus diafiltration intercepts removal system.The present invention is possible not only to make full use of rainwater resource, saves Duty, intercepts nutrient in the middle of farmland, reduces the discharge of rice field Runoff contaminants, improves farmland water environment, and construction Convenient, space structure connection and reasonable arrangement, cost is the cheapest, can wide popularization and application in river network in plain areas, south.
First purpose of the present invention is achieved through the following technical solutions, runoff nitrogen phosphorus lattice field, rice field control row and farmland Diafiltration combination intercept removal system, have on plough sole rice field be provided with lattice field ridge, adjustable folding formula downflow weir, continuous filter, Farmland surface diafiltration body, underground horizontal diafiltration body, straw vertical shaft and drainage channel;
Described lattice field ridge is positioned at the surrounding in lattice field, rice field, deeply regulates and stores according to the maximum resistance to waterflooding of rice at whole growth periods.
Described adjustable folding formula downflow weir is arranged between Ge Tian field, rice field stalk and drainage channel, adjustable folding formula overflow Weir, weir body is built by laying bricks or stones by fragment of brick and non-fine concrete and is formed, and collapsible downflow weir bank main material is anti-aging rigid plastics, plastics By hinged tight series connection between plate, it is achieved the folder function of weir bank.
Described continuous filter is positioned at adjustable folding formula downflow weir water outlet, according to the drainability of continuous filter, passes through water Power calculates the volume determining continuous filter, width dative field, continuous filter ridge similar width, generally 40~50cm, a length of overflow 1.5~2 times of weir width, continuous filter thickness of wall body is 12~15cm, and highly dative field ridge flushes.
Described farmland surface diafiltration body is made up of two parts, and Part I is positioned at continuous filter, and diafiltration material is haydite, pottery Grain filter layer thickness 10 ~ 14cm;Part II material is macromolecular material fleece, as downflow weir water outlet draining limes marginis The revetment material on slope is connected with Part I continuous filter, and macromolecular material web thickness is identical with haydite layer thickness, fiber Side off the net is covered with 8~10cm thickness non-fine concretes, and it is identical with gutter side slope that fleece diafiltration body paves the gradient, and lowermost end is row Lowest water level position, ditch;
Described underground horizontal diafiltration body, by wrapping up in permeable geotextiles outside closed drain and crop material diafiltration material forms;Be There is plough sole rice field according to Water Drainage Design of Xi ' standard, determine horizontal ripple plastic hidden pipe arrangement of Drainage by water force Specification and caliber, plastic draining hidden pipe is obliquely installed, and the gradient is 1/1000 ~ 1/2000;
Closed drain exports ditch bright with agricultural drain and is connected, and open drain and underground horizontal diafiltration body water inlet end have the rice of plough sole Form head difference between surface, field, discharge rice field interflow subsurface drainage, it is achieved to the regulation of rice field level of ground water, suitable soil water content Control function;
Described crop material draining shaft is realized by Manual punching method, the first vertical shaft be placed in above closed drain and with Its deep layer vertical shaft being connected;The shallow-layer vertical shaft that the second is placed between closed drain.Straw vertical shaft is to be had the most thoroughly by 1 Crop material handle and the outer underfill material of aqueous energy are constituted, and straw vertical shaft is 3 ~ 4m along closed drain length direction spacing, draining Between hidden pipe straw vertical shaft spacing is closed drain spacing 1/2~1/4, straw is a diameter of 12 ~ 14cm.By penetrating rice The vertical shaft of field plough sole realizes the diafiltration connection of the plough sole upper and lower soil layer soil liquid.Vertical shaft inwall and straw between space It is tightly packed with packing material.
At rice crop growing stage, collapsible downflow weir, continuous filter, farmland subdrainage filtration system vertical, horizontal, Can realize the group of nitrogen phosphorus substance in rice field water-storage depth and paddy field moisture regulation dead time control, earth's surface and interflow subsurface drainage Close diafiltration to intercept and remove.
Further, described adjustable folding formula downflow weir, height level meets the high standard farmland each growing stage of Oryza sativa L. Suitable flooding depth.
Further, described adjustable folding formula downflow weir, overflow capability is not less than local maximum rainfall ability, downflow weir Width determines through water force, general 30~40cm.
Further, described adjustable folding formula downflow weir, navigate to desired height by alignment pin, it is achieved to Oryza sativa L. not Regulation and control with the water-retention of growing stage rice field.
Further, described haydite filter layer, is haydite to load the plastics mesh bag that thickness is 10~14cm, by cementing Thing bonding sizing forms.
Further, straw used by described straw vertical shaft is rice wheat straw.
Further, described closed drain is corrugation plastic suction hose, and plastics pipe shaft is uniformly laid with permeable hole.
Further, described packing material refers to rice husk.
Second object of the present invention is achieved through the following technical solutions, runoff nitrogen phosphorus lattice field, rice field control row and farmland Diafiltration combination intercepts minimizing technology, comprises the following steps:
(1) arrange that control row in runoff nitrogen phosphorus lattice field, rice field intercepts minimizing technology with farmland diafiltration combination: set having on plough sole rice field Have lattice field ridge, adjustable folding formula downflow weir, continuous filter, farmland surface diafiltration body, underground horizontal diafiltration body, straw vertical shaft and Drainage channel;
Lattice field ridge is positioned at the surrounding in lattice field, rice field, deeply regulates and stores according to the maximum resistance to waterflooding of rice at whole growth periods.
Between Ge Tian field, rice field stalk and drainage channel, adjustable folding formula downflow weir, adjustable folding formula downflow weir weir are set Body is built by laying bricks or stones by fragment of brick and non-fine concrete and is formed, and weir bank main material is anti-aging rigid plastics, by hinged between plastic plate Closely series connection, it is achieved the folder function of weir bank.Weir crest maximum height is that the rice at whole growth periods maximum determined by test is resistance to floods deeply Degree, weir bank can arbitrarily be regulated, be positioned by fastening screw, and location hole height every 2~4 cm arranges a level, meets Oryza sativa L. Different bearing stage rice field suitably maximum is regulated and stored depth of water requirement, and downflow weir overflow capability is not less than rainfall ability, and width is through waterpower Calculating determines, general 30~40cm.
Continuous filter is positioned at adjustable folding formula downflow weir water outlet, according to the drainability of continuous filter, passes through potamometer Calculate the volume determining continuous filter, width dative field, continuous filter ridge similar width, generally 40~50cm, a length of downflow weir width 1.5~2 times of degree, continuous filter thickness of wall body is 12~15cm, and highly dative field ridge flushes.
Laying one layer of diafiltration body in continuous filter, diafiltration material is haydite, haydite filter layer thickness 10 ~ 14cm;With continuous filter Outlet connects, and the gutter side slope along downflow weir water (flow) direction is equipped with a floor height molecular material fleece, macromolecule material Material web thickness is identical with haydite layer thickness, is covered with 8~10cm thickness non-fine concretes below fleece, and fleece diafiltration body spreads Building the gradient identical with gutter side slope, lowermost end is lowest water level position, gutter;
Described underground horizontal diafiltration body, by wrapping up in permeable geotextiles outside closed drain and crop material diafiltration material forms;Be There is plough sole rice field according to Water Drainage Design of Xi ' standard, determine horizontal ripple plastic hidden pipe arrangement of Drainage by water force Specification and caliber, plastic draining hidden pipe is obliquely installed, and the gradient is 1/1000 ~ 1/2000;
Closed drain exports ditch bright with agricultural drain and is connected, and open drain and underground horizontal diafiltration body water inlet end have the rice of plough sole Form head difference between surface, field, discharge rice field interflow subsurface drainage, it is achieved to the regulation of rice field level of ground water, suitable soil water content Control function;
Straw vertical shaft is realized by Manual punching method, and the first vertical shaft is placed in above closed drain and coupled deep layer Vertical shaft;The shallow-layer vertical shaft that the second is placed between closed drain.Straw vertical shaft is to be made up of rice and wheat crops straw handle and rice husk, Straw vertical shaft is 3 ~ 4m along closed drain length direction spacing, and the straw vertical shaft spacing between closed drain is between closed drain Away from 1/2~1/4, straw a diameter of 12 ~ 14cm, realizes plough sole upper and lower soil layer soil by penetrating the vertical shaft of rice field plough sole The diafiltration connection of earth solution.Vertical shaft inwall and straw between space rice husk be tightly packed with;
Water after farmland-raceway groove series of measures processes enters small reservoir ecological wetland and is for further processing.
(2) the nitrogen phosphorus of rice field rainwash is intercepted by scalable downflow weir: the pollutant such as nitrogen, phosphorus are deposited on the most over time The lower floor of rice field rainwash, and the current that this method is overflowed are rainwash upper strata water bodys, the pollutant levels such as nitrogen, phosphorus are relatively Low, pollutant discharge amount is less, is retained by nutrient in field, decreases rice field nutrient loss.
(3) the nitrogen phosphorus of rice field rainwash is intercepted by farmland diafiltration body: the earth's surface spilt over from scalable downflow weir Runoff, first has to flow into gutter, haydite diafiltration body and macromolecular material in way through continuous filter further along drainage channel side slope Diafiltration net diafiltration body constitutes combination filtration system together, utilizes they infiltrations, adsorptivity strong, is easily formed the spy of microbiologic population Property, can efficiently intercept the nitrogen phosphorus substance in the seepage flow of absorption farmland, make spilling water body concentration of nitrogen and phosphorus reduce further.
(4) straw vertical shaft nitrogen phosphorus intercepts: utilize seepage flow produced by irrigation or rainfall to make the current containing nitrogen phosphorus enter straw Stalk vertical shaft, rice wheat straw is absorption and intercepts the nitrogen phosphorus in soil water solution, makes nitrogen phosphorus be retained in soil, not the water of Nitrogen-and Phosphorus-containing Stream enters closed drain.
(5) underground lever drainage nitrogen phosphorus intercepts: closed drain pipe shaft is evenly distributed with permeable hole, on the one hand compilation steps (4) Described straw vertical shaft go out current, on the other hand, also correspond to diafiltration body, the current containing nitrogen phosphorus below plough sole, pass through Seepage effect, when flowing to closed drain, the water geotextiles of closed drain outer wrapping is prevented from hidden pipe blocking, rice and wheat crops straw Nitrogen phosphorus is intercepted in soil by diafiltration material.Utilize the head difference formed between face, field and open drain by described straw vertical shaft Go out current and guide to open drain.
Compared with prior art, the method have the advantages that
First, this method reduces agricultural non-point pollution technology with other and essential difference is in that most and regulated and stored by the farmland surface hydrology and ground Lower diafiltration and control draining and be closely connected, with rice check field as unit, the rice field runoff nitrogen phosphorus lattice field along runoff Path Setup Control row intercepts removal system with farmland diafiltration combination, it is achieved that go farmland surface, the most efficiently intercepting of interflow subsurface drainage nitrogen phosphorus Remove, rainwater resource, saving duty, control Farmland Flow Pollution thing discharge can be made full use of, improve Regional Water Environment, improve Chemical fertilizer utilization ratio, effectively alleviates agricultural non-point pollution.
Second, this method have employed adjustable folding formula weir arrangement, utilizes the farmland usual accumulation of nitrogen phosphorus substance on ground Characteristic in table runoff lower floor current, and the upper strata water body that current are rainwash that downflow weir overflows, nitrogen phosphorus substance concentration is relatively Low, number of dropouts is little, it is achieved that the nitrogen phosphorus of rice field rainwash intercepts removal effect.And downflow weir weir bank can arbitrarily regulate, and by Fastening screw positions, and meets Oryza sativa L. different bearing stage rice field suitably maximum and regulates and stores depth of water requirement.
3rd, the haydite diafiltration body in run-off, porosity degree more than 60%, infiltration, adsorptivity strong, beneficially ammonia State nitrogen intercepts;Macromolecular material fleece diafiltration body on slope, gutter, porosity is up to more than 95%, has the strongest equally Water penetration, durability, the haydite of even porous, macromolecular material diafiltration net all advantageously form microbiologic population;Haydite diafiltration Body constitutes combination filtration system together with macromolecular material diafiltration net diafiltration body, can efficiently remove the nitrogen phosphorus thing in the seepage flow of farmland Matter.
4th, this method have employed the nitrogen phosphorus interception removal pattern that straw vertical shaft combines, straw with underground lever drainage Draining shaft, by penetrating rice field plough sole, manually breaks impermeable stratum, forms rice field plough sole upper and lower soil layer soil moisture and oozes The continuous passage of stream, horizontal diafiltration body can realize again under plough sole soil nitrogen phosphorus and intercept, clear principle, easy construction, simple, With low cost.
5th, after straw diafiltration body effective life terminates, straw rots for organic matter in soil, contributes to increasing soil Earth nutrient.Corrugation plastic hidden pipe and permeable geotextiles outsourcing material in closed drain diafiltration body may insure that more than 30 years engineerings The subdrainage requirement of effective life;Good organizational structure still can be kept after crop material humification, still can be necessarily Its nitrogen phosphorus diafiltration interception function is played in time.
6th, construction costs of the present invention is cheap with maintenance cost, and durability degree is high, and service life is long, easy construction, and method is grasped Make simplicity, safe and reliable, suitable large-scale promotion.
Accompanying drawing explanation
Fig. 1 is that control row in runoff nitrogen phosphorus lattice field, rice field of the present invention shows with the planar structure that diafiltration combination in farmland intercepts removal system It is intended to;
Fig. 2 is that runoff lattice field, rice field of the present invention control denitrogen phosphorus intercepts removal system along A-A directional profile perspective view;
Fig. 3 is that farmland underground runoff nitrogen phosphorus diafiltration of the present invention intercepts removal system perspective view;
Fig. 4 is that control row in runoff nitrogen phosphorus lattice field, rice field of the present invention shows along A-A directional profile with farmland diafiltration combination interception removal system It is intended to.
In figure: 1 lattice field ridge, 2 adjustable folding formula downflow weirs, 3 continuous filters, 4 continuous filter bodies of wall, 5 haydite filter layers,
6 diafiltration side slopes, 7 drainage channels, 8 underground horizontal diafiltration bodies, 9 crop materials, 10 shallow-layer vertical shafts, 11 deep layer vertical shafts, 12 ground Lower hidden pipe, 13 permeable geotextiles, 14 rice husks, 15 fastening screws.
Detailed description of the invention
As Figure 1-4, control row in runoff nitrogen phosphorus lattice field, rice field intercepts removal system, including field, lattice field with farmland diafiltration combination The ridge 1, scalable downflow weir 2, continuous filter 3, haydite filter layer 5, diafiltration side slope 6, drainage channel 7, underground horizontal diafiltration body 8, shallow Layer vertical shaft 10, deep layer vertical shaft 11, be embodied as step as follows:
Lattice field ridge 1 is located at lattice field, rice field surrounding, meets the maximum resistance to waterflooding of rice at whole growth periods and deeply regulates and stores.
Adjustable folding formula downflow weir 2 is placed between lattice field, rice field ridge 1 and drainage channel 7, adjustable folding formula overflow Weir, weir 2 body is with fragment of brick and non-fine concrete as main material, and weir bank main material is anti-aging rigid plastics, profit between plastic plate It is cascaded with hinged, it is achieved the folder function of weir bank.Weir crest maximum height is that rice at whole growth periods maximum is resistance to floods the degree of depth, overflows Stream weir bank height can arbitrarily regulate, and is positioned by fastening screw 15, and location hole height every 2~4 cm arranges one grade, meets Suitably regulating and storing depth of water requirement in Oryza sativa L. different bearing stage rice field, downflow weir overflow capability is not less than local rainfall ability, width warp Water force determines, general 30~40cm.
Continuous filter 3 is located at adjustable folding formula downflow weir 2 exit, according to the drainability of continuous filter, passes through potamometer Calculation determines continuous filter 3 volume, width dative field, continuous filter 3 ridge 1 similar width, generally 40~50cm, a length of downflow weir 1.5~2 times of width, continuous filter body of wall 4 thickness is 12~15cm, and main building materials is non-fine concrete and fragment of brick, highly Dative field ridge 1 flushes, and lays the wooden cover plate being available for walking above continuous filter 8, and size is identical with continuous filter size.
Farmland diafiltration body is made up of two parts, and Part I is positioned at continuous filter 3, and diafiltration material is haydite, haydite diafiltration Layer 5 thickness 10 ~ 14cm;Part II material is macromolecular material fleece, as downflow weir water outlet gutter side slope Revetment material is connected with Part I continuous filter, and macromolecular material web thickness is identical with haydite filter layer 5 thickness, fiber Side off the net is covered with 8~10cm thickness non-fine concretes, and it is identical with drainage channel side slope that fleece diafiltration body paves the gradient, and lowermost end is Drainage channel 7 lowest water level position;
In plough sole once soil layer, underground horizontal diafiltration body 8 is set, is by wrapping up in permeable geotextiles 13 and rice outside closed drain 12 Wheat crop material 9 diafiltration material forms;It is to have plough sole rice field according to Water Drainage Design of Xi ' standard, determined by water force Horizontal ripple plastic hidden pipe arrangement of Drainage specification and caliber, closed drain is obliquely installed, and the gradient is 1/1000 ~ 1/2000, Closed drain 12 exports and is connected with drainage channel 7, and drainage channel 7 and underground horizontal diafiltration body 8 water inlet end have the rice field of plough sole Form head difference between ground surface, discharge rice field interflow subsurface drainage, it is achieved to the regulation of rice field level of ground water, suitable soil water content control Function processed.
Straw vertical shaft is realized by Manual punching method, and the first vertical shaft is placed in above closed drain 12 and coupled Deep layer vertical shaft 11;The shallow-layer vertical shaft 10 that the second is placed between closed drain.Straw vertical shaft is by rice and wheat crops straw 9 Constituting with rice husk 14, straw vertical shaft is 3 ~ 4m along closed drain 12 length direction spacing, the straw vertical shaft between closed drain Spacing is the 1/2~1/4 of closed drain spacing, straw a diameter of 12 ~ 14cm,.Real by penetrating the vertical shaft of rice field plough sole The diafiltration connection of the existing plough sole upper and lower soil layer soil liquid.Vertical shaft inwall and straw between space rice husk 14 closely knit fill out Full.
Water after farmland-raceway groove series of measures processes enters small reservoir ecological wetland and is for further processing.
Control row in runoff nitrogen phosphorus lattice field, rice field intercepts minimizing technology with farmland diafiltration combination, comprises the following steps:
(1) arrange that control row in runoff nitrogen phosphorus lattice field, rice field intercepts minimizing technology with farmland diafiltration combination: set having on plough sole rice field Have lattice field ridge, adjustable folding formula downflow weir, continuous filter, farmland surface diafiltration body, underground horizontal diafiltration body, straw vertical shaft and Drainage channel;
Lattice field ridge is positioned at the surrounding in lattice field, rice field, deeply regulates and stores according to the maximum resistance to waterflooding of rice at whole growth periods.
Between Ge Tian field, rice field stalk and drainage channel, adjustable folding formula downflow weir, adjustable folding formula downflow weir weir are set Body is built by laying bricks or stones by fragment of brick and non-fine concrete and is formed, and weir bank main material is anti-aging rigid plastics, by hinged between plastic plate Closely series connection, it is achieved the folder function of weir bank.Weir crest maximum height is that the rice at whole growth periods maximum determined by test is resistance to floods deeply Degree, weir bank can arbitrarily be regulated, be positioned by fastening screw, and location hole height every 2~4 cm arranges a level, meets Oryza sativa L. Different bearing stage rice field suitably maximum is regulated and stored depth of water requirement, and downflow weir overflow capability is not less than rainfall ability, and width is through waterpower Calculating determines, general 30~40cm.
Continuous filter is positioned at adjustable folding formula downflow weir water outlet, according to the drainability of continuous filter, passes through potamometer Calculate the volume determining continuous filter, width dative field, continuous filter ridge similar width, generally 40~50cm, a length of downflow weir width 1.5~2 times of degree, continuous filter thickness of wall body is 12~15cm, and highly dative field ridge flushes.
Laying one layer of diafiltration body in continuous filter, diafiltration material is haydite, haydite filter layer thickness 10 ~ 14cm;With continuous filter Outlet connects, and the gutter side slope along downflow weir water (flow) direction is equipped with a floor height molecular material fleece, macromolecule material Material web thickness is identical with haydite layer thickness, is covered with 8~10cm thickness non-fine concretes below fleece, and fleece diafiltration body spreads Building the gradient identical with gutter side slope, lowermost end is lowest water level position, gutter;
Described underground horizontal diafiltration body, by wrapping up in permeable geotextiles outside closed drain and crop material diafiltration material forms;Be There is plough sole rice field according to Water Drainage Design of Xi ' standard, determine horizontal ripple plastic hidden pipe arrangement of Drainage by water force Specification and caliber, plastic draining hidden pipe is obliquely installed, and the gradient is 1/1000 ~ 1/2000;
Closed drain exports ditch bright with agricultural drain and is connected, and open drain and underground horizontal diafiltration body water inlet end have the rice of plough sole Form head difference between surface, field, discharge rice field interflow subsurface drainage, it is achieved to the regulation of rice field level of ground water, suitable soil water content Control function;
Straw vertical shaft is realized by Manual punching method, and the first vertical shaft is placed in above closed drain and coupled deep layer Vertical shaft;The shallow-layer vertical shaft that the second is placed between closed drain.Straw vertical shaft is to be made up of rice and wheat crops straw handle and rice husk, Straw vertical shaft is 3 ~ 4m along closed drain length direction spacing, and the straw vertical shaft spacing between closed drain is between closed drain Away from 1/2~1/4, straw a diameter of 12 ~ 14cm, realizes plough sole upper and lower soil layer soil by penetrating the vertical shaft of rice field plough sole The diafiltration connection of earth solution.Vertical shaft inwall and straw between space rice husk be tightly packed with;
Water after farmland-raceway groove series of measures processes enters small reservoir ecological wetland and is for further processing.
(2) the nitrogen phosphorus of rice field rainwash is intercepted by scalable downflow weir: the pollutant such as nitrogen, phosphorus are deposited on the most over time The lower floor of rice field rainwash, and the current that this method is overflowed are rainwash upper strata water bodys, the pollutant levels such as nitrogen, phosphorus are relatively Low, pollutant discharge amount is less, is retained by nutrient in field, decreases rice field nutrient loss.
(3) the nitrogen phosphorus of rice field rainwash is intercepted by farmland diafiltration body: the earth's surface spilt over from scalable downflow weir Runoff, first has to flow into gutter, haydite diafiltration body and macromolecular material in way through continuous filter further along drainage channel side slope Diafiltration net diafiltration body constitutes combination filtration system together, utilizes they infiltrations, adsorptivity strong, is easily formed the spy of microbiologic population Property, can efficiently intercept the nitrogen phosphorus substance in the seepage flow of absorption farmland, make spilling water body concentration of nitrogen and phosphorus reduce further.
(4) straw vertical shaft nitrogen phosphorus intercepts: utilize seepage flow produced by irrigation or rainfall to make the current containing nitrogen phosphorus enter straw Stalk vertical shaft, rice wheat straw is absorption and intercepts the nitrogen phosphorus in soil water solution, makes nitrogen phosphorus be retained in soil, not the water of Nitrogen-and Phosphorus-containing Stream enters closed drain.
(5) underground lever drainage nitrogen phosphorus intercepts: closed drain pipe shaft is evenly distributed with permeable hole, on the one hand compilation steps (4) Described straw vertical shaft go out current, on the other hand, also correspond to diafiltration body, the current containing nitrogen phosphorus below plough sole, pass through Seepage effect, when flowing to closed drain, the water geotextiles of closed drain outer wrapping is prevented from hidden pipe blocking, rice and wheat crops straw Nitrogen phosphorus is intercepted in soil by diafiltration material.Utilize the head difference formed between face, field and open drain by described straw vertical shaft Go out current and guide to open drain.
This invention easy construction, rational in infrastructure, easy and simple to handle, service life is long, and diafiltration material is mainly straw, rice simultaneously Paddy, haydite, fleece etc., energy-conserving and environment-protective, with low cost.It is the particular approach of the present invention to the present invention by the farmland surface hydrology Regulate and store and subsurface infiltration and control draining and be closely connected, with rice check field as unit, the rice field runoff along runoff Path Setup The control of nitrogen phosphorus lattice field is arranged and is intercepted removal system with farmland diafiltration combination, it is achieved that to farmland surface, comprehensive height of interflow subsurface drainage nitrogen phosphorus Effect intercepts to be removed, and can make full use of rainwater resource, saving duty, control Farmland Flow Pollution thing discharge, improve regional water Environment, effectively alleviates agricultural non-point pollution, and the hydrology enhancing rice field is regulated and stored and ecological nursing function, the examination of applicants Test result and show that the method meets the rice field runoff nitrogen and phosphorus pollutants clearance high standard more than 70% and administers requirement after implementing, aobvious Write and improve farmland and the eco-environmental quality in impact area.

Claims (8)

1. control row in agricultural run-off nitrogen phosphorus lattice field intercepts removal system with farmland diafiltration combination, it is characterized in that there is being plough sole rice field It is provided with lattice field ridge (1), adjustable folding formula downflow weir (2), continuous filter (3), farmland surface diafiltration body, underground horizontal diafiltration Body (8), straw vertical shaft and drainage channel (7);
Described lattice field ridge (1) is positioned at the surrounding in lattice field, rice field;
Described adjustable folding formula downflow weir (2) is arranged on Ge Tian field, rice field stalk (1);
Described continuous filter (3) is positioned at adjustable folding formula downflow weir (2) water outlet, and continuous filter (3) outlet connects gutter Road (7);
The drainage channel (7) side slope near ridge (1) side, lattice field, rice field is provided with diafiltration side slope (6), diafiltration side slope (6) lowermost end For drainage channel (7) lowest water level position, diafiltration side slope (6) upper end is connected with described haydite filter layer (5), diafiltration side slope (6) macromolecular material fleece filter layer, the concrete (10) set gradually from top to bottom is included;Macromolecular material fleece oozes Thickness of filter bed is identical with haydite filter layer (5) thickness;Haydite filter layer (5), macromolecular material fleece filter layer form farmland Earth's surface diafiltration body;
Described underground horizontal diafiltration body (8) is positioned at below plough sole, is to be wrapped up in permeable geotextiles and crop by outside closed drain (12) Straw diafiltration material forms;Closed drain (12) is obliquely installed, and closed drain (12) gradient is 1/1000 ~ 1/2000;Draining is dark Pipe (12) outlet is connected with drainage channel (7), and drainage channel (7) and underground horizontal diafiltration body (8) water inlet end have the rice of plough sole Head difference is formed between surface, field;
Described straw vertical shaft is realized by Manual punching method, and straw vertical shaft includes deep layer vertical shaft (11) and shallow-layer vertical shaft (10), Deep layer vertical shaft (11) is vertically arranged on underground horizontal diafiltration body (8), and the spacing between deep layer vertical shaft (4) is 3 ~ 4m;Shallow-layer erects Well (10) is vertically arranged between closed drain (12), between shallow-layer vertical shaft (8) spacing be closed drain (12) spacing 1/2~ 1/4;Deep layer vertical shaft (5) and shallow-layer vertical shaft (8) penetrate rice field plough sole and realize the diafiltration of the plough sole upper and lower soil layer soil liquid even Logical.
Control row in agricultural run-off nitrogen phosphorus lattice field the most according to claim 1 intercepts removal system with farmland diafiltration combination, and it is special Levying and be, described lattice field ridge (1) floods the degree of depth according to rice at whole growth periods maximum is resistance to, increases original lattice field ridge, and presses Real consolidation process, lattice field ridge (1) width 50cm.
Control row in agricultural run-off nitrogen phosphorus lattice field the most according to claim 1 intercepts removal system with farmland diafiltration combination, and it is special Levying and be, described adjustable folding formula downflow weir, height level meets the high standard farmland Oryza sativa L. suitable flooding depth of each growing stage; Adjustable folding formula downflow weir weir body is built by laying bricks or stones by fragment of brick and non-fine concrete and is formed, and adjustable folding formula downflow weir bank material is anti- Aging hard plastic board, by hinged tight series connection between plastic plate, it is achieved the folder function of weir bank;Described adjustable folding formula Downflow weir, overflow capability is not less than rainfall ability, and downflow weir width is 30~40cm;Described adjustable folding formula downflow weir is logical Cross alignment pin and navigate to desired height, it is achieved the regulation and control to the rice field water-retention of Oryza sativa L. different bearing stage.
Control row in agricultural run-off nitrogen phosphorus lattice field the most according to claim 1 intercepts removal system with farmland diafiltration combination, and it is special Levy and be, described continuous filter (3) width dative field ridge (1) similar width, it is 40~50cm, continuous filter (3) are a length of adjustable 1.5~2 times of section folding type downflow weir (2) width, continuous filter (3) thickness of wall body is 12~15cm, continuous filter (3) highly dative Field ridge (1) flushes;Bottom, continuous filter (3) arranges haydite filter layer (5), haydite filter layer (5) thickness 10 ~ 14cm.
Control row in agricultural run-off nitrogen phosphorus lattice field the most according to claim 1 intercepts removal system with farmland diafiltration combination, and it is special Levying and be, described haydite filter layer is that haydite loads the plastics mesh bag that thickness is 10~14cm, by cement bonding sizing Become;Concrete (10) 8~10cm thickness non-fine concrete below macromolecular material fleece filter layer.
Control row in agricultural run-off nitrogen phosphorus lattice field the most according to claim 1 intercepts removal system with farmland diafiltration combination, and it is special Levying and be, described straw vertical shaft is to be made up of the crop material handle with certain water permeability and outer underfill material, and straw is a diameter of 12 ~ 14cm, vertical shaft inwall and straw between space packing material be tightly packed with, packing material is rice husk, straw vertical shaft Straw used is rice wheat straw.
Control row in agricultural run-off nitrogen phosphorus lattice field the most according to claim 1 intercepts removal system with farmland diafiltration combination, and it is special Levying and be, described closed drain is corrugation plastic suction hose, and plastics pipe shaft is uniformly laid with permeable hole.
8. the agricultural run-off nitrogen phosphorus lattice field control row described in claim 1-7 intercepts removal system application side with farmland diafiltration combination Method, is characterized in that, comprises the following steps:
(1) arrange that the agricultural run-off nitrogen phosphorus lattice field control row described in claim 1-7 intercepts removal system with farmland diafiltration combination;
(2) the nitrogen phosphorus of rice field rainwash is intercepted by scalable downflow weir: nitrogen and phosphorus pollution thing is deposited on ground, rice field the most over time The lower floor of table runoff, and the current that described adjustable folding formula downflow weir overflows are rainwash upper strata water bodys, nitrogen, phosphorus etc. pollute Substrate concentration is relatively low, and pollutant discharge amount is less, is retained by nutrient in field, decreases rice field nutrient loss;
(3) the nitrogen phosphorus of rice field rainwash is intercepted by farmland diafiltration body: the ground spilt over from adjustable folding formula downflow weir Table runoff, first has to flow into gutter through continuous filter further along drainage channel side slope, haydite filter layer and macromolecule material in way Material diafiltration net filter layer constitutes combination filtration system together, utilizes they infiltrations, adsorptivity strong, is easily formed the spy of microbiologic population Property, efficiently intercept the nitrogen phosphorus substance in the seepage flow of absorption farmland, make spilling water body concentration of nitrogen and phosphorus reduce further;
(4) straw vertical shaft nitrogen phosphorus intercepts: utilizes seepage flow produced by irrigation or rainfall to make the current containing nitrogen phosphorus enter straw and erects Well, rice wheat straw is absorption and intercepts the nitrogen phosphorus in soil water solution, makes nitrogen phosphorus be retained in soil, and the water of Nitrogen-and Phosphorus-containing does not flows to Enter closed drain;
(5) underground lever drainage nitrogen phosphorus intercepts: closed drain pipe shaft uniformly beats permeable hole, on the one hand compilation steps (4) described straw Stalk vertical shaft go out current, on the other hand, also correspond to diafiltration body, the current containing nitrogen phosphorus below plough sole, made by seepage flow With, when flowing to closed drain, the water geotextiles of closed drain outer wrapping is prevented from hidden pipe blocking, rice and wheat crops straw diafiltration material Expect to intercept in soil nitrogen phosphorus, utilize the head difference formed between face, field and described drainage channel to be gone out by described straw vertical shaft Current guide to drainage channel.
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CN107938626A (en) * 2017-11-21 2018-04-20 长江大学 A kind of drainage arrangement for being suitable for waterlogged region, can effectively controlling rice field nitrogen and phosphorus loss
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CN109601048A (en) * 2019-01-02 2019-04-12 天津市农业资源与环境研究所 A kind of method that stalk orifice breaks soil plough sole
CN113373873A (en) * 2021-06-09 2021-09-10 李树山 Water diversion structure for water conservancy and hydropower engineering

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CN113373873A (en) * 2021-06-09 2021-09-10 李树山 Water diversion structure for water conservancy and hydropower engineering

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