CN106123632B - A kind of method to be generated electricity using residual heat of aluminum reduction cell - Google Patents

A kind of method to be generated electricity using residual heat of aluminum reduction cell Download PDF

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Publication number
CN106123632B
CN106123632B CN201610705844.5A CN201610705844A CN106123632B CN 106123632 B CN106123632 B CN 106123632B CN 201610705844 A CN201610705844 A CN 201610705844A CN 106123632 B CN106123632 B CN 106123632B
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heat
flue gas
water
steam
aluminium
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CN106123632A (en
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宁平
殷梁淘
殷在飞
张秋林
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Kunming University of Science and Technology
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Kunming University of Science and Technology
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    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F28HEAT EXCHANGE IN GENERAL
    • F28DHEAT-EXCHANGE APPARATUS, NOT PROVIDED FOR IN ANOTHER SUBCLASS, IN WHICH THE HEAT-EXCHANGE MEDIA DO NOT COME INTO DIRECT CONTACT
    • F28D1/00Heat-exchange apparatus having stationary conduit assemblies for one heat-exchange medium only, the media being in contact with different sides of the conduit wall, in which the other heat-exchange medium is a large body of fluid, e.g. domestic or motor car radiators
    • F28D1/02Heat-exchange apparatus having stationary conduit assemblies for one heat-exchange medium only, the media being in contact with different sides of the conduit wall, in which the other heat-exchange medium is a large body of fluid, e.g. domestic or motor car radiators with heat-exchange conduits immersed in the body of fluid
    • F28D1/04Heat-exchange apparatus having stationary conduit assemblies for one heat-exchange medium only, the media being in contact with different sides of the conduit wall, in which the other heat-exchange medium is a large body of fluid, e.g. domestic or motor car radiators with heat-exchange conduits immersed in the body of fluid with tubular conduits
    • F28D1/053Heat-exchange apparatus having stationary conduit assemblies for one heat-exchange medium only, the media being in contact with different sides of the conduit wall, in which the other heat-exchange medium is a large body of fluid, e.g. domestic or motor car radiators with heat-exchange conduits immersed in the body of fluid with tubular conduits the conduits being straight
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C25ELECTROLYTIC OR ELECTROPHORETIC PROCESSES; APPARATUS THEREFOR
    • C25CPROCESSES FOR THE ELECTROLYTIC PRODUCTION, RECOVERY OR REFINING OF METALS; APPARATUS THEREFOR
    • C25C3/00Electrolytic production, recovery or refining of metals by electrolysis of melts
    • C25C3/06Electrolytic production, recovery or refining of metals by electrolysis of melts of aluminium
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F01MACHINES OR ENGINES IN GENERAL; ENGINE PLANTS IN GENERAL; STEAM ENGINES
    • F01KSTEAM ENGINE PLANTS; STEAM ACCUMULATORS; ENGINE PLANTS NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; ENGINES USING SPECIAL WORKING FLUIDS OR CYCLES
    • F01K27/00Plants for converting heat or fluid energy into mechanical energy, not otherwise provided for
    • F01K27/02Plants modified to use their waste heat, other than that of exhaust, e.g. engine-friction heat
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F22STEAM GENERATION
    • F22BMETHODS OF STEAM GENERATION; STEAM BOILERS
    • F22B1/00Methods of steam generation characterised by form of heating method
    • F22B1/02Methods of steam generation characterised by form of heating method by exploitation of the heat content of hot heat carriers
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F22STEAM GENERATION
    • F22BMETHODS OF STEAM GENERATION; STEAM BOILERS
    • F22B37/00Component parts or details of steam boilers
    • F22B37/02Component parts or details of steam boilers applicable to more than one kind or type of steam boiler
    • F22B37/26Steam-separating arrangements

Abstract

The invention discloses a kind of method to be generated electricity using residual heat of aluminum reduction cell, the present invention adopts water as medium, and exchanged heat the Lowlevel thermal energy for recycling and being produced in aluminium electrolysis process by direct current, is generated electricity for producing steam.The present invention in electrolytic aluminum smoke branch pipe by arranging vertical tubular heat exchanger Mist heat recovering, by arranging that ring-type endothermic tube recycles side wall and radiates in aluminium cell side wall, in aluminium cell top layout evaporator, recycles the sensible heat and radiant heat of groove top.Present device is simple in structure, does not change the original structure of aluminium cell, and heat recovery efficiency is high, and electrolytic aluminum smoke amount reduces more than 60%, and aluminium per ton can economize on electricity 300~400kWh, and effects of energy saving and emission reduction is notable;Technique is simple, small investment, and operating cost is low.

Description

A kind of method to be generated electricity using residual heat of aluminum reduction cell
Technical field
Residual heat of aluminum reduction cell is recycled the present invention relates to one kind, the method that Lowlevel thermal energy is converted into electric energy, to reach section The purpose of energy, belongs to field of energy utilization.
Background technology
Aluminium is one of staple commodities of global trading volume maximum.2014, China's Aluminum yield increased by 14% on a year-on-year basis, creates 28300000 tons the new highest record in history, export abroad amount are also being increased sharply, China become maximum in the world Aluminum Electrolysis Production state and Country of consumption.
Aluminum Electrolysis Production needs to consume the substantial amounts of energy, often produces one ton of 12200~1450kWh of aluminum consumption, electrolytic aluminium row Industry is qualified industrial consumption energy rich and influential family.In China, aluminum electrolysis industry is even more high energy consumption industry, and compared with foreign countries, China is every Ton Aluminum Electrolysis Production cost is generally 2000 yuan higher than external.
Energy-saving is that aluminum electrolysis industry is increased economic efficiency, meets the fundamental solutions of market challenges, and energy-saving and emission-reduction are enterprises Industry bounden financial responsibility and social responsibility.Country has formulated related measure to guiding, and annual per GDP energy is realized in plan Consumption reduces by 4%.By aluminium cell produce low-temperature flue gas waste heat be incorporated into energy resource system, it is possible to achieve low-grade energy it is efficient Utilize, economical and environmentally friendly double benefit is brought to enterprise.
China's aluminium electrolytic industry before twentieth century seventies, mainly using introduce self-roasting tank's production technology of the Soviet Union as Main, efficiency is low, high energy consumption, operation fall behind and seriously polluted.After the eighties, aluminium cell is on the basis of Importing Foreign Advanced Technology On, through digesting and assimilating and experimental study, from small to large, maximization device is formed, such as the prebaked cell for aluminum-reduction of 400kA, Thoroughly solve traditional aluminium cell with self-baking anode and there is the technical barriers such as harmful smoke and dust treatment environmental protection, mechanization, automation, And achieve that aluminum electrolysis is energy-efficient and the good result such as reduce investment outlay, and thus form domestic aluminium electrolytic industry compared with For advanced pre-baking tank equipment Technology and complete technology development system, at present, China's aluminum electrolysis process and equipment technology Reach advanced world standards.400kA electrolytic cells have the distinguishing feature of large capacity, and large scale electrolytic cell is established for UTILIZATION OF VESIDUAL HEAT IN Good basis.
Lowlevel thermal energy using water as medium, is produced steam, steam is sent out by turbine power generation unit by the present invention by heat exchange Electricity, electricity return to electrolgtic aluminium electric system.For separate unit electrolytic cell, the thermal energy of recycling is simultaneously few, but large-scale aluminium manufacturer installation quantity It is more, such as the aluminium enterprise of 335kt, if flue gas heat recovery, it is equipped with that 12~15Mw generating sets are a set of, and annual electricity generating capacity can It is considerable up to 10000~110,000,000 kWh, generated energy.
The content of the invention
The object of the present invention is to provide a kind of method to be generated electricity using residual heat of aluminum reduction cell, by what is produced in aluminium electrolysis process Lowlevel thermal energy produces steam by heat exchange, and steam generated electricity by turbine power generation unit, and electricity returns to electrolgtic aluminium electric system, with up to To energy saving purpose.Its principle is using water as medium, is exchanged heat in a manner of direct current by stage from low to high, water is converted For the steam of power, then steam is converted into electric energy by turbine.
The present invention is achieved through the following technical solutions:
A kind of method to be generated electricity using residual heat of aluminum reduction cell, using water as medium, utilizes electrolytic aluminum smoke, aluminum cell side Wall, aluminium cell groove top provide heat, and water is heated to be steam, then steam is converted into electric energy by turbine generators, use Equipment include:Aluminium cell 1, boiler water-feeding device 2, metering pump 3, ring-type heat dump 4, evaporator 5, steam-water separator 6, steaming Vapour manifold 7, condensing steam turbine generating set 8, flue gas branch pipe 9, flue butterfly valve 10, flue gas manifold 11, water regulating valve 12, Flue gas purification system 13, flue gas heat-exchange unit 14.
The flue gas that aluminium cell 1 is discharged, enters flue gas heat-exchange unit 14 by flue gas branch pipe 9 from the top of flue gas heat-exchange unit 14 In pipe, flue gas branch pipe 9 is equipped with flue butterfly valve 10, for controlling flue gas flow, flue gas flow 2000-3000Nm3/ h, flue gas From top to bottom by flue gas heat-exchange unit 14, discharged after carrying out heat exchange from 14 bottom of flue gas heat-exchange unit, it is total upwardly through flue gas Pipe 11 enters cleaning system 13;
Metering pump 3 pulls water out from boiler water-feeding device 2 and is forced into 0.9~1.0MPa, is sent into flue gas heat-exchange unit 14 Lower part enters between 14 pipe of flue gas heat-exchange unit, and it is 160 to control inflow by the Liquid level water regulating valve 12 of steam-water separator 6 ~170L/h;Water from bottom to up by flue gas heat-exchange unit 14, the heat provided using flue gas by water temperature heating to 100~110 DEG C, Then water is passed through ring-type heat dump 4, ring-type heat dump 4 is arranged against 1 sidewall annular of aluminium cell, utilizes aluminium cell side wall Water to 150~160 DEG C, is then passed through the evaporator 5 for being placed in aluminium cell headroom, utilizes groove by heat by water temperature heating again Top heat, generation water, vapour mixture enter steam-water separator 6, liquid water and steam are separated, and 0.8MPa steam is sent to condensing Steam turbine generating set 8 generates electricity, and the electricity sent returns to electrolgtic aluminium electric system, and condensed water, which returns, is used as boiler feedwater.
Preferably, flue gas heat-exchange unit 14 is vertical tubular heat exchanger.
Advantages of the present invention and effect:
1st, the flue-gas temperature of aluminium cell discharge is 100~110 DEG C, its Lowlevel thermal energy is exchanged heat using vertical tubular heat exchanger Mode carries out heat exchange and boiler feedwater is obtained heat.Its effect of vertical tubular heat exchanger has two:(1)Heat exchange acts on:Boiler Feedwater is from bottom to up by between pipe, drawing the heat in flue gas, boiler feed temperature being improved to 100~110 DEG C from room temperature; (2)Dustproof function:Flue gas from bottom from top to bottom by pipe, discharging, and swerve and be upwardly into gas cleaning system System, flue dust are discharged with gravity sedimentation in ash bucket, and inner flue gas of the stove dust after vertical tubular heat exchanger reduces by 30%.
2nd, for aluminium cell side wall after carbon silicon insulating brick, steel plate hull-skin temperature is up to 300~350 DEG C, this part heat waste Dephasing is when big, using the endothermic tube arranged against sidewall annular, draws the heat dissipation of sidepiece, by boiler feed temperature from 100~110 DEG C it is increased to 150~160 DEG C or so;
3rd, aluminium cell medium melting temperature is 945~950 DEG C, and top investing temperature is up to 700 DEG C, what anode separated out CO2Gas substantial amounts of sensible heat is taken out of by crust, crust has larger heat with anode cover board space, is evaporated using groove top Device, draws the sensible heat and radiant heat of groove top, and boiler feedwater is flashed to the water vapour of 0.8MPa;
4th, boiler feedwater is direct cooling water supply mode, with the Liquid level runoff investigation valve regulation boiler feed water of steam-water separator Amount;
5th, flue removed flue gas is adjusted with flue butterfly valve, in the case where not influencing operation, exhaust gas volumn reduces as far as possible, cigarette Tolerance is lower, and the heat of recycling is more, and exhaust gas volumn is at least than using reduction more than 60% before the present invention;
6th, in order to generate electricity, steam turbine generation unit uses condensing more, and condensed water, which returns, is used as boiler feedwater, reduces pot Stove water-suppling treatment equipment and cost;
7th, it is simple to recycle the hot device structure of low level, does not change the original structure of aluminium cell, adds and change on original structure Hot equipment, it is easy that transformation is implemented, and does not influence operation and overhaul of the equipments;
8th, exhaust gas volumn reduces more than 60%, and dry purifying system at least reduces a set of, can economize on electricity 1300~15,000,000 every year KWh, aluminium power consumption per ton reduce by 40~50kWh;
9th, electrolytic aluminum smoke and cell sidewall are collected utilization, the Lowlevel thermal energy produced in aluminium electrolysis process is turned Turn to the higher electric energy of added value, heat classification recycling, heat recovery efficiency is higher, and energy-saving effect is obvious, and aluminium per ton can economize on electricity 300 ~400kWh, makes aluminium specific energy consumption reach advanced level.
Brief description of the drawings
Fig. 1 is residual heat of aluminum reduction cell direct current heat exchange steam-electric power flow chart;
Fig. 2 is residual heat of aluminum reduction cell direct current heat exchange producing steam experiment process figure.
In figure:1- aluminium cells, 2- boiler water-feeding devices, 3- metering pumps, 4- ring-type heat dumps, 5- evaporators, 6- carbonated drinks Separator, 7- main steam ranges, 8- condensing steam turbine generating sets, 9- flue gas branch pipes, 10- flue butterfly valves, 11- flue gases are total Pipe, 12- water regulating valves, 13- flue gas purification systems, 14- flue gas heat-exchange units, 15- flowmeters.
Specific embodiment
The present invention is described in further detail with reference to the accompanying drawings and examples, but the scope of the present invention is not limited to Content as described below.
Embodiment 1:Residual heat of aluminum reduction cell direct current heat exchange producing steam
Residual heat of aluminum reduction cell direct current exchanges heat producing steam experiment process as shown in Fig. 2, being used as experiment using 400kA types electrolytic cell 1 Groove, soft water are extracted out from boiler water-feeding device 2 by metering pump 3, are forced into 0.9~1.0MPa and are sent between the pipe of flue gas heat-exchange unit 14, It is 160~170L/h to control soft water flux by the Liquid level water regulating valve 12 of steam-water separator 6, temperature after soft water absorption heat Degree rises to 100~110 DEG C, and water temperature rises to 150~160 DEG C after drawing the heat dissipation of aluminium cell side wall into ring-type heat dump 4, Subsequently into the evaporator 5 of electrolytic cell headroom, using groove top heat, generation water, vapour mixture enter steam-water separator 6, Water droplet and steam are separated, 0.8MPa steam evacuations, reach test objective.
The flue gas that aluminium cell 1 is discharged, enters in the pipe of flue gas heat-exchange unit 14, flue gas branch pipe 9 is equipped with from flue gas branch pipe 9 Flue butterfly valve 10 controls flue gas discharge rate, and as far as possible in the case where meeting operating condition to recycle heats, the flue gas after heat absorption is through flow more Enter flue gas manifold 11 after the metering of meter 15, subsequently into cleaning system 13.
Embodiment 2:The heat exchange power generation of residual heat of aluminum reduction cell direct current
The enterprise of aluminium 300kt/a scales, 288 sets, feed pressure 1.0MPa, flow 170L/ of 400kA types aluminium cell H, between respectively enteing every pipe for covering flue gas heat-exchange unit 14, temperature rises to 100~110 DEG C after absorbing heat, absorbs heat into ring-type Water temperature rises to 150~160 DEG C after device 4 draws the heat dissipation of aluminium cell side wall, subsequently into the evaporator of electrolytic cell headroom 5, using groove top heat, generation water, vapour mixture enter steam-water separator 6, and water droplet and steam are separated, and obtain 0.8MPa saturations Steam, comes together in main steam range 7, and steam total amount is 40t/h, the generating set power generation of driving 15Mw condensing steam turbines, hair The electricity gone out returns to electricity system.
The flue gas that aluminium cell 1 is discharged, enters in the pipe of flue gas heat-exchange unit 14, flue gas branch pipe 9 is equipped with from flue gas branch pipe 9 Flue butterfly valve 10, it is 3000Nm to control flue gas flow3/ h, heat is transmitted to after water and is discharged from bottom by flue gas, through flue gas manifold 11 Into cleaning system 13.Residual heat of aluminum reduction cell direct current heat exchange steam-electric power flow is as shown in Figure 1.
Embodiment 3:The heat exchange power generation of residual heat of aluminum reduction cell direct current
The enterprise of aluminium 200kt/a scales, 255 sets, feed pressure 0.9MPa, flow 160L/ of 300kA types aluminium cell H, between respectively enteing every pipe for covering flue gas heat-exchange unit 14, temperature rises to 100~110 DEG C after absorbing heat, absorbs heat into ring-type Water temperature rises to 150~160 DEG C after device 4 draws the heat dissipation of aluminium cell side wall, subsequently into the evaporator of electrolytic cell headroom 5, using groove top heat, generation water, vapour mixture enter steam-water separator 6, and water droplet and steam are separated, and obtain 0.8MPa saturations Steam, comes together in main steam range 7, and steam total amount is 35t/h, the generating set power generation of driving 12Mw condensing steam turbines, hair The electricity gone out returns to electricity system.
The flue gas that aluminium cell 1 is discharged, enters in the pipe of flue gas heat-exchange unit 14, flue gas branch pipe 9 is equipped with from flue gas branch pipe 9 Flue butterfly valve 10, it is 2000Nm to control flue gas flow3/ h, heat is transmitted to after water and is discharged from bottom by flue gas, through flue gas manifold 11 Into cleaning system 13.Residual heat of aluminum reduction cell direct current heat exchange steam-electric power flow is as shown in Figure 1.

Claims (10)

1. it is a kind of using residual heat of aluminum reduction cell generate electricity method, using water as medium, using electrolytic aluminum smoke, aluminium cell side wall, Aluminium cell groove top provides heat, and water is heated to be steam, then steam is converted into electric energy by turbine generators, its feature exists In the equipment that the method uses includes:Aluminium cell(1), boiler water-feeding device(2), metering pump(3), ring-type heat dump (4), evaporator(5), steam-water separator(6), main steam range(7), turbine power generation unit, flue gas branch pipe(9), flue gas manifold (11), water regulating valve(12), flue gas purification system(13), flue gas heat-exchange unit(14);
Aluminium cell(1)The flue gas of discharge, passes through flue gas branch pipe(9)Into flue gas heat-exchange unit(14), flue gas progress heat exchange Afterwards from flue gas heat-exchange unit(14)Bottom is discharged, and passes through flue gas manifold(11)Into flue gas purification system(13);
Metering pump(3)From boiler water-feeding device(2)Pull water out and be forced into 0.9~1.0MPa, be sent into flue gas heat-exchange unit(14), Water to 100~110 DEG C, is then passed through ring-type heat dump by water temperature heating by the heat provided using flue gas(4), utilize aluminium electroloysis Water to 150~160 DEG C, is then passed through evaporator by water temperature heating by groove sidewall heat again(5), using groove top heat, generation water, Enter steam-water separator after vapour mixture(6), liquid water and steam are separated, steam is sent to the power generation of turbine power generation unit.
2. according to the method described in claim 1, it is characterized in that, flue gas heat-exchange unit(14)For vertical tubular heat exchanger.
3. according to the method described in claim 1, it is characterized in that, flue gas branch pipe(9)It is equipped with flue butterfly valve(10), control cigarette Throughput is 2000-3000 Nm3/h。
4. according to the method described in claim 1, it is characterized in that, flue gas is from flue gas heat-exchange unit(14)Bottom is discharged, to enterprising Enter flue gas purification system(13).
5. according to the method described in claim 1, it is characterized in that, boiler feedwater mode is direct cooling water supply.
6. according to the method described in claim 1, it is characterized in that, the pressure of boiler feedwater is 0.9~1.0MPa.
7. according to the method described in claim 1, it is characterized in that, metering pump(3)Side is equipped with water regulating valve(12), control into Water is 160~170L/h.
8. the method according to the description of claim 7 is characterized in that water regulating valve(12)For steam-water separator(6)'s Liquid level water regulating valve.
It is 9. cold according to the method described in claim 1, it is characterized in that, turbine generators is condensation steam turbine generator Condensate, which returns, is used as boiler feedwater.
10. according to the method described in claim 1, it is characterized in that, the steam pressure for being sent to the power generation of turbine power generation unit is 0.8MPa。
CN201610705844.5A 2016-08-23 2016-08-23 A kind of method to be generated electricity using residual heat of aluminum reduction cell Active CN106123632B (en)

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US4222841A (en) * 1979-04-23 1980-09-16 Alumax Inc. Hall cell
CN101240432B (en) * 2008-03-03 2010-07-14 河南中孚实业股份有限公司 Liquid medium aluminum electrolysis bath residual heat reclaiming device and reclaiming method thereof
CN100494506C (en) * 2008-04-17 2009-06-03 东北大学 Method and device for reclaiming residual heat emitted by aluminum electrolysis bath
CN102330117A (en) * 2010-07-13 2012-01-25 厦门热工环保系统工程有限公司 Safe aluminium cell exhaust gas waste heat recovery method
CN201952498U (en) * 2010-12-15 2011-08-31 中国铝业股份有限公司 Aluminum electrolysis cell with outer insulating layer
CN102287245A (en) * 2011-07-26 2011-12-21 北京世纪源博科技有限责任公司 Aluminum electrolysis cell flue gas waste heat generation system with flue gas separation device
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CN205011850U (en) * 2015-09-21 2016-02-03 顾为东 Hot balance control device of aluminium cell

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