CN106119620A - A kind of replacement QT500 aluminium alloy differential mechanism material and gravitational casting forming method thereof - Google Patents

A kind of replacement QT500 aluminium alloy differential mechanism material and gravitational casting forming method thereof Download PDF

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Publication number
CN106119620A
CN106119620A CN201610492954.8A CN201610492954A CN106119620A CN 106119620 A CN106119620 A CN 106119620A CN 201610492954 A CN201610492954 A CN 201610492954A CN 106119620 A CN106119620 A CN 106119620A
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aluminium alloy
alloy
casting
replacement
melt
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CN106119620B (en
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门三泉
车云
张中可
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Guizhou Huake Aluminium Material Engineering Technology Research Co Ltd
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Guizhou Huake Aluminium Material Engineering Technology Research Co Ltd
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    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C22METALLURGY; FERROUS OR NON-FERROUS ALLOYS; TREATMENT OF ALLOYS OR NON-FERROUS METALS
    • C22CALLOYS
    • C22C21/00Alloys based on aluminium
    • C22C21/02Alloys based on aluminium with silicon as the next major constituent
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B22CASTING; POWDER METALLURGY
    • B22DCASTING OF METALS; CASTING OF OTHER SUBSTANCES BY THE SAME PROCESSES OR DEVICES
    • B22D21/00Casting non-ferrous metals or metallic compounds so far as their metallurgical properties are of importance for the casting procedure; Selection of compositions therefor
    • B22D21/02Casting exceedingly oxidisable non-ferrous metals, e.g. in inert atmosphere
    • B22D21/04Casting aluminium or magnesium

Abstract

The present invention discloses a kind of aluminium alloy differential carrier material substituting QT500, it is characterised in that: main constituent content by weight percentage: manganese Mn :≤2%, cadmium Cd:0.05%~0.5%, copper Cu:4.2%~8.0% and Cu >=0.8Mn+4.05%, silicon Si:7.0%~9%;Lewis Acids and Bases is to total amount 1% × 10‑4~2.0%, making alloy mean grain size < 120 microns, surplus is aluminum Al.

Description

A kind of replacement QT500 aluminium alloy differential mechanism material and gravitational casting forming method thereof
Technical field
The present invention relates to a kind of replacement QT500 aluminium alloy differential mechanism material and preparation method thereof.
Background technology
Spheroidal graphite cast-iron (abbreviation magnesium iron) be widely used in manufacture transmission case body, pump case, cylinder body, piston, wheel hub, driving member, The part that tumbler equal strength high-wearing feature is good;Magnesium iron is the most of many uses, and also residing in it has the standard brand of segmentation, often Plant the trade mark and define more strict accurate chemical composition combination, specification of heat treatment parameter, mechanical property and physical index etc., from And correspond to segmentation application category.It is shown in Table 1.
Mechanical property that the spheroidal graphite cast-iron trade mark that table 1 GB/T 1348 determines is corresponding and tissue
The mechanical performance index of magnesium iron and classification thereof, can as aluminum alloy materials innovative design, carry high performance to mark basis, with Time can be as the comparison passage of " with aluminum for steel ", it may be assumed that if aluminium alloy can substitute certain trade mark magnesium iron, then substitute further with The steel that this trade mark performance is close, just be enough to lead a kind of trend or fashion in industrial circle.Realize substituting weight with light strong structure strong Structure.
From the perspective of natural characteristic and experience accumulation, aluminium alloy has a multiple advantage compared with magnesium iron:
1. aluminum has fabulous cryogenic property, has unique advantage at low temperature environment as structural material, magnesium iron then with Temperature reduces and gradually occurs by toughness to the transformation of fragility, and especially below brittle transition temperature, its impact resistance drastically declines, very To " low-temperature brittle fracture " occurs.
2. aluminium alloy specific strength is high, has good fracture toughness and (weighs metal material expansion unexpected to crackle to resist Power), and magnesium iron counter stress concentrates sensitivity strong, can cause fracture suddenly.
3. due to aluminum and aluminium alloy are nonmagnetic substance thus electromagnetism interference performance is good, and magnesium iron is in the temperature of biological existence In the range of be all good magnetic material, easily by electromagnetic interference.
4. the corrosion resistance of aluminium alloy itself significantly larger than iron and steel and be more suitable for carrying out high-tech surface anticorrosion and decoration Close-coupled processing.
5. aluminium alloy is to the wettability of water well below iron and steel, thus low temperature sleety weather aluminum surface will not be as steel surface It is susceptible to sleet ice attached weightening finish phenomenon like that.
6. aluminum alloying and Technology for Heating Processing relatively magnesium iron and steel are simple, and the alloying temperature of aluminum is generally below 750 DEG C, heat treatment temperature is between 150~600 DEG C, and bulb ferroalloy temperature is more than 1400 DEG C, heat treatment temperature then 500~ 1000 DEG C, consume and discharge is aluminum several times or even more than ten times.
7. comparing from processing technique, aluminum can obtain the part of complicated shape or section easily, and uses ball The part of this complexity of ironworking needs more operation and equipment can consume more higher power than aluminum.
8. aluminium alloy is less than magnesium iron inertia, equips more advantage frequently in start and stop.
These steel aforementioned shortcoming and the unique superior quality of aluminum, the marked improvement for " with aluminum for steel " provides The basis of reality that civilization of human society progress is pursued.
In the technology upgrading of " with aluminum for steel ", in order to give full play to aluminium alloy with " gently " advantageous characteristic as representative, must Its aspect in " by force " must be made to have tremendous development, could significantly expand its use field.This just requires must be at aluminium alloy green wood First make a breakthrough in material design.
The method close examination prepared from material, material behavior is obtained by functional microcosmic thing is combined, needs to obtain good Functional thing is combined, such as high intensity, high-ductility, high rigidity, corrosion-resistant etc., is the termination pursued of various preparation method Really, therefore there is close internal integrity in the Design of Chemical Composition of aluminium alloy and its technology of preparing, is how a kind of atom is tied The relation of " thing phase molecule " needed for synthesis.Aluminium alloy each formula element is to form material thing phase molecule to combine by melting mixing The major contributing link of structure, after process of setting, crystal grain determines the crystalline substance of alloy mutually with the intermetallic compound molecule thing of crystal boundary State combination (submicron particles: about yardstick 10~300 μm), subsequent heat treatment is (micro-to fine structure under crystalline state group frame Scale particles: about yardstick 1~30 μm) or even precise and tiny structure (Subnano-class or the sub-micron grade particle: yardstick of more microcosmic 10nm~< 1 μm) it is adjusted and perfect.
On engineer applied, the size shape of metallic compound on aluminium alloy grain size and shape and crystal boundary, to alloy Mechanical property have conclusive impact.Irregular crystals such as thick plane crystalline substance, dendrite, column crystal and be distributed in crystal boundary Thick brittle property intermetallic compound, it is possible to the obdurability of matrix is contributed by the fine structure that alloy is good and precise and tiny structure All balancing out, the most conventional rotten means and the means of crystal grain thinning, best effect can only make mean grain size refine to 120~150 microns, and the form of dendrite does not often have basic transformation, this be alloy mechanical property improve further important Bottleneck problem.Improve for enabling aluminum alloy to acquisition intensity and toughness simultaneously, the most only carry out refinement and the rounding of crystal grain Further refinement and the mean grain size of rounding alloy, is the target pursued all the time of industrial circle.
Scan thoroughly by aluminum bronze manganese systems (Al-Cu-Mn) alloy being up to the spherical aberration correction of the very high resolution of 0.08nm Penetrate ultramicroscope (STEM) precise and tiny constituency to analyze, it is thus achieved that set up various phase structures on an atomic scale, Atomic Resolution It is distributed with chemical element.Confirm wherein there is a series of hardening constituent, including well-known Al-Cu binary metastable phase (GP district, θ ", θ '), new disc phase and balance phase θ (Al2Cu);Wherein inside matrix grain, new discovery one rod forked (T+ θ H) group Closing phase, the trunk portion T-phase of this combination phase is Al-Cu-Mn ternary phase, molecular structural formula Al20Cu2Mn3, molecule phase character is Diameter about 100nm, length about 600~1000nm are { the 010} face coherence in mandrel shape and its (010) face and alloy matrix aluminum;And T Mutually around apposition growth size is compared with the secondary phase of Al-Cu binary of big (thickness about 20nm, be about 50nm), due to this secondary phase with In matrix, other Al-Cu metastable phase (GP district, θ ", θ ' or other disc phase) compares, and structurally has very big difference, particularly Thickness is thicker much than other Al-Cu metastable phase, and therefore the present invention is referred to as θ H phase, its molecular structural formula Alx(x is likely less than Cu 2), it is a kind of rich Cu molecule.
Theoretical according to alloy strengthening, the intensity of alloy is embodied in interface or dislocation movement by slip is hindered by particle, hinders more Strong intensity is the biggest, walks around that particle leaves dislocation ring and to continue the obstruction of sliding the strongest.For aluminum bronze manganese systems (Al-Cu-Mn) alloy, The Al-Cu Binary-phase in GP district is the main intensifying factor of alloy, along with the binary Al-Cu metastable phase of θ ", θ ' or other disc shaped Grow up, when disc is big to a certain extent (thickness only has 1~3nm to diameter more than 150nm), play maximum and hinder dislocation movement by slip energy Power, the contribution bigger to the elongation percentage holding of matrix.
As it was previously stated, the major diameter transmission wheel disc that tradition magnesium iron (QT500) makes, during actual manufacture, using There is following defect:
1. relatively low because of magnesium iron elongation percentage, the sensitivity that counter stress is concentrated substantially increases, and deforms after showing as surrendering
Measure less easy fracture, cause the accident.
2. magnesium iron heat treatment process is complicated, equipment technology requirement is high, and consumes and discharge the biggest.
3. along the whole life cycle of parts application, magnesium iron lacks because of big, heavy, perishable, the easy brittle failure of its inertia etc. Falling into, its material consumption, energy consumption and maintenance cost are higher than very much, and its value recycled is relatively low.
Aluminium alloy differential carrier has no correlational study at home, because the limitation of common aluminum alloy basic material, its power Performance is relatively low, especially high-temperature heat-resistance performance, and the temperature born is less than 300 DEG C, has a strong impact on the life-span, even adds safety Risk.
Summary of the invention
The technical problem to be solved in the present invention is: provide one to substitute QT500 aluminium alloy differential mechanism material and preparation side thereof Method, wherein adds Lewis Acids and Bases pair, effectively expedites the emergence of critical nucleus (obtaining equiax crystal), make alloy obtain before curing most preferably The combined structure of molecule thing ((T+ θ H) combines phase), promote alloy crystalline state optimization, enable aluminum alloy to base material and realize 500MPa and more High strength grade, thus reach to produce the Al-alloy products substituting QT500 major diameter transmission wheel disc.
The technical scheme is that a kind of aluminium alloy differential carrier material substituting QT500, main constituent content is by weight Percentages: manganese Mn :≤2%, cadmium Cd:0.05%~0.5%, copper Cu:4.2%~8.0% and Cu >=0.8Mn+4.05%, silicon Si: 7.0%~9%;Lewis Acids and Bases is to total amount 1% × 10-4~2.0%, making alloy mean grain size < 120 microns, surplus is aluminum Al.
Described alloy grain is equiax crystal.
In described alloy grain, sub-nanometer (T+ θ H) combination phase amount reaches >=1/square micron.
Described Lewis Acids and Bases is to for one or more in the carbide of metal, hydrogen peroxide adduct, transition group dvielement Mixing.
Described metal carbides: include titanium carbide TiC.
Described hydrogen peroxide adduct, including lithium hydride LiH.
Described Lewis Acids and Bases pair, accounts for Al matrix percentage by weight by element addition, and scope is: Mg < 1.2%, Sc < 0.5%, TiC0.5%, LiH < 0.5%.
A kind of preparation method substituting QT500 aluminium alloy differential mechanism material, comprises the steps of
(1) in the range of aforementioned Lewis Acids and Bases is to, element ratio, selected one group of combinations of substances, determine weight ratio, as required The alloy total amount of preparation, extrapolates the weight of every kind of required material;
(2) adding aluminium ingot or molten aluminum liquid in smelting furnace, heating is also incubated more than 700 DEG C;
(3) adding manganese Mn, cadmium Cd, copper Cu, silicon Si stirs, and adds selected Lewis Acids and Bases pair, or adds selected Louis This acid-base pair combines, and stirs;
(4) then above-mentioned alloy melt is carried out furnace refining;
(5) remove the gred after refine, stand, sample analysis alloy composition, adjust chemical composition to regulation according to analysis result In deviation range;Homoiothermic is to more than 650 DEG C, and aluminium alloy is come out of the stove, online degasification, slagging-off;
(6) casting: use gravitational casting.
Described gravitational casting, step is as follows:
(1) melt proceeds to casting ladle from holding furnace;
(2) casting mold is preheated suitable temperature;
(3) take manually to pour into a mould or automatization's cast, in stove, dip aluminium alloy with casting ladle and pour mould gate into and pass through ingate It is full of die cavity;Natural cooling or the coldest;
(4) die sinking pickup after melt solidifies completely.
(5) product, natural cooling, cleaning core, sawing rising head, polishing overlap are taken out in die sinking;
(6) appearance quality detection: rough casting, before carrying out presentation quality inspection, should be cleaned out smooth, non-machined surface Dead head should be cleaned to cast(ing) surface and flush;
(7) internal soundness detection;
(8) solution treatment: solid solution furnace sent into by the blank that foundry goods completes roughing and inside and outside quality testing, carries out less than 550 DEG C Solution treatment, enters water quenching at once after being incubated;
(9) ageing strengthening: the foundry goods completing solution treatment is sent into aging furnace and carries out ageing strengthening process, time below 230 DEG C Effect strengthening, natural cooling of coming out of the stove after insulation;
(10) sample analysis test checking;
(11) Practical Performance checking.
Beneficial effects of the present invention: by using lewis' theory of acids and bases, make Lewis Acids and Bases at aluminium alloy melt ring Border occurs to disintegrate and convert, with the abundant disturbance of (0.1nm~10nm range scale) in providing the hyperfine microcell of melt and activation Effect, reaches to expedite the emergence of critical nucleus and is formed in a large number, makes alloy grain degree be refined further, shape more rounding;The most excellent Change very small areas (micron order: about yardstick 1~30 μm) and precise and tiny region (Subnano-class or sub-micron grade particle: yardstick 10nm ~< 1 μm) thing phase molecule combinative structure, increase (T+ θ H) combination content in alloy substrate, enable aluminum alloy to matrix strong Degree obtains big lifting, is well controlled between 400~600MPa in yield strength, and this is the engineering that the invention solves the problems that Application problem, i.e. alternate series ductile iron material and goods.
In alloy melt, different metal atom or ion close, also can produce energy level splitting between them and heat occurs Chemical reaction (electron transfer does not occur) and form the pattern of intermetallic compound, according to electronegativity size, AlxCu and Al20Cu2Mn3Louis's " acid-base pair " can be regarded as.When the external Lewis Acids and Bases added in melt is to when decomposing, with matrix The intermetallic compound presoma that Presence of an interface can differ from the most also is disturbed and activates and recurring structure fluctuating, produces more Critical nucleus, makes (T+ θ H) combination concentration mutually the most in the alloy and is evenly distributed density, make up to 1/[μm]2Above, this Be exactly Lewis Acids and Bases to the disturbance of nanoscale and activation effect can increase Subnano-class particle (T+ θ H) combination mutually and Nanoscale particle GP district, θ ", the mechanism of θ ' tandem reinforcement phase.
Aluminium alloy melt is overall as a rich, high temperature electron system, for electronegativity higher than its metallic element, be to Electron, and electronegativity is less than to its active metal element, it is again electron acceptor, it is seen that aluminium alloy melt also has Louis The general general character of this soda acid, itself and the element added among it, also can form broad sense " Lewis Acids and Bases to ", because of This, can be the various elements of adjustment melt chemistry activity, unified " lewis acid " or " lewis base " being considered as aluminium alloy, when When using transition group dvielement such as Fe, the interior transition dvielement such as Ce that the present invention provides, in order to simplify description, and also to prominent Go out the optimization function to aluminium alloy melt, individual element is also referred to as " Lewis Acids and Bases to ".
For aluminium alloy melt, the hydrogen of metal and thing such as lithium hydride LiH, combine with covalent bond between its atom, have Louis The feature of this acid-base pair, these the most sufficiently stable and particularly preferred materials of thermostability, when dividing with nanomorphic powder After blowing into melt, due to high temperature, electron rich and the biggest specific surface area, the interface energy of generation be enough to cause material scatteredly Molecule occurs polarization deformation or even disproportionation to decompose, and also can cause disturbance and activation effect in nanometer range, it is also possible to be attributed to " Louis This acid-base pair ".
To sum up, Lewis Acids and Bases pair of the present invention, variform can be shown as, be combined into part including metal Negative ions body, metal carbides, hydrogen peroxide adduct, transition group dvielement, one or more mixing in interior transition dvielement.
Further, since foreign peoples's material concentration that Lewis Acids and Bases is bigger to being supplied to alloy melt, therefore increase The constitutional supercooling degree of melt crystallization process, causes nucleus quickly to cross critical dimension under higher crystallization power, and supercool Free nucleation and growth in liquid, formed and have isotropism and shape closer to spherical equi-axed crystal;Due to equiax crystal This because of the free growing endogenetic forming mechanism of liquid internal, change the irregular crystal edge such as plane crystalline substance, dendrite, column crystal The growth pattern that the raw core of type wall in casting mold cavity, the most export-oriented liquid internal are unidirectionally extended, therefore avoids or alleviates alloy Component segregation, crystallize thick unidirectional, defect that macro property is uneven, thus it is common to be prevented effectively from or alleviate some of alloy Defect, such as pin hole, pore, shrinkage cavity and porosity, segregation, thick solid solution, high hardness compound, crackle etc..
The present invention is based on to the contrast image of alloy microstructure very high resolution and the structural analysis of precise and tiny constituency, it was found that Intracrystalline also exists the hyperfine structure of (T+ θ H) excellent forked combination phase of sub-micron grade.Binary-phase each with Al-Cu compares, (T+ θ H) Combination has many advantages mutually, including: particle size is big, and anti-dislocation movement by slip face is big;Trunk portion T is that high hard high stable compound gathers The bar-shaped twin closed, it is possible to walk around mode with dislocation and provide strength support for alloy;Its secondary θ H adheres on trunk Oblique or be perpendicular to T mandrel direction and to surrounding matrix growth simultaneously with matrix coherence, enhance trunk to lattice-site around The ability of tightening up of battle array, or in other words, T mandrel by adhering to it on to the secondary phase of θ H of surrounding growth, tighten up act on to Matrix space transmission around and diffusion, this acting on creates reinforcing bar in similar building structure in time um region to matrix Grid invigoration effect (can be described as " class concrete reinforced structure ") in concrete, makes matrix strength be greatly improved.This effect, as Fruit is compared from monomer, is flake Al-Cu metastable phase (GP district, θ ", θ ' or other disc phase) or a combination thereof is all in matrix Far from compare;But, in common aluminum bronze manganese systems (Al-Cu-Mn) alloy, owing to each binary Al-Cu metastable phase is at base The distribution density in internal portion be significantly larger than (T+ θ H) combination phase distribution density, cause (T+ θ H) combination phase effect be blanked and Never it is found.
(T+ θ H) combination optimizes the thing phase molecule combinative structure of aluminum bronze manganese systems (Al-Cu-Mn) alloy mutually, carries for matrix Supply walking around strengthening effect and cutting through strengthening effect two kinds work higher than what free state Al-Cu metastable phase combined of high Hard Inclusion T-phase With;So must design of material pay close attention to emphasis from tradition merely to Al-Cu metastable phase combination be transferred out, and concentrate on right Expediting the emergence of in effect of (T+ θ H) combination phase.
Inventive formulation is configured as one of technical way, is that the crystalline state combination making alloy realizes mean grain size < Under the equiax crystal premise of 120 microns, also can realize alloy grain internal (T+ θ H) combination phase amount 1/[μm]2Above.Cause This main constituent is designed as by weight percentage: manganese Mn :≤2%, cadmium Cd:0.05%~0.5%, and copper Cu:4.2%~8.0% and Cu >= 0.8Mn+4.05%, silicon Si:7.0~9%;Lewis Acids and Bases is to total amount 1% × 10-4~2.0%, make alloy mean grain size < 120 Micron, surplus is aluminum Al, increases silicon and can improve the cast mobility of aluminum liquid, improves hardness, improve the machinability of alloy, Improve compressive property.
The result obtained by DSC differentia scanning calorimetry, the chemistry of aluminum bronze manganese systems (Al-Cu-Mn) alloy The difference of the temperature range high lower bound that heat effect occurs has 100 DEG C, in Al-Cu binary is each mutually, and the Al of equilibrium state2Cu (θ) is mutually altogether Brilliant fusing point is up to 548 DEG C, is in the temperature position starting to occur heat effect, when temperature is at 648.5 DEG C on DSC curve Heat effect is maximum, just without chemical calorific effect after temperature is higher.Rationally inferring and matrix coherence (T+ of this situation θ H) combine the endothermic thermal event melting (matrix melts simultaneously) mutually and cause.
The trunk T-phase of (T+ θ H) combination phase substantially increases thermostability and the calorific intensity of alloy;And (T+ θ H) combination number of phases Amount and the raising of distribution density, improve the intensity of alloy, hardness and elongation percentage the most simultaneously.
Theoretical according to metal freezing, in terms of macroscopic perspective, a large amount of formation of critical nucleus need to being in melt free The atom of state reduces potential energy threshold to " jump " of lattice dot matrix ordered state, and this low threshold comes from two conditions: one is The surface tension reducing liquid metal makes original nucleus easily spread and easily absorbs the atom of free state around, and a kind of form is just It is to create the heterogeneous crystallization nuclei of stable state as much as possible.
According to lewis' theory of acids and bases, aluminum melt is an electron rich high temperature system, i.e. belongs to strong lewis base, has served as After the copper manganese of amount adds, owing to the electronegativity of copper manganese is relatively strong, the more electron cloud of suction, make the alkali of the alloy melt of formation Property reduce, surface tension increase, be unfavorable for the generation of critical nucleus;After adding electron rich material, balance the acid effect of copper manganese Should, the interfacial tension that original nucleus faces reduces, thus the original nucleus promoting the trunk T-phase of (T+ θ H) combination phase is grown into Critical nucleus, thus quantity and distribution density significantly improve in the alloy mutually to determine (T+ θ H) combination.
Detailed description of the invention
The specific embodiment of the invention includes 2 parts, and Part I is prompting and explanation, and Part II is for being embodied as Example.
Part I: point out and illustrate
The step that alloy melt prepares:
(1) in the range of aforementioned Lewis Acids and Bases is to, element ratio, selected one group of combinations of substances, determine weight ratio, as required The alloy total amount of preparation, extrapolates the weight of every kind of required material, works out alloy production list of ingredients, and it is each to press list of ingredients choosing foot Plant and get the raw materials ready;
(2) adding appropriate aluminium ingot or molten aluminum liquid in smelting furnace, heating is allowed to melt completely and be incubated more than 700 DEG C; For preventing melt from sucking too much air, fusion process should complete with in enclosed environment the most at short notice;
(3) press formula proportion and add manganese Mn, cadmium Cd, copper Cu, silicon Si, after stirring, add selected Lewis Acids and Bases pair, or Person adds selected Lewis Acids and Bases to combination, stirs;
If described Lewis Acids and Bases to or combination in solid block, can be directly added into melt or with pressing supplementary mode add Enter melt;
If described Lewis Acids and Bases to or combination in solid filament wire, can be with on-line automatic wire feeding mode, when casting even Continuous addition, or it is cut into suitable segment, before casting every time, add casting ladle or scoop wooden dipper;
Described Lewis Acids and Bases pair, active metal element selects to add melt with protection form, and high-melting-point insoluble metal element selects Selecting coordination compound form, readily soluble heavy metal selects elemental stage;
Described Lewis Acids and Bases to or combination, compound or coordination compound select to make pressed powder form in advance;
Described Lewis Acids and Bases to or combination, select after alloy host element melting completes add melt, or melt essence Add melt during refining, or after refine purifies, add melt, or before cast form, add melt;
(4) then above-mentioned alloy melt carrying out furnace refining, described refine selects to operate in enclosed environment, described closed-loop Border selects to get rid of, in convulsion mode, the waste gas that refine produces continuously;
(5) remove the gred after refine, stand, sample analysis alloy composition, adjust chemical composition to regulation according to analysis result In deviation range;
Described adjustment selection of chemical composition by add Lewis Acids and Bases to or combination in the way of be adjusted;
Homoiothermic is to more than 650 DEG C, and aluminium alloy is come out of the stove, online degasification, slagging-off;
Described degasification can select the agitation of graphite-pipe sleeve rotor to be blown into purification gas;
Described purification gas can select nitrogen, argon, chlorine or their mixture;
Described slagging-off can select surface remove scum silica frost or select Filtration to remove in melt bottom thick particle or melt Sediment;
Described Filtration can select ceramic filter plate or glass fibre or filter cloth as filter medium;
Described filtration can carry out single-stage filtration or double-stage filtering or multistage filtering;
Described thick particle can be the particle that granularity is not less than 10 microns;
(6) casting: casting refers to aluminium alloy injection type intracavity solidification and crystallization;
Described die cavity can be casting solid shape and the metal pattern die cavity of structural casting, sand mo(u)ld die cavity or core+metal pattern Die cavity;
Described injection selects gravity casting and pouring, and step is as follows:
1. pourable casting after melt filtration, casting temperature controls can be at 700~730 DEG C;
2. mould should be preheating to about 450 DEG C before casting, install core, by compressed air, mold cavity is blown clean, anti- Only field trash enters alloy and causes waste product;
3. completing on convertible gravity casting machine, can take manually to pour into a mould or automatization's cast, closed die also makes casting machine overturn To certain angle, in stove, dip appropriate aluminium alloy with casting ladle and pour in mould switching bag, make casting machine slowly be turned to horizontal position Putting, in switching process, aluminium alloy is full of die cavity from switching bag by ingate;Natural cooling or the coldest;
4. product, natural cooling, cleaning core, sawing rising head, polishing overlap are taken out in die sinking;
5. appearance quality detection: rough casting, before carrying out presentation quality inspection, should be cleaned out smooth, watering of non-machined surface Rising head should be cleaned to cast(ing) surface and flush;
Foundry goods can check presentation quality with naked eyes or by low power magnifier or other test method, and the described visual quality of casting refers to Including surface roughness, surface defect or dimensional accuracy;
On the non-machined surface of foundry goods, it is allowed to foundry goods has the vestiges such as typing, push rod and venting plug, it is allowed to have polish resectable Defect, but be not allow for welding, viscose glue etc. and repair vestige, the dead head residual quantity of to be processed cannot be greater than 2mm;
On rough casting, the mark of all castings must clear and legible knowledge;
The blank meeting surface roughness requirements carries out approved sample, and addressee to be tested is checked and accepted with the contrast of approved sample part;
(7) internal soundness detection.Section dye penetrant inspection detection or integral fluorescence or X-ray check;
Described section dye penetrant inspection detects, and can foundry goods random inspection one or the pieces of every batch dissect, inspection foundry goods master Want heat energy-saving position or the wall thickness internal soundness compared with large part;
Described section, can cut and be easily generated most pore, casting position such as the housing installation foot, valve body installing hole of sand holes, side cover peace The thick large part of dress hole or master cylinder afterbody etc., detects with coloring agent, and whether range estimation has the defect such as pore, sand holes;
The detection of described integral fluorescence be foundry goods is soaked after fluorescent liquid through irradiate observe surface and certain depth with or without microcrack, The defect such as pin hole, micropore;
Described X-ray check be foundry goods through X-ray transmission to detect its internal metallurgical quality, observing has free of pinholes, pore, shrinkage cavity, dredges Pine, shrinkage porosite, segregation, thick phase granule, be mingled with, slag inclusion, cold shut, cold shot or crackle;
(8) solution treatment.Solid solution furnace sent into by the blank that foundry goods completes roughing and inside and outside quality testing, carries out less than 560 DEG C Solution treatment, quench at once after insulation, water-cooled or oil cold;
(9) ageing strengthening: the foundry goods completing solution treatment is sent into aging furnace and carries out ageing strengthening process, ageing strengthening technique 150~240 DEG C, after insulation, natural cooling of coming out of the stove;Cast(ing) surface can carry out impeller blasting;
(10) sample analysis test checking: cut coupon from the foundry goods after Overheating Treatment, sampling point is selected in blank originally Body has the position that the appropriate location of allowance, foundry goods body are loaded uniform or concentrate, and each sampling point should cut three Coupon;
Sample can be carried out Resarch on A New Type, Metallographic Analysis, secondary densimetry solid solution and timeliness degree detecting or deep layer Secondary Micro-Structure Analysis;
Described mechanics property analysis includes tensile strength, yield strength, elongation percentage, hardness, and numerical indication is: tensile strength 500 ± 50Mpa, yield strength 450 ± 50Mpa, elongation percentage 5 ± 2%, hardness 140 ± 10HBS;
Described Metallographic Analysis includes grain morphology, grain size, thick brittlement phase or notable defect, and grain morphology should be isometry Crystalline substance, grain size is average≤120 μm, thick brittlement phase granularity≤25 μm, does not exist more than the hole of 15 μm or crystal boundary without separating out Carry notable defect;
The detection solid solution of described secondary densimetry and timeliness degree completion rate are not less than 80%;
(11) Practical Performance checking.Processed and after assembling by machining, surface, be simulated the Practical Performance of applying working condition Detection test, including selecting fatigue test, wear test, reverse overload test or overvoltage test.
Part II: specific embodiment
Embodiment 1
1. the aluminium alloy differential carrier material component percentage by weight substituting QT500 is: a Mn:0.3%, Cd:0.05%, Cu: 6.2%, Si:7.8%, Mg:0.9%, TiC:0.05%, Sc:0.01%, LiH:0.05%, surplus is aluminum Al;
2, preparation method: melt → cast → die cavity is tumbled → mold filling and solidification → solid solution → timeliness
(1) melt cast temperature >=705 DEG C;
(2) mold preheating temperature >=420 DEG C;
(3) filling time≤15s;
(4) die cavity tipping speed >=15 degrees second, retention time >=5 min;
(5) condition of heat treatment: T6-solid solution adds complete artificial aging;
3, goods microstructure index: metallographic structure is equiax crystal, mean grain size 75 μm, (T+ θ H) combination phase amount in crystal grain 8/[μm]2
4, foundry goods mechanical performance: tensile strength 540Mpa, yield strength 430 Mpa, elongation after fracture 7%, Brinell hardness 150.
Embodiment 2
1. the aluminium alloy differential carrier material component percentage by weight substituting QT500 is: a Mn:0.5%, Cd:0.06%, Cu: 7.5%, Si:8.3%, Mg0.85%, TiC0.05%, Sc0.02%, LiH0.04%, surplus is aluminum Al;
2, preparation method: with embodiment 1;
3, goods microstructure index: metallographic structure is equiax crystal, mean grain size 72 μm, (T+ θ H) combination phase amount in crystal grain 7/[μm]2
4, foundry goods mechanical performance: tensile strength 530Mpa, yield strength 410 Mpa, elongation after fracture 6.5%, Brinell hardness 148.
Embodiment 3
1. the aluminium alloy differential carrier material component percentage by weight substituting QT500 is: a Mn:0.5%, Cd:0.06%, Cu: 5.5%, Si:7.0%, LiH:0.04%, surplus is aluminum Al;
2, preparation method: with embodiment 1;
3, goods microstructure index: metallographic structure is equiax crystal, mean grain size 72 μm, (T+ θ H) combination phase amount in crystal grain 8/[μm]2
4, foundry goods mechanical performance: tensile strength 535Mpa, yield strength 425 Mpa, elongation after fracture 6.5%, Brinell hardness 150.

Claims (9)

1. the aluminium alloy differential carrier material substituting QT500, it is characterised in that: main constituent content by weight percentage: Manganese Mn :≤2%, cadmium Cd:0.05%~0.5%, copper Cu:4.2%~8.0% and Cu >=0.8Mn+4.05%, silicon Si:7.0%~9%;Road Lewis acid alkali is to total amount 1% × 10-4~2.0%, making alloy mean grain size < 120 microns, surplus is aluminum Al.
A kind of replacement QT500 aluminium alloy differential carrier material the most according to claim 1, it is characterised in that: alloy grain For equiax crystal.
A kind of replacement QT500 aluminium alloy differential mechanism material the most according to claim 1, it is characterised in that: in alloy grain Sub-nanometer (T+ θ H) combination phase amount reaches >=1/square micron.
A kind of replacement QT500 aluminium alloy differential mechanism material the most according to claim 1, it is characterised in that: described Louis Acid-base pair is one or more mixing in the carbide of metal, hydrogen peroxide adduct, transition group dvielement.
A kind of replacement QT500 aluminium alloy differential mechanism material the most according to claim 4, it is characterised in that: described metal Carbide: include titanium carbide TiC.
A kind of replacement QT500 aluminium alloy differential mechanism material the most according to claim 4, it is characterised in that: described hydrido Thing, including lithium hydride LiH.
7. according to a kind of replacement QT500 aluminium alloy differential mechanism material one of claim 1-6 Suo Shu, it is characterised in that: described Lewis Acids and Bases pair, accounts for Al matrix percentage by weight by element addition, and scope is: Mg < 1.2%, Sc < 0.5%, TiC0.5%, LiH < 0.5%.
A kind of preparation method substituting QT500 aluminium alloy differential mechanism material the most as claimed in claim 7, it is characterised in that: bag Containing following steps:
(1) in the range of aforementioned Lewis Acids and Bases is to, element ratio, selected one group of combinations of substances, determine weight ratio, as required The alloy total amount of preparation, extrapolates the weight of every kind of required material;
(2) adding aluminium ingot or molten aluminum liquid in smelting furnace, heating is also incubated more than 700 DEG C;
(3) adding manganese Mn, cadmium Cd, copper Cu, silicon Si stirs, and adds selected Lewis Acids and Bases pair, or adds selected Louis This acid-base pair combines, and stirs;
(4) then above-mentioned alloy melt is carried out furnace refining;
(5) remove the gred after refine, stand, sample analysis alloy composition, adjust chemical composition to regulation according to analysis result In deviation range;Homoiothermic is to more than 650 DEG C, and aluminium alloy is come out of the stove, online degasification, slagging-off;
(6) casting: use gravitational casting.
A kind of preparation method substituting QT500 aluminium alloy differential mechanism material the most according to claim 8, it is characterised in that: Described gravitational casting, step is as follows:
(1) melt proceeds to casting ladle from holding furnace;
(2) casting mold is preheated suitable temperature;
(3) take manually to pour into a mould or automatization's cast, in stove, dip aluminium alloy with casting ladle and pour mould gate into and pass through ingate It is full of die cavity;Natural cooling or the coldest;
(4) die sinking pickup after melt solidifies completely;
(5) product, natural cooling, cleaning core, sawing rising head, polishing overlap are taken out in die sinking;
(6) appearance quality detection: rough casting, before carrying out presentation quality inspection, should be cleaned out smooth, non-machined surface Dead head should be cleaned to cast(ing) surface and flush;
(7) internal soundness detection;
(8) solution treatment: solid solution furnace sent into by the blank that foundry goods completes roughing and inside and outside quality testing, carries out less than 550 DEG C Solution treatment, enters water quenching at once after being incubated;
(9) ageing strengthening: the foundry goods completing solution treatment is sent into aging furnace and carries out ageing strengthening process, time below 230 DEG C Effect strengthening, natural cooling of coming out of the stove after insulation;
(10) sample analysis test checking;
(11) Practical Performance checking.
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