CN106094032B - A kind of method for building formation velocity model - Google Patents

A kind of method for building formation velocity model Download PDF

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Publication number
CN106094032B
CN106094032B CN201610762531.3A CN201610762531A CN106094032B CN 106094032 B CN106094032 B CN 106094032B CN 201610762531 A CN201610762531 A CN 201610762531A CN 106094032 B CN106094032 B CN 106094032B
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speed
velocity
work area
speed control
data
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CN106094032A (en
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蒋波
邓小江
王小兰
李邗
范增辉
康昆
黄诚
杨容
程莉莉
王梦
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China National Petroleum Corp
BGP Inc
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BGP Inc
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    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01VGEOPHYSICS; GRAVITATIONAL MEASUREMENTS; DETECTING MASSES OR OBJECTS; TAGS
    • G01V1/00Seismology; Seismic or acoustic prospecting or detecting
    • G01V1/28Processing seismic data, e.g. analysis, for interpretation, for correction
    • G01V1/30Analysis
    • G01V1/303Analysis for determining velocity profiles or travel times

Abstract

The present invention provides a kind of methods for building formation velocity model.The method includes:Obtain the existing single-shot seismic data in work area;Obtain the pre-stack time migration seismic data cube in work area and pre-stack time migration image taking speed body;Obtain the seismic reflection layer position data and layer data of the time-domain of each speed control layer in work area;Obtain each electrobed section and the speed of each speed control interval;Obtain the speed of each speed control layer;Establish the tectonic framework model in work area;Obtain the velocity field in work area;Obtain depth migration body of velocity;Form final rate pattern.The present invention can utilize acoustic logging, the VSP logs of adjacent area, pre-stack time migration body of velocity, pre-stack depth migration body of velocity and the Skeleton Model in surface geology figure combination work area in work area establishes formation velocity model, new prospecting area is can be applied to, precision is higher.

Description

A kind of method for building formation velocity model
Technical field
The present invention relates to geophysical signal acquisition and seismic data interpretation fields.It relates in particular to a kind of structure ground The method of interval velocity model.
Background technology
In seismic data interpretation work, formation velocity model is mainly used for time and depth transfer, therefore, accurately establishes stratum speed Degree model is one of core missions of seismic data interpretation work, be the rationally important prerequisite condition of excellent Geological Achievements that obtains and Key job content.
At present, the more mature method for establishing formation velocity model is the research on utilization work area using seismic velocity as background Time-depth curve or well layering-seismic horizon speed (that is, well shake Pseudo velocity of drilling well) of drilling well are abnormal to tectonic model and lithology Body frame carries out about beam alignment, so as to establish the formation velocity model of the whole district.This method can substantially meet the needs of explanation, and It is not easy to that construction distortion occurs.
However, for some relatively new exploratory areas, basic data is relatively fewer, only the drilling data and local area of adjacent area Geology, Use of Geophysical Data, the precision of conventional formation velocity model can not much meet the needs of such surveying tasks.
Invention content
It is an object of the invention to solve at least one in deficiencies of the prior art.
To achieve these goals, it is existing to overcome the invention reside in a kind of method for building formation velocity model of offer The problem of precision of formation velocity model is not high in technology.
The present invention provides it is a kind of build formation velocity model method, the method includes the steps:A, obtain work area and The basic data of adjacent area;B, pre-stack time migration processing is carried out to the single-shot seismic data in work area, during obtaining the prestack in work area Between migrating seismic data body and pre-stack time migration body of velocity;C, work area speed control is determined according to work area subsurface velocity structure Layer, and the tracing of horizons of speed control layer is carried out in the pre-stack time migration seismic data cube, to obtain each speed in work area Spend the seismic reflection layer position data and layer data of the time-domain of key-course;D, according to the sound wave curve of adjacent area well and/or vertically Seismic profile log obtains each electrobed section and the speed of each speed control interval;E, according to ground geologic map and described Pre-stack time migration body of velocity, to obtain the speed at each speed control layer control point each in the plane, so as to obtain speed control The planar velocity variation diagram of preparative layer;F, work area is established using the seismic reflection layer position data in the step C and layer data Tectonic framework model;G, according to the Taoist monastic name of seismic survey lines or coordinate, by time number corresponding in the tectonic framework model in step F It is matched according to the speed data in the planar velocity variation diagram of the speed control layer in the step E, obtains tectonic framework The when m- speed pair of corresponding speed control layer or tomography in model, by institute's having time-speed to spatially merging, from And obtain the velocity field in work area;H, the seismic reflection layer position in the velocity field and the step C in the work area in the step G is utilized Data carry out control velocity inversion, establish initial pre-stack depth migration data volume, then carry out corresponding depth migration processing, obtain To depth migration body of velocity;I, using the speed in the depth migration body of velocity in the step H to each speed in the step E The correction in the speed carry out trend at key-course control point each in the plane is spent, step G is repeated and forms final rate pattern.
In one exemplary embodiment of the present invention, work is determined according to work area subsurface velocity structure in the step C The realization method of area's speed control floor can be:Structure is changed according to work area formation velocity, speed control layer can control big noose The velocity variations on structure stratum, then there is larger difference of impedance according to speed control bed boundary, the interface is strong in whole district's reflection, And can continuously track, so that it is determined that work area speed control layer.
In one exemplary embodiment of the present invention, the step E may comprise steps of:E1, according to ground The exposure situation on each stratum on matter figure obtains the first average speed of each speed control interval in plane using Weighted Average Algorithm On spread;E2, root mean sequare velocity corresponding in the pre-stack time migration body of velocity is converted into putting down using Dickens, Charles formula Equal speed, then extract the average speed of each speed control layer, using extraction each speed control layer average speed to described Amendment in one average speed carry out trend sketches out the planar velocity variation diagram of each speed control layer.
Compared with prior art, beneficial effects of the present invention include:The acoustic logging of adjacent area, VSP can be utilized to survey Well curve, pre-stack time migration body of velocity, pre-stack depth migration body of velocity and the lattice in surface geology figure combination work area in work area Frame model establishes formation velocity model, and this method is mainly used in new prospecting area, precision is higher.
Description of the drawings
By the detailed description carried out below in conjunction with the accompanying drawings, above and other purpose of exemplary embodiment of the present, spy Point and/or advantage will become apparent, wherein:
Fig. 1 shows the flow chart of the method for structure formation velocity model according to an exemplary embodiment of the present invention;
Fig. 2 shows the layer position data and tomography of the speed control layer according to an exemplary embodiment of the present invention for obtaining work area The flow chart of the step of data;
Fig. 3 shows the speed of electrobed section and each speed control in determining work area according to an exemplary embodiment of the present invention The flow chart of the step of speed of preparative layer section;
Fig. 4 shows the velocity plane variation of the speed control layer according to an exemplary embodiment of the present invention for establishing work area The flow chart of step;
Fig. 5 shows the step of pre-stack depth migration data volume in acquisition work area according to an exemplary embodiment of the present invention Flow chart.
Specific embodiment
It hereinafter, will be with reference to the next structure formation velocity model that the present invention will be described in detail of attached drawing and exemplary embodiment Method
Fig. 1 shows the flow chart of the method for structure formation velocity model according to an exemplary embodiment of the present invention.Here, As an example, the method can be realized by being used to build the equipment of formation velocity model, it can also pass through computer program completely To realize.
As shown in Figure 1, in step S100, work area and the existing basic data in adjacent area are obtained.Here, the work area and adjacent area Existing basic data may include drilling data, well-log information and geologic information, seismic data etc..
In step S200, pre-stack time migration processing is carried out to the single-shot seismic data in work area, to obtain the prestack in work area Time migration seismic data cube and pre-stack time migration body of velocity.It here, can be by existing any mode to the single-shot in work area Seismic data carries out pre-stack time migration processing to obtain the pre-stack time migration seismic data cube and pre-stack time migration in work area Body of velocity.Here, the single-shot seismic data in work area belongs to the seismic data in the basic data in step S100.
In step S300, work area speed control layer is determined, and in the prestack time according to work area subsurface velocity structure Migrating seismic data body carries out the tracing of horizons of speed control layer (that is, aforementioned work area speed control layer), to obtain in work area The seismic reflection layer position data and layer data of the time-domain of each speed control layer.As an example, the work area Zhong Ge stratum Time-domain seismic reflection layer position data and layer data may include the seismic reflection of each main speed control layer in work area Layer digit is according to this and layer data.Here, this field those having ordinary skill in the art can by the drilling well in the comprehensive analysis area, well logging, The data such as matter, earthquake determine work area subsurface velocity structure, and further can determine work area according to work area subsurface velocity structure Speed control layer.
In step S400, according to the sound wave curve or vertical seismic profile log curve being collected into, (referred to as VSP well loggings are bent Line) obtain the speed of each electrobed section (alternatively referred to as small interval) and each speed control interval.Here, each speed control layer Section refers to the section between two neighboring speed control layer.
In step S500, according to the surface geology figure being collected into and pass through the obtained pre-stack time migration speed of step S200 Body is spent to obtain the speed at each speed control layer control point each in the plane, so as to obtain speed control layer plane velocity variations Figure.Specifically, the speed at each control point is mainly the speed according to gained in step S400, according to ground geologic map and is folded The variation tendency of speed obtained by preceding time migration body of velocity determines the speed at each speed control layer control point each in the plane, So as to obtain speed control layer plane velocity profile.Wherein, in step S400 gained each speed control interval of speed speed Degree.Here, surface geology figure is to collect to get to obtain basic data, is directly available achievement graph.
In step S600, the construction lattice in work area are established using the seismic reflection layer position data in step S300 and layer data Frame model.
In step S700, according to the Taoist monastic name or coordinate of seismic survey lines, by the tectonic framework model in step S600 when Between data matched with the speed data in the planar velocity variation diagram of the speed control layer in step S500, obtain construction lattice The when m- speed pair of speed control layer or tomography in frame model, by institute's having time-speed to spatially merging, so as to Obtain the velocity field in work area.
In S800, using the seismic reflection layer position data in the velocity field and step S300 in the work area in step S700, into Row control velocity inversion, establishes initial pre-stack depth migration data volume, then the depth migration processing carried out, obtains depth migration speed Spend body.
That is, as shown in Figure 1, in the present example embodiment, method of the invention utilizes step S500 and step S600 carries out step S700, is then participated in step S800 using the achievement of step S700 (velocity field in work area), then profit The speed at each speed control layer control point each in the plane in step S500 is repaiied with the speed obtained by step S800 Just, then by step S700 final achievement is obtained.That is, when there is the pre-stack depth migration speed in step S800 achievements When pre-stack time migration body of velocity in body and step S200 occurs simultaneously, when carrying out step S500, with step S800 achievements In depth migration body of velocity alternative steps S500 in pre-stack time migration body of velocity.
In addition, utilizing the speed obtained by step S800 to each speed control layer control each in the plane in step S500 When the speed of system point is modified, it then follows using the speed obtained by the sound wave curve of well when having well;Without well area with well point speed For standard, using the speed in step S800 from the change rate that well point is started come to the school in the speed of step S500 carry out trend Just.
Fig. 2 shows the layer position data and tomography of the speed control layer according to an exemplary embodiment of the present invention for obtaining work area The flow chart of the step of data (that is, step S300).
As shown in Fig. 2, in step S310, structure is changed according to work area formation velocity, speed control layer can control big noose The velocity variations on structure stratum, and stratum has larger difference of impedance up and down for selected speed control bed boundary, and the interface is complete Area's reflection is strong, and can continuously track, so as to determine work area speed control layer.In step S320, in pre-stack time migration The tracing of horizons of the enterprising scanning frequency degree key-course of data volume is shaken, it is anti-to obtain the earthquake of the time-domain of each speed control layer in work area Penetrate layer position data and layer data.
Fig. 3 shows the speed of electrobed section and each speed control in determining work area according to an exemplary embodiment of the present invention The flow chart of the step of speed of preparative layer section (i.e. step S400).
As shown in figure 3, in step S410, according to the corresponding electrobed section of the acoustic logging well curve of adjacent area well calculation and accordingly The speed of speed control interval.
In step S420, the speed and corresponding speed of corresponding electrobed section are determined according to the VSP logs of adjacent area well Control section.
In step S430, the speed of the speed and each speed control interval for determining each electrobed section is utilized.It is optional With S410 or S420, any one source determines speed, can also be integrated by both speed and determine a speed.According to Comprehensive method determines speed, can carry out complementation according to two kinds of data are collected, such as some sections may only have one of which data, So with regard to whole section of speed mutually is carried out polishing.If two kinds of data have, it can rule of thumb judge which section of which kind of data is more accurate Really, it is alternative to use a certain data in certain section.If both of which feels the problem of no big, the mode of averaging can also be used To determine final speed.
Wherein as long as electrobed section speed is according to the minimum unit that can be distinguished on the geologic map of ground.
Fig. 4 shows the velocity plane variation of the speed control layer according to an exemplary embodiment of the present invention for establishing work area The flow chart of step (i.e. step S500).
It is flat using weighting according to the exposure situation on stratum each on the geologic map of ground using surface geology figure in step S510 Equal algorithm obtains the spread of speed control interval in the plane, wherein, the Weighted Average Algorithm is primarily directed to surface geology The each electrobed that can be seen on figure account for corresponding each speed control layer proportion be weighted it is average obtain it is corresponding every The average speed of a speed control layer.In the method for the invention, the plane that layer spatially refers to, interval refer to two Section among plane.
In step S520, the root mean sequare velocity in pre-stack time migration body of velocity is converted into averagely using Dickens, Charles formula Speed, then extract the average speed of each speed control layer, using extraction each speed control layer average speed to being done in S510 Average speed carry out trend on amendment (using the speed obtained by the sound wave curve of well, no wellblock when following well during amendment Domain is used using well point speed as standard, is become using the change rate that the speed in S520 is started from well point come the speed to S510 Correction in gesture), sketch out the sea level changes figure of each speed control layer.
Wherein, for seismic data degree of covering is relatively low and the relatively low interval of signal-to-noise ratio, the main weighting using described in S510 The trend of the average speed of average gained speed control layer, and for seismic data degree of covering is higher and signal-to-noise ratio higher level section The average speed variation tendency then extracted using S520 pre-stack time migration bodies of velocity.Usual step S510, step S520 can It individually carries out, the precision of step S510 is higher when individually carrying out;But the precision of step S520 is relatively low, generally it is not recommended that S520 is mono- Solely carry out.That is, step S510 can be used to realize step S500 or carry out step S510 and step using sequence S520 realizes step S500.Here, seismic data degree of covering is relatively low, higher and signal-to-noise ratio is relatively low, higher belongs to ability The content that domain those having ordinary skill in the art may determine that.
Fig. 5 shows the step of pre-stack depth migration data volume in acquisition work area according to an exemplary embodiment of the present invention The flow chart of (i.e. step S800).
As shown in figure 5, in step S810, it is anti-to the earthquake using the velocity field in work area and seismic reflection layer position data It penetrates layer position data and carries out control velocity inversion, to establish initial pre-stack depth migration data volume.
In step S820, pre-stack depth migration data attribute is extracted using the initial pre-stack depth migration data volume.This In, the pre-stack depth migration data volume attribute may include at least one in following item:The categories such as inclination angle, azimuth and continuity Property.
In step S830, pre-stack depth migration is obtained based on the initial pre-stack depth migration data volume and is total to imaging point road Collection, to the pre-stack depth migration common imaging gather automatic Picking residual mean square root speed, and to residual mean square root speed Degree is smoothed.
In step S840, using the pre-stack depth migration data attribute, residual mean square root speed is built with smoothly treated Vertical grid chromatography imaging array carries out dematrix processing, to obtain the prestack depth in work area to grid chromatography imaging array Migration velocity body.
In another exemplary embodiment of the present invention, the method for structure formation velocity model may include following steps: (A) the existing single-shot seismic data in work area is obtained;(B) pre-stack time migration seismic data cube and the prestack time for obtaining work area are inclined It moves into as body of velocity;(C) the seismic reflection layer position data and layer data of the time-domain of each speed control layer in work area are obtained; (D) each electrobed section and the speed of each speed control interval are obtained;(E) speed of each speed control layer is obtained;(F) work is established The tectonic framework model in area;(G) velocity field in work area is obtained;(H) depth migration body of velocity is obtained;(I) final speed is formed Model.
Preferably, step (C) includes:(C1) structure is changed according to work area formation velocity, speed control layer can control big set The velocity variations on structure stratum, then there is larger difference of impedance according to speed control bed boundary, the interface is strong in whole district's reflection, And can continuously track, so that it is determined that work area speed control layer;(C2) and on the pre-stack time migration seismic data cube it carries out The tracing of horizons of speed control layer, to obtain the seismic reflection layer position data of the time-domain of each speed control layer in work area and break Layer data.
Preferably, step (D) includes:(D1) corresponding electrobed section and phase are calculated according to the acoustic logging well curve of adjacent area well Answer the speed of speed control interval;(D2) speed and phase of corresponding electrobed section are determined according to the VSP logs of adjacent area well Answer speed control interval;(D3) according to the speed of the determining each electrobed section of speed synthesis calculated in existing D1 and D2 and respectively Speed control interval.
Preferably, step (E) includes:(E1) using surface geology figure, according to the exposure feelings on stratum each on the geologic map of ground Condition obtains the spread of speed control interval in the plane using Weighted Average Algorithm;It (E2) will be in pre-stack time migration body of velocity Corresponding root mean sequare velocity is converted into average speed, then extract the average speed of each speed control layer using Dickens, Charles formula, profit The amendment in trend is carried out to the speed in E1 with the average speed of each speed control layer of extraction, sketches out each speed control layer Sea level changes figure.
Preferably, step (H) includes:(H1) using the seismic reflection layer position data in the velocity field and C2 in work area in G, into Row control velocity inversion, establishes initial pre-stack depth migration data volume;(H2) pre-stack depth migration data initial described in H1 are utilized Body extracts pre-stack depth migration data attribute;(H3) pre-stack depth migration is obtained based on the initial pre-stack depth migration data volume Common imaging gather, to the pre-stack depth migration common imaging gather automatic Picking residual mean square root speed, and to described surplus Remaining root mean sequare velocity is smoothed;(H4) it is remaining equal that using the pre-stack depth migration data attribute and smoothly, treated Root speed establishes grid chromatography imaging array, dematrix processing is carried out to grid chromatography imaging array, to obtain work area Pre-stack depth migration body of velocity.
Preferably, step (I) includes:(I1) root mean sequare velocity corresponding in pre-stack depth migration body of velocity is utilized into Di more This formula is converted into average speed, then extracts the average speed of each speed control layer, using extraction each speed control layer it is flat Equal speed is to the amendment in the speed carry out trend in E2;(I2) it repeats step G and forms final rate pattern.
In conclusion in the method for the rate pattern of structure seismic data according to an exemplary embodiment of the present invention, energy Enough utilize adjacent area or time-depth curve, the VSP curves of local area, the pre-stack depth migration body of velocity in work area, pre-stack depth migration speed Body, surface geology achievement, the Skeleton Model with reference to work area establish formation velocity model, effectively improve in formation velocity model The accuracy of speed.
Although attached drawing is had been combined above and exemplary embodiment describes the present invention, those of ordinary skill in the art It will be apparent to the skilled artisan that in the case where not departing from spirit and scope by the claims, above-described embodiment can be carry out various modifications.

Claims (3)

1. a kind of method for building formation velocity model, the method includes the steps:
A, the basic data of work area and adjacent area is obtained;
B, pre-stack time migration processing is carried out to the single-shot seismic data in work area, to obtain the pre-stack time migration earthquake number in work area According to body and pre-stack time migration body of velocity;
C, work area speed control layer is determined, and in the pre-stack time migration seismic data cube according to work area subsurface velocity structure The tracing of horizons of work area speed control layer is carried out, to obtain the seismic reflection layer position of the time-domain of each speed control layer in work area Data and layer data;
D, according to the sound wave curve of adjacent area well and/or vertical seismic profile log curve that are collected into obtain each electrobed section and The speed of each speed control interval;
E, according to ground geologic map and the pre-stack time migration body of velocity, to obtain the control each in the plane of each speed control layer The speed of point is made, so as to obtain the planar velocity variation diagram of speed control layer;
F, the tectonic framework model in work area is established using the seismic reflection layer position data in the step C and layer data;
G, according to the Taoist monastic name of seismic survey lines or coordinate, by the time data in the tectonic framework model in step F and the step E In speed control layer planar velocity variation diagram in speed data matched, obtain the speed control in tectonic framework model The when m- speed pair of preparative layer or tomography, by institute's having time-speed to spatially merging, so as to obtain the velocity field in work area;
H, using the seismic reflection layer position data in the velocity field and the step C in the work area in the step G, control speed is carried out Inverting is spent, initial pre-stack depth migration data volume is established, then carry out depth migration processing, obtains depth migration body of velocity;
I, each speed control layer in the step E is being put down using the speed in the depth migration body of velocity in the step H Correction on face in the speed carry out trend at each control point repeats step G and forms final rate pattern.
2. the method for structure formation velocity model according to claim 1, wherein, according to work area stratum in the step C Velocity structure is to determine the realization method of work area speed control layer:According to work area subsurface velocity structure, speed control layer can be controlled The velocity variations on big nested structure stratum are made, then there is larger difference of impedance according to speed control bed boundary, the interface is complete Area's reflection is strong, and can continuously track, so that it is determined that work area speed control layer.
3. the method for structure formation velocity model as described in claim 1, wherein, the step E includes the following steps:
E1, the exposure situation according to stratum each on the geologic map of ground obtain each speed control interval using Weighted Average Algorithm The spread of first average speed in the plane;
E2, the root mean sequare velocity in the pre-stack time migration body of velocity is converted into average speed using Dickens, Charles formula, then Extract the average speed of each speed control layer, using extraction each speed control layer average speed to first average speed Amendment in carry out trend sketches out the planar velocity variation diagram of each speed control layer.
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