CN106018747A - Coal gangue leachate infiltration soil column simulation system and characteristic parameter determination method - Google Patents

Coal gangue leachate infiltration soil column simulation system and characteristic parameter determination method Download PDF

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Publication number
CN106018747A
CN106018747A CN201610478990.9A CN201610478990A CN106018747A CN 106018747 A CN106018747 A CN 106018747A CN 201610478990 A CN201610478990 A CN 201610478990A CN 106018747 A CN106018747 A CN 106018747A
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China
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gangue leachate
soil sample
gangue
leachate
undisturbed soil
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毛正君
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Xian University of Science and Technology
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Xian University of Science and Technology
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    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01NINVESTIGATING OR ANALYSING MATERIALS BY DETERMINING THEIR CHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
    • G01N15/00Investigating characteristics of particles; Investigating permeability, pore-volume, or surface-area of porous materials
    • G01N15/08Investigating permeability, pore-volume, or surface area of porous materials
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01NINVESTIGATING OR ANALYSING MATERIALS BY DETERMINING THEIR CHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
    • G01N33/00Investigating or analysing materials by specific methods not covered by groups G01N1/00 - G01N31/00
    • G01N33/24Earth materials

Abstract

Provided are a coal gangue leachate infiltration soil column simulation system and a characteristic parameter determination method. The simulation system comprises a bottom member, one or more soil column experiment standard members which are connected to the bottom member in series and multiform coal gangue leachate supply simulation systems on the tops of the soil column experiment standard members; simulation system soil loading members are multiple standard members and are subjected to automation control through a computer, determination of characteristic parameters is achieved based on the system, determining steps and a calculation method are provided, when determination is conducted, large-diameter undistributed soil columns are adopted for conducting an indoor experiment, and the multiform coal gangue leachate supply simulation systems are used for simulating four hydraulic boundary conditions, namely, a low strength coal gangue leachate all filtration boundary condition, a medium strength coal gangue leachate runoff filtration boundary condition, a high strength coal gangue leachate stable filtration boundary condition and a coal gangue leachate melt filtration boundary condition. The coal gangue leachate infiltration soil column simulation system and the characteristic parameter determination method have the advantages of being high in practicability, good in use effect and convenient to apply and popularize.

Description

Gangue leachate infiltrates column simulation system and characteristic parameter assay method
Technical field
The invention belongs to environmental mining protection field, infiltrate column simulation system particularly to a kind of gangue leachate System and characteristic parameter assay method.
Background technology
Precipitation is primarily referred to as rainfall and snowfall, and moisture arrives ground, the fall of other form from air in a variety of manners Water also includes dew, frost, hail etc..Precipitation is the important step of hydrologic cycle, is also the basic source of mankind's water. Precipitation data is to analyze rationally flood low water feelings, the basis of basin damage caused by a drought, be also water resource exploitation such as flood control, The basis that the planning and management of generating, irrigation etc. uses.The process of precipitation recharge of phreatic water is air Water to the soil water to subsoil water " three water " Conversion Relations in one of most basic link, precipitation infiltration is over the ground The increment of lower water is precipitation recharges amount, and it is the main supply mode of subsoil water, meanwhile, is also regional water An important balance element in equilibrium calculation.
Gangue is a kind of mixture, typically by the carbonolite discharged in coal mining process and coal preparation plant's production process, Argillaceous rocks, arenaceous rock, siltstone and a small amount of limestone are referred to as gangue, and it is in coal mining and the course of processing The garbage of discharge.The processing mode of China's gangue is mainly air storage at present, and burden has reached 4,100,000,000 More than Dun and annual still with the speed increase of more than hundred million tons.Gangue forms acidity under rainwater eluviation Water, makes substantial amounts of float, Organic substance that surrounding aqueous environment is caused severe contamination, is the master of mine environmental pollution Want one of problem.Heavy metal element toxicity in leachate is the strongest, seriously polluted, equal to biology and human health Can work the mischief, can migrate to phreatic water after entering soil.It is one that gangue leachate infiltrates migration process Individual various ingredients and the problem of multiphase porous flow.
Soil column leaching is widely used in the research fields such as agricultural, forestry, geology, building and environment.Application soil Column experiments can be in experiment lab simulation soil moisture and contaminant transportation rule.Earth pillar is generally divided into soil column With disturbance earth pillar two kinds.Soil column can be used for testing structure and the physical property thereof of the soil body itself;Current soil Column experiments typically uses disturbance earth pillar, disturbance earth pillar to be to be formed through screening, or mixing is filled out according to a certain percentage Dress is formed, its architectural characteristic that can not be used for testing the soil body itself.Which kind of earth pillar no matter is used to test, All there is problems in that 1. soil column leaching dress soil component single-unit length is big, convenience is poor, to such an extent as to earth pillar peace Dress difficulty, the cleaning to instrument brings inconvenience;2. monitoring device is installed loaded down with trivial details, needs to hole earth pillar, Destroy it structural;3. monitoring device is generally artificial observation so that experimental precision property low, artificial is strong.
Unsaturated Hydraulic Conductivity and hydrodynamic dispersion coefficient are that in description unsaturated soil, Water Transport and solute are defeated The important function relation sent, is to analyze Soil Slope Stability, solid wastes landfill site, underground sewage under precipitation condition Migration and the important parameter of the problem such as fill construction.Owing to having the existence of matric suction in unsaturated soil, really The characteristic parameter determined under gangue leachate Infiltration Condition has bigger difficulty.Unsaturated Hydraulic Conductivity and hydrodynamic(al) The mensuration of power dispersion coefficient both can be at laboratory, it is possible to carry out at the scene.The advantage of laboratory experiment is to set Hydraulic boundary conditions under test undisturbed sample and reinvent the characteristic parameter of sample, simultaneously compared with in-situ bioremediation, The laboratory experiment cycle is short, economical and more ripe.But it is typically due to the composition of unsaturated soil, structure and tax and deposits ring The difference in border, result in small specimen used by laboratory experiment and is difficult to represent the practical situation of the real soil body.
Summary of the invention
In order to overcome the defect of above-mentioned prior art, it is an object of the invention to provide a kind of gangue leachate and enter Oozing column simulation system and characteristic parameter assay method, soil column based on major diameter carries out laboratory experiment, adopts Feed analog with the gangue leachate of various ways, analog systems dress soil component be multiple standard element and By computer automation control, and achieve characteristic parameter mensuration based on this system, and give testing procedure And computational methods, have practical, using effect is good, it is simple to the feature promoted the use of.
In order to achieve the above object, the technical scheme is that
Gangue leachate infiltrates column simulation system, including bottom member (1), is connected to bottom member (1) On the soil column leaching standard element (4) of one or more series connection and soil column leaching standard element (4) top Various ways gangue leachate supply analog (C);
Described bottom member (1) includes the base (1-1) being positioned at bottom, catchmenting on base (1-1) Point accesses out milliosmolarity measuring cup (3) by plastic flexible pipe (2), plastic flexible pipe (2) is provided with the 3rd flow and passes Sensor (3-1), the 3rd flow transducer (3-1) accesses computer (7);Base (1-1) is provided above Bearing column (1-2), the top of bearing column (1-2) is had to be provided with high air-entry value pottery clay plates (1-3), high air inlet The surrounding of value pottery clay plates (1-3) is close to along all inwall levels with bottom member (1) pipe fitting (1-7), The top of high air-entry value pottery clay plates (1-3) is provided with filter paper (1-4), the upper surface of filter paper (1-4) and original state Soil sample (12) contacts;The top of pipe fitting (1-7) is provided with external screw thread linkage section (1-6), and external screw thread connects Section (1-6) is connected with soil column leaching standard element (4) by flange (6);
Described soil column leaching standard element (4) is passed through soil by two identical semicylinders through clip (4-30) Clip recess (4-3) place of column experiments standard element (4) tube wall (4-1) connects into a cylinder, soil Circular aperture (4-4), circular aperture (4-4) it is provided with on the tube wall (4-1) of column experiments standard element (4) With rubber stopper (5-7) with the use of;Multiple soil column leaching standard elements (4) will up and down by flange (6) Threaded section (4-2) of end is attached;Insert (5) inserts undisturbed soil by rubber stopper (5-7) In sample (12), data all real-time Transmission that insert (5) inner sensor is gathered are to computer (7);Soil Earth conduction of heat suction probe (4-7) is in circular aperture (4-4) inserts undisturbed soil sample (12), and Soil Thermal passes Lead suction probe data all real-time Transmission of being gathered of (4-7) inner sensor to computer (7);X-ray is glimmering Light spectroscopic probe head (4-8) in circular aperture (4-4) inserts undisturbed soil sample (12), X-ray fluorescence spectra Data all real-time Transmission that probe (4-8) is gathered are to computer (7);On soil column leaching standard element (4) Being fixed with multiple pressure-measuring pipe (4-9), each water inlet of multiple pressure-measuring pipes (4-9) is through circular aperture (4-4) Insert in undisturbed soil sample (12);Described insert (5) is arranged according to same string on earth pillar, Soil Thermal Conduction suction probe (4-7) is arranged according to same string on earth pillar, and X-ray fluorescence spectra probe (4-8) exists Arranging according to same string on earth pillar, pressure-measuring pipe (4-9) is arranged according to same string on earth pillar;
Described bearing column (1-2) includes bearing column bearing (1-22) and bearing column master fixed thereon Body (1-21), described bearing column bearing (1-22) is formed in one with base (1-1), bearing column bearing (1-22) Vertically project according to " circumference in center of circle+with base (1-1) radius 1/2 as radius is to five equal portions " at earth pillar Mode is arranged;Bearing column main body (1-21) length difference makes base (1-1) present the gradient;
Described earth pillar bottom member (1), soil column leaching standard element (4) and cylindrical member (10) by High temperature resistant glass fibre reinforced plastic is made;
Syringe needle (5-6), insert (5) internal pipeline are inserted in being provided with foremost of described insert (5) Corner be provided with rubber sheet gasket (5-1), internal pipeline is provided with expelling means (5-2), expelling means (5-2) Including Temperature Humidity Sensor probe (4-5) or cold-hot integrated hardware (4-6), expelling means (5-2) rear end Being attached with wire (9), the afterbody of expelling means (5-2) is arranged with light spring (5-4), light spring (5-4) end is provided with prober controller (5-5), and the stage casing, outside of insert (5) is provided with baffle plate (5-3);
Described circular aperture (4-4) shape size is consistent with rubber stopper (5-7) and is tightly combined, arrangement side Formula is: is separated by arrangement on Zong Xiang and follows upper tightly lower sparse principle, transversely around soil column leaching standard element (4) Outer circumference 8 grade divides arrangement;
Described clip (4-30) is made up of two halves circular steel ring (4-34) and by the rivet (4-35) of one end Riveting, the other end joint (4-33) of clip (4-30) passes through lead screw (4-31) and nut (4-32) Regulating the tightness of clip (4-30), the standard cylindrical member of making is combined closely;
Described flange (6) inner side is provided with flange screw thread (6-1), and the two ends of flange (6) are provided with turning handle Hands (6-2);
The signal end of described computer (7) is connected with the signal end of microcontroller (7-0), microcontroller (7-0) It is provided with temperature sensing input (7-1), humiture detection outfan (7-2), matric suction detection outfan (7-3) with concentration of heavy metal ion monitor value outfan (7-4);Temperature sensing input (7-1) is through wire (9) connecting cold-hot integrated hardware (4-6), humiture detection outfan (7-2) is through wire (9) even Connecing Temperature Humidity Sensor probe (4-5), matric suction detection outfan (7-3) connects soil through wire (9) Conduction of heat suction probe (4-7), concentration of heavy metal ion monitor value outfan (7-4) connects through wire (9) X-ray fluorescence spectra probe (4-8);
Described various ways gangue leachate supply analog (C) includes low-intensity gangue leachate Entirely infiltrate supply analog (16), middle intensity gangue leachate have runoff infiltrate supply analog (17) Stably infiltrate with high intensity gangue leachate and feed analog (14), gangue leachate melts into impregnation To analog (8);
Described low-intensity gangue leachate entirely infiltrate supply analog (16) include outside carve graduated Gangue leachate bucket (16-1), tube for transfusion (16-12) is passed through in the lower section of gangue leachate bucket (16-1) Connecting with gangue leachate shower nozzle (16-9), gangue leachate shower nozzle (16-9) is arranged at soil column leaching Cylindrical member (10) top on standard element (4) top, exceeds undisturbed soil sample (12) in cylindrical member (10) Upper surface 2-5 centimeters is provided with shock plate resistant to pressure (A), and shock plate resistant to pressure (A) is provided with sieve aperture; U-shaped head controls to be provided with light plastic sheet (16-8), described light plastic on the liquid level in pipe (10-2) Sheet (16-8) form is thin discs, is provided with forever in the circular groove of described light plastic sheet (16-8) top For a long time Magnet (16-7), permanent magnet (16-7) be arranged above the electric coil that bracing wire (16-3) is hung (16-6), electric coil (16-6) is circumscribed with wire (9), and the upper end of bracing wire (16-3) twines in runner (16-2) On, runner (16-2) is provided with handle (16-4), the bracing wire (16-3) of runner (16-2) upper end is led to Cross the aperture putting forth effort component (16-11) to be connected with water check valve (16-5) bottom, under water check valve (16-5) End is provided with light spring (16-10), and described cylindrical member (10) and U-shaped head control pipe (10-2) phase Connecting, light plastic sheet (16-8), permanent magnet (16-7) and electric coil (16-6) are all at U-shaped head Control motion in the chute (16-13) of pipe (10-2);Described chute (16-13) is embedded in U-shaped head and controls Pipe (10-2) inwall, described electric coil (16-6) is provided with slide rail (16-14) according to edge trisection, Described slide rail (16-14) freely can move up and down in chute (16-13);Described low-intensity bastard coal stranguria caused by urinary stone Filtrate entirely infiltrate supply analog (16) control undisturbed soil sample (12) surface liquid liquid level be less than 1mm;
Described middle intensity gangue leachate have runoff infiltrate supply analog (17) include being arranged on cylinder Gangue leachate container (17-9) in component (10) and be arranged on gangue leachate container (17-9) The circular aperture (17-10) of bottom, exceeds undisturbed soil sample (12) upper surface 2-5 in cylindrical member (10) Centimeters is provided with shock plate resistant to pressure (A), and shock plate resistant to pressure (A) is provided with sieve aperture;Described bastard coal The top of stranguria caused by urinary stone filtrate container (17-9) be provided with pressure control pipe (17-8) and with outside gangue leachate The feed tube (17-7) connected;Liquid inlet electromagnetic valve (17-2), feed liquor it is provided with on described feed tube (17-7) Pump (17-1) and for the first flow sensor (17-3) that the amount of gangue leachate is monitored in real time; Described gangue leachate container inner pressure controls to be provided with electromagnetic pressure control valve (17-5) on pipe (17-8) With pressure transducer (17-6), described gangue leachate container inner pressure controls the afterbody of pipe (17-8) even It is connected to air compressor (17-4);It is provided with in the top inner wall of described gangue leachate container (17-9) For the level sensor that the liquid level of liquid in gangue leachate container (17-9) is monitored in real time (17-11);Liquid outlet (10-1) is had outside undisturbed soil sample (12) upper surface in described cylindrical member (10), Liquid outlet (10-1) accesses run-off measuring cup (13), described plastic flexible pipe (2) by plastic flexible pipe (2) On be provided with second flow sensor (13-1), described second flow sensor (13-1) pass through wire (9) Access computer (7);
Described high intensity gangue leachate stably infiltrate supply analog (14) include outside be carved with scale Gangue leachate bucket (14-1), the lower section of gangue leachate bucket (14-1) pass through tube for transfusion (14-12) Connecting with gangue leachate shower nozzle (14-9), gangue leachate shower nozzle (14-9) is arranged at soil column leaching Cylindrical member (10) top on standard element (4) top, exceeds undisturbed soil sample (12) in cylindrical member (10) Upper surface 2-5 centimeters is provided with shock plate resistant to pressure (A), and shock plate resistant to pressure (A) is provided with sieve aperture; U-shaped head controls to be provided with light plastic sheet (14-8), described light plastic on the liquid level in pipe (10-2) Sheet (14-8) form is thin discs, is provided with forever in the circular groove of described light plastic sheet (14-8) top For a long time Magnet (14-7), permanent magnet (14-7) be arranged above the electric coil that bracing wire (14-3) is hung (14-6), electric coil (14-6) is circumscribed with wire (9), and the upper end of bracing wire (14-3) twines in runner (14-2) On, runner (14-2) is provided with handle (14-4), the bracing wire (14-3) of runner (14-2) upper end is led to Cross the aperture putting forth effort component (14-11) to be connected with water check valve (14-5) bottom, under water check valve (14-5) End is provided with light spring (14-10), and described cylindrical member (10) and U-shaped head control pipe (10-2) phase Connecting, light plastic sheet (14-8), permanent magnet (14-7) and electric coil (14-6) are all at U-shaped head Control motion in the chute (14-13) of pipe (10-2);Described chute (14-13) is embedded in U-shaped head and controls Pipe (10-2) inwall, described electric coil (14-6) is provided with slide rail (14-14) according to edge trisection, Described slide rail (14-14) freely can move up and down in chute (14-13), described high intensity bastard coal stranguria caused by urinary stone Filtrate stably infiltrate supply analog (14) control undisturbed soil sample (12) surface liquid liquid level be higher than More than 1cm;
Described gangue leachate melts to infiltrate and feeds the temperature that analog (8) includes being arranged on outside earth pillar Degree controller (8-1) and the Thermal Control Element (8-3) being connected with it by wire (9), described homoiothermic unit Part (8-3) is positioned at top cover (8-2) lower section, and the top of top cover (8-2) is provided with ultrasonic distance-measuring sensor (8-4), top cover (8-2) is positioned at the top of cylindrical member (10) on soil column leaching standard element (4) top And be in close contact, have liquid outlet (10-1) outside undisturbed soil sample (12) upper surface in cylindrical member (10), Described liquid outlet (10-1) accesses run-off measuring cup (13), plastic flexible pipe (2) by plastic flexible pipe (2) On be provided with second flow sensor (13-1), described second flow sensor (13-1) pass through wire (9) Access computer (7), undisturbed soil sample (12) is provided with the trash ice (11) prepared with gangue leachate.
Infiltrate the characteristic parameter assay method of column simulation system based on gangue leachate, comprise the following steps:
Step one, assembling soil column leaching standard element
Respectively two pieces of semicylinder tube walls (4-1) of soil column leaching standard element (4) are spliced, to soil The seam of column experiments standard element (4) carries out sealing and water-proofing treatment, then clip (4-30) is enclosed within card On hoop groove (4-3), and by the nut (4-32) being tightly placed on lead screw part (4-31) on spanner, make Clip (4-30) is enclosed within clip recess (4-3) securely, then by multiple soil column leaching standard elements (4) Realize longitudinal spliced by flange (6) series connection;
Step 2, installation undisturbed soil sample
Choose preprepared undisturbed soil sample (12), undisturbed soil sample (12) is erect on the ground, by Multiple soil column leaching standard elements (4) through connecting entangle undisturbed soil sample (12), by undisturbed soil sample (12) And seal between soil column leaching standard element (4) and water-proofing treatment ensures that during subsequent experimental, gangue leachate is not Directly flow down from gap;
Step 3, assembling soil column leaching instrument and equipment
First being positioned on level ground by base (1-1), it is right then bearing column main body (1-21) to be mounted on On the bearing column bearing (1-22) answered, high air-entry value pottery clay plates (1-3) is placed horizontally at bearing column main body (1-21) top, described high air-entry value pottery clay plates (1-3) upper surface is equipped with filter paper (1-4), described in hold Power post main body (1-21), high air-entry value pottery clay plates (1-3), filter paper (1-4) are respectively positioned in pipe fitting (1-7) Portion;One the external plastic flexible pipe of liquid outlet (2) is set in catchment extreme lower position, by described plastic flexible pipe (2) The other end access out milliosmolarity measuring cup (3), wherein said plastic flexible pipe (2) is upper installs the 3rd flow transducer (3-1), described 3rd flow transducer (3-1) accesses computer (7) by wire (9), then by method The flange screw thread (6-1) alignment external screw thread linkage section (1-6) of blue (6), will by swing handle (6-2) Flange (6) is closely installed at bottom member (1) top, the soil column leaching mark then splicing assembled The undisturbed soil sample (12) that quasi-component entangles together with it is by the bottom thread of soil column leaching standard element (4) even The section of connecing (4-2) assembles with the flange screw thread (6-1) of the flange (6) of described bottom member (1) upper end, The undisturbed soil sample (12) that the soil column leaching standard element making splicing assemble entangles together with it is positioned at bottom member (1) surface of filter paper (1-4), is attached cylindrical member (10) finally by flange (6);
Step 4, the original state of mensuration undisturbed soil sample
The initial aqueous rate of undisturbed soil sample (12): multiple Temperature Humidity Sensors probe (4-5) are respectively to original state The humidity of soil sample (12) is once monitored, and the signal monitored is passed to microcontroller (7-0), micro-control Monitoring signal is passed through serial communication circuit real-time Transmission to computer (7), computer (7) by device processed (7-0) Receive and record the moisture signal of undisturbed soil sample (12) at multiple test point, and by undisturbed soil at each test point The moisture signal of sample (12) is recorded as initial aqueous rate θ of undisturbed soil sample (12) at each test pointc
The initial temperature of undisturbed soil sample (12): multiple Temperature Humidity Sensors probe (4-5) are respectively to undisturbed soil The temperature of sample (12) is once monitored, and the signal monitored is passed to microcontroller (7-0), microcontroller Monitoring signal is connect to computer (7), computer (7) by device (7-0) by serial communication circuit real-time Transmission Receive and record the temperature signal of undisturbed soil sample (12) at multiple test point, and by undisturbed soil sample at each test point (12) temperature signal is recorded as initial temperature T of undisturbed soil sample (12) at each test pointc
The matric suction of undisturbed soil sample (12): multiple soil heat conduction suction probe (4-7) are respectively to original state The matric suction of soil sample (12) is once monitored, and the signal monitored is passed to microcontroller (7-0), Monitoring signal is passed through serial communication circuit real-time Transmission to computer (7), computer by microcontroller (7-0) (7) receive and record the matric suction signal of undisturbed soil sample (12) at multiple test point, and each is tested At Dian, the matric suction signal record of undisturbed soil sample (12) is the initial of undisturbed soil sample (12) at each test point Matric suction Fac
The concentration of heavy metal ion background values of undisturbed soil sample (12): multiple X-ray fluorescence spectras probe (4-8) Respectively undisturbed soil sample (12) concentration of heavy metal ion of original state is monitored, the heavy metal that will monitor Ion concentration signal passes to microcontroller (7-0), and monitoring signal is passed through serial communication by microcontroller (7-0) Circuit real-time Transmission receives and records undisturbed soil sample (12) at multiple test point to computer (7), computer (7) Concentration of heavy metal ion signal, and by each test point undisturbed soil sample (12) concentration of heavy metal ion letter Number it is recorded as each test point concentration of heavy metal ion background values c;
The head height of undisturbed soil sample (12): multiple pressure-measuring pipes (4-9) are respectively to undisturbed soil sample (12) Head height is monitored obtaining head height h corresponding to each test point starting stagec
The saturated aqueous rate of undisturbed soil sample (12): other soil that the sampling spot of undisturbed soil sample (12) is taken back Sample carries out saturated aqueous rate mensuration, as the saturated aqueous rate of undisturbed soil sample (12);Soil sampling puts into weighing box In, for its water filling until water surface submergence soil sample, within 10 minutes, afterwards by unnecessary water removing, quality is called m in submergence, Afterwards soil sample and weighing box are put into baking oven, dry, be placed on afterwards on balance and carry out matter of weighing to obtain Amount is ms, utilize formula afterwardsThe saturated aqueous of undisturbed soil sample (12) is tried to achieve in calculating Rate θsat
Step 5, four kinds of hydraulic boundary conditions of simulation
According to test request, various ways gangue leachate supply analog (C) mixed soil column experiments mark Quasi-component (4) work is simulated four kinds of hydraulic boundary conditions, i.e. low-intensity gangue leachate and is entirely infiltrated border Condition, middle intensity gangue leachate have runoff to infiltrate boundary condition, high intensity gangue leachate stably to infiltrate Boundary condition and gangue leachate melt and infiltrate boundary condition;
Each parameter monitoring in step 6, simulation process
Multiple Temperature Humidity Sensors probe (4-5) warm and humid to the undisturbed soil sample (12) in simulation process respectively Degree is monitored, and the signal monitored is passed to microcontroller (7-0), and microcontroller (7-0) will monitoring Signal receives and records multiple survey by serial communication circuit real-time Transmission to computer (7), computer (7) The temperature of undisturbed soil sample (12), moisture signal at pilot, and by undisturbed soil sample (12) at each test point Temperature, moisture signal are recorded as temperature T corresponding to each test point record momenti, moisture content θi;Multiple soil The matric suction of the undisturbed soil sample (12) in simulation process is supervised by conduction of heat suction probe (4-7) respectively Surveying, the matric suction signal monitored is passed to microcontroller (7-0), monitoring is believed by microcontroller (7-0) Number receive and record multiple test to computer (7), computer (7) by serial communication circuit real-time Transmission The matric suction signal of undisturbed soil sample (12) at Dian, and by the substrate of undisturbed soil sample (12) at each test point Suction signal record is matric suction F corresponding to each test point record momenta;Multiple X-ray fluorescence spectras The concentration of heavy metal ion of the undisturbed soil sample (12) in simulation process is monitored by probe (4-8) respectively, The concentration of heavy metal ion signal monitored is passed to microcontroller (7-0), and microcontroller (7-0) will monitoring Signal receives and records multiple survey by serial communication circuit real-time Transmission to computer (7), computer (7) The concentration of heavy metal ion signal of undisturbed soil sample (12) at pilot, and by undisturbed soil sample (12) at each test point Concentration of heavy metal ion signal record be concentration of heavy metal ion c corresponding to each test point record momenti;Many Individual pressure-measuring pipe (4-9) head height to undisturbed soil sample (12) respectively is monitored obtaining each test point note Head height h that the record moment is correspondingi
Above-mentioned all of monitoring, its monitoring temporal frequency is provided that gangue leachate infiltrates in 5 minutes, Record time interval is 5 seconds, and gangue leachate infiltrates in 5-15 minute, and record time interval is 10 seconds, Gangue leachate infiltrates in 15-30 minute, and record time interval is 15 seconds, and gangue leachate infiltrates In 30-60 minute, record time interval is 20 seconds, and gangue leachate records the time after infiltrating 60 minutes It is spaced apart 60 seconds, until experiment reaches stably latter more than 2-4 hour;
Analysis on monitoring result in step 7, simulation process
Temperature T to a certain moment recordedi, matric suction FaWith concentration of heavy metal ion ciMonitoring Data is done Interpolation processing, obtains the temperature cloud picture corresponding to a certain moment undisturbed soil sample (12), matric suction cloud atlas and weight Concentration of metal ions cloud atlas;Simultaneously to the moisture content θ corresponding to a certain moment undisturbed soil sample (12) recordedi Monitoring Data does interpolation processing, obtains the moisture content cloud atlas that a certain moment undisturbed soil sample (12) is corresponding;
According to the Changing Pattern of moisture content cloud atlas, find out the position of moistening forward corresponding to each moment, described The position of moistening forward refers to the edge of humid zone, and between the non-humid zone in bottom, moisture content exists substantially sudden change Part, each position line forms moistening front forward line, thus observes the change rule of moistening forward position t in time Rule;According to moisture content cloud atlas, according to the size of moisture content, find out saturated aqueous rate θ corresponding to each momentsat Contour, so that it is determined that fully saturated band, the definition of described fully saturated band is below earth pillar upper surface one depthkeeping The part that moisture is fully saturated occurs in degree;When moistening forward occurs in the same monitoring moment with fully saturated band Time, described moistening front forward line and saturated aqueous rate θsatRegion between contour is defined as gangue leachate Infiltrate intermediate zone;
Draw matric suction FaWith moisture content θiGraph of a relation, thus it is bent to respectively obtain the soil of each soil layer-water feature Line;
Step 8, gangue leachate infiltrated water calculate
According to formula Qr=Qz-Qj, it is calculated gangue leachate infiltration capacity Qr, unit is cm3;Wherein QzFor gangue leachate total amount, unit is cm3;QjFor gangue leachate run-off, unit is cm3
According to formula △ S=Qr-Qc, it being calculated the loss amount △ S that gangue leachate infiltrates, unit is cm3; Wherein QrFor gangue leachate infiltration capacity, unit is cm3;QcGoing out milliosmolarity for gangue leachate, unit is cm3
According to formula Vr=Qr/ t is calculated gangue leachate infiltration rate Vr, unit is cm3/s;Wherein Qr For gangue leachate infiltration capacity, unit is cm3;T is the experiment test time, and unit is s;
According to formula Vc=Qc/ t is calculated gangue leachate and goes out to ooze rate Vc, unit is cm3/s;Wherein Qc Going out milliosmolarity for gangue leachate, unit is cm3;T is the experiment test time, and unit is s;
According to formula α=Qc/QzBeing calculated gangue leachate infiltrated water α, unit is dimensionless;Its Middle QcGoing out milliosmolarity for gangue leachate, unit is cm3;QzFor gangue leachate total amount;
Step 9, Unsaturated Hydraulic Conductivity calculate:
Gangue leachate based on soil column leaching infiltrates, and can be generalized as one-dimensional Vertical Infiltration, its mathematical model As follows
( v y + dv y d y d y ) d x d z - v y d x d z = ∂ θ ∂ t d x d y d z - - - ( 1 )
Darcy law is substituted into above equation (1) obtain
d ( - k d h / d y ) d y = ∂ θ ∂ t - - - ( 2 )
For unsaturated soil, osmotic coefficient k and moisture content existence function relation, so equation (2) can turn to down Formula
k d 2 h dy 2 + d k d y d h d y = ∂ θ ∂ t - - - ( 3 )
The theory proposed according to Fredlund&Morgenstern, the normal stress (σ-u suffered by samplea) and The change of matric suction value will cause volumetric water content θwChange, i.e.
dθ w = - m 1 w d ( σ - u a ) - m 2 w ( u a - u w ) - - - ( 4 )
In formula: σ total stress;
m1 wWith normal stress (σ-ua) change the change in volume coefficient of relevant water;
With matric suction (ua-uw) change the change in volume coefficient of relevant water;
By equation (4) to time diffusion, meanwhile, during unsteady state flow through porous medium, on soil body unit, do not has outer lotus Load effect, it is assumed that the most constant in non-saturated region gas phase,
∂ θ w ∂ t = γ w m 2 w ∂ h ∂ t - - - ( 5 )
Wherein:The i.e. slope of soil-structure interaction.
By (3), (5) Shi Ke get
k d 2 h dy 2 + d k d y d h d y = γ w m 2 w ∂ h ∂ t - - - ( 6 )
Wherein: k is Unsaturated Hydraulic Conductivity, unit is dimensionless;H is gross head height, and unit is cm; Y is earth pillar measuring point height, and unit is cm;γwFor the severe of water, unit is N/m3Bent for soil-water feature The slope of line, unit is dimensionless;T is the time, and unit is s;
Try to achieve the Unsaturated Hydraulic Conductivity k at any time earth pillar arbitrary height according to equation (6), utilize interpolation Method draws its scattergram;
Step 10, hydrodynamic dispersion coefficient calculations
By water balance principle, Water Flux q at arbitrary section y on earth pillary, it is represented by
q 0 - q y = 1 Δ t [ ∫ 0 z θ ( t 2 ) d y - ∫ 0 z θ ( t 1 ) d y ] - - - ( 7 )
q y k + 1 / 2 = 1 2 ( q 0 k + 1 + q 0 k ) - Δ y 2 Δ t [ Σ i = 0 y ( θ i + 1 k + 1 + θ i k + 1 ) - Σ i = 0 y ( θ i + 1 k + θ i k ) ] - - - ( 8 )
In formula: qyFor the Water Flux at arbitrary section y, cm/d;q0For the inflow at earth pillar top, cm/d; θ is volumetric water content, cm3/cm3;Δ t is the period, Δ t=t2-t1, d;Hop count when k is;
Solute flux J at arbitrary section y on earth pillaryObtained by the principle of mass conservation
J 0 - J y = 1 Δ t [ ∫ 0 y θ ( t 2 ) c ( t 2 ) d y - ∫ 0 y θ ( t 1 ) c ( t 2 ) d y ] - - - ( 9 )
J y k + 1 / 2 = 1 2 ( J 0 k + 1 + J 0 k ) - Δ z 4 Δ t [ Σ i = 0 y ( θ i + 1 k + 1 + θ i k + 1 ) ( c i + 1 k + 1 + c i k + 1 ) - Σ i = 0 y ( θ i + 1 k + θ i k ) ( c i + 1 k + c i k ) ] - - - ( 10 )
In formula: JyFor the Solute flux at arbitrary section y, g/ (cm2·d);J0Solute for earth pillar top leads to Amount, g/ (cm2·d);ciFor soil liquid concentration, g/cm3;θ is volumetric water content, cm3/cm3;When Δ t is Section, Δ t=t2-t1, d;Hop count when k is;
According to hydrodynamic dispersion principle, Solute flux is equal to hydrodynamic dispersion flux and convective flux sum, i.e.
J = - θD s h ∂ c ∂ y + q c - - - ( 11 )
D s h = 1 θ ∂ c ∂ y + ( q c - J ) - - - ( 12 )
In formula: DshFor hydrodynamic dispersion coefficient, cm2/d;Remaining symbol is the same;
( D s h ) y k + 1 / 2 = 2 Δ y ( θ y k + 1 + θ y k ) ( c y k + 1 - c y k ) [ q y k + 1 / 2 ( c y k + 1 + c y k ) - J y k + 1 / 2 ] - - - ( 13 )
By above calculateWithSubstitute into above formula and can calculate hydrodynamic dispersion coefficient DshIf taking one Series y section then can calculate a series of Dsh, thus by DshWith corresponding Unsaturated Hydraulic Conductivity k or hole Flow velocity v fits to empirical equation.
Four kinds of hydraulic boundary conditions described in step 5, the physical simulation that its low-intensity gangue leachate infiltrates entirely Step is:
(1), in gangue leachate bucket (16-1), add gangue leachate (15), now make water check valve (16-5) being closed, then open water check valve (16-5), gangue leachate (15) is through transfusion Pipe (16-12) flow to the impact resistant to pressure in cylindrical member (10) from gangue leachate shower nozzle (16-9) On plate (A), then arriving the upper surface of undisturbed soil sample (12), described shock plate resistant to pressure (A) plays protection Undisturbed soil sample (12) is not acted on by gangue leachate impact erosion;It is positioned at U-shaped head and controls pipe (10-2) Interior light plastic sheet (16-8) and the permanent magnet (16-7) above it are at gangue leachate (15) Rise under buoyancy, reach identical with the liquid level of cylindrical member (10) interior liquid, when the cylinder on top When the liquid level of component (10) interior liquid rises to exceed undisturbed soil sample (12) 1mm, by wire (9) To electric coil (16-6) for electric forming electric magnet, drive runner (16-2) to turn by handle (16-4) simultaneously Dynamic, described runner (16-2) is tied with bracing wire (16-3), described electric coil (16-6) is along with bracing wire (16-3) Moving vertically in chute (16-13), swing handle (16-4) adjusts bracing wire (16-3) length and makes sealing Valve (16-5) carries out coarse adjustment close to closed mode under the effect of light spring (16-10), then changes The size of outer lead (9) the connect supply voltage of power transformation coil (16-6) carries out accurate adjustment, makes now to stop Water valve (16-5) is just at closed mode;The liquid level of the liquid in U-shaped head controls pipe (10-2) is high When spending the liquid level decline along with the liquid in the cylindrical member (10) on top, described light plastic sheet (16-8) Decline the most therewith with permanent magnet (16-7), the magnetic between permanent magnet (16-7) and electric coil (16-6) Power reduces, and the load that described light spring (16-10) is subject to increases generation compressive deformation, is positioned at light spring (16-10) water check valve (16-5) on is opened, and gangue leachate (15) continues on through tube for transfusion (16-12) Flow in cylindrical member (10) from gangue leachate shower nozzle (16-9) and feed;When being fed to cylinder structure When the liquid level of part (10) interior liquid rises to exceed undisturbed soil sample (12) 1mm again, water check valve (16-5) Would be at closed mode, otherwise then water check valve (16-5) opens continuation supply, has simulated low-intensity bastard coal Stranguria caused by urinary stone filtrate infiltrates boundary condition entirely;
(2), in the simulation low-intensity full infiltration process of gangue leachate, ooze out in undisturbed soil sample (12) Gangue leachate flows out in limbers (1-5) and flows into out milliosmolarity through plastic flexible pipe (2) measures measuring cup (3) in;In the full infiltration process of low-intensity rainfall, observe the moisturizing of gangue leachate bucket (16-1) When being spaced apart more than 2 hours, illustrate to reach to infiltrate to stablize, close gangue leachate make-up system, stop real Test;Now, the loss amount of gangue leachate bucket (16-1) interior gangue leachate (15) and cylindrical member (10) difference of the non-infiltration capacity of interior leachate is recorded as the gangue leachate always amount of falling into Qz, at low-intensity bastard coal Under the full Infiltration Condition of stranguria caused by urinary stone filtrate, the gangue leachate always amount of falling into QzNumerically equal to gangue leachate enters Milliosmolarity Qr;Now, check out that milliosmolarity oozes out the gangue leaching of undisturbed soil sample (12) in measuring measuring cup (3) The amount of liquid, and be that gangue leachate goes out milliosmolarity Q by this read-recordc
Four kinds of hydraulic boundary conditions described in step 5, wherein intensity gangue leachate have that runoff infiltrates concrete Simulation steps is:
(1), computer (7) send signal connect air compressor (17-4) current supply circuit, then drive Dynamic pressure controls electromagnetic valve (17-5) and opens, and air compressor (17-4) starts, the compressed air warp of generation Excess pressure controls pipe by gangue leachate container inner pressure after controlling electromagnetic valve (17-5) regulation pressure (17-8) enter in gangue leachate container (17-9), by gangue leachate container (17-9) Gangue leachate sprays from circular aperture (17-10), arrives the water resistant in cylindrical member (10) afterwards In pressure shock plate (A), then the upper surface to undisturbed soil sample (12), described shock plate resistant to pressure (A) is played Protection undisturbed soil sample (12) is not acted on by gangue leachate impact erosion, has simulated middle intensity gangue Leachate has runoff to infiltrate boundary condition;During middle intensity gangue leachate has runoff simulating, pressure Sensor (17-6) is to the compression of pressure control pipe (17-8) in gangue leachate container (17-9) Air pressure is monitored in real time and is exported by the signal monitored to computer (7), and computer (7) is by it The pressure threshold that the pressure monitoring value received sets with experiment is compared, when pressure monitoring value is less than pressure threshold During value, the aperture that computer (7) drives electromagnetic pressure control valve (17-5) to open increases, and works as pressure monitoring When value is more than pressure threshold, the aperture that computer (7) drives electromagnetic pressure control valve (17-5) to open reduces, So that the compressed air pressure of pressure control pipe (17-8) is tieed up in gangue leachate container (17-9) Hold in the range of pressure threshold;Meanwhile, described level sensor (17-11) is to gangue leachate container (17-9) The liquid level of interior liquid is monitored in real time and is exported by the signal monitored to computer (7), computer (7) The liquid level monitor value of the liquid received is carried out with the liquid level setting value of the liquid that experiment sets Comparison, when the liquid level monitor value of liquid is less than the liquid level setting value of liquid, computer (7) is controlled The current supply circuit of turn-on liquid feeding pump (17-1), and drive liquid inlet electromagnetic valve (17-2) to open, outside bastard coal Stranguria caused by urinary stone filtrate flows in gangue leachate container (17-9) by feed tube (17-7), when the liquid level of liquid When highly monitor value is more than the liquid level setting value of liquid, computer (7) controls to disconnect liquid feeding pump (17-1) Current supply circuit, and drive liquid inlet electromagnetic valve (17-2) to close, stop toward gangue leachate container (17-9) Interior injection gangue leachate, so that the liquid level of gangue leachate container (17-9) interior liquid maintains Stable, it is ensured that persistently carrying out of gangue leachate infiltration process;
(2), during intensity gangue leachate has runoff infiltration process in simulations, undisturbed soil sample (12) is not penetrated into Interior gangue leachate flows out in liquid outlet (10-1) and flows into run-off amount through plastic flexible pipe (2) Cup (13);Ooze out the gangue leachate in undisturbed soil sample (12) flow out in limbers (1-5) and pass through Plastic flexible pipe (2) flows into out milliosmolarity and measures measuring cup (3), in simulation in intensity gangue leachate infiltration process, The amount of the run-off measuring cup (13) the gangue leachate to not penetrating in undisturbed soil sample (12) is monitored and remembers Record, when the difference of amount of the gangue leachate not penetrated in undisturbed soil sample (12) of two adjacent sampling instants Value is less than or equal to 1cm3Time, illustrate to have reached to infiltrate to stablize, close gangue leachate make-up system, stop Experiment;Now, gangue leachate infiltration capacity is monitored and will by first flow sensor (17-3) in real time The signal monitored exports to computer (7) in real time, and computer (7) is recorded as gangue leachate and always falls into Amount Qz;Now, check that run-off does not penetrates into the gangue in undisturbed soil sample (12) in measuring measuring cup (13) The amount of leachate, and be gangue leachate run-off Q by this read-recordj;Check out that milliosmolarity measures measuring cup (3) ooze out the amount of the gangue leachate of undisturbed soil sample (12) in, and be bastard coal stranguria caused by urinary stone by this read-record Filtrate goes out milliosmolarity Qc
Four kinds of hydraulic boundary conditions described in step 5, the concrete mould that its high intensity gangue leachate stably infiltrates Intending step is:
(1), in gangue leachate bucket (14-1), add gangue leachate (15), now make water check valve (14-5) it is closed, then opens water check valve (14-5), described gangue leachate (15) warp Tube for transfusion (14-12) from gangue leachate shower nozzle (14-9) flow in cylindrical member (10) resistant to pressure On shock plate (A), then arriving the upper surface of undisturbed soil sample (12), described shock plate resistant to pressure (A) is played Protection undisturbed soil sample (12) is not acted on by gangue leachate impact erosion;It is positioned at U-shaped head and controls pipe (10-2) the light plastic sheet (14-8) in and the permanent magnet (14-7) above it are at gangue leachate (15) rise under buoyancy, reach identical with the liquid level of cylindrical member (10) interior liquid, when upper When the liquid level of cylindrical member (10) the interior liquid in portion rises to test preset height, by wire (9) To electric coil (14-6) for electric forming electric magnet, drive runner (14-2) to turn by handle (14-4) simultaneously Dynamic, described runner (14-2) is tied with bracing wire (14-3), described electric coil (14-6) is along with bracing wire (14-3) Moving vertically in chute (14-13), swing handle (14-4) adjusts bracing wire (14-3) length and makes sealing Valve (14-5) carries out coarse adjustment close to closed mode under the effect of light spring (14-10), then changes The size of outer lead (9) the connect supply voltage of power transformation coil (14-6) carries out accurate adjustment, makes now to stop Water valve (14-5) is just at closed mode;The liquid level of liquid in U-shaped head controls pipe (10-2) When declining along with the liquid level of cylindrical member (10) the interior liquid on top, described light plastic sheet (14-8) Decline the most therewith with permanent magnet (14-7), the magnetic between permanent magnet (14-7) and electric coil (14-6) Power reduces, and the load that described light spring (14-10) is subject to increases generation compressive deformation, is positioned at light spring (14-10) water check valve (14-5) on is opened, and gangue leachate (15) continues on through tube for transfusion (14-12) Flow in cylindrical member (10) from gangue leachate shower nozzle (14-9) and feed;When being fed to cylinder structure When the liquid level of part (10) interior liquid rises to exceed the default high experimental of undisturbed soil sample (12) again, only Water valve (14-5) would be at closed mode, otherwise then water check valve (14-5) opens continuation supply, simulates High intensity gangue leachate stably infiltrates boundary condition;
(2), stablize in infiltration process at simulation high intensity gangue leachate, ooze out in undisturbed soil sample (12) Gangue leachate flow out in limbers (1-5) and flow into out milliosmolarity measurement amount through plastic flexible pipe (2) Cup (3);Stablize in infiltration process at high intensity gangue leachate, observe gangue leachate bucket (14-1) Moisturizing when being spaced apart more than 2 hours, illustrate to reach to infiltrate stable, close gangue leachate make-up system, Stop experiment;Now, the loss amount record of gangue leachate bucket (14-1) interior gangue leachate (15) For the gangue leachate always amount of falling into Qz, meanwhile, by gangue leachate bucket (14-1) interior gangue leaching The difference of the amount of the gangue leachate not penetrated in the loss amount of liquid (15) and cylindrical member (10) is recorded as coal Spoil leachate infiltration capacity Qr, check out that milliosmolarity oozes out the bastard coal of undisturbed soil sample (12) in measuring measuring cup (3) The amount of stranguria caused by urinary stone filtrate, and be that gangue leachate goes out milliosmolarity Q by this read-recordc
Four kinds of hydraulic boundary conditions described in step 5, its gangue leachate melts the physical simulation step infiltrated For:
(1), computer (7) sends signal and connects the current supply circuit of temperature controller (8-1), thus controls Thermal Control Element (8-3) is heated to preset experimental temperature T1, temperature controller (8-1) is to Thermal Control Element (8-3) Monitor in real time and the signal real-time Transmission monitored is received to computer (7), computer (7) The monitor value arrived presets experimental temperature T with Thermal Control Element (8-3)1Phase comparison, when monitor value reaches Thermal Control Element (8-3) experimental temperature T is preset1Time, computer (7) sends signal to temperature controller (8-1) and disconnects tune The current supply circuit of temperature element (8-3), Thermal Control Element (8-3) stops heating, when monitor value is less than Thermal Control Element (8-3) experimental temperature T is preset1Time, computer (7) through microcontroller (7-0) to temperature controller (8-1) Sending signal and connect the current supply circuit of Thermal Control Element (8-3), Thermal Control Element (8-3) begins to warm up, so that Thermal Control Element (8-3) remains default experimental temperature T1;Preset experimental temperature T1In the range of 0 DEG C~80 DEG C.
(2), computer (7) sends signal through microcontroller (7-0) from temperature sensing input (7-1) Arrive cold-hot integrated hardware (4-6) through wire (9), control cold-hot integrated hardware (4-6) and start Work, makes undisturbed soil sample (12) reach to preset experimental temperature T2;Gangue leachate melts simulating process In, the temperature of neighbouring soil is carried out by Temperature Humidity Sensor probe (4-5) being embedded in undisturbed soil sample (12) Monitor and passed through through wire (9) by the signal monitored the humiture outfan (7-2) of microcontroller (7-0) in real time Real-time Transmission is to computer (7), the temperature monitoring value that computer (7) is received and cold-hot integrated metal Experimental temperature T preset by element (4-6)2Phase comparison, when temperature monitoring value is higher than cold-hot integrated hardware (4-6) Preset experimental temperature T2Time, computer (7) through microcontroller (7-0) to temperature sensing input (7-1) Send signal control cold-hot integrated hardware (4-6) and start refrigeration, when temperature monitoring value is less than cold-hot integrated Experimental temperature T preset by hardware (4-6)2Time, computer (7) is visited to temperature through microcontroller (7-0) Survey input (7-1) sends signal control cold-hot integrated hardware (4-6) and begins to warm up, so that cold and hot The temperature of unitary metallic element (4-6) remains default experimental temperature T2, simulated gangue leachate and disappeared Melt low temperature Infiltration Condition;Preset experimental temperature T2In the range of-20 DEG C~20 DEG C.
(3), during simulation gangue leachate melts and infiltrates, do not penetrate in undisturbed soil sample (12) Gangue leachate flows out in described liquid outlet (10-1) and flows into run-off amount through plastic flexible pipe (2) Cup (13);Ooze out the gangue leachate in undisturbed soil sample (12) to flow out also in described liquid-through hole (1-5) Flow into out milliosmolarity through plastic flexible pipe (2) and measure measuring cup (3);Melt in infiltration process at gangue leachate, When the difference of the amount of the gangue leachate not penetrated in undisturbed soil sample (12) of two adjacent sampling instants is little In equal to 1cm3Time, illustrate to have reached gangue leachate and melt and infiltrate stable, stop experiment;Now, look into See that run-off does not penetrates into the amount of the gangue leachate in undisturbed soil sample (12) in measuring measuring cup (13), and will This read-record is gangue leachate ablation path flow Qj;Check out that milliosmolarity is oozed out former in measuring measuring cup (3) The amount of the gangue leachate of shape soil sample (12), and be that gangue leachate melts milliosmolarity by this read-record Qc;Moisture content θ at upper epidermis when infiltrating stable according to undisturbed soil sample (12), in conjunction with undisturbed soil sample (12) Initial aqueous rate θ at upper epidermisc, thus converse gangue leachate and melt infiltration capacity Qr;Gangue leaching Liquid melts infiltration capacity QrWith gangue leachate ablation path flow QjAnd be gangue leachate total ablation Qz
Advantages of the present invention:
1. the soil column leaching standard element (4) of the present invention is connected into a cylinder by two identical semicylinders Body, can carry out undisturbed easily and reinvent the experiment of sample, facilitating the cleaning of experimental apparatus simultaneously, gram Take current soil column leaching to be difficult to use undisturbed to carry out the defect tested and later stage cleaning is complicated.
2. rubber stopper (5-7) and insert (5) with the use of, overcome existing soil column leaching testing element to insert Fashionable spilling water and the defect of water deficit, have that test result is accurate, reliability is high, reusable advantage.
3. soil column leaching standard element (4) can overcome soil in prior art according to the multiple series connection of requirement of experiment Dress soil parts single-unit length defect big, unhandy in column experiments;And each parts of whole system use standard Component so that experimental standard, conventional efficient is greatly improved.
4. analog systems is connected with computer, it is achieved Automated condtrol, there is accuracy, spy that standard is high Point, overcomes present stage most instrument and equipment manual operation and the defect of error easily occurs.
5. the present invention propose various ways gangue leachate infiltrate supply analog (C), relate to multiple by force Degree gangue leachate infiltrates supply analog and gangue leachate melts and infiltrates supply analog;Multiple Intensity gangue leachate infiltrate supply analog include low-intensity gangue leachate entirely infiltrate supply simulation Device (16), middle intensity gangue leachate have runoff to infiltrate supply analog (17) and high intensity bastard coal Stranguria caused by urinary stone filtrate stably infiltrates device for supplying (14);Low-intensity gangue leachate entirely infiltrates and feeds analog (16) Stably infiltrating device for supplying (14) with high intensity gangue leachate utilizes permanent magnet and electric coil magnetic to repel each other Principle, thus control the recharge rate of gangue leachate;Middle intensity gangue leachate has runoff to enter impregnation Achieved the control of the recharge rate of gangue leachate by air compressor machine to analog (17);Bastard coal stranguria caused by urinary stone Filtrate is melted and is infiltrated supply analog (8) by Thermal Control Element (8-3) and cold-hot integrated hardware (4-6) Realize gangue leachate and melt low temperature simulating process.
6, infiltrate column simulation system based on gangue leachate and realize the mensuration of characteristic parameter, and give survey Try is rapid and computational methods, has practical, and using effect is good, it is simple to the feature promoted the use of.
7, present invention soil column based on major diameter (not less than 50cm) carries out laboratory experiment, with traditional Laboratory experiment small specimen is compared, it is possible to preferably represent the practical situation of the real soil body;Compared with in-situ bioremediation, The feature that the major diameter soil column experiment of the present invention also possesses that the cycle is short, spends less, technological means is ripe.
8, present invention firstly provides the gangue leachate under various ways infiltrate column simulation system and feature ginseng The mensuration of number, present configuration is new reasonable, it is possible to the various working that effectively simulation gangue leachate infiltrates, There is accuracy high, highly reliable.
Accompanying drawing explanation
Figure 1A is the general system diagram entirely infiltrated based on low-intensity gangue leachate and feed analog.
Figure 1B be low-intensity gangue leachate entirely infiltrate supply analog (16) schematic diagram.
Fig. 1 C is enlarged drawing at B in Figure 1B.
Fig. 2 A be based on middle intensity gangue leachate have runoff infiltrate supply analog general system diagram.
Fig. 2 B be middle intensity gangue leachate have runoff infiltrate supply analog (17) schematic diagram.
Fig. 3 A is stably to infiltrate the general system diagram of device for supplying based on high intensity gangue leachate.
Fig. 3 B is that high intensity gangue leachate stably infiltrates the schematic diagram of device for supplying (14).
Fig. 3 C is enlarged drawing at B in Fig. 3 B.
Fig. 4 A be melt based on gangue leachate infiltrate supply analog general system diagram.
Fig. 4 B be gangue leachate melt infiltrate supply analog (8) schematic diagram.
Fig. 5 is the installation diagram of soil column leaching standard element (4) and bottom member (1).
Fig. 6 is tube wall (4-1) schematic diagram in soil column leaching standard element (4), and wherein Fig. 6 A is front view, Fig. 6 B is rearview.
Fig. 7 is the enlarged drawing in Fig. 5 at A.
Fig. 8 is the top view of base (1-1).
Fig. 9 is the schematic diagram of insert (5).
Figure 10 is the schematic diagram of rubber stopper (5-7) in insert (5).
Figure 11 is the fractionation schematic diagram of the clip (4-30) of the present invention.
Figure 12 is the schematic diagram of flange (6).
Figure 13 is that gangue leachate of the present invention infiltrates the total schematic diagram of column simulation system.
Detailed description of the invention
With reference to the accompanying drawings the present invention is done narration in detail.
With reference to Figure 13, gangue leachate infiltrates column simulation system, including bottom member (1), is connected to The soil column leaching standard element (4) of the one or more series connection on bottom member (1) and soil column leaching standard Various ways gangue leachate supply analog (C) at component (4) top;Described various ways coal Spoil leachate supply analog (C) includes that low-intensity gangue leachate infiltrates supply analog entirely (16), middle intensity gangue leachate has runoff to infiltrate supply analog (17) and high intensity bastard coal stranguria caused by urinary stone Filtrate is stably infiltrated and is fed analog (14), gangue leachate melts to infiltrate and feeds analog (8);
With reference to Fig. 5, described bottom member (1) includes the base (1-1) being positioned at bottom, base (1-1) On collection water spot access out milliosmolarity measuring cup (3) by plastic flexible pipe (2), plastic flexible pipe (2) is provided with the Three flow transducers (3-1), the 3rd flow transducer (3-1) accesses computer (7);Base (1-1) Being provided above bearing column (1-2), the top of bearing column (1-2) is provided with high air-entry value pottery clay plates (1-3), The surrounding of high air-entry value pottery clay plates (1-3) along all with the inwall level of bottom member (1) pipe fitting (1-7) Being close to, the top of high air-entry value pottery clay plates (1-3) is provided with filter paper (1-4), the upper surface of filter paper (1-4) Contact with undisturbed soil sample (12);The top of pipe fitting (1-7) is provided with external screw thread linkage section (1-6), outer spiral shell Stricture of vagina linkage section (1-6) is connected with soil column leaching standard element (4) by flange (6);
With reference to Fig. 6, described soil column leaching standard element (4) by two identical semicylinders through clip (4-30) A cylinder is connected into by clip recess (4-3) place of soil column leaching standard element (4) tube wall (4-1) Body, the tube wall (4-1) of soil column leaching standard element (4) is provided with circular aperture (4-4), circular aperture (4-4) with rubber stopper (5-7) with the use of;Multiple soil column leaching standard elements (4) pass through flange (6) Threaded section (4-2) of upper and lower side is attached;Insert (5) is inserted by rubber stopper (5-7) In undisturbed soil sample (12), data all real-time Transmission that insert (5) inner sensor is gathered are to computer (7); Soil heat conduction suction probe (4-7) in circular aperture (4-4) inserts undisturbed soil sample (12), Soil Thermal Data all real-time Transmission that conduction suction probe (4-7) inner sensor is gathered are to computer (7);X-ray Fluorescence spectrum probe (4-8) in circular aperture (4-4) inserts undisturbed soil sample (12), XRF light Data all real-time Transmission that spectrum probe (4-8) is gathered are to computer (7);Soil column leaching standard element (4) On be fixed with multiple pressure-measuring pipe (4-9), each water inlet of multiple pressure-measuring pipes (4-9) is through circular aperture (4-4) Insert in undisturbed soil sample (12);Described insert (5) is arranged according to same string on earth pillar, Soil Thermal Conduction suction probe (4-7) is arranged according to same string on earth pillar, and X-ray fluorescence spectra probe (4-8) exists Arranging according to same string on earth pillar, pressure-measuring pipe (4-9) is arranged according to same string on earth pillar;
With reference to Fig. 7, Fig. 8, described bearing column (1-2) includes bearing column bearing (1-22) and is fixed on Bearing column main body (1-21) thereon, described bearing column bearing (1-22) is formed in one with base (1-1), Bearing column bearing (1-22) vertically projects according to " center of circle+with base (1-1) radius 1/2 at earth pillar For the circumference of radius to five equal portions " mode arranges;Bearing column main body (1-21) length difference makes base (1-1) Present the gradient;
Described earth pillar bottom member (1), soil column leaching standard element (4) and cylindrical member (10) by High temperature resistant glass fibre reinforced plastic is made;
With reference to Fig. 9, Figure 10, being provided with foremost of described insert (5) is inserted syringe needle (5-6), is inserted The corner entering part (5) internal pipeline is provided with rubber sheet gasket (5-1), is provided with expelling means in internal pipeline (5-2), expelling means (5-2) includes Temperature Humidity Sensor probe (4-5) or cold-hot integrated hardware (4-6), Expelling means (5-2) rear end is attached with wire (9), and the afterbody of expelling means (5-2) is arranged with lightweight bullet Spring (5-4), the end of light spring (5-4) is provided with prober controller (5-5), outside insert (5) Stage casing, side is provided with baffle plate (5-3);
Described circular aperture (4-4) shape size is consistent with rubber stopper (5-7) and is tightly combined, arrangement side Formula is: is separated by arrangement on Zong Xiang and follows upper tightly lower sparse principle, transversely around soil column leaching standard element (4) Outer circumference 8 grade divides arrangement;
With reference to Figure 11, described clip (4-30) is formed by two halves circular steel ring (4-34) and is passed through one end Rivet (4-35) riveting, the other end joint (4-33) of clip (4-30) pass through lead screw (4-31) With the tightness that nut (4-32) regulates clip (4-30), the standard cylindrical member of making is combined closely;
With reference to Figure 12, described flange (6) inner side is provided with flange screw thread (6-1), the two ends of flange (6) It is provided with swing handle (6-2);
The signal end of described computer (7) is connected with the signal end of microcontroller (7-0), microcontroller (7-0) It is provided with temperature sensing input (7-1), humiture detection outfan (7-2), matric suction detection outfan (7-3) with concentration of heavy metal ion monitor value outfan (7-4);Temperature sensing input (7-1) is through wire (9) connecting cold-hot integrated hardware (4-6), humiture detection outfan (7-2) is through wire (9) even Connecing Temperature Humidity Sensor probe (4-5), matric suction detection outfan (7-3) connects soil through wire (9) Conduction of heat suction probe (4-7), concentration of heavy metal ion monitor value outfan (7-4) connects through wire (9) X-ray fluorescence spectra probe (4-8).
Embodiment one
Various ways gangue leachate matching used with present invention supply analog (C) in the present embodiment Be low-intensity gangue leachate entirely infiltrate supply analog (16).
With reference to Fig. 1, described low-intensity gangue leachate entirely infiltrates supply analog (16) and includes outside Carving graduated gangue leachate bucket (16-1), the lower section of gangue leachate bucket (16-1) is by transfusion Pipe (16-12) connects with gangue leachate shower nozzle (16-9), and gangue leachate shower nozzle (16-9) sets It is placed in cylindrical member (10) top on soil column leaching standard element (4) top, high in cylindrical member (10) Go out undisturbed soil sample (12) upper surface 2-5 centimeters and be provided with shock plate resistant to pressure (A), shock plate resistant to pressure (A) On be provided with sieve aperture;U-shaped head controls to be provided with light plastic sheet (16-8) on the liquid level in pipe (10-2), Described light plastic sheet (16-8) form is thin discs, and the circle of described light plastic sheet (16-8) top is recessed Be provided with permanent magnet (16-7) in groove, permanent magnet (16-7) be arranged above bracing wire (16-3) The electric coil (16-6) of hanging, electric coil (16-6) is circumscribed with wire (9), the upper end of bracing wire (16-3) Twine on runner (16-2), runner (16-2) is provided with handle (16-4), runner (16-2) upper end It is connected with water check valve (16-5) bottom by putting forth effort the aperture of component (16-11) with bracing wire (16-3), Water check valve (16-5) lower end is provided with light spring (16-10), described cylindrical member (10) and U-shaped head Control pipe (10-2) to be connected, light plastic sheet (16-8), permanent magnet (16-7) and electric coil (16-6) All move in U-shaped head controls the chute (16-13) of pipe (10-2);Described chute (16-13) is embedded in U-shaped head controls pipe (10-2) inwall, and described electric coil (16-6) is provided with cunning according to edge trisection Rail (16-14), described slide rail (16-14) freely can move up and down in chute (16-13);Described is low Intensity gangue leachate entirely infiltrate supply analog (16) control undisturbed soil sample (12) surface liquid liquid Face height is less than 1mm.
The present embodiment is the characteristic parameter assay method of low-intensity gangue leachate full simulating system, including Following steps:
Step one, assembling soil column leaching standard element
Respectively two pieces of semicylinder tube walls (4-1) of soil column leaching standard element (4) are spliced, to soil The seam of column experiments standard element (4) carries out sealing and water-proofing treatment, then clip (4-30) is enclosed within card On hoop groove (4-3), and by the nut (4-32) being tightly placed on lead screw part (4-31) on spanner, make Clip (4-30) is enclosed within clip recess (4-3) securely, then by multiple soil column leaching standard elements (4) Realize longitudinal spliced by flange (6) series connection;
Step 2, installation undisturbed soil sample
Choose preprepared undisturbed soil sample (12), undisturbed soil sample (12) is erect on the ground, by Multiple soil column leaching standard elements (4) through connecting entangle undisturbed soil sample (12), by undisturbed soil sample (12) And seal between soil column leaching standard element (4) and water-proofing treatment ensures that during subsequent experimental, gangue leachate is not Directly flow down from gap;
Step 3, assembling soil column leaching instrument and equipment
First being positioned on level ground by base (1-1), it is right then bearing column main body (1-21) to be mounted on On the bearing column bearing (1-22) answered, high air-entry value pottery clay plates (1-3) is placed horizontally at bearing column main body (1-21) top, described high air-entry value pottery clay plates (1-3) upper surface is equipped with filter paper (1-4), described in hold Power post main body (1-21), high air-entry value pottery clay plates (1-3), filter paper (1-4) are respectively positioned in pipe fitting (1-7) Portion;One the external plastic flexible pipe of liquid outlet (2) is set in catchment extreme lower position, by described plastic flexible pipe (2) The other end access out milliosmolarity measuring cup (3), wherein said plastic flexible pipe (2) is upper installs the 3rd flow transducer (3-1), described 3rd flow transducer (3-1) accesses computer (7) by wire (9), then by method The flange screw thread (6-1) alignment external screw thread linkage section (1-6) of blue (6), will by swing handle (6-2) Flange (6) is closely installed at bottom member (1) top, the soil column leaching mark then splicing assembled The undisturbed soil sample (12) that quasi-component entangles together with it is by the bottom thread of soil column leaching standard element (4) even The section of connecing (4-2) assembles with the flange screw thread (6-1) of the flange (6) of described bottom member (1) upper end, The undisturbed soil sample (12) that the soil column leaching standard element making splicing assemble entangles together with it is positioned at bottom member (1) surface of filter paper (1-4), is attached cylindrical member (10) finally by flange (6);
Step 4, the original state of mensuration undisturbed soil sample
The initial aqueous rate of undisturbed soil sample (12): multiple Temperature Humidity Sensors probe (4-5) are respectively to original state The humidity of soil sample (12) is once monitored, and the signal monitored is passed to microcontroller (7-0), micro-control Monitoring signal is passed through serial communication circuit real-time Transmission to computer (7), computer (7) by device processed (7-0) Receive and record the moisture signal of undisturbed soil sample (12) at multiple test point, and by undisturbed soil at each test point The moisture signal of sample (12) is recorded as initial aqueous rate θ of undisturbed soil sample (12) at each test pointc
The initial temperature of undisturbed soil sample (12): multiple Temperature Humidity Sensors probe (4-5) are respectively to undisturbed soil The temperature of sample (12) is once monitored, and the signal monitored is passed to microcontroller (7-0), microcontroller Monitoring signal is connect to computer (7), computer (7) by device (7-0) by serial communication circuit real-time Transmission Receive and record the temperature signal of undisturbed soil sample (12) at multiple test point, and by undisturbed soil sample at each test point (12) temperature signal is recorded as initial temperature T of undisturbed soil sample (12) at each test pointc
The matric suction of undisturbed soil sample (12): multiple soil heat conduction suction probe (4-7) are respectively to original state The matric suction of soil sample (12) is once monitored, and the signal monitored is passed to microcontroller (7-0), Monitoring signal is passed through serial communication circuit real-time Transmission to computer (7), computer by microcontroller (7-0) (7) receive and record the matric suction signal of undisturbed soil sample (12) at multiple test point, and each is tested At Dian, the matric suction signal record of undisturbed soil sample (12) is the initial of undisturbed soil sample (12) at each test point Matric suction Fac
The concentration of heavy metal ion background values of undisturbed soil sample (12): multiple X-ray fluorescence spectras probe (4-8) Respectively undisturbed soil sample (12) concentration of heavy metal ion of original state is monitored, the heavy metal that will monitor Ion concentration signal passes to microcontroller (7-0), and monitoring signal is passed through serial communication by microcontroller (7-0) Circuit real-time Transmission receives and records undisturbed soil sample (12) at multiple test point to computer (7), computer (7) Concentration of heavy metal ion signal, and by each test point undisturbed soil sample (12) concentration of heavy metal ion letter Number it is recorded as each test point concentration of heavy metal ion background values c;
The head height of undisturbed soil sample (12): multiple pressure-measuring pipes (4-9) are respectively to undisturbed soil sample (12) Head height is monitored obtaining head height h corresponding to each test point starting stagec
The saturated aqueous rate of undisturbed soil sample (12): other soil that the sampling spot of undisturbed soil sample (12) is taken back Sample carries out saturated aqueous rate mensuration, as the saturated aqueous rate of undisturbed soil sample (12);Soil sampling puts into weighing box In, for its water filling until water surface submergence soil sample, within 10 minutes, afterwards by unnecessary water removing, quality is called m in submergence, Afterwards soil sample and weighing box are put into baking oven, dry, be placed on afterwards on balance and carry out matter of weighing to obtain Amount is ms, utilize formula afterwardsThe saturated aqueous of undisturbed soil sample (12) is tried to achieve in calculating Rate θsat
Step 5, simulation low-intensity gangue leachate infiltrate entirely
(1), in gangue leachate bucket (16-1), add gangue leachate (15), now make water check valve (16-5) being closed, then open water check valve (16-5), gangue leachate (15) is through transfusion Pipe (16-12) flow to the impact resistant to pressure in cylindrical member (10) from gangue leachate shower nozzle (16-9) On plate (A), then arriving the upper surface of undisturbed soil sample (12), described shock plate resistant to pressure (A) plays protection Undisturbed soil sample (12) is not acted on by gangue leachate impact erosion;It is positioned at U-shaped head and controls pipe (10-2) Interior light plastic sheet (16-8) and the permanent magnet (16-7) above it are at gangue leachate (15) Rise under buoyancy, reach identical with the liquid level of cylindrical member (10) interior liquid, when the cylinder on top When the liquid level of component (10) interior liquid rises to exceed undisturbed soil sample (12) 1mm, by wire (9) To electric coil (16-6) for electric forming electric magnet, drive runner (16-2) to turn by handle (16-4) simultaneously Dynamic, described runner (16-2) is tied with bracing wire (16-3), described electric coil (16-6) is along with bracing wire (16-3) Moving vertically in chute (16-13), swing handle (16-4) adjusts bracing wire (16-3) length and makes sealing Valve (16-5) carries out coarse adjustment close to closed mode under the effect of light spring (16-10), then changes The size of outer lead (9) the connect supply voltage of power transformation coil (16-6) carries out accurate adjustment, makes now to stop Water valve (16-5) is just at closed mode;The liquid level of the liquid in U-shaped head controls pipe (10-2) is high When spending the liquid level decline along with the liquid in the cylindrical member (10) on top, described light plastic sheet (16-8) Decline the most therewith with permanent magnet (16-7), the magnetic between permanent magnet (16-7) and electric coil (16-6) Power reduces, and the load that described light spring (16-10) is subject to increases generation compressive deformation, is positioned at light spring (16-10) water check valve (16-5) on is opened, and gangue leachate (15) continues on through tube for transfusion (16-12) Flow in cylindrical member (10) from gangue leachate shower nozzle (16-9) and feed;When being fed to cylinder structure When the liquid level of part (10) interior liquid rises to exceed undisturbed soil sample (12) 1mm again, water check valve (16-5) Would be at closed mode, otherwise then water check valve (16-5) opens continuation supply, has simulated low-intensity bastard coal Stranguria caused by urinary stone filtrate infiltrates boundary condition entirely;
(2), in the simulation low-intensity full infiltration process of gangue leachate, ooze out in undisturbed soil sample (12) Gangue leachate flows out in limbers (1-5) and flows into out milliosmolarity through plastic flexible pipe (2) measures measuring cup (3) in;In the full infiltration process of low-intensity rainfall, observe the moisturizing of gangue leachate bucket (16-1) When being spaced apart more than 2 hours, illustrate to reach to infiltrate to stablize, close gangue leachate make-up system, stop real Test;Now, the loss amount of gangue leachate bucket (16-1) interior gangue leachate (15) and cylindrical member (10) difference of the non-infiltration capacity of interior leachate is recorded as the gangue leachate always amount of falling into Qz, at low-intensity bastard coal Under the full Infiltration Condition of stranguria caused by urinary stone filtrate, the gangue leachate always amount of falling into QzNumerically equal to gangue leachate enters Milliosmolarity Qr;Now, check out that milliosmolarity oozes out the gangue leaching of undisturbed soil sample (12) in measuring measuring cup (3) The amount of liquid, and be that gangue leachate goes out milliosmolarity Q by this read-recordc
Each parameter monitoring in step 6, simulation process
Multiple Temperature Humidity Sensors probe (4-5) warm and humid to the undisturbed soil sample (12) in simulation process respectively Degree is monitored, and the signal monitored is passed to microcontroller (7-0), and microcontroller (7-0) will monitoring Signal receives and records multiple survey by serial communication circuit real-time Transmission to computer (7), computer (7) The temperature of undisturbed soil sample (12), moisture signal at pilot, and by undisturbed soil sample (12) at each test point Temperature, moisture signal are recorded as temperature T corresponding to each test point record momenti, moisture content θi;Multiple soil The matric suction of the undisturbed soil sample (12) in simulation process is supervised by conduction of heat suction probe (4-7) respectively Surveying, the matric suction signal monitored is passed to microcontroller (7-0), monitoring is believed by microcontroller (7-0) Number receive and record multiple test to computer (7), computer (7) by serial communication circuit real-time Transmission The matric suction signal of undisturbed soil sample (12) at Dian, and by the substrate of undisturbed soil sample (12) at each test point Suction signal record is matric suction F corresponding to each test point record momenta;Multiple X-ray fluorescence spectras The concentration of heavy metal ion of the undisturbed soil sample (12) in simulation process is monitored by probe (4-8) respectively, The concentration of heavy metal ion signal monitored is passed to microcontroller (7-0), and microcontroller (7-0) will monitoring Signal receives and records multiple survey by serial communication circuit real-time Transmission to computer (7), computer (7) The concentration of heavy metal ion signal of undisturbed soil sample (12) at pilot, and by undisturbed soil sample (12) at each test point Concentration of heavy metal ion signal record be concentration of heavy metal ion c corresponding to each test point record momenti;Many Individual pressure-measuring pipe (4-9) head height to undisturbed soil sample (12) respectively is monitored obtaining each test point note Head height h that the record moment is correspondingi
Above-mentioned all of monitoring, its monitoring temporal frequency is provided that gangue leachate infiltrates in 5 minutes, Record time interval is 5 seconds, and gangue leachate infiltrates in 5-15 minute, and record time interval is 10 seconds, Gangue leachate infiltrates in 15-30 minute, and record time interval is 15 seconds, and gangue leachate infiltrates In 30-60 minute, record time interval is 20 seconds, and gangue leachate records the time after infiltrating 60 minutes It is spaced apart 60 seconds, until experiment reaches stably latter more than 2-4 hour;
Analysis on monitoring result in step 7, simulation process
Temperature T to a certain moment recordedi, matric suction FaWith concentration of heavy metal ion ciMonitoring Data is done Interpolation processing, obtains the temperature cloud picture corresponding to a certain moment undisturbed soil sample (12), matric suction cloud atlas and weight Concentration of metal ions cloud atlas;Simultaneously to the moisture content θ corresponding to a certain moment undisturbed soil sample (12) recordedi Monitoring Data does interpolation processing, obtains the moisture content cloud atlas that a certain moment undisturbed soil sample (12) is corresponding;
According to the Changing Pattern of moisture content cloud atlas, find out the position of moistening forward corresponding to each moment, described The position of moistening forward refers to the edge of humid zone, and between the non-humid zone in bottom, moisture content exists substantially sudden change Part, each position line forms moistening front forward line, thus observes the change rule of moistening forward position t in time Rule;According to moisture content cloud atlas, according to the size of moisture content, find out saturated aqueous rate θ corresponding to each momentsat Contour, so that it is determined that fully saturated band, the definition of described fully saturated band is below earth pillar upper surface one depthkeeping The part that moisture is fully saturated occurs in degree;When moistening forward occurs in the same monitoring moment with fully saturated band Time, described moistening front forward line and saturated aqueous rate θsatRegion between contour is defined as gangue leachate Infiltrate intermediate zone;
Draw matric suction FaWith moisture content θiGraph of a relation, thus it is bent to respectively obtain the soil of each soil layer-water feature Line;
Step 8, gangue leachate infiltrated water calculate
According to formula Qr=Qz-Qj, it is calculated gangue leachate infiltration capacity Qr, unit is cm3;Wherein QzFor gangue leachate total amount, unit is cm3;QjFor gangue leachate run-off, unit is cm3
According to formula △ S=Qr-Qc, it being calculated the loss amount △ S that gangue leachate infiltrates, unit is cm3; Wherein QrFor gangue leachate infiltration capacity, unit is cm3;QcGoing out milliosmolarity for gangue leachate, unit is cm3
According to formula Vr=Qr/ t is calculated gangue leachate infiltration rate Vr, unit is cm3/s;Wherein Qr For gangue leachate infiltration capacity, unit is cm3;T is the experiment test time, and unit is s;
According to formula Vc=Qc/ t is calculated gangue leachate and goes out to ooze rate Vc, unit is cm3/s;Wherein Qc Going out milliosmolarity for gangue leachate, unit is cm3;T is the experiment test time, and unit is s;
According to formula α=Qc/QzBeing calculated gangue leachate infiltrated water α, unit is dimensionless;Its Middle QcGoing out milliosmolarity for gangue leachate, unit is cm3;QzFor gangue leachate total amount;
Step 9, Unsaturated Hydraulic Conductivity calculate
Gangue leachate based on soil column leaching infiltrates, and can be generalized as one-dimensional Vertical Infiltration, its mathematical model As follows
( v y + dv y d y d y ) d x d z - v y d x d z = ∂ θ ∂ t d x d y d z - - - ( 1 )
Darcy law is substituted into above equation (1) obtain
d ( - k d h / d y ) d y = ∂ θ ∂ t - - - ( 2 )
For unsaturated soil, osmotic coefficient k and moisture content existence function relation, so equation (2) can turn to down Formula
k d 2 h dy 2 + d k d y d h d y = ∂ θ ∂ t - - - ( 3 )
The theory proposed according to Fredlund&Morgenstern, the normal stress (σ-u suffered by samplea) and The change of matric suction value will cause volumetric water content θwChange, i.e.
dθ w = - m 1 w d ( σ - u a ) - m 2 w ( u a - u w ) - - - ( 4 )
In formula: σ total stress;
m1 wWith normal stress (σ-ua) change the change in volume coefficient of relevant water;
With matric suction (ua-uw) change the change in volume coefficient of relevant water;
By equation (4) to time diffusion, meanwhile, during unsteady state flow through porous medium, on soil body unit, do not has outer lotus Load effect, it is assumed that the most constant in non-saturated region gas phase,
∂ θ w ∂ t = γ w m 2 w ∂ h ∂ t - - - ( 5 )
Wherein:The i.e. slope of soil-structure interaction;
By (3), (5) Shi Ke get
k d 2 h dy 2 + d k d y d h d y = γ w m 2 w ∂ h ∂ t - - - ( 6 )
Wherein: k is Unsaturated Hydraulic Conductivity, unit is dimensionless;H is gross head height, and unit is cm; Y is earth pillar measuring point height, and unit is cm;γwFor the severe of water, unit is N/m3Bent for soil-water feature The slope of line, unit is dimensionless;T is the time, and unit is s;
Try to achieve the Unsaturated Hydraulic Conductivity k at any time earth pillar arbitrary height according to equation (6), utilize interpolation Method draws its scattergram;
Step 10, hydrodynamic dispersion coefficient calculations
By water balance principle, Water Flux q at arbitrary section y on earth pillary, it is represented by:
q 0 - q y = 1 Δ t [ ∫ 0 z θ ( t 2 ) d y - ∫ 0 z θ ( t 1 ) d y ] - - - ( 7 )
q y k + 1 / 2 = 1 2 ( q 0 k + 1 + q 0 k ) - Δ y 2 Δ t [ Σ i = 0 y ( θ i + 1 k + 1 + θ i k + 1 ) - Σ i = 0 y ( θ i + 1 k + θ i k ) ] - - - ( 8 )
In formula: qyFor the Water Flux at arbitrary section y, cm/d;q0For the inflow at earth pillar top, cm/d; θ is volumetric water content, cm3/cm3;Δ t is the period, Δ t=t2-t1, d;Hop count when k is;
Solute flux J at arbitrary section y on earth pillaryObtained by the principle of mass conservation
J 0 - J y = 1 Δ t [ ∫ 0 y θ ( t 2 ) c ( t 2 ) d y - ∫ 0 y θ ( t 1 ) k ( t 2 ) d y ] - - - ( 9 )
J y k + 1 / 2 = 1 2 ( J 0 k + 1 + J 0 k ) - Δ z 4 Δ t [ Σ i = 0 y ( θ i + 1 k + 1 + θ i k + 1 ) ( c i + 1 k + 1 + c i k + 1 ) - Σ i = 0 y ( θ i + 1 k + θ i k ) ( c i + 1 k + c i k ) ] - - - ( 10 )
In formula: JyFor the Solute flux at arbitrary section y, g/ (cm2·d);J0Solute for earth pillar top leads to Amount, g/ (cm2·d);ciFor soil liquid concentration, g/cm3;θ is volumetric water content, cm3/cm3;When Δ t is Section, Δ t=t2-t1, d;Hop count when k is;
According to hydrodynamic dispersion principle, Solute flux is equal to hydrodynamic dispersion flux and convective flux sum, i.e.
J = - θD s h ∂ c ∂ y + q c - - - ( 11 )
D s h = 1 θ ∂ c ∂ y + ( q c - J ) - - - ( 12 )
In formula: DshFor hydrodynamic dispersion coefficient, cm2/d;Remaining symbol is the same;
( D s h ) y k + 1 / 2 = 2 Δ y ( θ y k + 1 + θ y k ) ( c y k + 1 - c y k ) [ q y k + 1 / 2 ( c y k + 1 + c y k ) - J y k + 1 / 2 ] - - - ( 13 )
By above calculateWithSubstitute into above formula and can calculate hydrodynamic dispersion coefficient DshIf taking one Series y section then can calculate a series of Dsh, thus by DshWith corresponding Unsaturated Hydraulic Conductivity k or hole Flow velocity v fits to empirical equation.
Embodiment two
Various ways gangue leachate matching used with present invention supply analog (C) in the present embodiment Be middle intensity gangue leachate have runoff infiltrate supply analog (17).
With reference to Fig. 2, described middle intensity gangue leachate has runoff to infiltrate supply analog (17) to include Gangue leachate container (17-9) that is arranged in cylindrical member (10) and be arranged on gangue leachate and hold The circular aperture (17-10) of device (17-9) bottom, exceeds in cylindrical member (10) on undisturbed soil sample (12) Surface 2-5 centimeters is provided with shock plate resistant to pressure (A), and shock plate resistant to pressure (A) is provided with sieve aperture; The top of described gangue leachate container (17-9) be provided with pressure control pipe (17-8) and with outside bastard coal The feed tube (17-7) that stranguria caused by urinary stone filtrate connects;Be provided with on described feed tube (17-7) liquid inlet electromagnetic valve (17-2), Liquid feeding pump (17-1) and for the first flow sensor that the amount of gangue leachate is monitored in real time (17-3);Described gangue leachate container inner pressure controls to be provided with electromagnetic pressure control on pipe (17-8) Valve (17-5) and pressure transducer (17-6), described gangue leachate container inner pressure controls pipe (17-8) Afterbody connect have air compressor (17-4);The top inner wall of described gangue leachate container (17-9) On be provided with the water for the liquid level of liquid in gangue leachate container (17-9) is monitored in real time Level sensor (17-11);Have out outside undisturbed soil sample (12) upper surface in described cylindrical member (10) Liquid mouth (10-1), liquid outlet (10-1) accesses run-off measuring cup (13) by plastic flexible pipe (2), described Second flow sensor (13-1), described second flow sensor (13-1) it is provided with on plastic flexible pipe (2) Computer (7) is accessed by wire (9).
The present embodiment is the characteristic parameter assay method having Runoff Simulation system based on middle intensity gangue leachate, Comprise the following steps:
Step one, assembling soil column leaching standard element
Concrete steps are with embodiment one;
Step 2, installation undisturbed soil sample
Concrete steps are with embodiment one;
Step 3, assembling soil column leaching instrument and equipment
Concrete steps are with embodiment one;
Step 4, the original state of mensuration undisturbed soil sample
Concrete steps are with embodiment one;
In step 5, simulation, intensity gangue leachate has runoff to infiltrate
(1), computer (7) send signal connect air compressor (17-4) current supply circuit, then drive Dynamic pressure controls electromagnetic valve (17-5) and opens, and air compressor (17-4) starts, the compressed air warp of generation Excess pressure controls pipe by gangue leachate container inner pressure after controlling electromagnetic valve (17-5) regulation pressure (17-8) enter in gangue leachate container (17-9), by gangue leachate container (17-9) Gangue leachate sprays from circular aperture (17-10), arrives the water resistant in cylindrical member (10) afterwards In pressure shock plate (A), then the upper surface to undisturbed soil sample (12), described shock plate resistant to pressure (A) is played Protection undisturbed soil sample (12) is not acted on by gangue leachate impact erosion, has simulated middle intensity gangue Leachate has runoff to infiltrate boundary condition;During middle intensity gangue leachate has runoff simulating, pressure Sensor (17-6) is to the compression of pressure control pipe (17-8) in gangue leachate container (17-9) Air pressure is monitored in real time and is exported by the signal monitored to computer (7), and computer (7) is by it The pressure threshold that the pressure monitoring value received sets with experiment is compared, when pressure monitoring value is less than pressure threshold During value, the aperture that computer (7) drives electromagnetic pressure control valve (17-5) to open increases, and works as pressure monitoring When value is more than pressure threshold, the aperture that computer (7) drives electromagnetic pressure control valve (17-5) to open reduces, So that the compressed air pressure of pressure control pipe (17-8) is tieed up in gangue leachate container (17-9) Hold in the range of pressure threshold;Meanwhile, described level sensor (17-11) is to gangue leachate container (17-9) The liquid level of interior liquid is monitored in real time and is exported by the signal monitored to computer (7), computer (7) The liquid level monitor value of the liquid received is carried out with the liquid level setting value of the liquid that experiment sets Comparison, when the liquid level monitor value of liquid is less than the liquid level setting value of liquid, computer (7) is controlled The current supply circuit of turn-on liquid feeding pump (17-1), and drive liquid inlet electromagnetic valve (17-2) to open, outside bastard coal Stranguria caused by urinary stone filtrate flows in gangue leachate container (17-9) by feed tube (17-7), when the liquid level of liquid When highly monitor value is more than the liquid level setting value of liquid, computer (7) controls to disconnect liquid feeding pump (17-1) Current supply circuit, and drive liquid inlet electromagnetic valve (17-2) to close, stop toward gangue leachate container (17-9) Interior injection gangue leachate, so that the liquid level of gangue leachate container (17-9) interior liquid maintains Stable, it is ensured that persistently carrying out of gangue leachate infiltration process;
(2), during intensity gangue leachate has runoff infiltration process in simulations, undisturbed soil sample (12) is not penetrated into Interior gangue leachate flows out in liquid outlet (10-1) and flows into run-off amount through plastic flexible pipe (2) Cup (13);Ooze out the gangue leachate in undisturbed soil sample (12) flow out in limbers (1-5) and pass through Plastic flexible pipe (2) flows into out milliosmolarity and measures measuring cup (3), in simulation in intensity gangue leachate infiltration process, The amount of the run-off measuring cup (13) the gangue leachate to not penetrating in undisturbed soil sample (12) is monitored and remembers Record, when the difference of amount of the gangue leachate not penetrated in undisturbed soil sample (12) of two adjacent sampling instants Value is less than or equal to 1cm3Time, illustrate to have reached to infiltrate to stablize, close gangue leachate make-up system, stop Experiment;Now, gangue leachate infiltration capacity is monitored and will by first flow sensor (17-3) in real time The signal monitored exports to computer (7) in real time, and computer (7) is recorded as gangue leachate and always falls into Amount Qz;Now, check that run-off does not penetrates into the gangue in undisturbed soil sample (12) in measuring measuring cup (13) The amount of leachate, and be gangue leachate run-off Q by this read-recordj;Check out that milliosmolarity measures measuring cup (3) ooze out the amount of the gangue leachate of undisturbed soil sample (12) in, and be bastard coal stranguria caused by urinary stone by this read-record Filtrate goes out milliosmolarity Qc
Each parameter monitoring in step 6, simulation process
Concrete steps are with embodiment one;
Analysis on monitoring result in step 7, simulation process
Concrete steps are with embodiment one;
Step 8, infiltrated water calculate
Concrete steps are with embodiment one;
Step 9, Unsaturated Hydraulic Conductivity calculate
Concrete steps are with embodiment one;
Step 10, hydrodynamic dispersion coefficient calculations
Concrete steps are with embodiment one.
Embodiment three
Various ways gangue leachate matching used with present invention supply analog (C) in the present embodiment Be high intensity gangue leachate stably infiltrate supply analog (14);
With reference to Fig. 3, described high intensity gangue leachate stably infiltrates outside supply analog (14) includes Graduated gangue leachate bucket (14-1) is carved in side, and the lower section of gangue leachate bucket (14-1) is by defeated Liquid pipe (14-12) connects with gangue leachate shower nozzle (14-9), gangue leachate shower nozzle (14-9) It is arranged at cylindrical member (10) top on soil column leaching standard element (4) top, in cylindrical member (10) Exceed undisturbed soil sample (12) upper surface 2-5 centimeters and be provided with shock plate resistant to pressure (A), shock plate resistant to pressure (A) sieve aperture it is provided with on;U-shaped head controls to be provided with light plastic sheet on the liquid level in pipe (10-2) (14-8), described light plastic sheet (14-8) form is thin discs, on described light plastic sheet (14-8) Being provided with permanent magnet (14-7) in the circular groove of side, being arranged above of permanent magnet (14-7) is drawn The electric coil (14-6) that line (14-3) is hung, electric coil (14-6) is circumscribed with wire (9), bracing wire (14-3) Upper end twine on runner (14-2), runner (14-2) is provided with handle (14-4), runner (14-2) Upper end bracing wire (14-3) is connected with water check valve (14-5) bottom by putting forth effort the aperture of component (14-11) Connecing, water check valve (14-5) lower end is provided with light spring (14-10), described cylindrical member (10) and U Type head controls pipe (10-2) and is connected, light plastic sheet (14-8), permanent magnet (14-7) and electric wire Circle (14-6) all moves in U-shaped head controls the chute (14-13) of pipe (10-2);Described chute (14-13) Being embedded in U-shaped head and control pipe (10-2) inwall, described electric coil (14-6) is arranged according to edge trisection Having slide rail (14-14), described slide rail (14-14) freely can move up and down in chute (14-13), described High intensity gangue leachate stably infiltrate supply analog (14) and control undisturbed soil sample (12) surface liquid The liquid level of body is higher than more than 1cm.
The present embodiment is characteristic parameter assay method based on high intensity gangue leachate analog systems, including with Lower step:
Step one, assembling soil column leaching standard element
Concrete steps are with embodiment one;
Step 2, installation undisturbed soil sample
Concrete steps are with embodiment one;
Step 3, assembling soil column leaching instrument and equipment
Concrete steps are with embodiment one;
Step 4, the original state of mensuration undisturbed soil sample
Concrete steps are with embodiment one;
Step 5, simulation high intensity gangue leachate stably infiltrate
(1), in gangue leachate bucket (14-1), add gangue leachate (15), now make water check valve (14-5) it is closed, then opens water check valve (14-5), described gangue leachate (15) warp Tube for transfusion (14-12) from gangue leachate shower nozzle (14-9) flow in cylindrical member (10) resistant to pressure On shock plate (A), then arriving the upper surface of undisturbed soil sample (12), described shock plate resistant to pressure (A) is played Protection undisturbed soil sample (12) is not acted on by gangue leachate impact erosion;It is positioned at U-shaped head and controls pipe (10-2) the light plastic sheet (14-8) in and the permanent magnet (14-7) above it are at gangue leachate (15) rise under buoyancy, reach identical with the liquid level of cylindrical member (10) interior liquid, when upper When the liquid level of cylindrical member (10) the interior liquid in portion rises to test preset height, by wire (9) To electric coil (14-6) for electric forming electric magnet, drive runner (14-2) to turn by handle (14-4) simultaneously Dynamic, described runner (14-2) is tied with bracing wire (14-3), described electric coil (14-6) is along with bracing wire (14-3) Moving vertically in chute (14-13), swing handle (14-4) adjusts bracing wire (14-3) length and makes sealing Valve (14-5) carries out coarse adjustment close to closed mode under the effect of light spring (14-10), then changes The size of outer lead (9) the connect supply voltage of power transformation coil (14-6) carries out accurate adjustment, makes now to stop Water valve (14-5) is just at closed mode;The liquid level of liquid in U-shaped head controls pipe (10-2) When declining along with the liquid level of cylindrical member (10) the interior liquid on top, described light plastic sheet (14-8) Decline the most therewith with permanent magnet (14-7), the magnetic between permanent magnet (14-7) and electric coil (14-6) Power reduces, and the load that described light spring (14-10) is subject to increases generation compressive deformation, is positioned at light spring (14-10) water check valve (14-5) on is opened, and gangue leachate (15) continues on through tube for transfusion (14-12) Flow in cylindrical member (10) from gangue leachate shower nozzle (14-9) and feed;When being fed to cylinder structure When the liquid level of part (10) interior liquid rises to exceed the default high experimental of undisturbed soil sample (12) again, only Water valve (14-5) would be at closed mode, otherwise then water check valve (14-5) opens continuation supply, simulates High intensity gangue leachate stably infiltrates boundary condition;
(2), stablize in infiltration process at simulation high intensity gangue leachate, ooze out in undisturbed soil sample (12) Gangue leachate flow out in limbers (1-5) and flow into out milliosmolarity measurement amount through plastic flexible pipe (2) Cup (3);Stablize in infiltration process at high intensity gangue leachate, observe gangue leachate bucket (14-1) Moisturizing when being spaced apart more than 2 hours, illustrate to reach to infiltrate stable, close gangue leachate make-up system, Stop experiment;Now, the loss amount record of gangue leachate bucket (14-1) interior gangue leachate (15) For the gangue leachate always amount of falling into Qz, meanwhile, by gangue leachate bucket (14-1) interior gangue leaching The difference of the amount of the gangue leachate not penetrated in the loss amount of liquid (15) and cylindrical member (10) is recorded as coal Spoil leachate infiltration capacity Qr, check out that milliosmolarity oozes out the bastard coal of undisturbed soil sample (12) in measuring measuring cup (3) The amount of stranguria caused by urinary stone filtrate, and be that gangue leachate goes out milliosmolarity Q by this read-recordc
Each parameter monitoring in step 6, simulation process
Concrete steps are with embodiment one;
Analysis on monitoring result in step 7, simulation process
Concrete steps are with embodiment one;
Step 8, infiltrated water calculate
Concrete steps are with embodiment one;
Step 9, Unsaturated Hydraulic Conductivity calculate
Concrete steps are with embodiment one;
Step 10, hydrodynamic dispersion coefficient calculations
Concrete steps are with embodiment one.
Embodiment four
Various ways gangue leachate matching used with present invention supply analog (C) in the present embodiment Be gangue leachate melt infiltrate supply analog (8).
With reference to Fig. 4, described gangue leachate melts and infiltrates supply analog (8) and include being arranged on soil Temperature controller (8-1) outside post and the Thermal Control Element (8-3) being connected with it by wire (9), Described Thermal Control Element (8-3) is positioned at top cover (8-2) lower section, and the top of top cover (8-2) is provided with ultrasound wave Distance measuring sensor (8-4), top cover (8-2) is positioned at the cylindrical member (10) on soil column leaching standard element (4) top Top and close contact, have liquid outlet outside undisturbed soil sample (12) upper surface in cylindrical member (10) (10-1), described liquid outlet (10-1) accesses run-off measuring cup (13), plastics by plastic flexible pipe (2) Being provided with second flow sensor (13-1) on flexible pipe (2), described second flow sensor (13-1) is passed through Wire (9) access computer (7), undisturbed soil sample (12) is provided with gangue leachate prepare broken Ice (11).
The present embodiment is the characteristic parameter assay method melting simulating system based on gangue leachate, including Following steps:
Step one, assembling soil column leaching standard element
Concrete steps are with embodiment one;
Step 2, installation undisturbed soil sample
Concrete steps are with embodiment one;
Step 3, assembling soil column leaching instrument and equipment
Concrete steps are with embodiment one;
Step 4, the original state of mensuration undisturbed soil sample
Concrete steps are with embodiment one;
Step 5, simulation gangue leachate melt and infiltrate
(1), computer (7) sends signal and connects the current supply circuit of temperature controller (8-1), thus controls Thermal Control Element (8-3) is heated to preset experimental temperature T1, temperature controller (8-1) is to Thermal Control Element (8-3) Monitor in real time and the signal real-time Transmission monitored is received to computer (7), computer (7) The monitor value arrived presets experimental temperature T with Thermal Control Element (8-3)1Phase comparison, when monitor value reaches Thermal Control Element (8-3) experimental temperature T is preset1Time, computer (7) sends signal to temperature controller (8-1) and disconnects tune The current supply circuit of temperature element (8-3), Thermal Control Element (8-3) stops heating, when monitor value is less than Thermal Control Element (8-3) experimental temperature T is preset1Time, computer (7) through microcontroller (7-0) to temperature controller (8-1) Sending signal and connect the current supply circuit of Thermal Control Element (8-3), Thermal Control Element (8-3) begins to warm up, so that Thermal Control Element (8-3) remains default experimental temperature T1;Preset experimental temperature T1In the range of 0 DEG C~80 DEG C.
(2), computer (7) sends signal through microcontroller (7-0) from temperature sensing input (7-1) Arrive cold-hot integrated hardware (4-6) through wire (9), control cold-hot integrated hardware (4-6) and start Work, makes undisturbed soil sample (12) reach to preset experimental temperature T2;Gangue leachate melts simulating process In, the temperature of neighbouring soil is carried out by Temperature Humidity Sensor probe (4-5) being embedded in undisturbed soil sample (12) Monitor and passed through through wire (9) by the signal monitored the humiture outfan (7-2) of microcontroller (7-0) in real time Real-time Transmission is to computer (7), the temperature monitoring value that computer (7) is received and cold-hot integrated metal Experimental temperature T preset by element (4-6)2Phase comparison, when temperature monitoring value is higher than cold-hot integrated hardware (4-6) Preset experimental temperature T2Time, computer (7) through microcontroller (7-0) to temperature sensing input (7-1) Send signal control cold-hot integrated hardware (4-6) and start refrigeration, when temperature monitoring value is less than cold-hot integrated Experimental temperature T preset by hardware (4-6)2Time, computer (7) is visited to temperature through microcontroller (7-0) Survey input (7-1) sends signal control cold-hot integrated hardware (4-6) and begins to warm up, so that cold and hot The temperature of unitary metallic element (4-6) remains default experimental temperature T2, simulated gangue leachate and disappeared Melt low temperature Infiltration Condition;Preset experimental temperature T2In the range of-20 DEG C~20 DEG C.
(3), during simulation gangue leachate melts and infiltrates, do not penetrate in undisturbed soil sample (12) Gangue leachate flows out in described liquid outlet (10-1) and flows into run-off amount through plastic flexible pipe (2) Cup (13);Ooze out the gangue leachate in undisturbed soil sample (12) to flow out also in described liquid-through hole (1-5) Flow into out milliosmolarity through plastic flexible pipe (2) and measure measuring cup (3);Melt in infiltration process at gangue leachate, When the difference of the amount of the gangue leachate not penetrated in undisturbed soil sample (12) of two adjacent sampling instants is little In equal to 1cm3Time, illustrate to have reached gangue leachate and melt and infiltrate stable, stop experiment;Now, look into See that run-off does not penetrates into the amount of the gangue leachate in undisturbed soil sample (12) in measuring measuring cup (13), and will This read-record is gangue leachate ablation path flow Qj;Check out that milliosmolarity is oozed out former in measuring measuring cup (3) The amount of the gangue leachate of shape soil sample (12), and be that gangue leachate melts milliosmolarity by this read-record Qc;Moisture content θ at upper epidermis when infiltrating stable according to undisturbed soil sample (12), in conjunction with undisturbed soil sample (12) Initial aqueous rate θ at upper epidermisc, thus converse gangue leachate and melt infiltration capacity Qr;Gangue leaching Liquid melts infiltration capacity QrWith gangue leachate ablation path flow QjAnd be gangue leachate total ablation Qz
Each parameter monitoring in step 6, simulation process
Concrete steps are with embodiment one;
Analysis on monitoring result in step 7, simulation process
Concrete steps are with embodiment one;
Step 8, infiltrated water calculate
Concrete steps are with embodiment one;
Step 9, Unsaturated Hydraulic Conductivity calculate
Concrete steps are with embodiment one;
Step 10, hydrodynamic dispersion coefficient calculations
Concrete steps are with embodiment one.

Claims (10)

1. gangue leachate infiltrates column simulation system, it is characterised in that include bottom member (1), even The soil column leaching standard element (4) of the one or more series connection being connected on bottom member (1) and soil column leaching Various ways gangue leachate supply analog (C) at standard element (4) top;
Described bottom member (1) includes the base (1-1) being positioned at bottom, catchmenting on base (1-1) Point accesses out milliosmolarity measuring cup (3) by plastic flexible pipe (2), plastic flexible pipe (2) is provided with the 3rd flow and passes Sensor (3-1), the 3rd flow transducer (3-1) accesses computer (7);Base (1-1) is provided above Bearing column (1-2), the top of bearing column (1-2) is had to be provided with high air-entry value pottery clay plates (1-3), high air inlet The surrounding of value pottery clay plates (1-3) is close to along all inwall levels with bottom member (1) pipe fitting (1-7), The top of high air-entry value pottery clay plates (1-3) is provided with filter paper (1-4), the upper surface of filter paper (1-4) and original state Soil sample (12) contacts;The top of pipe fitting (1-7) is provided with external screw thread linkage section (1-6), and external screw thread connects Section (1-6) is connected with soil column leaching standard element (4) by flange (6);
Described soil column leaching standard element (4) is passed through soil by two identical semicylinders through clip (4-30) Clip recess (4-3) place of column experiments standard element (4) tube wall (4-1) connects into a cylinder, soil Circular aperture (4-4), circular aperture (4-4) it is provided with on the tube wall (4-1) of column experiments standard element (4) With rubber stopper (5-7) with the use of;Multiple soil column leaching standard elements (4) will up and down by flange (6) Threaded section (4-2) of end is attached;Insert (5) inserts undisturbed soil by rubber stopper (5-7) In sample (12), data all real-time Transmission that insert (5) inner sensor is gathered are to computer (7);Soil Earth conduction of heat suction probe (4-7) is in circular aperture (4-4) inserts undisturbed soil sample (12), and Soil Thermal passes Lead suction probe data all real-time Transmission of being gathered of (4-7) inner sensor to computer (7);X-ray is glimmering Light spectroscopic probe head (4-8) in circular aperture (4-4) inserts undisturbed soil sample (12), X-ray fluorescence spectra Data all real-time Transmission that probe (4-8) is gathered are to computer (7);On soil column leaching standard element (4) Being fixed with multiple pressure-measuring pipe (4-9), each water inlet of multiple pressure-measuring pipes (4-9) is through circular aperture (4-4) Insert in undisturbed soil sample (12);Described insert (5) is arranged according to same string on earth pillar, Soil Thermal Conduction suction probe (4-7) is arranged according to same string on earth pillar, and X-ray fluorescence spectra probe (4-8) exists Arranging according to same string on earth pillar, pressure-measuring pipe (4-9) is arranged according to same string on earth pillar.
Gangue leachate the most according to claim 1 infiltrates column simulation system, it is characterised in that Described bearing column (1-2) includes bearing column bearing (1-22) and bearing column main body fixed thereon (1-21), described bearing column bearing (1-22) is formed in one with base (1-1), bearing column bearing (1-22) Vertically project according to " circumference in center of circle+with base (1-1) radius 1/2 as radius is to five equal portions " at earth pillar Mode is arranged;Bearing column main body (1-21) length difference makes base (1-1) present the gradient;
Described earth pillar bottom member (1), soil column leaching standard element (4) and cylindrical member (10) by High temperature resistant glass fibre reinforced plastic is made.
Gangue leachate the most according to claim 1 infiltrates column simulation system, it is characterised in that Syringe needle (5-6) is inserted in being provided with foremost of described insert (5), turning of insert (5) internal pipeline It is provided with rubber sheet gasket (5-1) at angle, internal pipeline is provided with expelling means (5-2), expelling means (5-2) Including Temperature Humidity Sensor probe (4-5) or cold-hot integrated hardware (4-6), expelling means (5-2) rear end Being attached with wire (9), the afterbody of expelling means (5-2) is arranged with light spring (5-4), light spring (5-4) end is provided with prober controller (5-5), and the stage casing, outside of insert (5) is provided with baffle plate (5-3).
Gangue leachate the most according to claim 1 infiltrates column simulation system, it is characterised in that Described circular aperture (4-4) shape size is consistent with rubber stopper (5-7) and is tightly combined, and arrangement mode is: It is separated by arrangement in longitudinal direction and follows upper tightly lower sparse principle, transversely around soil column leaching standard element (4) excircle Long 8 grades divide arrangement.
Gangue leachate the most according to claim 1 infiltrates column simulation system, it is characterised in that Described clip (4-30) is made up of two halves circular steel ring (4-34) and by rivet (4-35) riveting of one end Connecing, the other end joint (4-33) of clip (4-30) is come by lead screw (4-31) and nut (4-32) The tightness of regulation clip (4-30), the standard cylindrical member of making is combined closely;
Described flange (6) inner side is provided with flange screw thread (6-1), and the two ends of flange (6) are provided with turning handle Hands (6-2).
Gangue leachate the most according to claim 1 infiltrates column simulation system, it is characterised in that The signal end of described computer (7) is connected with the signal end of microcontroller (7-0), microcontroller (7-0) It is provided with temperature sensing input (7-1), humiture detection outfan (7-2), matric suction detection outfan (7-3) with concentration of heavy metal ion monitor value outfan (7-4);Temperature sensing input (7-1) is through wire (9) connecting cold-hot integrated hardware (4-6), humiture detection outfan (7-2) is through wire (9) even Connecing Temperature Humidity Sensor probe (4-5), matric suction detection outfan (7-3) connects soil through wire (9) Conduction of heat suction probe (4-7), concentration of heavy metal ion monitor value outfan (7-4) connects through wire (9) X-ray fluorescence spectra probe (4-8).
Gangue leachate the most according to claim 1 infiltrates column simulation system, it is characterised in that Described various ways gangue leachate supply analog (C) includes that low-intensity gangue leachate enters entirely Impregnation to analog (16), middle intensity gangue leachate have runoff infiltrate supply analog (17) and High intensity gangue leachate stably infiltrates supply analog (14), gangue leachate and melts and infiltrate supply Analog (8);
Described low-intensity gangue leachate entirely infiltrate supply analog (16) include outside carve graduated Gangue leachate bucket (16-1), tube for transfusion (16-12) is passed through in the lower section of gangue leachate bucket (16-1) Connecting with gangue leachate shower nozzle (16-9), gangue leachate shower nozzle (16-9) is arranged at soil column leaching Cylindrical member (10) top on standard element (4) top, exceeds undisturbed soil sample (12) in cylindrical member (10) Upper surface 2-5 centimeters is provided with shock plate resistant to pressure (A), and shock plate resistant to pressure (A) is provided with sieve aperture; U-shaped head controls to be provided with light plastic sheet (16-8), described light plastic on the liquid level in pipe (10-2) Sheet (16-8) form is thin discs, is provided with forever in the circular groove of described light plastic sheet (16-8) top For a long time Magnet (16-7), permanent magnet (16-7) be arranged above the electric coil that bracing wire (16-3) is hung (16-6), electric coil (16-6) is circumscribed with wire (9), and the upper end of bracing wire (16-3) twines in runner (16-2) On, runner (16-2) is provided with handle (16-4), the bracing wire (16-3) of runner (16-2) upper end is led to Cross the aperture putting forth effort component (16-11) to be connected with water check valve (16-5) bottom, under water check valve (16-5) End is provided with light spring (16-10), and described cylindrical member (10) and U-shaped head control pipe (10-2) phase Connecting, light plastic sheet (16-8), permanent magnet (16-7) and electric coil (16-6) are all at U-shaped head Control motion in the chute (16-13) of pipe (10-2);Described chute (16-13) is embedded in U-shaped head and controls Pipe (10-2) inwall, described electric coil (16-6) is provided with slide rail (16-14) according to edge trisection, Described slide rail (16-14) freely can move up and down in chute (16-13);Described low-intensity bastard coal stranguria caused by urinary stone Filtrate entirely infiltrate supply analog (16) control undisturbed soil sample (12) surface liquid liquid level be less than 1mm;
Described middle intensity gangue leachate have runoff infiltrate supply analog (17) include being arranged on cylinder Gangue leachate container (17-9) in component (10) and be arranged on gangue leachate container (17-9) The circular aperture (17-10) of bottom, exceeds undisturbed soil sample (12) upper surface 2-5 in cylindrical member (10) Centimeters is provided with shock plate resistant to pressure (A), and shock plate resistant to pressure (A) is provided with sieve aperture;Described bastard coal The top of stranguria caused by urinary stone filtrate container (17-9) be provided with pressure control pipe (17-8) and with outside gangue leachate The feed tube (17-7) connected;Liquid inlet electromagnetic valve (17-2), feed liquor it is provided with on described feed tube (17-7) Pump (17-1) and for the first flow sensor (17-3) that the amount of gangue leachate is monitored in real time; Described gangue leachate container inner pressure controls to be provided with electromagnetic pressure control valve (17-5) on pipe (17-8) With pressure transducer (17-6), described gangue leachate container inner pressure controls the afterbody of pipe (17-8) even It is connected to air compressor (17-4);It is provided with in the top inner wall of described gangue leachate container (17-9) For the level sensor that the liquid level of liquid in gangue leachate container (17-9) is monitored in real time (17-11);Liquid outlet (10-1) is had outside undisturbed soil sample (12) upper surface in described cylindrical member (10), Liquid outlet (10-1) accesses run-off measuring cup (13), described plastic flexible pipe (2) by plastic flexible pipe (2) On be provided with second flow sensor (13-1), described second flow sensor (13-1) pass through wire (9) Access computer (7);
Described high intensity gangue leachate stably infiltrate supply analog (14) include outside be carved with scale Gangue leachate bucket (14-1), the lower section of gangue leachate bucket (14-1) pass through tube for transfusion (14-12) Connecting with gangue leachate shower nozzle (14-9), gangue leachate shower nozzle (14-9) is arranged at soil column leaching Cylindrical member (10) top on standard element (4) top, exceeds undisturbed soil sample (12) in cylindrical member (10) Upper surface 2-5 centimeters is provided with shock plate resistant to pressure (A), and shock plate resistant to pressure (A) is provided with sieve aperture; U-shaped head controls to be provided with light plastic sheet (14-8), described light plastic on the liquid level in pipe (10-2) Sheet (14-8) form is thin discs, is provided with forever in the circular groove of described light plastic sheet (14-8) top For a long time Magnet (14-7), permanent magnet (14-7) be arranged above the electric coil that bracing wire (14-3) is hung (14-6), electric coil (14-6) is circumscribed with wire (9), and the upper end of bracing wire (14-3) twines in runner (14-2) On, runner (14-2) is provided with handle (14-4), the bracing wire (14-3) of runner (14-2) upper end is led to Cross the aperture putting forth effort component (14-11) to be connected with water check valve (14-5) bottom, under water check valve (14-5) End is provided with light spring (14-10), and described cylindrical member (10) and U-shaped head control pipe (10-2) phase Connecting, light plastic sheet (14-8), permanent magnet (14-7) and electric coil (14-6) are all at U-shaped head Control motion in the chute (14-13) of pipe (10-2);Described chute (14-13) is embedded in U-shaped head and controls Pipe (10-2) inwall, described electric coil (14-6) is provided with slide rail (14-14) according to edge trisection, Described slide rail (14-14) freely can move up and down in chute (14-13), described high intensity bastard coal stranguria caused by urinary stone Filtrate stably infiltrate supply analog (14) control undisturbed soil sample (12) surface liquid liquid level be higher than More than 1cm.
Gangue leachate the most according to claim 7 infiltrates column simulation system, it is characterised in that Described gangue leachate melts to infiltrate and feeds the temperature control that analog (8) includes being arranged on outside earth pillar Device processed (8-1) and the Thermal Control Element (8-3) being connected with it by wire (9), described Thermal Control Element (8-3) Being positioned at top cover (8-2) lower section, the top of top cover (8-2) is provided with ultrasonic distance-measuring sensor (8-4), top Lid (8-2) is positioned at top and the close contact of the cylindrical member (10) on soil column leaching standard element (4) top, Have liquid outlet (10-1) outside undisturbed soil sample (12) upper surface in cylindrical member (10), described in go out liquid Mouth (10-1) accesses run-off measuring cup (13) by plastic flexible pipe (2), and plastic flexible pipe is provided with on (2) Second flow sensor (13-1), described second flow sensor (13-1) is accessed by wire (9) and is calculated Machine (7), undisturbed soil sample (12) is provided with the trash ice (11) prepared with gangue leachate.
9. based on the gangue leachate described in any of the above-described claim infiltrate column simulation system feature ginseng Number assay method, it is characterised in that comprise the following steps:
Step one, assembling soil column leaching standard element
Respectively two pieces of semicylinder tube walls (4-1) of soil column leaching standard element (4) are spliced, to soil The seam of column experiments standard element (4) carries out sealing and water-proofing treatment, then clip (4-30) is enclosed within card On hoop groove (4-3), and by the nut (4-32) being tightly placed on lead screw part (4-31) on spanner, make Clip (4-30) is enclosed within clip recess (4-3) securely, then by multiple soil column leaching standard elements (4) Realize longitudinal spliced by flange (6) series connection;
Step 2, installation undisturbed soil sample
Choose preprepared undisturbed soil sample (12), undisturbed soil sample (12) is erect on the ground, by Multiple soil column leaching standard elements (4) through connecting entangle undisturbed soil sample (12), by undisturbed soil sample (12) And seal between soil column leaching standard element (4) and water-proofing treatment ensures that during subsequent experimental, gangue leachate is not Directly flow down from gap;
Step 3, assembling soil column leaching instrument and equipment
First being positioned on level ground by base (1-1), it is right then bearing column main body (1-21) to be mounted on On the bearing column bearing (1-22) answered, high air-entry value pottery clay plates (1-3) is placed horizontally at bearing column main body (1-21) top, described high air-entry value pottery clay plates (1-3) upper surface is equipped with filter paper (1-4), described in hold Power post main body (1-21), high air-entry value pottery clay plates (1-3), filter paper (1-4) are respectively positioned in pipe fitting (1-7) Portion;One the external plastic flexible pipe of liquid outlet (2) is set in catchment extreme lower position, by described plastic flexible pipe (2) The other end access out milliosmolarity measuring cup (3), wherein said plastic flexible pipe (2) is upper installs the 3rd flow transducer (3-1), described 3rd flow transducer (3-1) accesses computer (7) by wire (9), then by method The flange screw thread (6-1) alignment external screw thread linkage section (1-6) of blue (6), will by swing handle (6-2) Flange (6) is closely installed at bottom member (1) top, the soil column leaching mark then splicing assembled The undisturbed soil sample (12) that quasi-component entangles together with it is by the bottom thread of soil column leaching standard element (4) even The section of connecing (4-2) assembles with the flange screw thread (6-1) of the flange (6) of described bottom member (1) upper end, The undisturbed soil sample (12) that the soil column leaching standard element making splicing assemble entangles together with it is positioned at bottom member (1) surface of filter paper (1-4), is attached cylindrical member (10) finally by flange (6);
Step 4, the original state of mensuration undisturbed soil sample
The initial aqueous rate of undisturbed soil sample (12): multiple Temperature Humidity Sensors probe (4-5) are respectively to original state The humidity of soil sample (12) is once monitored, and the signal monitored is passed to microcontroller (7-0), micro-control Monitoring signal is passed through serial communication circuit real-time Transmission to computer (7), computer (7) by device processed (7-0) Receive and record the moisture signal of undisturbed soil sample (12) at multiple test point, and by undisturbed soil at each test point The moisture signal of sample (12) is recorded as initial aqueous rate θ of undisturbed soil sample (12) at each test pointc
The initial temperature of undisturbed soil sample (12): multiple Temperature Humidity Sensors probe (4-5) are respectively to undisturbed soil The temperature of sample (12) is once monitored, and the signal monitored is passed to microcontroller (7-0), microcontroller Monitoring signal is connect to computer (7), computer (7) by device (7-0) by serial communication circuit real-time Transmission Receive and record the temperature signal of undisturbed soil sample (12) at multiple test point, and by undisturbed soil sample at each test point (12) temperature signal is recorded as initial temperature T of undisturbed soil sample (12) at each test pointc
The matric suction of undisturbed soil sample (12): multiple soil heat conduction suction probe (4-7) are respectively to original state The matric suction of soil sample (12) is once monitored, and the signal monitored is passed to microcontroller (7-0), Monitoring signal is passed through serial communication circuit real-time Transmission to computer (7), computer by microcontroller (7-0) (7) receive and record the matric suction signal of undisturbed soil sample (12) at multiple test point, and each is tested At Dian, the matric suction signal record of undisturbed soil sample (12) is the initial of undisturbed soil sample (12) at each test point Matric suction Fac
The concentration of heavy metal ion background values of undisturbed soil sample (12): multiple X-ray fluorescence spectras probe (4-8) Respectively undisturbed soil sample (12) concentration of heavy metal ion of original state is monitored, the heavy metal that will monitor Ion concentration signal passes to microcontroller (7-0), and monitoring signal is passed through serial communication by microcontroller (7-0) Circuit real-time Transmission receives and records undisturbed soil sample (12) at multiple test point to computer (7), computer (7) Concentration of heavy metal ion signal, and by each test point undisturbed soil sample (12) concentration of heavy metal ion letter Number it is recorded as each test point concentration of heavy metal ion background values c;
The head height of undisturbed soil sample (12): multiple pressure-measuring pipes (4-9) are respectively to undisturbed soil sample (12) Head height is monitored obtaining head height h corresponding to each test point starting stagec
The saturated aqueous rate of undisturbed soil sample (12): other soil that the sampling spot of undisturbed soil sample (12) is taken back Sample carries out saturated aqueous rate mensuration, as the saturated aqueous rate of undisturbed soil sample (12);Soil sampling puts into weighing box In, for its water filling until water surface submergence soil sample, within 10 minutes, afterwards by unnecessary water removing, quality is called m in submergence, Afterwards soil sample and box are put into baking oven, dry, be placed on afterwards on balance carry out weighing quality is ms, utilize formula afterwardsSaturated aqueous rate θ of undisturbed soil sample (12) is tried to achieve in calculatingsat
Step 5, four kinds of hydraulic boundary conditions of simulation
According to test request, gangue leachate infiltrates and feeds analog (C) mixed soil column experiments standard structure Part (4) work simulate four kinds of hydraulic boundary conditions, i.e. low-intensity gangue leachate entirely infiltrate boundary condition, Middle intensity gangue leachate has runoff to infiltrate boundary condition, high intensity gangue leachate stably to infiltrate perimeter strip Part and gangue leachate melt and infiltrate boundary condition;
Each parameter monitoring in step 6, simulation process
Multiple Temperature Humidity Sensors probe (4-5) warm and humid to the undisturbed soil sample (12) in simulation process respectively Degree is monitored, and the signal monitored is passed to microcontroller (7-0), and microcontroller (7-0) will monitoring Signal receives and records multiple survey by serial communication circuit real-time Transmission to computer (7), computer (7) The temperature of undisturbed soil sample (12), moisture signal at pilot, and by undisturbed soil sample (12) at each test point Temperature, moisture signal are recorded as temperature T corresponding to each test point record momenti, moisture content θi;Multiple soil The matric suction of the undisturbed soil sample (12) in simulation process is supervised by conduction of heat suction probe (4-7) respectively Surveying, the matric suction signal monitored is passed to microcontroller (7-0), monitoring is believed by microcontroller (7-0) Number receive and record multiple test to computer (7), computer (7) by serial communication circuit real-time Transmission The matric suction signal of undisturbed soil sample (12) at Dian, and by the substrate of undisturbed soil sample (12) at each test point Suction signal record is matric suction F corresponding to each test point record momenta;Multiple X-ray fluorescence spectras The concentration of heavy metal ion of the undisturbed soil sample (12) in simulation process is monitored by probe (4-8) respectively, The concentration of heavy metal ion signal monitored is passed to microcontroller (7-0), and microcontroller (7-0) will monitoring Signal receives and records multiple survey by serial communication circuit real-time Transmission to computer (7), computer (7) The concentration of heavy metal ion signal of undisturbed soil sample (12) at pilot, and by undisturbed soil sample (12) at each test point Concentration of heavy metal ion signal record be concentration of heavy metal ion c corresponding to each test point record momenti;Many Individual pressure-measuring pipe (4-9) head height to undisturbed soil sample (12) respectively is monitored obtaining each test point note Head height h that the record moment is correspondingi
Above-mentioned all of monitoring, its monitoring temporal frequency is provided that gangue leachate infiltrates in 5 minutes, Record time interval is 5 seconds, and gangue leachate infiltrates in 5-15 minute, and record time interval is 10 seconds, Gangue leachate infiltrates in 15-30 minute, and record time interval is 15 seconds, and gangue leachate infiltrates In 30-60 minute, record time interval is 20 seconds, and gangue leachate records the time after infiltrating 60 minutes It is spaced apart 60 seconds, until experiment reaches stably latter more than 2-4 hour;
Analysis on monitoring result in step 7, simulation process
Temperature T to a certain moment recordedi, matric suction FaWith concentration of heavy metal ion ciMonitoring Data is done Interpolation processing, obtains the temperature cloud picture corresponding to a certain moment undisturbed soil sample (12), matric suction cloud atlas and weight Concentration of metal ions cloud atlas;Simultaneously to the moisture content θ corresponding to a certain moment undisturbed soil sample (12) recordedi Monitoring Data does interpolation processing, obtains the moisture content cloud atlas that a certain moment undisturbed soil sample (12) is corresponding;
According to the Changing Pattern of moisture content cloud atlas, find out the position of moistening forward corresponding to each moment, described The position of moistening forward refers to the edge of humid zone, and between the non-humid zone in bottom, moisture content exists substantially sudden change Part, each position line forms moistening front forward line, thus observes the change rule of moistening forward position t in time Rule;According to moisture content cloud atlas, according to the size of moisture content, find out saturated aqueous rate θ corresponding to each momentsat Contour, so that it is determined that fully saturated band, the definition of described fully saturated band is below earth pillar upper surface one depthkeeping The part that moisture is fully saturated occurs in degree;When moistening forward occurs in the same monitoring moment with fully saturated band Time, described moistening front forward line and saturated aqueous rate θsatRegion between contour is defined as gangue leachate Infiltrate intermediate zone;
Draw matric suction FaWith moisture content θiGraph of a relation, thus it is bent to respectively obtain the soil of each soil layer-water feature Line;
Step 8, gangue leachate infiltrated water calculate
According to formula Qr=Qz-Qj, it is calculated gangue leachate infiltration capacity Qr, unit is cm3;Wherein QzFor gangue leachate total amount, unit is cm3;QjFor gangue leachate run-off, unit is cm3
According to formula △ S=Qr-Qc, it being calculated the loss amount △ S that gangue leachate infiltrates, unit is cm3; Wherein QrFor gangue leachate infiltration capacity, unit is cm3;QcGoing out milliosmolarity for gangue leachate, unit is cm3
According to formula Vr=Qr/ t is calculated gangue leachate infiltration rate Vr, unit is cm3/s;Wherein Qr For gangue leachate infiltration capacity, unit is cm3;T is the experiment test time, and unit is s;
According to formula Vc=Qc/ t is calculated gangue leachate and goes out to ooze rate Vc, unit is cm3/s;Wherein Qc Going out milliosmolarity for gangue leachate, unit is cm3;T is the experiment test time, and unit is s;
According to formula α=Qc/QzBeing calculated gangue leachate infiltrated water α, unit is dimensionless;Its Middle QcGoing out milliosmolarity for gangue leachate, unit is cm3;QzFor gangue leachate total amount;
Step 9, Unsaturated Hydraulic Conductivity calculate
Gangue leachate based on soil column leaching infiltrates, and can be generalized as one-dimensional Vertical Infiltration, its mathematical model As follows
( v y + dv y d y d y ) d x d z - v y d x d z = ∂ θ ∂ t d x d y d z - - - ( 1 )
Darcy law is substituted into above equation (1) obtain
d ( - k d h / d y ) d y = ∂ θ ∂ t - - - ( 2 )
For unsaturated soil, osmotic coefficient k and moisture content existence function relation, so equation (2) can turn to down Formula
k d 2 h dy 2 + d k d y d h d y = ∂ θ ∂ t - - - ( 3 )
The theory proposed according to Fredlund&Morgenstern, the normal stress (σ-u suffered by samplea) and The change of matric suction value will cause volumetric water content θwChange, i.e.
dθ w = - m 1 w d ( σ - u a ) - m 2 w ( u a - u w ) - - - ( 4 )
In formula: σ total stress;
m1 wWith normal stress (σ-ua) change the change in volume coefficient of relevant water;
With matric suction (ua-uw) change the change in volume coefficient of relevant water;
By equation (4) to time diffusion, meanwhile, during unsteady state flow through porous medium, on soil body unit, do not has outer lotus Load effect, it is assumed that the most constant in non-saturated region gas phase,
∂ θ w ∂ t = γ w m 2 w ∂ h ∂ t - - - ( 5 )
Wherein:The i.e. slope of soil-structure interaction.
By (3), (5) Shi Ke get
k d 2 h dy 2 + d k d y d h d y = γ w m 2 w ∂ h ∂ t - - - ( 6 )
Wherein: k is Unsaturated Hydraulic Conductivity, unit is dimensionless;H is gross head height, and unit is cm; Y is earth pillar measuring point height, and unit is cm;γwFor the severe of water, unit is N/m3Bent for soil-water feature The slope of line, unit is dimensionless;T is the time, and unit is s;
Try to achieve the Unsaturated Hydraulic Conductivity k at any time earth pillar arbitrary height according to equation (6), utilize interpolation Method draws its scattergram;
Step 10, hydrodynamic dispersion coefficient calculations:
By water balance principle, Water Flux q at arbitrary section y on earth pillary, it is represented by
q 0 - q y = 1 Δ t [ ∫ 0 z θ ( t 2 ) d y - ∫ 0 z θ ( t 1 ) d y ] - - - ( 7 )
q y k + 1 / 2 = 1 2 ( q 0 k + 1 + q 0 k ) - Δ y 2 Δ t [ Σ i = 0 y ( θ i + 1 k + 1 + θ i k + 1 ) - Σ i = 0 y ( θ i + 1 k + θ i k ) ] - - - ( 8 )
In formula: qyFor the Water Flux at arbitrary section y, cm/d;q0For the inflow at earth pillar top, cm/d; θ is volumetric water content, cm3/cm3;Δ t is the period, Δ t=t2-t1, d;Hop count when k is;
Solute flux J at arbitrary section y on earth pillaryObtained by the principle of mass conservation
J 0 - J y = 1 Δ t [ ∫ 0 y θ ( t 2 ) c ( t 2 ) d y - ∫ 0 y θ ( t 1 ) c ( t 2 ) d y ] - - - ( 9 )
J y k + 1 / 2 = 1 2 ( J 0 k + 1 + J 0 k ) - Δ z 4 Δ t [ Σ i = 0 y ( θ i + 1 k + 1 + θ i k + 1 ) ( c i + 1 k + 1 + c i k + 1 ) - Σ i = 0 y ( θ i + 1 k + θ i k ) ( c i + 1 k + c i k ) ] - - - ( 10 )
In formula: JyFor the Solute flux at arbitrary section y, g/ (cm2·d);J0Solute for earth pillar top leads to Amount, g/ (cm2·d);ciFor soil liquid concentration, g/cm3;θ is volumetric water content, cm3/cm3;When Δ t is Section, Δ t=t2-t1, d;Hop count when k is;
According to hydrodynamic dispersion principle, Solute flux is equal to hydrodynamic dispersion flux and convective flux sum, it may be assumed that
J = - θD s h ∂ c ∂ y + q c - - - ( 11 )
D s h = 1 θ ∂ c ∂ y + ( q c - J ) - - - ( 12 )
In formula: DshFor hydrodynamic dispersion coefficient, cm2/d;Remaining symbol is the same;
( D s h ) y k + 1 / 2 = 2 Δ y ( θ y k + 1 + θ y k ) ( c y k + 1 - c y k ) [ q y k + 1 / 2 ( c y k + 1 + c y k ) - J y k + 1 / 2 ] - - - ( 13 )
By above calculateWithSubstitute into above formula and can calculate hydrodynamic dispersion coefficient DshIf taking one Series y section then can calculate a series of Dsh, thus by DshWith corresponding Unsaturated Hydraulic Conductivity k or hole Flow velocity v fits to empirical equation.
Gangue leachate the most according to claim 9 infiltrate column simulation system characteristic parameter measure Method, it is characterised in that:
Four kinds of hydraulic boundary conditions described in step 5, the physical simulation that its low-intensity gangue leachate infiltrates entirely Step is:
(1), in gangue leachate bucket (16-1), add gangue leachate (15), now make water check valve (16-5) being closed, then open water check valve (16-5), gangue leachate (15) is through transfusion Pipe (16-12) flow to the impact resistant to pressure in cylindrical member (10) from gangue leachate shower nozzle (16-9) On plate (A), then arriving the upper surface of undisturbed soil sample (12), described shock plate resistant to pressure (A) plays protection Undisturbed soil sample (12) is not acted on by gangue leachate impact erosion;It is positioned at U-shaped head and controls pipe (10-2) Interior light plastic sheet (16-8) and the permanent magnet (16-7) above it are at gangue leachate (15) Rise under buoyancy, reach identical with the liquid level of cylindrical member (10) interior liquid, when the cylinder on top When the liquid level of component (10) interior liquid rises to exceed undisturbed soil sample (12) 1mm, by wire (9) To electric coil (16-6) for electric forming electric magnet, drive runner (16-2) to turn by handle (16-4) simultaneously Dynamic, described runner (16-2) is tied with bracing wire (16-3), described electric coil (16-6) is along with bracing wire (16-3) Moving vertically in chute (16-13), swing handle (16-4) adjusts bracing wire (16-3) length and makes sealing Valve (16-5) carries out coarse adjustment close to closed mode under the effect of light spring (16-10), then changes The size of outer lead (9) the connect supply voltage of power transformation coil (16-6) carries out accurate adjustment, makes now to stop Water valve (16-5) is just at closed mode;The liquid level of the liquid in U-shaped head controls pipe (10-2) is high When spending the liquid level decline along with the liquid in the cylindrical member (10) on top, described light plastic sheet (16-8) Decline the most therewith with permanent magnet (16-7), the magnetic between permanent magnet (16-7) and electric coil (16-6) Power reduces, and the load that described light spring (16-10) is subject to increases generation compressive deformation, is positioned at light spring (16-10) water check valve (16-5) on is opened, and gangue leachate (15) continues on through tube for transfusion (16-12) Flow in cylindrical member (10) from gangue leachate shower nozzle (16-9) and feed;When being fed to cylinder structure When the liquid level of part (10) interior liquid rises to exceed undisturbed soil sample (12) 1mm again, water check valve (16-5) Would be at closed mode, otherwise then water check valve (16-5) opens continuation supply, has simulated low-intensity bastard coal Stranguria caused by urinary stone filtrate infiltrates boundary condition entirely;
(2), in the simulation low-intensity full infiltration process of gangue leachate, ooze out in undisturbed soil sample (12) Gangue leachate flows out in limbers (1-5) and flows into out milliosmolarity through plastic flexible pipe (2) measures measuring cup (3) in;In the full infiltration process of low-intensity rainfall, observe the moisturizing of gangue leachate bucket (16-1) When being spaced apart more than 2 hours, illustrate to reach to infiltrate to stablize, close gangue leachate make-up system, stop real Test;Now, the loss amount of gangue leachate bucket (16-1) interior gangue leachate (15) and cylindrical member (10) difference of the non-infiltration capacity of interior leachate is recorded as the gangue leachate always amount of falling into Qz, at low-intensity bastard coal Under the full Infiltration Condition of stranguria caused by urinary stone filtrate, the gangue leachate always amount of falling into QzNumerically equal to gangue leachate enters Milliosmolarity Qr;Now, check out that milliosmolarity oozes out the gangue leaching of undisturbed soil sample (12) in measuring measuring cup (3) The amount of liquid, and be that gangue leachate goes out milliosmolarity Q by this read-recordc
Four kinds of hydraulic boundary conditions described in step 5, wherein intensity gangue leachate have that runoff infiltrates concrete Simulation steps is:
(1), computer (7) send signal connect air compressor (17-4) current supply circuit, then drive Dynamic pressure controls electromagnetic valve (17-5) and opens, and air compressor (17-4) starts, the compressed air warp of generation Excess pressure controls pipe by gangue leachate container inner pressure after controlling electromagnetic valve (17-5) regulation pressure (17-8) enter in gangue leachate container (17-9), by gangue leachate container (17-9) Gangue leachate sprays from circular aperture (17-10), arrives the water resistant in cylindrical member (10) afterwards In pressure shock plate (A), then the upper surface to undisturbed soil sample (12), described shock plate resistant to pressure (A) is played Protection undisturbed soil sample (12) is not acted on by gangue leachate impact erosion, has simulated middle intensity gangue Leachate has runoff to infiltrate boundary condition;During middle intensity gangue leachate has runoff simulating, pressure Sensor (17-6) is to the compression of pressure control pipe (17-8) in gangue leachate container (17-9) Air pressure is monitored in real time and is exported by the signal monitored to computer (7), and computer (7) is by it The pressure threshold that the pressure monitoring value received sets with experiment is compared, when pressure monitoring value is less than pressure threshold During value, the aperture that computer (7) drives electromagnetic pressure control valve (17-5) to open increases, and works as pressure monitoring When value is more than pressure threshold, the aperture that computer (7) drives electromagnetic pressure control valve (17-5) to open reduces, So that the compressed air pressure of pressure control pipe (17-8) is tieed up in gangue leachate container (17-9) Hold in the range of pressure threshold;Meanwhile, described level sensor (17-11) is to gangue leachate container (17-9) The liquid level of interior liquid is monitored in real time and is exported by the signal monitored to computer (7), computer (7) The liquid level monitor value of the liquid received is carried out with the liquid level setting value of the liquid that experiment sets Comparison, when the liquid level monitor value of liquid is less than the liquid level setting value of liquid, computer (7) is controlled The current supply circuit of turn-on liquid feeding pump (17-1), and drive liquid inlet electromagnetic valve (17-2) to open, outside bastard coal Stranguria caused by urinary stone filtrate flows in gangue leachate container (17-9) by feed tube (17-7), when the liquid level of liquid When highly monitor value is more than the liquid level setting value of liquid, computer (7) controls to disconnect liquid feeding pump (17-1) Current supply circuit, and drive liquid inlet electromagnetic valve (17-2) to close, stop toward gangue leachate container (17-9) Interior injection gangue leachate, so that the liquid level of gangue leachate container (17-9) interior liquid maintains Stable, it is ensured that persistently carrying out of gangue leachate infiltration process;
(2), during intensity gangue leachate has runoff infiltration process in simulations, undisturbed soil sample (12) is not penetrated into Interior gangue leachate flows out in liquid outlet (10-1) and flows into run-off amount through plastic flexible pipe (2) Cup (13);Ooze out the gangue leachate in undisturbed soil sample (12) flow out in limbers (1-5) and pass through Plastic flexible pipe (2) flows into out milliosmolarity and measures measuring cup (3), in simulation in intensity gangue leachate infiltration process, The amount of the run-off measuring cup (13) the gangue leachate to not penetrating in undisturbed soil sample (12) is monitored and remembers Record, when the difference of amount of the gangue leachate not penetrated in undisturbed soil sample (12) of two adjacent sampling instants Value is less than or equal to 1cm3Time, illustrate to have reached to infiltrate to stablize, close gangue leachate make-up system, stop Experiment;Now, gangue leachate infiltration capacity is monitored and will by first flow sensor (17-3) in real time The signal monitored exports to computer (7) in real time, and computer (7) is recorded as gangue leachate and always falls into Amount Qz;Now, check that run-off does not penetrates into the gangue in undisturbed soil sample (12) in measuring measuring cup (13) The amount of leachate, and be gangue leachate run-off Q by this read-recordj;Check out that milliosmolarity measures measuring cup (3) ooze out the amount of the gangue leachate of undisturbed soil sample (12) in, and be bastard coal stranguria caused by urinary stone by this read-record Filtrate goes out milliosmolarity Qc
Four kinds of hydraulic boundary conditions described in step 5, the concrete mould that its high intensity gangue leachate stably infiltrates Intending step is:
(1), in gangue leachate bucket (14-1), add gangue leachate (15), now make water check valve (14-5) it is closed, then opens water check valve (14-5), described gangue leachate (15) warp Tube for transfusion (14-12) from gangue leachate shower nozzle (14-9) flow in cylindrical member (10) resistant to pressure On shock plate (A), then arriving the upper surface of undisturbed soil sample (12), described shock plate resistant to pressure (A) is played Protection undisturbed soil sample (12) is not acted on by gangue leachate impact erosion;It is positioned at U-shaped head and controls pipe (10-2) the light plastic sheet (14-8) in and the permanent magnet (14-7) above it are at gangue leachate (15) rise under buoyancy, reach identical with the liquid level of cylindrical member (10) interior liquid, when upper When the liquid level of cylindrical member (10) the interior liquid in portion rises to test preset height, by wire (9) To electric coil (14-6) for electric forming electric magnet, drive runner (14-2) to turn by handle (14-4) simultaneously Dynamic, described runner (14-2) is tied with bracing wire (14-3), described electric coil (14-6) is along with bracing wire (14-3) Moving vertically in chute (14-13), swing handle (14-4) adjusts bracing wire (14-3) length and makes sealing Valve (14-5) carries out coarse adjustment close to closed mode under the effect of light spring (14-10), then changes The size of outer lead (9) the connect supply voltage of power transformation coil (14-6) carries out accurate adjustment, makes now to stop Water valve (14-5) is just at closed mode;The liquid level of liquid in U-shaped head controls pipe (10-2) When declining along with the liquid level of cylindrical member (10) the interior liquid on top, described light plastic sheet (14-8) Decline the most therewith with permanent magnet (14-7), the magnetic between permanent magnet (14-7) and electric coil (14-6) Power reduces, and the load that described light spring (14-10) is subject to increases generation compressive deformation, is positioned at light spring (14-10) water check valve (14-5) on is opened, and gangue leachate (15) continues on through tube for transfusion (14-12) Flow in cylindrical member (10) from gangue leachate shower nozzle (14-9) and feed;When being fed to cylinder structure When the liquid level of part (10) interior liquid rises to exceed the default high experimental of undisturbed soil sample (12) again, only Water valve (14-5) would be at closed mode, otherwise then water check valve (14-5) opens continuation supply, simulates High intensity gangue leachate stably infiltrates boundary condition;
(2), stablize in infiltration process at simulation high intensity gangue leachate, ooze out in undisturbed soil sample (12) Gangue leachate flow out in limbers (1-5) and flow into out milliosmolarity measurement amount through plastic flexible pipe (2) Cup (3);Stablize in infiltration process at high intensity gangue leachate, observe gangue leachate bucket (14-1) Moisturizing when being spaced apart more than 2 hours, illustrate to reach to infiltrate stable, close gangue leachate make-up system, Stop experiment;Now, the loss amount record of gangue leachate bucket (14-1) interior gangue leachate (15) For the gangue leachate always amount of falling into Qz, meanwhile, by gangue leachate bucket (14-1) interior gangue leaching The difference of the amount of the gangue leachate not penetrated in the loss amount of liquid (15) and cylindrical member (10) is recorded as coal Spoil leachate infiltration capacity Qr, check out that milliosmolarity oozes out the bastard coal of undisturbed soil sample (12) in measuring measuring cup (3) The amount of stranguria caused by urinary stone filtrate, and be that gangue leachate goes out milliosmolarity Q by this read-recordc
Four kinds of hydraulic boundary conditions described in step 5, its gangue leachate melts the physical simulation step infiltrated For:
(1), computer (7) sends signal and connects the current supply circuit of temperature controller (8-1), thus controls Thermal Control Element (8-3) is heated to preset experimental temperature T1, temperature controller (8-1) is to Thermal Control Element (8-3) Monitor in real time and the signal real-time Transmission monitored is received to computer (7), computer (7) The monitor value arrived presets experimental temperature T with Thermal Control Element (8-3)1Phase comparison, when monitor value reaches Thermal Control Element (8-3) experimental temperature T is preset1Time, computer (7) sends signal to temperature controller (8-1) and disconnects tune The current supply circuit of temperature element (8-3), Thermal Control Element (8-3) stops heating, when monitor value is less than Thermal Control Element (8-3) experimental temperature T is preset1Time, computer (7) through microcontroller (7-0) to temperature controller (8-1) Sending signal and connect the current supply circuit of Thermal Control Element (8-3), Thermal Control Element (8-3) begins to warm up, so that Thermal Control Element (8-3) remains default experimental temperature T1;Preset experimental temperature T1In the range of 0 DEG C~80 DEG C.
(2), computer (7) sends signal through microcontroller (7-0) from temperature sensing input (7-1) Arrive cold-hot integrated hardware (4-6) through wire (9), control cold-hot integrated hardware (4-6) and start Work, makes undisturbed soil sample (12) reach to preset experimental temperature T2;Gangue leachate melts simulating process In, the temperature of neighbouring soil is carried out by Temperature Humidity Sensor probe (4-5) being embedded in undisturbed soil sample (12) Monitor and passed through through wire (9) by the signal monitored the humiture outfan (7-2) of microcontroller (7-0) in real time Real-time Transmission is to computer (7), the temperature monitoring value that computer (7) is received and cold-hot integrated metal Experimental temperature T preset by element (4-6)2Phase comparison, when temperature monitoring value is higher than cold-hot integrated hardware (4-6) Preset experimental temperature T2Time, computer (7) through microcontroller (7-0) to temperature sensing input (7-1) Send signal control cold-hot integrated hardware (4-6) and start refrigeration, when temperature monitoring value is less than cold-hot integrated Experimental temperature T preset by hardware (4-6)2Time, computer (7) is visited to temperature through microcontroller (7-0) Survey input (7-1) sends signal control cold-hot integrated hardware (4-6) and begins to warm up, so that cold and hot The temperature of unitary metallic element (4-6) remains default experimental temperature T2, simulated gangue leachate and disappeared Melt low temperature Infiltration Condition;Preset experimental temperature T2In the range of-20 DEG C~20 DEG C.
(3), during simulation gangue leachate melts and infiltrates, do not penetrate in undisturbed soil sample (12) Gangue leachate flows out in described liquid outlet (10-1) and flows into run-off amount through plastic flexible pipe (2) Cup (13);Ooze out the gangue leachate in undisturbed soil sample (12) to flow out also in described liquid-through hole (1-5) Flow into out milliosmolarity through plastic flexible pipe (2) and measure measuring cup (3);Melt in infiltration process at gangue leachate, When the difference of the amount of the gangue leachate not penetrated in undisturbed soil sample (12) of two adjacent sampling instants is little In equal to 1cm3Time, illustrate to have reached gangue leachate and melt and infiltrate stable, stop experiment;Now, look into See that run-off does not penetrates into the amount of the gangue leachate in undisturbed soil sample (12) in measuring measuring cup (13), and will This read-record is gangue leachate ablation path flow Qj;Check out that milliosmolarity is oozed out former in measuring measuring cup (3) The amount of the gangue leachate of shape soil sample (12), and be that gangue leachate melts milliosmolarity by this read-record Qc;Moisture content θ at upper epidermis when infiltrating stable according to undisturbed soil sample (12), in conjunction with undisturbed soil sample (12) Initial aqueous rate θ at upper epidermisc, thus converse gangue leachate and melt infiltration capacity Qr;Gangue leaching Liquid melts infiltration capacity QrWith gangue leachate ablation path flow QjAnd be gangue leachate total ablation Qz
CN201610478990.9A 2016-06-25 2016-06-25 Coal gangue leachate infiltration soil column simulation system and characteristic parameter determination method Pending CN106018747A (en)

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