CN105997165B - Retract device assembly - Google Patents

Retract device assembly Download PDF


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CN105997165B CN201610404337.8A CN201610404337A CN105997165B CN 105997165 B CN105997165 B CN 105997165B CN 201610404337 A CN201610404337 A CN 201610404337A CN 105997165 B CN105997165 B CN 105997165B
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retractor blade
device assembly
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CN105997165A (en
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Priority to US37616310A priority Critical
Priority to US61/376,163 priority
Priority to US39024810P priority
Priority to US61/390,248 priority
Priority to US201161473138P priority
Priority to US61/473,138 priority
Application filed by 纽文思公司 filed Critical 纽文思公司
Priority to CN201180050236.0A priority patent/CN103167825B/en
Publication of CN105997165A publication Critical patent/CN105997165A/en
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Publication of CN105997165B publication Critical patent/CN105997165B/en



The present invention relates to be used to form the traction device assembly for leading to the operation path of spinal surgery target site, the multiple retractor blades for including: retractor main body and extending perpendicular to retractor main body, retractor main body can operate so that multiple retractor blades are separated relative to each other the inside far from retractor blade will be organized to retract when tissue retractor is advanced to surgery target site and retractor blade separates, operation path is consequently formed;And supplement retractor blade component, it can be attached to two in multiple retractor blades and including cross bar connector and elongated supplement retractor blade, cross bar connector from first end extends to second end and including elongated slot, elongated slot is open at first end and is configured to slidably receive the element of two retractor blades cross bar connector is slidably attached to two retractor blades, and cross bar connector further includes the back side for being configured to engagement supplement retractor blade.


Retract device assembly

The present patent application is that application No. is 201180050236.0 (international application no PCT/US2011/001489), invention Entitled " surgical approach system and correlation technique ", the applying date are the divisional application of the patent application on the 23rd of August in 2011.

Technical field

This disclosure relates to retract system and relevant for entering surgery target site with the surgery for executing surgical operation Instrument and method.

Background technique

Having a noticeable trend in medical profession is not use traditional " open " technology gradually to execute surgery Operation, but turn to the technology of minimally invasive or micro- approach.Open surgical technology usually requires larger notch and a large amount of group Displacement is knitted to enter surgery target site, usually with severe pain, longer time of hospitalization (increasing health care cost) with And the heavier morbid state of patients, therefore it is usually worthless.The surgical technic (including so-called " micro- approach " of low intrusive mood " minimally invasive " technology) it is becoming increasingly popular and is due to the fact that: enter surgery target site using these technologies and is passed through Notch substantially size it is smaller, while significantly reducing tissue displacement's demand.Then reduce pain in this way, alleviate morbid state And cost relevant to this operation.In this minimally invasive path, add the state Li Fuliya SantiagoShare Co., Ltd (Inc., San Diego, CA) exploitation it is lateral through psoas muscle gap pathway for backbone After being used, is mitigating patient's morbid state, shortens time of hospitalization and presenting huge success on quickening recovery time. The instrument and method for improving use during lateral approach can further shorten operating time, extend the application of lateral pathway simultaneously Surgical operation is improved using rate, these will finally allow patient to be benefited, because there are more chances to correct using minimally invasive surgery Treat disease.In addition to meeting other demands, instrument as described herein and method aim to solve the problem that these demands.

Summary of the invention

System and method this patent application describes surgical operation is executed on backbone, including (according to preferred method) Pass through the operation path for leading to backbone through the formation of psoas muscle gap pathway laterally substantially.Approach described herein is entered by surgery Road system is completed, which includes Stent assembly and traction component.In order to formed lead to lumbar vertebrae lateral approach it is logical Road allows patient to lie on one's side and be advanced to surgical approach system in spatia retroperitonaeale by notch, then by greater psoas muscle, until supporting Up to targets spine site (such as intervertebral disc space between a pair of of adjacent vertebral).Approach system may include that diameter constantly increases Sequential augmentation system and tissue retraction device assembly.Sequential Stent assembly is first advanced into target site, then by retractor group Part crosses sequential augmentation system and is advanced into target site.It, can when promoting each augmentation system and retracting system to target site To execute Neural monitoring, with detect lead to target site through whether being furnished with nerve in the path of psoas muscle gap, and thus avoid They.

Retracting device assembly includes multiple retractor blades (being three according to preferred embodiment) and a main body.So Operation retracts device assembly to extend operation path to required geometry and size afterwards.Main body includes two and is connected each other by pivot The arm connect.Shank stretcher can be connected to arm and be squeezed, so that the arm of most head and most tail portion moves away from each other, and remote From way of escape blade (blade is preferably attached to position) movement to expand operation path forward (far from the nerve after way of escape blade). The blade of most head and most tail portion can also be pivoted out or be unfolded from the central axis of insertion, thus not increasing the same of size incision When surgical site expand operation path.It retracts device assembly to show continuously to be unfolded, so as to be expanded to any angle (pre- In fixed range).Continuous spreading is realized by using the gear mechanism for being coupled to each arm of retractor main body.Gear mechanism can be The rack-and-pinion of driving screw transmission.Rack gear can in retractor main body vertical translation so that pinion gear rotate.Pinion gear connects It is connected to one end of rotating arm, which couples in the opposite end for the one of retractor blade to be unfolded.In two gear mechanisms Each (each arm of retractor use one) work independently so that blade can be individually adjusted independently.

According to an example, before operation retractor is to open blade, the blade of the most way of escape can be fixed relative to backbone In place.Such as by the way that interverbebral disc gasket is attached to blade and intervertebral disc space, the achievable operation are inserted into the distal end of gasket. Alternatively or additionally, can also by connection surgery table (or other be applicable in brackets) and way of escape blade it Between joint arm (being connected to translation arms thereon by way of escape blade) complete the operation.In this way, way of escape blade will not be to It is mobile towards the nerve fiber being located in greater psoas muscle posterior portion afterwards.On the contrary, remaining blade will be far from way of escape blade it is mobile with Expand into paths.Other than interverbebral disc gasket, blade stretcher can be coupled to head and tail portion blade.Stretcher can have wave Shape distal end is to match the anatomical structure on the preceding road of centrum.

Retracting device assembly can be configured to using the preceding road retractor blade supplemented.(before) during use, before supplement Road retractor blade forms the number of the retractor blade of operation path for selectively increasing, and prevents tissue from slipping into from leading edge In operation path.The ability that selectivity increases the number of retractor blade can provide for approach channel sized and/or configuration More users control, to advantageously increase the multifunctionality for retracting device assembly.The preceding road retractor blade of supplement includes blade And shank.Attachment device and supplement blade and head and tail portion blades fit will supplement retractor blade fix in position.It can manipulate Retractor blade is supplemented manually to retract tissue forward.Later, connecting element can be engaged with retractor blade will supplement knife Piece fix in position.

The way of escape (center) blade can be coupled with nerve to promote traction device assembly and/or hold during traction Row Neural monitoring.According to first embodiment, blade can be formed by conductive material (such as aluminium), and coat insulating coating.Then may be used It is used for the stimulus signal of Neural monitoring by blade transmission, and is output in tissue by the uninsulated electrode in distal end.It can Retractor blade is connect with nerve to prevent current distributing using special fixing screws.Fixing screws include connecing The non-conductive lower end of retractor main body is touched, and the threaded portion for contacting retractor blade is conductive.According to second embodiment, knife Piece can be configured to receive and be coupled to disposable electrode.By way of example, disposable electrode can be plastic components, have edge Disposable electrode length arrangement conductive trace.In the exposed region and nerve coupling of the conductive trace of electrode proximal end It closes.Stimulus signal is transmitted to and retractor blade distal end phase by the exposed region in disposable electrode distal end from nerve Adjacent tissue.Disposable electrode can be coupled to the connected structure formed in way of escape blade.Disposable electrode can be located in blade In the channel of middle formation.The distal end of way of escape blade may include aperture, by the group after the distal end exposed to blade of disposable electrode It knits.It is coated with insulating coating preferably for way of escape blade/disposable electrode combination interverbebral disc gasket to prevent electric current point Stream.

Detailed description of the invention

Many advantages of the present invention for be read in conjunction with the figure this specification it will be apparent to those skilled in the art that, Wherein similar drawing reference numeral is applied to similar element, and wherein:

Fig. 1 is to illustrate the top view to form laterally to enter paths, and according to an exemplary embodiment, which uses outer Section's approach system passes through the side of patient until subject disk gap is formed by lateral pathway;

Fig. 2 is the perspective view of an example of tissue retraction component, according to one embodiment of present invention, the traction component A part of surgical approach system is formed, to retract completely or " opening " position is shown;

Fig. 3 is the top perspective of the tissue retraction component of Fig. 2, to retract completely or the position of " opening " is shown;

Fig. 4 is the top perspective of the tissue retraction component of Fig. 2, is shown with the position completely closed;

Fig. 5 is the perspective view of the tissue retraction component of Fig. 2, is shown with the position completely closed;

Fig. 6 is the top view of the tissue retraction component of Fig. 2, is shown according to the present invention with the position partially opened;

Fig. 7 is the perspective view of the tissue retraction component of Fig. 2, is shown according to the present invention with the position partially opened;

Fig. 8, Fig. 9 are respectively the front and back for forming the corrugated gasket example of surgical approach system a part of the present invention Perspective view;

Figure 10 is the perspective view for the corrugated gasket that Fig. 8 is connected to retractor blade;

Figure 11, Figure 12 are respectively the front for forming an example of locking washer of surgical approach system a part of the present invention Perspective view and back perspective view;

Figure 13 is the top view of Figure 11 locking washer;

Figure 14 is the perspective view of the example of gasket removing tool according to an embodiment of the invention;

Figure 15 is the perspective view of the gasket removing tool distal part of the Figure 14 engaged with the locking washer of Figure 11;

Figure 16 is the perspective view of Figure 14 gasket removing tool distal part;

Figure 17 is the perspective view for removing Figure 15 gasket removing tool distal part of handle prolongation;

Figure 18 is the plan view from above of Fig. 2 tissue retraction component arm;

Figure 19 is the face upwarding view of Fig. 2 tissue retraction component arm;

Figure 20 is the perspective view for constituting the arm member of Fig. 2 tissue retraction component a part;

Figure 21 to Figure 24 is the decomposition perspective view to form the distal pivot component and gear part of Figure 20 arm member a part;

Figure 25 is the back perspective view to form the preceding road retractor blade of Fig. 2 tissue retraction system a part;

Figure 26 is the front perspective view of the preceding road retractor blade of Figure 25;

Figure 27 is the top perspective of the preceding road retractor blade of Figure 25;

Figure 28 is the saturating of the blade assembly part for the tissue retraction system of Fig. 2 of preceding road retractor blade for being connected with Figure 25 View;

Figure 29 is the front perspective view of the blade assembly part of the tissue retraction system of Fig. 2, is shown with the position completely closed;

Figure 30 is the top perspective of the blade assembly part of Figure 29, is shown with the position partially opened;

Figure 31 A is the perspective view for the fixing screws that way of escape retractor blade is connected to the tissue retraction system of Fig. 2;

Figure 31 B is coupled to the cross-sectional side view of the fixing screws of Figure 31 A of the traction device assembly of Fig. 2;

Figure 32 is the top perspective to form the way of escape translation mechanism of a part of tissue retraction system of Fig. 2, basis One aspect of the present invention and spanner and attachment arm engagement;

Figure 33 is the bottom perspective view of the way of escape translation mechanism of Figure 32;

Figure 34 is the side perspective view of Figure 32 way of escape translation mechanism;

Figure 35 is the perspective view of the spanner of Figure 32;

Figure 36 to Figure 38 is the side view of Figure 32 attachment arm;

The top perspective of the tissue retraction component for Fig. 2 that Figure 39 is and the attachment arm of Figure 35 engages;

Figure 40, Figure 41 are the primary of formation Fig. 1 tissue retraction system a part according to one embodiment of present invention respectively The side view and perspective view of the example of property electrode;

Figure 42, Figure 43 are the perspective views to form the example of retractor blade of Fig. 1 tissue retraction system a part, construction Releaseably to be coupled with the disposable electrode of Figure 41;

Figure 44 is the top perspective of Figure 42 retractor blade;

Figure 45, Figure 46 are coupled to the perspective of the component of the disposable electrode including Figure 40 of the retractor blade of Figure 42 Figure;

Figure 47, Figure 48 be include Figure 45 disposable electrode/blade assembly Fig. 2 tissue retraction component perspective view;

Figure 49 to Figure 51 is shown for being used together with the center insert of a part for the tissue retraction system for forming Fig. 2 Insulation locking washer example, from center insert when the gasket is for preventing from carrying out nervous physiology Hygienic monitoring on hands of childhood from center insert Current distributing;

Figure 52 to Figure 55 shows the example for the gasket removing tool being used together for the locking washer with Figure 49;

Figure 56 shows the second example for the gasket removing tool being used together for the locking washer with Figure 49;

Figure 57 is the perspective view of the example of nerve, and the nerve is programmed, can be according to the present invention Neural prison is carried out before and after, during forming the operation path for leading to surgery target site using the surgical approach system of Fig. 2 It surveys;

Figure 58 is the block diagram of nerve shown in Figure 57;And

Figure 59, Figure 60 are the examples that screen is shown, these screens show during being shown in the nerve using Figure 57 The exemplary structure and information of user are informed out.

Specific embodiment

Exemplary embodiment of the present invention is described below.For clarity, description is not practical in the present specification All structures implemented.When developing such any practical embodiments it will of course be appreciated that must formulate largely specific to implementation Decision reach the specific objective of developer, such as meet system correlation and the relevant constraint of business, these constraints will be because of reality The difference applied and it is different.It is further understood that this development may be more complicated and time-consuming, but for utilizing the disclosure Those having ordinary skill in the art of beneficial effect will belong to regular works.Moreover, it is to be understood that although hereafter mainly in backbone hand It discusses in the range of art, but surgical approach system of the invention can also use in any number of anatomical environment, to mention For the approach to any number of different surgery target sites of whole body.It should also be strongly noted that, although herein mainly in lumbar vertebrae In be shown and describe within the scope of preferred lateral surgical operation, some or all of described approach system component can also be It is used in other any number of spinal surgery approach pathways.By way of example, in addition to enter lumber ertebral disc gap (such as with In fusion, total spinal disc replacement, vertebra corpectomy etc.), surgical approach system or part thereof component can also be used for into thoracic vertebrae Side (such as merging, total spinal disc replacement, vertebra corpectomy etc.) and Via Posterior Spinal Approach (such as posterior decompression).With Further example way, it is contemplated that surgical approach system or part thereof component can be used for into the way of escape of any backbone, rear side, preceding It road and leading flank and can be used in lumbar vertebrae, thoracic vertebrae and/or cervical vertebra.

Instrument as described herein and method by design and optimize with formed lead to lumbar vertebrae laterally enter paths.Pass through side To entering paths and enter targets spine site and can avoid the largely disadvantage related to posterior approach (such as to cut through muscle of back tissue simultaneously And may need to cut or cut away part way of escape bony structure, such as bone plate, bone facet and spinous process) and anterior approach it is relevant lack Point (is removed various organs and blood vessel to arrive at target site by approach surgeon).It, can be according to title according to an example For the U.S. of " Surgical Access System and Related Methods " (surgical approach system and correlation technique) Patent 7,207,949 and/or entitled " Surgical Access System and Related Methods " (surgical approach System and correlation technique) United States Patent (USP) 7,905,840 described in method execute and lead to the lateral approach in targets spine space Pathway, the two entireties are respectively herein incorporated by reference, as completely illustrated herein.

Laterally enter path method in conjunction with Fig. 1-2 Brief Discussion.It allows patient 1 to lie on one's side, surgical approach system 6 is passed through into notch 2 It is advanced to spatia retroperitonaeale 3, then passes through greater psoas muscle 4, until arrival targets spine site (such as the vertebra between a pair of of adjacent vertebral Disc space 5).Approach system 6 may include at least one tissue expander, it preferably includes sequential augmentation system 7 (has initial The additional expander 9 of the one or more that expander 8 and diameter constantly increase) and tissue retraction device assembly 10.It should manage Solution, is preferably first advanced to target site for initial expansion device 8, and diameter each of is constantly then increased additional 9 phase of expander It is promoted after crossing previous expander.It, can be by Kirschner wire before, during or after initial expansion device 8 is advanced to target site (not shown) is advanced into target site and stops in place (such as by the way that Kirschner wire is inserted into interverbebral disc).By sequential augmentation system 7 After being arranged in the position (and optionally stopping in place by Kirschner wire) in adjacent objects site, device assembly 10 will be retracted and cross sequence It passes through augmentation system 7 and is advanced into target site.

According to illustrated embodiment, retracting device assembly 10 includes retractor blade 12,16,18 and main body 20.According to preferred Method, device assembly 10 will be retracted and cross augmentation system 7 and promote, so that center retractor blade 12 becomes the blade of the most way of escape. It removes sequential augmentation system 7 and operates and retract device assembly 10 to extend operation path.That is, making retractor blade 12,16 With 18 separation (Fig. 1), laterally enters paths to provide, instrument and implantation material is allowed to be advanced to target site by the channel.It answers Work as understanding, can execute any number of operation on backbone by laterally entering paths (such as surgeon can carry out fusion hand Art, total spinal disc replacement, vertebra corpectomy etc.).It, can be by way of escape blade before opening retractor blade according to an example 12 relative to backbone fix in position.It can be for example by the way that gasket be connected to blade (such as by the inclusion of being formed in inner blade The blade track of dovetail groove) and intervertebral disc space is inserted into complete the operation in the distal end of gasket.Alternatively It or in addition to this, can be by connection surgery table (or other are applicable in bracket) and between the associated translation arms of center insert 12 Joint arm by 12 fix in position of way of escape blade.In this way, way of escape blade 12 will not move backward (towards positioned at the greater psoas muscle way of escape Nerve fiber in part).On the contrary, blade 16 and 18 will be far from the movement of way of escape blade 12 to expand into paths.

In addition, preferably being carried out Neural monitoring (including determination when each component of approach system 6 passes through greater psoas muscle and promotes Neural proximity and optional directionality), thus fragile nerve fiber of the protection through greater psoas muscle, such as ' 949 patents and ' 668 Described in patent application.It is crisp that the proximity of monitoring nerve can not only allow surgeon to avoid when approach system is advanced in backbone Weak nerve, and by determine nerve position can also allow surgeon way of escape blade is placed in the more way of escape position (such as Reach all the way and issue nerve root (exiting nerve roots)), so that exposure can not can ensure that the bigger mesh reached originally Mark Post section.

After formation laterally enters paths, so that it may perform the operation on target site.For example, by laterally entering paths When executing fusion, intervertebral disc space 5 has been ready for be inserted into implantation material.Preparing intervertebral disc gap may include implementing fibrous ring Ablation process, remove disc material and grinding soleplate, and can be used fiber cutting ring, hypophysis tool, curet, interverbebral disc cutter, Soleplate scraper.Implantation material can be inserted into intervertebral disc space.Can in intervertebral disc space 5 in implantation material and around implantation fusion promote Into material.Fixation can be executed by laterally entering paths or different pathways.

It is as described herein retract component be highly suitable for being formed as described above lead to lumbar vertebrae laterally enter paths.Fig. 2- 7 show the tissue retraction component 10 of surgical approach system a part formed according to the present invention, more including extending from main body 20 A retractor blade 12,16,18.Only by way of example, main body 20 is equipped with the first retractor blade 12, the second retractor blade 16 and third retractor blade 18.Fig. 2 shows complete traction or the tissue retraction components 10 of " opening " configuration, wherein retracting Device blade 12,16,18 is in a certain distance apart from one another, to form operation path 15 therebetween, which extends to surgery target Site (such as interverbebral disc anchor ring).At an illustrative aspect, blade 16,18 can be pivoted or be rotated relative to shank 20, It will be most easily understood by conjunction with Fig. 2 and 3.Fig. 4-5 shows the tissue retraction component 10 using initial " closing " configuration, wherein retracting Device blade 12,16,18 is usually close to each other.Fig. 6-7 shows the tissue retraction component 10 that use " partially opens " configuration.

Main body 20 can be coupled with any number of mechanism, be allowed to solid relative to surgical site to be registrated main body 20 securely It is fixed, such as realized by using the joint arm installed to operating table (not shown).Main body 20 includes the first arm member 26 and the Two arm members 28, the two components pass through the substantially coupling mechanism hinge coupled shown in 30.Second retractor blade 16 with The end of first arm member 26 securely couples (generally vertical mode).The end of third retractor blade 18 and the second arm member 28 End securely coupling (generally vertical mode).First retractor blade 12 securely couples (generally vertical side with translation member 17 Formula), the translation member is by being substantially coupled to main body 20 in the hinge means shown in 14.Hinge means 14 includes roller component 34, The roller component has a pair of of manual knob component 36, when user is by actuating rotation Rotary button component manually, can make roller structure Tooth 35 on part 34 engages in the groove 37 of similar ratchet in translation member 17.Therefore, manual operation knob 36 can be led Cause translation member 17 mobile relative to the first arm member 26 and the second arm member 28.

By using shank stretcher 31,33, arm 26,28 can be opened simultaneously, so that the second retractor blade 16 and Three retractor blades 18 move away from each other.In this way, can adjust according to the degree for manipulating translation member 17 relative to arm 26,28 The size and/or shape of operation path 15.That is, adjustable operation path 15 is any number of applicable transversal to provide Face shape, including but not limited to generally circular cross section, the cross section of substantially elliptical, general triangular cross section and/ Or oval cross-section.Optional luminaire (not shown) can be coupled with one or more retractor blades 12,16,18, with Light is guided downwards along operation path 15.

Retractor blade 12,16,18 can be suitably incorporated in human body or the rigid material of surrounding is made by any, including but not It is limited to aluminium, titanium, stainless steel and/or clear polycarbonate, can ensures rigidity in chorista.Retractor blade 12,16,18 Optionally the coating coated with fibre reinforced is to promote intensity and durability.Retractor blade 12,16,18 optionally by Material (such as aluminium, PEEK, carbon fiber) that ray can be penetrated partially or completely is constituted, with imaging (such as radiography, MRI, CT, fluorescope etc.) the surgical visibility of period promotion.Equally, retractor main body can be by any number of rigid material structure At especially including but not limited to aluminium, stainless steel, carbon fiber and titanium.According to preferred embodiment, retractor blade 12,16 and 18 and main body be made of stainless steel.Compared with the better material of other radiolucencies (such as aluminium), stainless steel has bigger Rigidity, to eliminate or at least reduce situation damaged in the tip infolding (blade warpage) and potential art of blade.Though Right stainless steel is usually used in the Radiolucent characteristic of the material of spinal retractor without other, and increased rigidity is (in addition to blade rotates Outside the design of gear 79) allow to constitute main body using less material.To if necessary, across the aperture and main body of main body Reduce geometry can realize by retract device assembly 10 fluorescope visibility, without will affect retractor intensity and just Degree.Only by way of example, the aperture 17a and 17b and recess 17c of translation arms 17 can realize that relevant range is (such as lateral glimmering The way of escape boundary of centrum in light microscopy checking image) optimum visibility, while not influencing rigidity.It can be with any number of suitable length Degree provides retractor blade 12,16,18, is specifically dependent upon anatomical environment and surgical approach, it is all such as (e.g.) from 20mm to The range of 180mm.Based on the size range, the purposes of tissue retraction component 10 of the invention is extremely wide, can be in a variety of required surgeries It is used in any one of pathway, including but not limited to laterally, the way of escape, rear side, preceding road and front side, need to only select required size They are simultaneously connected to main body 20 by retractor blade 12,16,18, as described in will be herein.

Retractor blade 12,16,18 can be equipped with there are many supernumerary structure or component.Only by way of example, one or more A retractor blade 12,16,18 can be equipped with gasket, such as wavy stretcher gasket 22 or locking washer 25, such as Fig. 8-13 institute Show.In a preferred embodiment, wavy stretcher gasket 22 is suitble to engage with tail portion/head retractor blade 16,18, and Interverbebral disc locking washer 25 is suitble to engage with center insert 12.It is pointed out, however, that not departing from the scope of the present invention In the case of, any gasket 22,25 can be used in any blade 12,16,18.Referring to Fig. 8-10, wavy stretcher gasket 22 is from leading It opens device blade 16,18 (as shown on a retractor blade 18 in Figure 10) to extend to form protective barrier, prevents instrument Or biological structure (such as nerve, vascular system etc.) enters or exceeds operation path 15.Only by way of example, wavy stretcher Gasket 22 includes front, which is configured to form a part of operation path and has the surface 300 of substantially concave surface.It is wavy Stretcher gasket 22 further includes back surface 302, which is configured to towards retractor blade 18 and with substantially convex surface Shape.Wavy stretcher gasket 22 also has a pair of elongated adjustment sheet element 304, which is configured to can slide Dynamic mode engages elongated slot component 306, and the length of the slot member is the inner surface length of retractor blade 18.It is wavy to prolong Stretching device gasket 22 further includes that wavy 22 near proximal ends of stretcher turn to trimmer 308.It includes knob that trimmer 308, which can be turned to, 310, which extends on wavy 22 back side of stretcher gasket far from the direction that can turn to trimmer 308.Knob 310 is constructed 312 engagements are incised at what is arranged along retractor blade 18, so that lockable mechanism is provided, when in use by wavy stretcher pad 22 fix in position of piece.In this way, wavy stretcher gasket 22 is distally advanced along retractor blade 18, until reaching required position It sets.The wavy distal end of wavy stretcher gasket 22, which is shaped as, conforms to centrum utmostly to contact centrum, especially preceding Near the sloping portion of road, and prevent tissue from slipping into exposed region.For example, distal end can have curved surface, so that wavy stretcher gasket 22 A longitudinal edge be longer than other longitudinal edges.For example, the geometry of distal end 23 can make it when retractor is to front opening Match the preceding road sloping portion of centrum.

Referring to Figure 11-13, locking interverbebral disc gasket 25 has distal end taper region 45, which can be advanced between interverbebral disc In gap, to separate adjacent vertebral (thus restoring disc height) and/or be anchored blade 12 relative to backbone.Lock intervertebral plate mat Piece 25 also forms a protective barrier in a manner of similar with wavy stretcher gasket 22, prevents instrument or biological structure (example Such as nerve, vascular system) enter or exceed operation path 15.Locking interverbebral disc gasket 25 is locked on retractor blade 12 Position prevents gasket mobile and does not allow retractor to remove target position.For the latched position on blade, gasket 25 has soft Property engagement tabs 320, the trimmer have inclined forward position 49, which can allow it on the inner surface of retractor blade 12 It advances downwardly and incises 312.Engagement tabs 320 it is rear along 27 one-tenth squares to prevent anti-avulsion from incise 312 (thus prevent it is unnecessary Gasket remove) without using removing tool 43.Engagement tabs 320 further include T-type remove antelabium 55, be configured to The engagement of gasket removing tool, as described below.The T-type antelabium 55 of engagement tabs 320 can allow removing tool 43 by square antelabium 27 lift-off retractor blades 12 simultaneously remove gasket 25.Locking interverbebral disc gasket 25 has a pair of elongated adjustment sheet element 322, the structure Part is configured to slidably engage with elongated slot component 306, and the length of the slot member is in retractor blade 12 The length on surface.Locking interverbebral disc gasket 25 includes pit or the hole 56 positioned at 25 near proximal ends of gasket, and the pit or hole are by structure It makes to be engaged with gasket removing tool, is described in detail as discussed further below.

Figure 14-17 shows the gasket removing tool 43 for taking out locking interverbebral disc gasket 25 from retractor blade 12 Example, the removing tool seal formula removing tool in similar gram in the example of offer.Only by way of example, in conjunction with locking intervertebral Plate mat piece 25 is it is shown and described herein that removing tool 43, but it can be readily appreciated that the case where not departing from the scope of the invention Under, mode similar with other locking washer can be used in removing tool 43.Removing tool 43 include compressible shank 46 including The elongated area 47 and distal end 48 of fixed arm 330 and translation arms 332.Compressible shank 46 includes front shank 46a and back Face shank 46b.Front shank 46a is as pivotally connected to translation arms 332, and back side shank 46b is immovably connected to fixation Arm 330.Distally 48 include handle prolongation 334, which is configured to lock with retractor blade 12 and interverbebral disc Gasket 25 interacts.Handle prolongation 334 includes track guide device 336, which slidably connects Elongated slot component 306 is closed, as described in the above bonding pad 22,25.The distal end of handle prolongation 334 includes a pair of of arm 338, This is distally extending from handle prolongation 334 in an essentially parallel fashion to arm.Arm 338 includes inclined surface 340, the table There is constant slope to make the thickness of 338 distal end of arm than arm 338 on it from the thick of the proximal end that handle prolongation 334 extends in face It spends much smaller.Without departing from the present invention, inclined surface 340 can be plane or have concave curvature. The distal end of translation arms 332 includes translation plates 342.Translation plates are generally planar and including pit or recess 344, the pit or recessed Mouth is located on the lower surface 346 of translation plates 342.Recess 344 is configured to (work as handle when removing tool 43 is in an intermediate position When portion 46a, 46b unclamp) receive locking ball 348.

It will include the distal end 43 of handle prolongation 334 slidably along shank to use removing tool 43 46 retractor blade 12 in middle position promotes, until inclined arm 338 is engaged with the removal antelabium 55 of gasket 25.In shank 46 When in an intermediate position, locking ball 348 is backed in the recess 344 of translation plates 342, so that the distal end of handle prolongation 334 48 with 25 flush engagement of gasket.When inclined arm 338 is engaged with the removal antelabium 55 of interverbebral disc locking washer 25, antelabium 55 is outside Deflection, by 320 lift-off retractor blade 12 of engagement tabs.Meanwhile it locking ball and being located in the hole 56 of locking washer 25.It squeezes Front shank 46a translates forward translation arms 332 slidably relative to fixed arm 330.This just makes in translation plates 342 Recess 344 position translation, thus prevent locking ball 348 enter recess 344.The situation in hole 56 is located in locking ball Under, removing tool 43 is locked to locking washer 25 now, so that by apply relative to the proximal direction of retractor blade 12 Gasket 25 can be removed in power.To which interverbebral disc locking washer 25 can be locked to for distal end 48 by squeezing removing tool shank 46, be made simultaneously The disengaging retractor blade 12 of antelabium 55 of engagement tabs 320 incises 312, enables a user to pull-up and removes gasket.

Shim elements 22,25 can be suitble to the rigid material used in human body to be made by any, including but not limited to biological The plastics and/or metal (such as aluminium, PEEK, carbon fiber and titanium) of compatibility.According to an example, stretcher gasket 22 can be by moulding Material is made and interverbebral disc gasket 25 can be made of metal.It is (such as poly- to diformazan that interverbebral disc gasket 25 can also be coated with insulating coating Benzene coating) current distributing or variable density occur for the electrode to prevent stop bit in 12 distal end of retractor blade.Retractor stretcher pad Piece 22 can have symmetrical narrow configurations (Fig. 8-9), which will not be laterally extended from retractor blade, and/or have broad Configuration (not shown), the configuration are laterally extended from every side of retractor blade, and/or there is asymmetric configuration (not show Out), which is laterally extended from the side of retractor blade.Shim elements 22,25 can be by the material that can damage in high pressure sterilization Material constitutes (such as polymer comprising a part of glass particle), this is beneficial to prevent reuses retractor stretcher pad without authorization Piece 22 and/or shim elements 25 (user can be supplied to sterile state).

Referring now to Figure 18-24, will be discussed in detail below with arm member 26,28 associated mechanisms.Although will be only in conjunction with First arm member 26 discusses component of the present invention it should be appreciated that the second arm member 28 is actually the mirror of the first arm member 26 Picture, so that the structure for showing and describing relative to the first arm member 26 without departing from the present invention can be relative to The display of two arm members 28.Referring now to Figure 18-19, the distal region of main body 20 is shown in greater detail.Each arm member 26,28 wraps Include distal pivot component 70 and nearside arm section 71.Turning also now to Figure 20, the first arm member 26, distal side is shown in greater detail Proximally arm section 71 is distally extending and the rotation gear mechanism 79 including being contained in nearside arm section 71 for pivot member 70 Part (will be described in detail below).This of gear mechanism is positioned adjacent to retractor blade and operation path, so that during adjustment Visibility of the blade expansion without interfering channel.Nearside arm section 71 include coupling element 30 pass through coupling aperture 72, can connect The proximal attachment region 74 of shank stretcher 31, the hole 76 that knob 36 passes through and gear hole 352, the gear hole is connect to be constructed For allow gear mechanism 79 upper cover 364 and column cap 374 by rotating retractor blade to contact column cap 374.Main body 20 It further include limiter element 97, which is formed by the part and portions of proximal 71 of distal pivot component 70, this two Person cooperates to limit the angle that retractor blade allows angulation.It is blade aperture 78 and spiral shell in the distal end of distal pivot component 70 Nail hole 80.Blade aperture 78 is configured to receive the attachment column of retractor blade 16,18, couples main body 20 for blade.Screw Fixing screws 350 are received by screw thread in hole 80, retractor blade 16,18 is fixed to main body 20 by reversible mode.It is flat It moves component 17 and is only shown as that there is biggish peep hole 17a by way of example, the hole during fluoroscopy for being promoted Visibility.

Figure 21-24 illustrates in greater detail the example of the gear mechanism 79 of distal pivot component 70.Gear mechanism usually wraps The rack-and-pinion of driving screw driving is included, which includes translating rack (shiftable gear 360) and sector gear Rotary pinion (rotation gear 368).In a manner of concrete example, gear mechanism 79 include shiftable gear 360, driving screw 362, Upper cap 364, lower cover 366 and rotation gear 368.Shiftable gear 360 be included therein the central screw hole 370 of extension with And gear teeth 372, the gear teeth are orientated along substantially horizontal direction on the outer surface.Driving screw 362 includes column cap 374, screw thread Region 376, circumferential ansa 378 and non-threaded foot 380 between column cap 374 and threaded portion 376.Column cap 374 can quilt It is configured to any desirable shape and realizes that driving screw rotates to engage rotation tool, the shape includes but is not limited in Figure 21 In the hexagon that only shows by way of example.Threaded portion 376 is configured to engage with the threaded hole 370 of shiftable gear 374. As detailed below, during operation, change gear 360 along driving screw 362 376 linear translation of threaded portion.Upper cap 364 with generally circular cross section and including center opening 382, which is configured to pass through receiving column cap 374, it further include peripheral thread 384, which is configured to upper cap 354 being threadably secured to arm member 26.Lower cover 366 include central closure hole 386, and it further includes peripheral thread which, which is configured in the foot 380 for wherein receiving driving screw 362, 388, which is that lower cover 366 is threadably secured to the first arm member 26.Rotate gear 368 include at least one from The horizontal teeth gear teeth 390 being laterally extended herein, and connector post 392 distally extending from there.The horizontal teeth gear teeth 390 with The gear teeth 372 of shiftable gear 360 engages.Connector post 392 is received in the hole 394 in distal pivot component 70.Also provide Pin shaft 396 is to be fixed to distal pivot component 70 for connector post 392.

In use, rotation tool is bonded to column cap 374 and rotated in a clockwise direction by user.This will lead to driving screw 376 rotations.According to an example, rotation tool may include torque limit structure, prevent from being stuck in bone (such as bone in retractor blade Thorn) or structure on when load these retractor blades.Driving screw 374 is in the bottommost of the blind hole 386 of lower cover 366.Ridge 378 with the following table face bonding of upper cap 364, it is ensured that driving screw 374 can only be rotated in no any translational movement.Due to it is flat Being threadedly engaged for gear 360 is moved, the rotation of driving screw 362 will lead to shiftable gear 360 along driving screw linear translation.Translate tooth Interaction between the gear teeth 372 of wheel 360 and the gear teeth 390 for rotating gear 368 will be so that rotation gear 368 rotates.Due to Rotate gear 368 and distal pivot component 70 be fixedly attached to by the interface between connector post 392 and hole 394, the operation after And it will lead to the pivot of distal pivot component 70.Figure 24 shows the displacement of all parts.

Distal pivot component 70 includes the prolongation 398 that hole 394 is located therein, and partially around distal pivot component The recess 400 that 70 outer rims extend.Recess 400 forms a part of limiter element 97, and than it in the arm 26 wherein received On corresponding prolongation it is wider.When distal pivot component 70 rotates, the contact between prolongation and the wall of recess 400 can Prevent further movement.The size of settable recess 400 and/or prolongation as a result, so that the expansion or rotation control of blade In required range.Only by way of example, which can be between 0 to 20 degree.However, not departing from the scope of the invention In the case where, can form larger range of angle, such as it will also be appreciated that 0-30 degree and 0-45 degree range.

Most start traction device assembly 10 of the invention introducing surgery target site, wherein at retractor blade 12,16,18 In the first fully closed position (substantially as illustrated in figures 4-5).In the configuration, retractor blade 16,18 is with substantially vertical configuration Orientation.In some circumstances, it may be advantageous to allow the second retractor blade 16 or third retractor blade 18 (or both) to Outer pivot, to increase the volume of operation path 15 (by the distal side size for increasing operation path).For up to this purpose (relative to knife Piece 16), nut hex driver is bonded to the column cap 374 of the first arm 26.When column cap 374 rotates in a clockwise direction, knife Piece 16 will be pivoted with lateral (outside) direction.When rotating in a counter-clockwise direction column cap 374, blade 16 then can be with lateral (inside) Direction pivots.The blade unfolding mechanism 79 of use can provide continuous spreading (can 0 degree of times arrived in maximum allowable angular range Angle of anticipating expansion).According to preferred example, limiter element 97 can prevent angle beyond maximum allowable angle.For example, maximum hold Perhaps angle can be 20 degree.Limiter element also allows for blade inwardly to spread out over 0 degree.

Blade 18 can be pivoted independently of blade 16, so that reaching the different angle of each blade 16,18.It is thereby possible to have Benefit, using different length blade and keep symmetrical operation path, the distal end edge of blade 16,18 in the operation path Identical general plane orientation.Before removing tissue retraction system 10 from operation path, column cap 374 should be in a counterclockwise direction Rotation allows retractor blade 16 to return to its initial alignment state (being approximately perpendicular to shank 20) to facilitate and remove.It should be understood that Only by reversing the hand of spiral on actuation screw and shiftable gear that direction of rotation just can be reversed.In addition, although 364 He of upper cap Lower cover 366, which has been described as being threadably engaged, is fixed to arm 26, and any kind of engagement still can be used, including but not limited to weld It connects, crimp.

5-28 referring to fig. 2, it is possible to provide the preceding road retractor blade 60 of supplement is led with being used alternately for tissue as described herein Open component 10.In use (or before), alternative increase of the preceding road retractor blade 60 of supplement forms leading for operation path Open the number of device blade.The ability that selectivity increases retractor blade number can provide for approach channel sized and/or configuration More users control, advantageously increase retract device assembly 10 multifunctionality.Although before supplement shown and described herein Road retractor blade 60 combine retract device assembly 10 three blade configurations use (thus constitute present document relates to the 4th retractor knife Piece), it should be readily understood that the preceding road retractor blade 60 of supplement is combinable and be configured to any number of main retractor blade Device assembly 10 is retracted to use.

As shown in Figure 25-28, the preceding road retractor blade 60 of supplement includes shank 61, attachment device 62, has slot region 64 and blade 63.The preceding road retractor blade 60 of supplement is connected to retractor blade 16,18.Slidably by attachment device 62 interlock with fixed knob 19 (Figure 29-30), and retractor blade 16,18 can be kept and fixed knob 19 in attachment device 62 Interlocking state when move freely (i.e. open and close).The thicker end of fixed knob 19 can prevent attachment device 62 from disconnecting Connection.Preceding road retractor blade 60 has slot region 64 to interlock with required depth and attachment device.Preceding road retractor blade can It is suitble to the rigid material used in human body to be made by any, including but not limited to the plastics of biocompatibility and/or metal (example Such as aluminium, PEEK, carbon fiber, stainless steel and titanium).The length that can be suitble to any number provides preceding road retractor blade 60, specifically Exist depending on anatomical environment, the length of surgical approach and main retractor blade 12,16,18, such as (only by way of example) In 20mm to 180mm range.

In conjunction with Fig. 2, the preferred method in conjunction with traction device assembly 10 using supplement blade assembly 60 is shown.It will retract first Device assembly 10 is advanced into target site (after tissue separates) and forms initial operation path according to above-mentioned method and (will retract Device blade 16,18 is moved to " traction " position from " closing " position).It performs the operation once being formed using main retractor blade 12,16,18 Operation path can be then unfolded using the preceding road retractor blade 60 of supplement and/or provide additional barrier to prevent people for channel Body tissue enters channel.For this purpose, attachment device 62 is slidably fixed on fixed knob 19, then there is slot region 64 It is interlocked with attachment device.The pressure for adding tissue as a result, by preceding road retractor blade fix in position.Preferably, in traction group When knitting, attachment device 62 is used as fulcrum, and shank 61 is inwardly pulled in a manner of similar lever (i.e. towards traction device assembly 10) And the distal end of blade will be pivoted with outside angle along x-axis.

Figure 32-35 shows the example of alternative embodiment of the translation arms 17 of imagination, alternative retractor group Translation arms 17 on part 10.Alternative translation arms 91 form way of escape translation mechanism 90, as shown in Figure 32-35.It is needing When, way of escape translation mechanism 90 allows to carry out controlled way of escape translation, without (i.e. tail portion-head alignment) in the other direction Influence the position of retractor main body.Only by way of example, way of escape translation mechanism 90 allows surgeon to change in surgical site Size of the position of the blade assembly 21 in portion without changing notch.Spanner 93 is fixed to hexagon stop nut 92 in distal end, should Stop nut is concave hexagon 94.Spanner shank 95 is rotated clockwise, hexagon stop nut 92 is unclamped, then unclamps center Connection between translation arms 91 and joint arm attachment structure 96.Device assembly 10 is retracted by pulling to the way of escape, this can allow retractor Component 10 moves to the maximum length of up to way of escape translation slit (such as in the example relative to joint arm attachment structure 96 to the way of escape 10mm is up in son).After way of escape translation, it is necessary to fasten hexagon stop nut 92.To if surgeon is in surgery hand Fail to be aligned during art, then conveniently can safely realign in the way of escape and retract device assembly 10.

Figure 36-39 shows the example of joint arm attachment structure 100 according to an embodiment of the invention.Joint arm is attached Binding structure 100 includes quick alignment structure, the preliminary engagement for tooth form connector.The structure alone for doctor provide it is correct and It is aligned the method for the tooth intersection (i.e. peak and valley) of connector securely.The structure avoids before the tooth of connector is correctly aligned Together by connector locking.It will this thing happens in tooth breakage, it is more difficult to by the peak of a connector and another company Connect the paddy alignment of device.

Quick alignment joint arm attachment structure 100 includes upper side tooth profile connector 101, lower side tooth profile connector 102, column 103 and oblique line ring 104.Oblique line ring 104 is tightly attached in the groove formed in the connector 102 of lower section.Column 103 is screwed into and locks Determine to the inside of top connector 101.Column 103 includes thicker distal end.When connecting tooth form connector 101,102, column 103 Distal end is pushed by oblique line ring 104, which extends to allow the distal end of column 103 to pass through, then in column 103 to groove Shrink (Figure 38) in 107 places of becoming narrow gradually.When pushing column 103 by oblique line ring 104 and coil is shunk, connector 101,102 It is semifixed in place.Column 103 have suitable length, only when the tooth of connector is correctly aligned it is semifixed in place.Appropriateness can be passed through Effect disconnects the connection (column 103 is pulled out oblique line ring 104) of device 101,102.Only by way of example, linking arm Arm is attached knot by the way that screw 105 is screwed into lower section connector 102 by attachment structure 96, the knob 106 for being connected to elongated screw 105 Structure is fixed to component, which includes that screw 105 is screwed into groove therein.Although show be for joint arm and The tooth form connector assembly of device assembly 10 is retracted, quick alignment connector 100 is suitable for any tooth form connector assembly.

As described above, Neural monitoring can be used during promoting and bouncing back and retract component 10.According to an example, such as exist Shown in Figure 29, the Neural monitoring component of retractor systems is central retractor blade 12, which can be by conduction material Material (such as aluminium) is made, and is coated with insulating coating and is guided with that will stimulate from nerve to the tissue of adjacent distal end.It wants By stimulation guidance to way of escape blade 12, the stimulation of nerve folder 550 can be connected to and be used to couple on way of escape blade 12 To the fixing screws 13 of translation arms 17.When sending stimulus signal from stimulation folder 550, signal will pass through fixing screws 13 and lead to It crosses and enters blade with the non-insulated contact region of blade.In order to reduce the electric current between fixing screws and retractor main body 20 point Stream, constructs special fixing screws 760, to reduce the shunting of the electric current by retractor main body, such as institute in Figure 31 A and 31B Show.Compound (such as PEEK) contact surface that there are fixing screws 760 fixing screws 760 to engage here with retractor main body 762 and fixing screws 760 and 550 metal-contacting surfaces 764 that engage here of stimulation folder.Isolation is passed through into stimulation in this way Folder 550 is delivered to the electric current of center insert 12 to retractor blade 12, and prevents electric current from shunting by retractor main body.Institute as above It states, blade is typically based on anodized aluminum construction to insulate.Retractor main body with DSC coating does not insulate.To center insert 12 itself can insulate electric current and retractor main body in having point of contact in addition to fixing screws 760.By in fixing screws 760 The PEEK component 762 of bottom realizes this point.

According to another exemplary embodiment, as shown in Figure 40-48, the Neural monitoring component of tissue retraction component includes 2 A main component: disposable electrode 450 and center (way of escape) blade 500, the center insert substitute center insert 12, are designed for Couple disposable electrode 450.Stimulation folder 550 can be used for disposable electrode being connected to nerve.Disposable electrode and One potential advantage of the center insert of accompanying is in entire single surgical procedures and between different surgical operations Consistent and repeatable Neural monitoring function is obtained (because the risk of insulating coating on corrosion blade, this corrosion is not present Will lead to current distributing) ability enhancing.Realize consistent and repeatable function two potential obstacles be current distributing and The reduction of electrode distal end current density, since conductive metal device is close to stimulating electrode distal top, these obstacles can potential shadow Ring the sensitivity of Neural monitoring equipment.In order to overcome this potentiality, the locking intervertebral plate mat with insulating coating is had developed Piece (similar to the gasket in Figure 11-13), as novel solution.By way of example, which may be poly- pair Dimethylbenzene coating.

Figure 40-48, which is shown, couples disposable electrode 450 for the detachable of tissue retraction component 10 according to the present invention With the example of one embodiment of retractor blade 500.Disposable electrode 450 facilitates in operation path and surgery target site Middle insertion and position tissue detect nerve, (similar to electrode 23) as described above during retracting component.Permitted using disposable electrode Perhaps retractor blade 500 is infinitely sterilized and is reused, the possibility without having electrode degradation.This is then ensured using electrode The result that progress Neural monitoring obtains is consistent and reduction is replaced entirely since electrode (or insulating regions around electrode) deteriorate The potential high cost of blade structure.

Figure 40-41 shows an example of disposable electrode 450, which includes the plastic components of molding, the component With the conductive trace 451 deposited approximately along 450 length of disposable electrode.Preferably, disposable electrode 450 is by being generally rigid Material be made, which can also bear bending without being broken, such as PVC.Conductive trace 451 is to deliver source from electric current The electric current delivering of (such as stimulation folder 550) to 450 distal end of disposable electrode provides conductive channel.It is usual along disposable electrode There are two regions, wherein exposing conductive trace 451 to ensure that electric current is delivered to disposable electrode 450 back and forth.With the side of citing The proximal end of formula, disposable electrode 450 has the first exposed region 452, can allow electric current delivering source that electric current is delivered to conductive mark Line 451.First exposed region 452 can be centered around around 450 proximal end of disposable electrode to ensure disposable electrode 450 and electric current Conductive path between delivery device (such as stimulation folder 550).The distal end of disposable electrode 450 has the second exposed region 453 (being shown by way of example by way of Triangular patch), for issuing electric current from the distal end of disposable electrode 450.In addition to Outside exposed region 452,453, remaining conductive trace 451 is insulated by dielectric coat, to prevent current distributing.This is not being departed from In the case where invention scope, any amount of conductive material for being suitable for completing current channel, such as silver or copper can be used in conduction In trace 451.

First exposed region 452 of disposable electrode can have rough cylinder, be convenient for electrode and nerve Between connection.For example, showing electric coupler in the form of plunger clip as shown in Figure 47-48.Although being shown with cylinder It out, but without departing from the present invention, can be electrical for realization high quality for the connection site of electric current delivery apparatus Any size and shape needed for connection.The rest part of 450 main body of disposable electrode can be general planar, have minimum Thickness and various structures for disposable electrode 450 being engaged and being fixed to retractor blade 500.For example, the wing 455 can Extend from the side of disposable electrode 450, with the joint positioning structure in retractor blade 500, will such as beg in more detail below Opinion.In addition, the distal end of disposable electrode 450 can have flange 456, for engaging the structure of retractor blade 500, with into one Step fixedly positioning disposable electrode 450 relative to retractor blade 500, as also will be discussed in greater detail below.Single size Disposable electrode 450 be designed for combining a variety of 500 size and shape of retractor blade (for example, retractor blade length is logical Normal range is 20 to 180mm) it uses, but disposable electrode can also be used with a variety of shapes and sizes.

Figure 45-46 show the disposable electrode 450 for being releaseably coupled to retractor blade 500 one shows Example property component.It preferably, is at least the coupling of realization disposable electrode 450 by way of escape blade configuration.By disposable electrode 450 During being assembled to retractor blade 500, proximal end (more particularly, the neighbouring disposable electrode 450 of disposable electrode 450 The first exposed region 452) be inserted in retractor blade 500 substantially distal end.The wing 455 and dovetail slot of disposable electrode 450 502 are limited with merging, which extends lengthwise into proximal end from the distal end of retractor blade 500.Dovetail slot 502 is primary Property electrode 450 provide insertion guiding for disposable electrode 450 when being inserted into, and be coupled to retractor blade in disposable electrode 450 The holding of disposable electrode 450 is helped to be properly positioned when 500.In addition, the flange 456 of 450 proximate distal ends of disposable electrode is engageable Substantially in the aperture 506 of 500 proximate distal ends of retractor blade, with the fixed disposable electrode 450 of further help relative to traction The positioning of device blade 500.Therefore, disposable electrode 450 is suitable for retractor blade 500, so that the second exposed region 453 (is being schemed Shown by way of example in 41 and 45 as triangle) it exposes and (most preferably shows in Figure 45 approximately along the outer surface of blade Out).In addition, the proximal end of disposable electrode 450 the proximal end of retractor blade 500 from mach cavity 504 (in Figure 44 most Show goodly) it is prominent.According to the height of blade, proximal end may be bent or fold, to avoid surgery channel is hindered.Although this paper institute It states disposable electrode 450 and related retractor blade 500 combines and retracts the use of device assembly 10, particularly with the lateral approach of lumbar vertebrae Speech, it is anticipated that the combination of disposable electrode retractor blade can be used for a variety of surgical operations (such as stimulating in operation on neck Recurrent nerve retracts the state of nerve in the process to monitor, hence into preceding road cervical vertebra).Aperture 506 also is used as alignment tool, Ensure to retract device assembly to be correctly aligned.By way of example, way of escape blade vertical alignment intervertebral disc space is allowed to make head and tail It is usually preferred that portion's blade is directly extended to preceding road.Hole (not shown) can be provided on each head and the distal end of tail portion blade. When being checked on fluoroscopy image, if stopped without radiopaque object, distinguishable this some holes out.Work as retractor When component is correctly aligned with intervertebral disc space and retractor blade is in the closed position, aperture 506 is in lateral fluorescent image As it can be seen that and this some holes be aligned and also show with aperture 506.If this some holes is invisible, it may be necessary to realign traction Device.According to another example, it may include second group of alignment hole (above or below first group of hole), so that can also estimate to retract Horizontal alignment of the device assembly 10 relative to backbone.

Figure 49 show locking interverbebral disc gasket 600, accoding to exemplary embodiment designed for center insert 500 and Disposable electrode 450 is used together.It is similar to the gasket 25 of Figure 10-12 to lock interverbebral disc gasket 600, therefore all similar components Description all will not be in and repeat herein.The locking interverbebral disc gasket 600 of Figure 49 is preferably coated with insulation Parylene and applies Layer is to alleviate the current density change of current distributing and disposable electrode distal top.Parylene is a variety of chemical gaseous phases The trade name of poly- (to xylylene) polymer is deposited, damp-proof layer and electrical insulator are used as.In the quasi polymer, gather to two Toluene C may be especially suitable, because it combines shielding character and manufacture advantage.Locking interverbebral disc gasket 600 includes that can turn to Trimmer 602, the trimmer have as locking structure lip member 604.Gasket 600 further includes aperture 606, the aperture Receive the engagement tabs of removing tool.Figure 50-51 shows the lock that Figure 49 is coupled to 500 distal end of blade and extends from the distal end Determine interverbebral disc gasket, wherein disposable electrode 450 is also coupled to blade 500.

Figure 52-55 shows the gasket removing tool 700 according to the second exemplary embodiment.Only by way of example, exist Gasket removing tool 700 has shown and described herein in conjunction with the locking interverbebral disc gasket 600 of Figure 49 and 50, but it should should be readily appreciated that Gasket removing tool can be used in a similar manner when using other locking washer according to the present invention.

Gasket removing tool 700 includes that nearside grasps retainer 702, distal side engaging zones 704 and extends therebetween Elongated shaft 706.Nearside grasps retainer in shape can be substantially rectangular, and provides handle for operational instrument, also offer punching Surface is hit for impacting instrument when needed.It grasps retainer 702 and is still around thumb release device 708, which passes through spring Mechanism 710 is connected to distal region 704.Distal region 704 includes gasket fork 712 and discharging pallet 714.Gasket fork 712 includes leading Rail 716, the guide rail are engaged with the track (described above) in retractor blade.Gasket pitch 712 distal ends division ramp 718 along The front sliding of gasket 600, and in the engaging behind of lip member 604, promote the engagement tabs at removal 604 back side of antelabium simultaneously Trimmer is set to de-orbit guide device.The achievable operation come from blade remove completely gasket 600 or only by gasket along Blade track length is repositioned at higher (or lower) position.Since division ramp 718 is fully located at the week of removal antelabium 604 It encloses, the engagement tabs 720 on gasket fork 712 can be caught in the aperture 606 in gasket 600, so that gasket fork 712 is locked to pad Piece 600.Engageable discharging pallet 714 is to remove the engagement tabs 720 that gasket pitches 712 from gasket 600.Press thumb release device 708 are distally moved discharging pallet 714, and wherein the division ramp 718 of discharging pallet 714 is bonded on the removal antelabium of gasket fork 712 Behind 722, by the aperture 606 in 720 lift-off gasket 600 of engagement tabs.Meanwhile the knob 724 on discharging pallet 714 will pad Piece 600 distad pushes, so that gasket fork 712 proximally slides and be detached from the removal antelabium 604 of gasket 600.

Figure 56 shows the gasket removing tool 750 according to third exemplary embodiment.The effect of gasket removing tool 750 It is similar with the gasket removing tool 700 of Figure 52, the difference is that only including gasket fork 752 without including discharging pallet.To once pad 752 engagement of piece fork, before tool can be detached from, it is necessary to remove gasket from blade track.The effect of gasket fork 750 describes ginseng According to removing tool 700.Removing tool 750 includes shock plate 754, for impact force to be delivered to removing tool.Shock plate 754 wraps Threaded hole is included, for connecting additional instrument, such as slap hammer (help removes gasket).

As described above, Stent assembly 7 and the traction component 10 of surgical approach system 6 may be structured in tissue expander And/or detect whether that there are neuromechanism (optionally distance and/or direction of the detection relative to neuromechanism) during retracting.It should Operation is completed by following steps: (1) providing one or more stimulating electrodes in each expansion and/or traction component;(2) will Stimulus (such as voltage or electric current) is coupled to stimulating electrode;(3) surgery target position is pushed ahead or is maintained in all parts Stimulus signal is issued from stimulating electrode when on or near point;(4) patient is monitored, determines whether stimulus signal leads to group It is stimulated and movable with nerve or the associated muscle of neuromechanism in knitting.If nerve is stimulated and movable, this may indicate mind It may be close to separation through structure and/or retract component.

Neural monitoring can be completed by any number of applicable pattern, including but not limited to observation may be sent out in the tissue Any number of monitoring system also can be used, including but not limited in the existing visible twitch with the associated muscle group of neuromechanism Any commercially available " tradition " electromyogram (EMG) system (that is, the system is usually operated by neurophysiologist).The monitoring It can be by above-mentioned ' 949 and ' 840 patents and PCT Patent Application PCT/US02/30617 and PCT/US2008/004427 The EMG monitoring system for the surgeon's operation for showing and describing executes, the two patent applications are herein incorporated by reference, such as It is completely illustrated with herein.(the EMG monitoring of naked eyes monitoring, tradition EMG and/or surgeon's operation) under any circumstance, this The approach system of invention is advantageously used for thereby increasing across dangerous or worthless tissue is had been generally acknowledged that into given The mode number of surgery target site.

Figure 57-58 only shows a this monitoring system 170 by way of example, is suitable for the invention surgical approach System 6.Monitoring system 170 includes control unit 172, patient module 174, EMG harness 176 and is coupled to patient module's 174 Return electrode 178 and electricity for establishing electrical communication between patient module 174 and any number of surgical attachment 196 Cable 182, these attachmentes include surgical approach system of the invention (expander 8 and 9, Figure 57 of the traction device assembly 10 of Fig. 2, Fig. 1 Kirschner wire 42).Surgical attachment 196 further include but be not necessarily limited to execute pedicle screw test device (such as screw survey Sound out needle 198), neuropathy monitoring device (such as nerve root retracto 200), for electronically coupling surgical instruments to The coupling device (such as electric coupling device 202,204 and stimulator driving device 206) and guide hole forming portion of system 170 Part (such as screw tap component 208, pedicle of vertebral arch approach probe 210 or other similar installations).More particularly, only with the side of citing Formula, can be by the way that provide can be by stimulus signal (passing through the manual operation button operated on hand-held boost controller 206) selectivity It is supplied to the hand-held stimulation driving device 206 of one or more connectors (such as coupling device 202,204), to realize that this is electrical Communication.Coupling device 202,204 be suitable for hand-held boost controller 206 and (only showing by way of example) Kirschner wire 42, Stimulation in expander 8 and 9, retractor blade 12,16,18 and/or shim member 22,25 (being referred to as " surgical approach instrument ") It establishes and is electrically communicated between electrode.

Then, in order to use monitoring system 170, it is necessary to which these surgical approach instruments are connected at least one coupling device 202,204 (or its equivalent) optionally triggers stimulus signal (preferably current signal) in this site user and is allowed to Specific surgical approach instrument is reached from control unit 172.These are stimulated before, during and/or after establishing operation path Electrode on surgical approach instrument will lead to nerve depolarization that is close or being relatively close to surgical approach instrument, with it is stimulated and Response is generated in the muscle segment of movable neural connection.

Control unit 172 includes touch-screen display 190 and pedestal 192, they have jointly comprised necessary processing function (software and/or hardware) is used for control and monitoring system 170.Control unit 172 may include audio unit 168, the audio unit root Position according to surgery element relative to nerve makes a sound.Patient module 174 is connected to control unit by data cable 194 172, electrical connection and communication (number and/or simulation) are thus established between control unit 172 and patient module 174.Control The major function of unit 172 includes receiving user command by touch-screen display 190, activating stimulation on surgical approach instrument Electrode, the data of the parameter and processing that are received according to the algorithm process signal data of definition, display and monitoring system mode are simultaneously Report fault conditions.Touch-screen display 190 is preferably provided with graphic user interface (GUI), can inform the user information And it receives and instructs from user.Display 190 and/or pedestal 192 may include patient module's interface electricity that order is issued to stimulus Road (hardware and/or software) receives digitized signal and other information, processing EMG response to each from patient module 174 Muscle group extracts characteristic information and shows the data of processing to operator by display 190.

In one embodiment, before, during and/or after forming the operation path for leading to surgery target site, prison Examining system 170 can determine relative to Kirschner wire 42, expander 8 and 9, retractor blade 12,16,18 and/or shim elements 22, The neural direction of one or more in 25.Monitoring system 170 is pierced electricity by allowing control unit 172 and patient module 174 to cooperate Energizing signal is sent to one or more stimulating electrodes for providing on these instruments to complete the operation.According to patient's body surgery The position (being more specifically any neuromechanism) of approach system 10, stimulus signal can lead to that neighbouring or approximately surgery enters The nerve depolarization of road system 10.This will lead to that muscle group is stimulated and movable and generate EMG response, which can pass through EMG Harness 176 incudes.Each muscle segment that the neural orientating function of system 170 is monitored based on system 170 by EMG harness 176 lures Hair reaction is assessed.

The EMG as obtained by monitoring the muscle segment (passing through EMG harness 176 and recording electrode 177) with neural connection and assess Respond (passing through control unit 172), surgical approach system 10 be capable of detecting whether there are it is this nerve (and optionally detect phase Distance and/or direction for these nerves).In this way can initiatively Over or around these nerves with safety and reproducible landform At the operation path towards particular surgical target site, and it is monitored to ensure no neuromechanism after establishing operation path It migrates and contacts surgical approach system 6.Such as in spinal operation, this is especially beneficial, because surgical approach system 6 is special It is suitble to establish the operation path towards intervertebral target site in a manner of rear side, through psoas muscle gap, to avoid the boniness of backbone Line structure afterwards.

Figure 59-60 is exemplary screen displays (will show on display 190), show show in conjunction with Figure 57-58 and One embodiment of the neural orientating function of the monitoring system of description.These screens, which are shown, to be intended in a manner of easily interpreting to surgery Doctor conveys much information.This information may include but be not necessarily limited to function show 230 (they being in this case " direction "), suffer from The graphical representation 231 of person, the muscle segment grade 232 monitored, with the associated nerve of the muscle segment of display or neural group 233, Instrument title 234 (being in this case expander), the size 235 of instrument currently in use, stimulus threshold electric current used 236, the graphical representation 237 (being in this case the viewgraph of cross-section of expander 8 or 9) of instrument currently in use is to provide from it Show instrument for nerve relative direction reference point, be applied to stimulating electrode stimulated current 238, for the instruction of user 239 (being in this case " propulsion " and/or " holding ") and instruction are from instrument to the arrow 240 in the direction of nerve.It can appoint The applicable pattern of what number conveys the information, and including but not limited to using witness marking, (such as alphanumeric character, shine member Part and/or figure) and voice communication (such as speaker element).Although being shown referring in particular to expansion intubation (such as 234), It should be readily understood that the present invention is deemed to be included in using any or all a variety of instrument for forming surgical approach system 6 of the present invention Period provides similar information on display 190, these instruments include (i.e. 8 He of Kirschner wire 42 and expander of Stent assembly 7 And/or retractor blade 12 or shim elements 22,25 9).

By discussed above and drawing it is clear that the present invention is realized with intrusion lower than traditional open to the outside world surgical operation The mode of property enters the target of surgery target site, in addition, in order to establish the operation path for leading to surgery target site, with as follows Mode realizes this target: can not consider to need the neuromechanism across (or close) to enter the surgery target site.This Outside, the present invention also provides being executed after establishing operation path during any operation in the tissue of neighbouring surgery target site or The function of Neural monitoring is executed in region.Surgical approach system of the invention can use in a variety of surgeries or medical applications, far Far beyond the backbone application range being discussed herein.This backbone application may include any operation, wherein by instrument, device, implantation Object and/or compound introduce or close to surgery target sites, including but not limited to discectomy, fusion (including PLIF, ALIF, TLIF and any any fusion completed by lateral or distal side to pathway, and by way of example, it is related to introducing And/or it removes bone ware (such as allograft or autograft) and/or there is ceramics, metal and/or plastics structure Make the device of (such as mesh) and/or the compound of bone morphogenetic protein), total spinal disc replacement etc..

In addition, surgical approach system of the invention by eliminate or be greatly reduced by or close to comprising it is such nerve or The tissue of neuromechanism contacts the risk of these nerves or neuromechanism when establishing operation path, so that with " lower invasive " side The surgery target site that formula enters greater number is possibly realized.As a result, surgical approach system code of the invention improve disease Suffer from nursing (to show: mitigating pain due to approach " lower invasive " and reduce or eliminate before establishing operation path, the phase Between and contact later nerve risk) ability in terms of major progress, and reduce health care cost (show: by " lower invasive " approach reduces the hospital stays and increases applicable surgery target site number by Neural monitoring).In short, nothing By being at home or at abroad, these overall standard significant enhancements for all having promoted the available nursing of patients.

Claims (8)

1. a kind of be used to form the traction device assembly for leading to the operation path of spinal surgery target site, the traction device assembly packet It includes:
Retractor main body and the multiple retractor blades for being approximately perpendicular to the retractor main body extension, the retractor main body energy The multiple retractor blade is enough operable so as to be separated relative to each other to be advanced to the outer subject in tissue retractor The inside far from the retractor blade will be organized to retract when mark point and retractor blade separation, it is logical to be consequently formed To the operation path of the surgery target site;And
Retractor blade component is supplemented, the supplement retractor blade component can be attached in the multiple retractor blade Two retractor blades, the supplement retractor blade component includes cross bar connector and elongated supplement retractor blade, institute It states cross bar connector and from first end extends to second end and including elongated slot, which is open at the first end And be configured to slidably to receive the column of described two retractor blades with by the cross bar connector can slide Dynamic mode is attached to described two retractor blades, and the cross bar connector further includes being configured to engage the supplement traction The back side of device blade, the column extends from each retractor blade in described two retractor blades, and each column is opposite It is extended substantially vertically in corresponding retractor blade.
2. traction device assembly according to claim 1, wherein being dimensioned so as to of the column can pass through the first end In the opening and be accepted in the elongated slot, the column further includes the expansion bigger than the height of the elongated slot End to prevent the cross bar connector to be detached from described two retractor blades.
3. traction device assembly according to claim 2, wherein the column of described two retractor blades can be described Supplement retractor blade is slided along the elongated slot while being maintained at fixed position to allow to open or close institute State two retractor blades.
4. traction device assembly according to claim 2, wherein the back side of the cross bar connector is configured to and institute A series of grooves stated on supplement retractor blade are interlocked to maintain the supplement retractor blade to connect relative to the cross bar The required depth of device.
5. traction device assembly according to claim 1, wherein the supplement retractor blade includes the handle being attached to thereon Portion.
6. traction device assembly according to claim 1, wherein the multiple retractor blade includes at least three retractors Blade, at least three retractor blade includes tail portion blade, head blade and center insert, and wherein the cross bar connects It connects device and engages the tail portion blade and the head blade.
7. traction device assembly according to claim 6, wherein the center insert is to be configured to be coupled to electrode member Electrode blade, the electrode member can removably be coupled with the electrode blade and the electrode member is by structure It makes as electrical stimulation signal to be sent to the tissue of the distal end of the neighbouring center insert.
8. traction device assembly according to claim 1, wherein the retractor main body can also operate described more to be unfolded At least one retractor blade in a retractor blade, so that the distal end of the retractor blade is than the retractor blade Proximal end extends wider, is controlled wherein at least one described retractor blade is unfolded by the gear being located in the retractor main body System.
CN201610404337.8A 2010-08-23 2011-08-23 Retract device assembly CN105997165B (en)

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US37616310A true 2010-08-23 2010-08-23
US61/376,163 2010-08-23
US39024810P true 2010-10-06 2010-10-06
US61/390,248 2010-10-06
US201161473138P true 2011-04-07 2011-04-07
US61/473,138 2011-04-07
CN201180050236.0A CN103167825B (en) 2010-08-23 2011-08-23 The surgical access system and related methods

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Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US7473222B2 (en) * 2002-06-26 2009-01-06 Warsaw Orthopedic, Inc. Instruments and methods for minimally invasive tissue retraction and surgery
US6869398B2 (en) * 2003-01-06 2005-03-22 Theodore G. Obenchain Four-blade surgical speculum
US7691057B2 (en) * 2003-01-16 2010-04-06 Nuvasive, Inc. Surgical access system and related methods
US7935053B2 (en) * 2006-06-06 2011-05-03 Globus Medical, Inc Surgical Retractor System

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