CN105973710A - Complicated jointed rock mass hydraulic coupling field tri-axial testing system and method - Google Patents

Complicated jointed rock mass hydraulic coupling field tri-axial testing system and method Download PDF

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Publication number
CN105973710A
CN105973710A CN201610422068.8A CN201610422068A CN105973710A CN 105973710 A CN105973710 A CN 105973710A CN 201610422068 A CN201610422068 A CN 201610422068A CN 105973710 A CN105973710 A CN 105973710A
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rock
pressure
test piece
water
stress
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CN105973710B (en
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邬爱清
熊诗湖
张宜虎
唐爱松
范雷
钟作武
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Changjiang River Scientific Research Institute Changjiang Water Resources Commission
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Changjiang River Scientific Research Institute Changjiang Water Resources Commission
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    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01NINVESTIGATING OR ANALYSING MATERIALS BY DETERMINING THEIR CHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
    • G01N3/00Investigating strength properties of solid materials by application of mechanical stress
    • G01N3/08Investigating strength properties of solid materials by application of mechanical stress by applying steady tensile or compressive forces
    • G01N3/10Investigating strength properties of solid materials by application of mechanical stress by applying steady tensile or compressive forces generated by pneumatic or hydraulic pressure
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01DMEASURING NOT SPECIALLY ADAPTED FOR A SPECIFIC VARIABLE; ARRANGEMENTS FOR MEASURING TWO OR MORE VARIABLES NOT COVERED IN A SINGLE OTHER SUBCLASS; TARIFF METERING APPARATUS; MEASURING OR TESTING NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • G01D21/00Measuring or testing not otherwise provided for
    • G01D21/02Measuring two or more variables by means not covered by a single other subclass
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01NINVESTIGATING OR ANALYSING MATERIALS BY DETERMINING THEIR CHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
    • G01N1/00Sampling; Preparing specimens for investigation
    • G01N1/28Preparing specimens for investigation including physical details of (bio-)chemical methods covered elsewhere, e.g. G01N33/50, C12Q
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01NINVESTIGATING OR ANALYSING MATERIALS BY DETERMINING THEIR CHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
    • G01N15/00Investigating characteristics of particles; Investigating permeability, pore-volume, or surface-area of porous materials
    • G01N15/08Investigating permeability, pore-volume, or surface area of porous materials
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01NINVESTIGATING OR ANALYSING MATERIALS BY DETERMINING THEIR CHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
    • G01N15/00Investigating characteristics of particles; Investigating permeability, pore-volume, or surface-area of porous materials
    • G01N15/08Investigating permeability, pore-volume, or surface area of porous materials
    • G01N15/082Investigating permeability by forcing a fluid through a sample
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01NINVESTIGATING OR ANALYSING MATERIALS BY DETERMINING THEIR CHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
    • G01N33/00Investigating or analysing materials by specific methods not covered by groups G01N1/00 - G01N31/00
    • G01N33/24Earth materials
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01NINVESTIGATING OR ANALYSING MATERIALS BY DETERMINING THEIR CHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
    • G01N2203/00Investigating strength properties of solid materials by application of mechanical stress
    • G01N2203/0014Type of force applied
    • G01N2203/0016Tensile or compressive
    • G01N2203/0019Compressive
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01NINVESTIGATING OR ANALYSING MATERIALS BY DETERMINING THEIR CHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
    • G01N2203/00Investigating strength properties of solid materials by application of mechanical stress
    • G01N2203/003Generation of the force
    • G01N2203/0042Pneumatic or hydraulic means
    • G01N2203/0048Hydraulic means
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01NINVESTIGATING OR ANALYSING MATERIALS BY DETERMINING THEIR CHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
    • G01N2203/00Investigating strength properties of solid materials by application of mechanical stress
    • G01N2203/0058Kind of property studied
    • G01N2203/006Crack, flaws, fracture or rupture
    • G01N2203/0062Crack or flaws

Abstract

The invention discloses a complicated jointed rock mass hydraulic coupling field tri-axial testing system. The complicated jointed rock mass hydraulic coupling field tri-axial testing system comprises a water-tight test cabin, a tri-axial stress loading system, a water pressure loading system, a drainage system and a measurement system, wherein the tri-axial stress loading system comprises a water-permeable steel plate, a force transfer steel plate, a jack, a hydraulic pipeline and a pressure controller, wherein the water pressure loading system comprises a high-pressure water pump and a pressure water pipeline, the drainage system comprises a water-permeable base and a drainage pipeline, and the measurement system comprises an osmometer, a flow meter, a strain meter, a sound wave transducer, a data line and a computer. The complicated jointed rock mass hydraulic coupling field tri-axial testing system can provide an effective and reliable research means for research of an engineering rock mass hydraulic coupling mechanism.

Description

Complicated crack rock Seepage-stress coupling scene triaxial test system and method
Technical field
The present invention relates to rock engineering technical field, in particular to a kind of complicated crack rock water Couple of force closes on-the-spot triaxial test system and method.
Technical background
The rock engineerings such as power station, water seal storage tank farm build Rock by hydraulic coupling action, Rock mass Seepage-stress coupling mechanism is the key areas of rock mass mechanics research.Rock mass waterpower both domestic and external Coupling test, how indoor, carry out for small-size test piece, test specimen is containing random fracture network The test specimen of network or the test specimen Han Single Fracture, it is when the Seepage-stress coupling problem of research engineering rock mass, Have the disadvantage that the test specimen containing stochastic fracture network, because sample dimensions is less, it is impossible to fill Divide the architectural feature of the complicated crack rock of reflection;Engineering rock then can not be reflected containing Single Fracture test specimen The seepage field of body, stress field state.
Summary of the invention
Present invention aim to provide a kind of on-the-spot three axles of complicated crack rock Seepage-stress coupling Pilot system and method, this system and method can be as engineering rock mass Seepage-stress coupling Mechanism Study Effective, reliable means.
Complicated crack rock Seepage-stress coupling scene three for realizing this purpose, designed by the present invention Shaft experiment system, it is characterised in that: it include watertight test cabin, triaxial stress loading system, Water hydraulic static pressure loading system, drainage system and measurement system, wherein, triaxial stress loading system bag Include permeable steel plate, power transmission steel plate, jack, fluid pressure line and pressure controller, described water Pressure loading system include high-pressure hydraulic pump and pressure water line, drainage system include permeable base and Discharge pipe line, measurement system include osmometer, effusion meter, strain gauge, acoustic wave transducer, Data wire and computer;
Permeable steel plate it is respectively provided with in the side of rock test piece and end face, each permeable steel plate Surface is respectively provided with power transmission steel plate, and the surface of each power transmission steel plate is respectively provided with jack, Mei Geqian The control end on jin top is all connected with pressure controller by fluid pressure line, and pressure controller is placed in The outside in watertight test cabin;
One end of described pressure water line is arranged in watertight test cabin, pressure water line another One end is connected with the water side of high-pressure hydraulic pump;
Arrange permeable base in the bottom of rock test piece, permeable base is positioned at watertight test cabin Bottom surface, one end of discharge pipe line is connected with permeable base drain mouth, the other end of discharge pipe line It is placed in the outside in watertight test cabin;
Osmometer, strain gauge and acoustic wave transducer are embedded in rock test piece, and effusion meter is arranged In discharge pipe line, the signal output of osmometer, effusion meter, strain gauge and acoustic wave transducer End all connects the data communication end of computer by data wire, and computer is placed in watertight test cabin Outside.
A kind of said system is utilized to carry out complicated crack rock Seepage-stress coupling scene triaxial test Method, it is characterised in that it comprises the steps:
Step 1: preparation rock test piece;
Step 2: rock test piece moves into watertight test cabin, installing three axles for rock test piece should Force loading system, Water hydraulic static pressure loading system, drainage system and measurement system, watertight test cabin Hole wall supports as the counter-force of finder charge;
Step 3: using Water hydraulic static pressure loading system that watertight test cabin is filled water, water is through permeable steel plate Penetrating into rock test piece and ooze out through permeable base, the water that permeable base oozes out is arranged through discharge pipe line Go out watertight experimental cabin, the valve in regulation and control pressure water line and discharge pipe line, make watertight test The stable hydraulic pressure preset is formed in cabin;
Step 4: regulation and control pressure controller applies three-dimensional load to rock test piece, forms principal stress σ1、σ2、σ3, this principal stress σ1、σ2、σ3For jack produce load at rock test piece table The pressure measurement that face is formed, principal stress σ1For the axial principal stress of rock test piece, principal stress σ2、 σ3It is respectively 2 lateral principal stresses of rock test piece;
During applying three-dimensional load to rock test piece above, use osmotic pressure measurement rock mass The osmotic pressure of test specimen, uses the seepage discharge of flow measurement rock test piece, uses strain gauge Survey the strain of rock test piece, use acoustic wave transducer to survey the Elastic Wave Velocity of rock test piece, adopt Use Pressure gauge metering hydraulic.
The beneficial effects of the present invention is: be suitable for Rock mass of large dimension test specimen, can reflect that complexity is split The architectural feature of gap rock mass;Test specimen, generally in pressure water environment, can ooze by model engineering rock mass Flow field;Three-dimensional load independently controls, can model engineering rock stress field.Thus experimental condition Similar to engineering rock mass hydraulic coupling action environment, can be as engineering rock mass Seepage-stress coupling mechanism Effective, the reliable means of research.
Accompanying drawing explanation
Fig. 1 is the knot of complicated crack rock Seepage-stress coupling scene triaxial test system in the present invention Structure schematic diagram;
Fig. 2 is the structured flowchart measuring system in the present invention.
Wherein, 1 watertight test cabin, 21 permeable steel plates, 22 power transmission steel plates, 23,000 Jin top, 24 fluid pressure lines, 25 pressure controllers, 31 high-pressure hydraulic pumps, 32 pressure Water lines, 41 permeable bases, 42 discharge pipe lines, 51 osmometers, 52 effusion meters, 53 strain gauges, 54 acoustic wave transducers, 55 data wires, 56 computers, 6 rock mass Test specimen.
Detailed description of the invention
Below in conjunction with the drawings and specific embodiments, the present invention is described in further detail:
A kind of complicated crack rock Seepage-stress coupling scene triaxial test system, such as Fig. 1 and Fig. 2 Described, it includes watertight test cabin 1, triaxial stress loading system, Water hydraulic static pressure loading system, row Water system and the system of measurement, wherein, triaxial stress loading system includes permeable steel plate 21, passes Power steel plate 22, jack 23, fluid pressure line 24 and pressure controller 25, described hydraulic pressure adds Loading system includes high-pressure hydraulic pump 31 and pressure water line 32, and drainage system includes permeable base 41 and discharge pipe line 42, measurement system include osmometer 51, effusion meter 52, strain gauge 53, Acoustic wave transducer 54, data wire 55 and computer 56;
Permeable steel plate 21, each permeable steel it is respectively provided with in the side of rock test piece 6 and end face The surface of plate 21 is respectively provided with power transmission steel plate 22, and the surface of each power transmission steel plate 22 is respectively provided with thousand Jin top 23, the control end of each jack 23 is all by fluid pressure line 24 and pressure controller 25 connect, and pressure controller 25 is placed in the outside in watertight test cabin 1;
One end of described pressure water line 32 is arranged in watertight test cabin 1, pressure water line The other end of 32 is connected with the water side of high-pressure hydraulic pump 31;
Arrange permeable base 41 in the bottom of rock test piece 6, permeable base 41 is positioned at watertight examination The bottom surface of hatch checking 1, one end of discharge pipe line 42 is connected with permeable base 41 discharge outlet, row The other end of water lines 42 is placed in the outside in watertight test cabin 1;
Osmometer 51, strain gauge 53 and acoustic wave transducer 54 are embedded in rock test piece 6, Effusion meter 52 is arranged in discharge pipe line 42, osmometer 51, effusion meter 52, strain gauge 53 Signal output part with acoustic wave transducer 54 all connects the number of computer 56 by data wire 55 According to communication ends, computer 56 is placed in the outside in watertight test cabin 1.Osmometer 51 is used for surveying The osmotic pressure of amount test specimen, effusion meter 52 is for measuring the seepage discharge of test specimen, strain gauge 53 For measuring the strain of test specimen, acoustic wave transducer 54 is for measuring the Elastic Wave Velocity of test specimen.
In technique scheme, described watertight test cabin 1 utilizes field survey adit to build (examination Test and implement at the scene, reduce the change of the character that rock test piece causes because of transport;Utilize hole wall Counter-force as finder charge supports, it is simple to the high-potting implementing on-the-spot large scale test specimen carries Lotus), waterproof, pressure-resistant material smeared by hole wall, installs waterproof, pressure gate, and inner space realizes High-pressure water seal, it is simple to realize the necessary controllable water under high pressure environment of test.
A kind of said system is utilized to carry out complicated crack rock Seepage-stress coupling scene triaxial test Method, implements according to the following steps: install three for rock test piece in watertight test cabin at the scene Axial stress loading system, Water hydraulic static pressure loading system, drainage system, measurement system;By experimental cabin Fill water, and form hydraulic pressure, make to occur inside rock test piece seepage flow;Three-dimensional is applied to test specimen Load, loading procedure measures the osmotic pressure of test specimen, seepage discharge, strain, elastic wave-wave Speed.Fracture Networks based on rock test piece describes, and measured stress, strain, osmotic pressure Power, seepage discharge, in conjunction with numerical simulation, set up rock mass hydrological integrated model, specifically Comprise the steps:
Step 1: preparation rock test piece 6, this rock test piece 6 is III containing crack2The class Black Warrior Rock, and geometry and the fracture opening of the Fracture Networks of rock test piece 6 is described, and by rock Geometry and the fracture opening information of the Fracture Networks of body test specimen 6 are stored in computer 56 In;
Step 2: rock test piece 6 is moved into watertight test cabin 1, installs for rock test piece 6 Triaxial stress loading system, Water hydraulic static pressure loading system, drainage system and measurement system, watertight tries The hole wall of hatch checking 1 supports as the counter-force of finder charge;
Step 3: using Water hydraulic static pressure loading system that watertight test cabin 1 is filled water, water is through permeable steel Plate 21 penetrates into rock test piece 6 and oozes out through permeable base 41, the water that permeable base 41 oozes out Watertight test cabin 1, regulation and control pressure water line 32 and discharge pipe line is discharged through discharge pipe line 42 Valve in 42, forms, in making watertight test cabin 1, the stable hydraulic pressure preset;
Step 4: regulation and control pressure controller 25 applies three-dimensional load to rock test piece 6, is formed Principal stress σ1、σ2、σ3, this principal stress σ1、σ2、σ3The load produced for jack 23 exists The pressure measurement that rock test piece 6 surface is formed, principal stress σ1The most main for rock test piece should Power, principal stress σ2、σ3It is respectively 2 lateral principal stresses of rock test piece;
During applying three-dimensional load to above rock test piece 6, use Pressure gauge metering Hydraulic pressure, and according to the stress of calculation of hydraulic pressure rock test piece 6, use osmometer 51 to survey rock mass examination The osmotic pressure of part 6, uses effusion meter 52 to survey the seepage discharge of rock test piece 6, and using should Become the strain of meter 53 survey rock test piece 6, use acoustic wave transducer 54 to survey rock test piece 6 Elastic Wave Velocity, and by the stress of rock test piece 6 recorded, strain, osmotic pressure, ooze Flow and Elastic Wave Velocity are transferred to computer 56 thoroughly
Step 5: Fracture Networks based on rock test piece 6 describe, and rock test piece 6 should Power, strain, osmotic pressure, seepage discharge and Elastic Wave Velocity, in conjunction with numerical simulation, Set up rock mass hydrological integrated model.
In technique scheme, described rock test piece 6 is cuboid rock test piece, and this is rectangular The length, width and height of body rock test piece are respectively 50cm, 50cm, 100cm, and test rock mass is for containing splitting The III of gap2Class basalt.
In technique scheme, in described step 3, regulation and control pressure water line 32 and drain pipe Valve in road 42, forms the stable hydraulic pressure of 2MPa in making watertight test cabin 1.
In the step 4 of technique scheme, regulation and control pressure controller 25 executes to rock test piece 6 Add concretely comprising the following steps of three-dimensional load: initially with triaxial stress loading system to rock test piece 6 It is loaded onto following stress state: σ1=6MPa, σ2=6MPa, σ3=4MPa, then keeps σ2=6MPa, σ3=4MPa, hierarchical loading σ1Until rock test piece 6 is destroyed.
The content that this specification is not described in detail belongs to known to professional and technical personnel in the field Prior art.

Claims (10)

1. a complicated crack rock Seepage-stress coupling scene triaxial test system, it is characterised in that: It includes watertight test cabin (1), triaxial stress loading system, Water hydraulic static pressure loading system, draining System and the system of measurement, wherein, triaxial stress loading system includes permeable steel plate (21), passes Power steel plate (22), jack (23), fluid pressure line (24) and pressure controller (25), Described Water hydraulic static pressure loading system includes high-pressure hydraulic pump (31) and pressure water line (32), draining system System include permeable base (41) and discharge pipe line (42), measurement system include osmometer (51), Effusion meter (52), strain gauge (53), acoustic wave transducer (54), data wire (55) and meter Calculation machine (56);
Permeable steel plate (21) it is respectively provided with in the side of rock test piece (6) and end face, each The surface of permeable steel plate (21) is respectively provided with power transmission steel plate (22), each power transmission steel plate (22) Surface be respectively provided with jack (23), the control end of each jack (23) all passes through hydraulic pressure Pipeline (24) is connected with pressure controller (25), and pressure controller (25) is placed in watertight The outside of experimental cabin (1);
One end of described pressure water line (32) is arranged in watertight test cabin (1), pressure The other end of water lines (32) is connected with the water side of high-pressure hydraulic pump (31);
Permeable base (41), permeable base (41) are set in the bottom of rock test piece (6) It is positioned at the bottom surface of watertight test cabin (1), one end of discharge pipe line (42) and permeable base (41) Discharge outlet connect, the other end of discharge pipe line (42) is placed in outside watertight test cabin (1) Portion;
Osmometer (51), strain gauge (53) and acoustic wave transducer (54) are embedded in rock mass examination In part (6), effusion meter (52) is arranged in discharge pipe line (42), osmometer (51), The signal output part of effusion meter (52), strain gauge (53) and acoustic wave transducer (54) is the most logical Crossing data wire (55) and connect the data communication end of computer (56), computer (56) is put Outside in watertight test cabin (1).
Complicated crack rock Seepage-stress coupling scene the most according to claim 1 triaxial test System, it is characterised in that: described watertight test cabin (1) utilizes field survey adit to build, Waterproof, pressure-resistant material smeared by hole wall, installs waterproof, pressure gate, described watertight test cabin (1) Inner space realizes water-stop.
3. one kind utilizes system described in claim 1 to carry out complicated crack rock Seepage-stress coupling now The method of field triaxial test, it is characterised in that it comprises the steps:
Step 1: preparation rock test piece (6);
Step 2: rock test piece (6) is moved into watertight test cabin (1), for rock test piece (6) triaxial stress loading system, Water hydraulic static pressure loading system, drainage system and measurement system are installed, The hole wall in watertight test cabin (1) supports as the counter-force of finder charge;
Step 3: use Water hydraulic static pressure loading system that watertight test cabin (1) fills water, water is through thoroughly Water steel plate (21) penetrates into rock test piece (6) and oozes out through permeable base (41), the permeable end The water that seat (41) oozes out discharges watertight test cabin (1), regulation and control pressure through discharge pipe line (42) Valve in power water lines (32) and discharge pipe line (42), in making watertight test cabin (1) Form the stable hydraulic pressure preset;
Step 4: regulation and control pressure controller (25) apply three-dimensional load to rock test piece (6), Form principal stress σ1、σ2、σ3, this principal stress σ1、σ2、σ3Produce for jack (23) The pressure measurement that load is formed on rock test piece (6) surface, principal stress σ1For rock test piece Axial principal stress, principal stress σ2、σ3It is respectively 2 lateral principal stresses of rock test piece;
During applying three-dimensional load to above rock test piece (6), use pressure gauge Amount hydraulic pressure, and according to the stress of calculation of hydraulic pressure rock test piece (6), use osmometer (51) Survey the osmotic pressure of rock test piece (6), use effusion meter (52) to survey rock test piece (6) Seepage discharge, use strain gauge (53) survey rock test piece (6) strain, use sound wave The Elastic Wave Velocity of rock test piece (6) surveyed by transducer (54).
Complicated crack rock Seepage-stress coupling scene the most according to claim 3 triaxial test Method, it is characterised in that: described step 1 also includes the crack describing rock test piece (6) The geometry of network and fracture opening, and the geometry of the Fracture Networks by rock test piece (6) Structure and fracture opening information are stored in computer (56).
Complicated crack rock Seepage-stress coupling scene the most according to claim 4 triaxial test Method, it is characterised in that: also include step 5 after described step 4: based on rock test piece (6) Fracture Networks describe, and the stress of rock test piece (6), strain, osmotic pressure, ooze Flow and Elastic Wave Velocity, in conjunction with numerical simulation, set up rock mass hydrological integrated model thoroughly.
Complicated crack rock Seepage-stress coupling scene the most according to claim 3 triaxial test Method, it is characterised in that: described rock test piece (6) is cuboid rock test piece or cylinder Rock test piece.
Complicated crack rock Seepage-stress coupling scene the most according to claim 3 triaxial test Method, it is characterised in that: in described step 3, regulation and control pressure water line (32) and draining Valve in pipeline (42), is formed in making watertight test cabin (1) and stablizes hydraulic pressure.
Complicated crack rock Seepage-stress coupling scene the most according to claim 3 triaxial test Method, it is characterised in that: in described step 4, rock mass is given in regulation and control pressure controller (25) Test specimen (6) applies concretely comprising the following steps of three-dimensional load: initially with triaxial stress loading system Rock test piece (6) is loaded onto following stress state: σ1=6MPa, σ2=6MPa, σ3=4MPa, Then σ is kept2=6MPa, σ3=4MPa, hierarchical loading σ1Until rock test piece (6) is destroyed.
Complicated crack rock Seepage-stress coupling scene the most according to claim 3 triaxial test Method, it is characterised in that: described rock test piece (6) is the III containing crack2Class basalt.
The on-the-spot three axle examinations of complicated crack rock Seepage-stress coupling the most according to claim 7 Proved recipe method, it is characterised in that: in described step 7, in watertight test cabin (1), form 2Mpa Stable hydraulic pressure.
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