CN105961020A - Method for cultivating high-sugar tomatoes in bags in sunlight greenhouse - Google Patents

Method for cultivating high-sugar tomatoes in bags in sunlight greenhouse Download PDF

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Publication number
CN105961020A
CN105961020A CN201610496011.2A CN201610496011A CN105961020A CN 105961020 A CN105961020 A CN 105961020A CN 201610496011 A CN201610496011 A CN 201610496011A CN 105961020 A CN105961020 A CN 105961020A
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saline
water
salt
bag
alkali
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CN105961020B (en
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孙周平
张小兰
孙继伟
刘广会
李红
李显生
赵蔚
胡丽娜
朱浩峥
刘义玲
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Panjin Xinye Agricultural Science And Technology Co Ltd
Shenyang Agricultural University
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Panjin Xinye Agricultural Science And Technology Co Ltd
Shenyang Agricultural University
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G22/00Cultivation of specific crops or plants not otherwise provided for
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G31/00Soilless cultivation, e.g. hydroponics

Abstract

The invention belongs to the technical field of agriculture and relates to a planting method of tomatoes, in particular to a method for cultivating high-sugar tomatoes in bags in a sunlight greenhouse. Saline-alkali soil or nutrient substrate cultivation bags are prepared according to the characteristics of high salinity of soil and water in saline-alkali land, water and fertilizer of a cultivation medium are accurately controlled by means of saline-alkali water in the saline-alkali land, the problems about high-quality cultivation of vegetables in the saline-alkali land and efficient utilization are solved, water and fertilizer conservation is realized, diseases and pests are reduced, growth of plants is promoted, and the quality and benefits of the plants are improved.

Description

A kind of heliogreenhouse bag training high sugar tomato planting method
Technical field
The invention belongs to agricultural technology field, relate to the implantation methods of a kind of Fructus Lycopersici esculenti, particularly a kind of heliogreenhouse bag training Tomato planting method.
Background technology
Past, over more than 20 year, China's vegetables in day-light greenhouse industry development was swift and violent, and by 2014, whole nation vegetables in day-light greenhouse was raw Produce area and reach more than 2,100 ten thousand mu, annual production 1.1 hundred million tons, annual value of production more than 4,000 hundred million yuan, the most successfully solve northern China ground The vegetable supply problem of district winter half year, and have become as the pillar industry solving agriculture, rural areas and farmers problem.But, due to greenhouse structure Adjust ability of regulation and control relatively low with environment, and the problem such as the production management of the big loose medicine of flood, cause vegetables in day-light greenhouse quality shape Condition presents downward trend year by year.And on the other hand, in recent years, along with improving constantly of people's living standard, urban and rural residents pair The demand of facilities vegetable, changes to mass type from scalar type, and especially high-quality victual receives in up-market The welcome of people.Wherein, high sugar Fructus Lycopersici esculenti is to make earnest efforts research and a kind of high-quality victual produced outside Present Domestic.At present, The Main Means producing high sugar Fructus Lycopersici esculenti is dependent on the means of stress from outside, mainly has the hands by water stress and Salt Strees Condition Section, but production cost is higher, and also Tomato Quality differs, it is impossible to and carry out large-scale promotion application, therefore, be badly in need of the height of low cost Sugar tomato production method.
China all kinds of salt-soda soil gross area 0.99 hundred million m2, owing in salt affected soil, salt content is high, common facilities vegetable is raw Produce influenced to different extents, mainly show as root growth suppressed, tip of a root browning, whole root system blackout corruption time serious Rotten, when salinization and alkalization is serious, cause plant stem and leaf withered, blade atrophy, growth retardation, affect plant strain growth and yield.When Front China facilities vegetable is little with the utilization rate of saline-alkali water to saline-alkali soil, and in same facility, salt affected soil situation difference is big, adds Upper peasant household produces measure and differs, and causes victual quality, yields poorly down.To this end, the present invention proposes one utilizes salt-soda soil soil The high salt dtex point of earth and water, the method producing high-quality Fructus Lycopersici esculenti in protecting field facility, it is possible to make the inferior position in salt-soda soil become Advantage, to solving efficiently utilizing a difficult problem, expanding vegetable production in green house scope, meet urban and rural residents to height of the bare place such as salt-soda soil The demand of quality vegetable has great production meaning and huge market potential.
Summary of the invention
For solving above-mentioned problems of the prior art, the present invention provides a kind of saline-alkali soil and saline and alkaline water resources rational profit Method, at greenhouse production height sugar tomato products, use bag training mode to be advantageously implemented control accurate and the work of liquid manure The standardized management that thing produces, it is achieved water-saving fertilizer-saving, reduces the generation of pest and disease damage, promotes carrying of plant strain growth, quality and yield High.
Technical scheme is as follows:
A kind of heliogreenhouse bag training high sugar tomato planting method, comprises the following steps:
(1) preparation of the cultivating bag of high sugar tomato planting
(1) cultivation medium: use salt concentration value at about 1.0-2.0mS cm-1Between saline-alkali soil, pulverizer powder will be used Broken saline-alkali soil with pulverize as straws such as the Caulis et Folium Oryzae of 1-3cm length or Semen Maydiss, be 5: 1 mixing mixing, fermentation according to volume ratio;Or adopt With the peat composed of rotten mosses, Vermiculitum, three kinds of raw materials of perlite, it is fully to puddle at 7: 2: 1 by volume, drenches with tap water so that it is aqueous Amount is about 30%;
(2) according to the yield target of high sugar Fructus Lycopersici esculenti every strain 3.0kg fruit, 20% nutrient makees base fertilizer, 80% nutrient as chasing after Fertile ratio, in the above-mentioned cultivation medium prepared every cubic metre add 0.7-1.5kg carbamide, 0.5-1kg potassium dihydrogen phosphate and 0.8-1.5kg potassium sulfate, by blender mix homogeneously;
(3) cultivation medium that will prepare above, loading specification is long * wide * height=0.5~1m*0.20~0.30m* In the woven bag of 0.10~0.15m or black and white film plastic bag, the most packed 10~20L, every bag of field planting 2~5 strain tomato sprout.
(2) the saline-alkali water irrigation management method of high sugar tomato planting
(1) place inside the facilities such as heliogreenhouse water tank (more than 1000L) or under dig pond (long * width * is high= 1.5m*1.2m*1.0m), pond uses Polypropylence Sheet liner, and wall of laying bricks prevents side earth fall side, uses cement to carry out waterproof layer;
(2) tap water is first put, after temperature stabilization, the Underground Salt aqueous alkali in extraction salt-soda soil, use conductivity meter to measure, To the irrigation water salt concentration of mix homogeneously at 1.0-5.0mS cm-1
(3) using plug in arrow formula drip irrigation system to irrigate, fine day every morning in seedling stage irrigates 300~400ml tap waters;First fringe Irrigation water 2 times every day after the flowers are in blossom, morning and afternoon the most once, altogether 500~700ml;When first fringe fruit is such as Semen Juglandis size, irrigate every time Water gradually promotes irrigation water salt concentration, with 0.5mS cm-1Being a gradient, each gradient is irrigated and is entered back into next ladder for three times Degree, until it reaches the salt concentration of respective combination irrigation water.The Fruit stage, every day irrigation water 3 times, the morning, noon and afternoon the most once, Amount to 800~1000ml.
(3) the fertilizing management method of salt-soda soil height sugar tomato production
After tomato sprout field planting 30 days start to topdress with irrigation water, seedling stage: every strain in every 7 days uses N P and K (NPK-19- 19-19) balance fertilizer 1.5g;First fringe fruit expanding stage starts, and every strain in every 5 days alternately imposes N P and K equilibrated type (NPK-19-19- 19) with high potassium type (NPK-15-10-30) compound fertilizer 2.5g, meanwhile, plant blade face can spray calcium nitrate or potassium dihydrogen phosphate, dense Degree is 3 ‰-5 ‰.
By coastal saline-alkali water or the method for autochthonal product height sugar Fructus Lycopersici esculenti, not only achieve the high-quality cultivation of salt-soda soil vegetable with Efficiently utilizing a difficult problem, and turn waste into wealth, solve salt-soda soil efficiently utilizes a difficult problem, for the efficient profit in the wide salt-soda soil of China With providing new approaches and methods, significant for the Sustainable Healthy Development promoting China's facilities vegetable industry.
Detailed description of the invention
(1) the cultivating bag preparation method of high sugar tomato planting
(1) cultivation medium: use electrical conductivity EC value saline-alkali soil between about 1.0-2.0, the salt will pulverized with pulverizer Alkaline earth with pulverize as straws such as the Caulis et Folium Oryzae of 1-3cm length or Semen Maydiss, be 5: 1 mix homogeneously, fermentation according to volume ratio;Or use grass Charcoal, Vermiculitum, three kinds of raw materials of perlite, be fully to mix at 7: 2: 1 by volume, drench with tap water so that it is water content exists About 30%, the salt concentration of cultivation medium is at 1.0mS cm-1Left and right;
(2) according to the fruit yield target of high sugar Fructus Lycopersici esculenti every strain 3.0kg, 20% nutrient makees base fertilizer, 80% nutrient as chasing after Fertile ratio, in the above-mentioned cultivation medium prepared every cubic metre add 0.7-1.5kg carbamide, 0.5-1kg potassium dihydrogen phosphate and 0.8-1.5kg potassium sulfate, by blender mix homogeneously;
(3) cultivation medium that will prepare above, loading specification is long * wide * height=0.5~1m*0.20~0.30m* In the woven bag of 0.10~0.15m or black and white film plastic bag, the most packed 10~20L, every bag of field planting 2~5 strain tomato sprout.
(2) the saline-alkali water irrigation management method of high sugar tomato planting
(1) place inside the facilities such as heliogreenhouse water tank (more than 1000L) or under dig pond (long * width * is high= 1.5m*1.2m*1.0m), pond uses Polypropylence Sheet liner, and wall of laying bricks prevents side earth fall side, uses cement to carry out waterproof layer;
(2) preparation of irrigation water: first put tap water, after temperature stabilization, the Underground Salt aqueous alkali in extraction salt-soda soil, make electricity consumption Electrical conductivity instrument measures, the different salt concentration 1.0-5.0mS cm being uniformly mixed-1Irrigation water;Due to ground water temperature in winter Relatively low, it is not suitable for tomato plant strain growth, therefore, before irrigating, the irrigation water preparing suitable salt concentration for 2 days should be shifted to an earlier date every time, with Make water temperature be suitable to irrigate, be 1.0 ± 0.35mS cm for salt concentration-1Light saline-alkali soil, the salt concentration of irrigation water is 1.0 ~5.0mS cm-1;It is 2.0 ± 0.35mS cm for salt concentration-1Relatively high salt alkaline earth, the salt concentration of irrigation water is 1.0~3.0mS cm-1;It is 1.0 ± 0.20mS cm for salt concentration-1Nutrient matrix cultivation medium, the salt of irrigation water Point concentration is 3.0~5.0mS cm-1
(3) plug in arrow formula drip irrigation system is used to irrigate: fair weather every morning in seedling stage irrigates 300~400ml from the beginning Water;First Honoka opens irrigation water rear every day 2 times, morning and afternoon the most once, altogether 500~700ml;First fringe fruit is such as Semen Juglandis size Time, gradually promoting the salt concentration of irrigation water every time when irrigating, be a gradient with 0.5mS cm-1, each gradient irrigates three Secondary enter back into next gradient, until it reaches suitable irrigation water salt concentration.In the Fruit stage, irrigate 3 every day, the morning, noon and afternoon Each the most once, altogether 800~1000ml.
(3) the fertilizing management method of salt-soda soil height sugar tomato production
After tomato sprout field planting 30 days start to topdress with irrigation water, seedling stage: every strain in every 7 days uses N P and K (NPK-19- 19-19) balance fertilizer 1.5g;First fringe fruit expanding stage starts, and every strain in every 5 days alternately imposes N P and K equilibrated type (NPK-19-19- 19) with high potassium type (NPK-15-10-30) compound fertilizer 2.5g, meanwhile, plant blade face can spray calcium nitrate or potassium dihydrogen phosphate, dense Degree is 3 ‰-5 ‰.
The invention provides saline-alkali soil and saline-alkali water combination and the nutrient matrix of heliogreenhouse bag training high sugar tomato production With saline-alkali water assembled scheme, it is shown in Table 1.
The combination of saline-alkali soil and nutrient matrix and saline-alkali water trained by table 1 heliogreenhouse of the present invention height sugar Fructus Lycopersici esculenti bag
From table 2 it can be seen that the saline-alkali soil that the present invention develops is the most notable with the pol of nutrient matrix bag training high sugar Fructus Lycopersici esculenti More than comparison saline-alkali soil soil cultivation, improve 72%~80%, sugar-acid ratio improves 25.1%~51%, mouthfeel more preferably, all Reaching difference, effect is clearly.
Table 2 heliogreenhouse of the present invention saline-alkali soil compares with nutrient matrix bag training high sugar Quality of Tomato Fruit
Table 3 is that the productivity effect of day-light greenhouse winter spring stubble height sugar Fructus Lycopersici esculenti compares, and as can be seen from the table, the present invention develops The fruit yield of saline-alkali soil and nutrient matrix bag training high sugar Fructus Lycopersici esculenti and Economic returns be all significantly increased, average specific comparison improves 18.6%~33.6%.Visible, the salt-soda soil heliogreenhouse height sugar tomato production technology that the present invention is developed is the most significantly The index of quality such as the pol that improve tamato fruit, and also improve fruit yield and performance indicator, therefore have great Popularizing application prospect.
Table 3 Winter-Spring of the present invention stubble heliogreenhouse saline-alkali soil and nutrient matrix bag training high sugar tomato production benefit comparison
Cultivation medium and salt content (mS cm-1) Average single plant yield (g) Per mu yield (kg/ mu) Average mu benefit (ten thousand yuan/mu)
Low saline-alkali soil bag training (1.0 ± 0.35) 1511.23 4532.20 6.80
Relatively high salinity earth bag training (2.0 ± 0.35) 1479.26 4437.00 6.66
Nutrient matrix bag training (1.0 ± 0.20) 1672.77 5016.70 7.53
Comparison (saline-alkali soil soil cultivation) 1252.19 3755.30 5.63
By systematic study, the invention provides the ordinary nutritional substrate of high sugar tomato cultivation and saline-alkali soil and different proportion The best of breed of saline-alkali water reasonable employment, not only increases the yield and quality of high sugar Fructus Lycopersici esculenti, adds benefit, and open New way that salt-soda soil efficiently utilizes and new method, provide technology for China's large-area exploitation salt-soda soil resource and protect Barrier, it is achieved that turn waste into wealth in salt-soda soil, has important practical application and is worth and wide market application foreground.

Claims (5)

1. a heliogreenhouse bag training high sugar tomato planting method, it is characterised in that comprise the following steps:
(1) preparation of the cultivating bag of high sugar tomato planting
(1) cultivation medium: use salt concentration value at about 1.0-2.0mS cm-1Between saline-alkali soil or nutrient matrix;
(2) azophoska that in the above-mentioned cultivation medium prepared, every cubic metre of interpolation is appropriate, by blender mix homogeneously;
(3) cultivation medium that will prepare above, load specification be the wide * of long * high=0.5~1m*0.20~0.30m*0.10~ In the woven bag of 0.15m or black and white film plastic bag, every bag cultivating medium 10~20L, every bag of field planting 2~5 strain tomato sprout;
(2) the saline-alkali water irrigation management method of high sugar tomato planting
(1) extracting the Underground Salt aqueous alkali in salt-soda soil, mix with tap water, the salt concentration being uniformly mixed is 1.0- 5.0mS·cm-1Irrigation water;
(2) using plug in arrow formula drip irrigation system, fair weather every morning in seedling stage irrigates 300~400ml tap waters;First Honoka is opened Rear every day irrigates 2 times, morning and afternoon the most once, altogether 500~700ml;When first fringe fruit is such as Semen Juglandis size, when irrigating gradually every time Promote irrigation water salt concentration, with 0.5mS cm-1Being a gradient, each gradient is irrigated and is entered back into next gradient three times, until Reach the suitable salt concentration of irrigation water, Fruit stage, irrigate 3 every day, the morning, noon and afternoon the most once, altogether 800~ 1000ml;
(3) the fertilizing management method of salt-soda soil height sugar tomato production
After tomato sprout field planting 30 days start to topdress with irrigation water, seedling stage: every strain in every 7 days uses N P and K NPK-19-19-19 to put down The fertile 1.5g of weighing apparatus;First fringe fruit expanding stage starts, and every strain in every 5 days alternately imposes N P and K equilibrated type NPK-19-19-19 and high potassium type NPK-15-10-30 compound fertilizer 2.5g, meanwhile, plant foliage-spray calcium nitrate or potassium dihydrogen phosphate, concentration is 3 ‰-5 ‰.
2. heliogreenhouse bag training as claimed in claim 1 high sugar tomato planting method, it is characterised in that described saline-alkali soil is cultivated Medium is with to pulverize be the straw such as Caulis et Folium Oryzae or Semen Maydis of 1-3cm length by the saline-alkali soil pulverized with pulverizer, is 5: 1 according to volume ratio Mixing mixing, fermentation are prepared from.
3. heliogreenhouse bag training as claimed in claim 1 high sugar tomato planting method, it is characterised in that described nutrient matrix is planted Training medium uses the peat composed of rotten mosses, Vermiculitum, three kinds of raw materials of perlite, is fully to mix at 7: 2: 1 by volume, drenches with tap water, Its water content is made to be prepared from about 30%.
4. heliogreenhouse bag training as claimed in claim 1 high sugar tomato planting method, it is characterised in that the cultivation prepared is situated between In matter, every cubic metre is added 0.7-1.5kg carbamide, 0.5-1kg potassium dihydrogen phosphate and 0.8-1.5kg potassium sulfate, and 20% nutrient makees the end Fertilizer, 80% nutrient are as the ratio topdressed, by blender mix homogeneously.
5. heliogreenhouse bag training as claimed in claim 1 high sugar tomato planting method, it is characterised in that high sugar tomato planting In saline-alkali water irrigation management method, it is 1.0 ± 0.35mS cm for salt concentration-1Light saline-alkali soil, irrigation water salt concentration It is 1.0~5.0mS cm-1;It is 2.0 ± 0.35mS cm for salt concentration-1Relatively high salt alkaline earth, irrigation water salt concentration It is 1.0~3.0mS cm-1;It is 1.0 ± 0.20mS cm for salt concentration-1Nutrient matrix cultivation medium, irrigation water salt Point concentration is 3.0~5.0mS cm-1
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CN111466284A (en) * 2020-04-13 2020-07-31 宁夏大学 Sand culture method for high-sugar cherry tomatoes

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CN111466284A (en) * 2020-04-13 2020-07-31 宁夏大学 Sand culture method for high-sugar cherry tomatoes

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