CN105954795A - Grid successive dissection method used for microseismic positioning - Google Patents

Grid successive dissection method used for microseismic positioning Download PDF

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Publication number
CN105954795A
CN105954795A CN201610261380.3A CN201610261380A CN105954795A CN 105954795 A CN105954795 A CN 105954795A CN 201610261380 A CN201610261380 A CN 201610261380A CN 105954795 A CN105954795 A CN 105954795A
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grid
size
subdivision
mesh
coordinate
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陈祖斌
江海宇
王金磊
王洪超
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Jilin University
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Jilin University
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    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01VGEOPHYSICS; GRAVITATIONAL MEASUREMENTS; DETECTING MASSES OR OBJECTS; TAGS
    • G01V1/00Seismology; Seismic or acoustic prospecting or detecting
    • G01V1/28Processing seismic data, e.g. analysis, for interpretation, for correction
    • G01V1/288Event detection in seismic signals, e.g. microseismics

Abstract

The invention relates to a grid successive dissection method used for microseismic positioning. Based on a conventional grid searching amplitude superposition algorithm, after a first-time dissection of a target area, a further refined searching of a neighborhood of a central point of a grid, on which focuses maximum energy, is carried out, and global maximum energy focused value is searched, and then global refinement used for improving positioning precision is prevented, and higher positioning precision is acquired with small calculation cost. An experiment proves that a perforation positioning method adopting the grid successive dissection is used to effectively solve the problem of the conventional method of the difficulty in balancing the efficiency and the calculation precision. The higher microseismic positioning precision is acquired with low calculation cost. The global refinement is prevented, and the workload is reduced, and the positioning efficiency is improved under the precondition of guaranteeing the positioning precision.

Description

A kind of grid gradually subdivision method for microseism location
Technical field
The present invention relates to a kind of oil field compression fracture microseism localization method, be through the monitoring of microseism specifically Data, on the basis of grid search amplitude stacking method, uses grid gradually subdivision algorithm, thus improves micro- The efficiency of earthquakes location and precision.
Technical background
The exploitation of unconventional mineral resources (such as coal bed gas, fine and close oil, shale oil etc.) has been become China with And the emerging focus of international oil gas Tibetan industry.Improve oil-gas reservoir permeability by fracturing means and obtained domestic Generally approve outward.And micro-seismic monitoring is an important step in hydraulic fracturing process, by fracture caused by hydraulic pressure is lured Send out micro-seismic event be accurately positioned, people can to underground induction and pre-existing fracture attribute (geometrical property, Density, with dimension etc.) it is analyzed portraying, and provide guidance for later stage Reservoir Development.Therefore, microseism Event is accurately positioned, and can be next step Reservoir Development scheme and deployment offer reliable basis.
Existing microseism location algorithm generally requires information when picking up from earthquake record that ripple is walked the most in length and breadth, The advantage of this type of method is in position fixing process not by focus frequency, the impact that each road waveform is inconsistent, and locates Flexibly, even can there are analytic solutions in hypocentral location to reason.This type of method is particularly suited for borehole observation.And for ground From the point of view of the observation of face, its observation data generally have the feature of low signal-to-noise ratio, and its data volume is huge, to a certain degree On constrain the development of existing localization method.For solving problem above, on the one hand scholars attempt geological data Information when obtaining after improving signal to noise ratio, and use traditional method to position, on the other hand use for reference seismic prospecting Middle migration imaging principle have developed the skew class amplitude superposition class localization method being applicable to low signal-noise ratio data, this Class method is without carrying out ripple first break pickup in length and breadth to each road earthquake record, and utilizes the data message of whole network Noise is suppressed as inputting and strengthens valid signal strengths.Wang Chenlong etc. " observation condition in ground and well Under microseism interfere inverse time location algorithm "<Chinese Journal of Geophysics>2013 (the 9th phase of volume 56, 3184-3196 page) propose to combine wave equation inverse time focusing positioning principle with interference imaging principle principle Positioning microseism, Jilin University's thesis for the doctorate in 2012 discloses " based on oil field compression fracture micro-seismic monitoring Seismic phase identification and seismic source location technique study " propose to present principle based on reverse-time migration method at underground Diffraction Point, The method of each road waveform migration stack is positioned.Rentsch etc. utilize Gaussian ray bundle to microseismic event Carry out Voice segment localization method<Geophysics>2007, (the 1st phase of volume 72, S33-S40 page) Diffracted wave field is overlapped positioning microseism by Zhebel, Anikiev etc. based on ray theory, Lv Hao Propose to present principle based on reverse-time migration method at underground Diffraction Point, the method for each road waveform migration stack is carried out Location.Although skew class microseism location algorithm can overcome the shortcoming of traditional algorithm, but still suffers from many technology Difficult point, as reverse-time migration stacking method based on ray theory cannot try to achieve the analytic solutions of hypocentral location, it is right to need Underground carries out mesh generation, when mesh-density is the highest, could realize being accurately positioned micro-seismic event.But It is that the calculating time can be greatly increased, and constrains the practicality of the method while improving mesh-density.Therefore, When utilizing amplitude excursion stacking method to carry out perforation location, positioning precision is the highest, then mesh generation size is the least, Density is the highest, and this just considerably increases amount of calculation, causes the calculating time the longest, reduces location efficiency.So, In actual perforation positions, how while improving positioning precision, to ensure location efficiency, be to need solution at present badly Problem.
Summary of the invention:
Present invention aims to the problem that above-mentioned prior art exists, in the reverse-time migration amplitude of vibration addition method On the basis of, use grid gradually subdivision method, effectively raise efficiency and the precision of microseism location. Mesh generation part, on the basis of conventional amplitude excursion stacking method, is improved by the present invention.Existing Method is primarily directed to target area and carries out overall situation subdivision, finds Voice segment maximum of points by calculating.This Bright grid gradually subdivision method is according to actual geological conditions, determines that mesh generation size (can be typically first Several times of former algorithm size of mesh opening), find Voice segment maximum of points, enter near Voice segment maximum of points Row refinement subdivision, the coordinate of further precision energy maximum of points.Avoid Global Subdivision, reduce workload, Positioning precision is improved on the premise of ensureing positioning precision.
It is an object of the invention to be achieved through the following technical solutions:
A kind of grid gradually subdivision method for microseism location, comprises the following steps:
A, centered by shooting point, set up three-dimensional target region, select reference channel M;
B, determine the size of mesh opening L0 of mesh generation first, minimum dimension difference Lmin;
C, setting up initial velocity model, definition E (V)=0, dead time is Tmax;
D, reading perforation data;
E, travel through all of grid, calculate each road time difference relative to library track;
F, by each track data translate superposition, obtain the Energy maximum value E under existing rate pattern and coordinate thereof;
G, the value of E is assigned to E (V), updates ceiling capacity point coordinates;
The coordinate of H, E (V) reaches Tmax dead time;
I, end.
The coordinate of the E (V) described in step H reaches Tmax dead time to be terminated, if not up to Tmax grid Difference in size is less than preliminary dimension Tmax, then carry out gradually mesh generation, comprise the following steps:
A, using the half of former zone radius as new divided region radius;
B, traveling through all grids, Energy maximum value point is as new mesh generation center;
C, all grids in traversal fresh target region, carry out subdivision around new center, and gradually mesh generation reaches Last size of mesh opening is deducted less than particular value Lmin to size of mesh opening.
Beneficial effect: the grid gradually subdivision method that the present invention uses, effectively solves microseism position fixing process Middle positioning precision and efficiency are difficult to the problem balanced.Needed for assuming a subdivision, calculation times is (Nx×Ny×Nz), Such as reaching identical precision after n subdivision, prior art needs the calculation times consumed to be 8n-1(Nx×Ny×Nz), the calculation times of the present invention is n (Nx×Ny×Nz), therefore, the method for the present invention can be with Less calculation cost, it is thus achieved that higher microseism positioning precision.Avoid Global Subdivision, reduce workload, Positioning precision is improved on the premise of ensureing positioning precision.
Accompanying drawing illustrates:
A kind of grid gradually subdivision method flow chart for microseism location of Fig. 1
Fig. 2 amplitude principle of stacking figure;
Fig. 3 grid gradually subdivision legal position micro-seismic event demonstration graph
(a) grid gradually subdivision graph of subdivision method;
(b) secondary subdivision graph;
Fig. 4 cymoscope is structured the formation and shooting point forward simulation schematic diagram;
96 road generated data result during Fig. 5 signal to noise ratio S/N=0.3;
Algorithm comparison diagram after the former algorithm of Fig. 6 and improvement
(a) existing method precision and time-consuming figure;
(b) the inventive method precision and time-consuming figure.
Detailed description of the invention:
The present invention is described in further detail with embodiment below in conjunction with the accompanying drawings:
A kind of grid gradually subdivision method for microseism location, comprises the following steps:
A, centered by shooting point, set up three-dimensional target region, select reference channel M;
B, determine the size of mesh opening L0 of mesh generation first, minimum dimension difference Lmin;
C, setting up initial velocity model, definition E (V)=0, dead time is Tmax;
D, reading perforation data;
E, travel through all of grid, calculate each road time difference relative to library track;
F, by each track data translate superposition, obtain the Energy maximum value E under existing rate pattern and coordinate thereof;
G, the value of E is assigned to E (V), updates ceiling capacity point coordinates;
The coordinate of H, E (V) reaches Tmax dead time;
I, end.
The coordinate of the E (V) described in step H reaches Tmax dead time to be terminated, if not up to Tmax grid Difference in size is less than preliminary dimension Tmax, then carry out gradually mesh generation, comprise the following steps:
A, using the half of former zone radius as new divided region radius;
B, traveling through all grids, Energy maximum value point is as new mesh generation center;
C, all grids in traversal fresh target region, carry out subdivision around new center, and gradually mesh generation reaches Last size of mesh opening is deducted less than particular value Lmin to size of mesh opening.
Embodiment 1:
Use former algorithm single size grid that target area carries out single overall situation subdivision.Utilize computer simulation one The stratigraphic model of individual 5 layers, wherein the velocity amplitude of 1~5 layer is followed successively by:
800m/s, 1000m/s, 1700m/s, 2200m/s, 2700m/s, perforating site be (225 ,-147, -962), simulation seismic waveform uses the seismic wavelet of 50Hz to be described.
A, near perforation define a three-dimensional target region, i.e. this region be likely to occur microseismic event.? In the present embodiment, on the basis of perforation coordinate, selected target region.The three-dimensional coordinate of selected target area is X ∈ [-300,300], Y ∈ [-300,300], Z ∈ [-1000 ,-800].Microseism surface geophone becomes star-like shape Shape arranges, totally 6 surveys line, 16 cymoscopes of every survey line (96 road), as shown in Figure 4.Choose together As library track M, it is desirable to this road has first arrival lineups the most clearly, and relatively high s/n ratio.
B, according to geographical position and frequency of seismic wave, the size of selected mesh generation is 10m, by selected Target area is 72000 three-dimensional grids according to size of mesh opening subdivision.
On the basis of C, the method corrected by perforation, more former rate pattern, set up a relatively accurate speed Degree model, sets up rate pattern, V=[800,1000,1700,2200,2700], definition according to analog case Primary power value E (V)=0, dead time is Tmax
D, reading the data of each cymoscope, each detector data is considered as a track data.The composite number in 96 roads According to as shown in Figure 5.
E, under this rate pattern, travel through each grid carry out forward modelling, calculate each road relative to library track Travel-time difference:
Δtcal=[t1-tM,t2-tM,...,tN-tM] (1)
The signal collected by each cymoscope moves in parallel on a timeline according to the time difference of its correspondence, right The seismic signal that all cymoscopes collect does same process relative to same grid.
F, the data wire these translated are overlapped, and calculate energy accumulating value E of each grid.Set The centre coordinate of underground i-th grid is (xi,yi,zi), then grid i to all geophone microseismograms according to ΔtcalAfter offseting, the energy summation E (x obtained by superpositioni,yi,zi) it is:
E ( x i , y i , z i ) = &Sigma; j = 1 N &lsqb; &Sigma; r e c = 1 M S ( x i , y i , z i , r e c , j ) &rsqb; - - - ( 2 )
Wherein S (xi,yi,zi, rec, is j) to rec cymoscope at selected i-th three-dimensional grid center Amplitude of vibration size in the j moment;M is the quantity of cymoscope;Rec is the arbitrary integer between 1 to M, generation The numbering of table cymoscope;N is time window length.If this grid is micro-seismic event point, then through multiple tracks After superposition, overall signal can amplify several times, and signal to noise ratio is greatly improved, otherwise, overall signal will not obtain and add By force, even can cancel out each other.
G, target area is carried out subdivision after, traversal target area all three-dimensional grids, find energy gather Burnt maximum E (xi,yi,zi) and the coordinate of correspondence.
H, the Energy maximum value calculated and E (V) are compared, if bigger than E (V), then update E (V) value and The coordinate of its correspondence.
In the present embodiment, by step (1) described selected target region according to step (2) described grid chi Very little (10m) carries out subdivision, and subdivision is 72000 three-dimensional grids altogether, and each three-dimensional grid is considered as potential Hypocentral location, under the rate pattern described in step (3), the method according to step (5) calculates each three-dimensional In grid, each track data is relative to the travel-time difference of library track, and 96 road generated datas are as shown in Figure 4.Each three In dimension grid, calculate the amplitude superposition of each three-dimensional grid according to step (6) described reverse-time migration stacking method Value, its schematic diagram is as shown in Figure 1.Travel through all of mesh point, compare E (xi,yi,zi) size, until finding energy Till amount focuses on the mesh point of maximum, this three dimensional network center of a lattice is considered as Energy maximum value point.Through above meter It is (230 ,-150 ,-950) that calculation obtains Voice segment maximum of points coordinate, then this coordinate is considered perforating site.
The present embodiment is selected respectively different sizes as mesh generation size, select 10m to 50m altogether Between 9 packet sizes carry out tentative calculation.The size of mesh opening size of former algorithm single overall situation subdivision and positioning precision and fixed Shown in relation such as Fig. 6 (a) of position efficiency.From the graph, it is apparent that computational accuracy and efficiency are difficult to put down Weighing apparatus, when error minimum, time-consumingly maximum, given perforation coordinate is (225 ,-147 ,-962), when grid chi Very little for 10m time, its position error is 6.34m, but it time-consumingly reaches 526s.
Embodiment 2:
Grid gradually subdivision method is used to carry out perforation location.Compare for convenience, its analogue model and embodiment 1 Identical, wherein the velocity amplitude of 1~5 layer is followed successively by: 800m/s, 1000m/s, 1700m/s, 2200m/s, 2700m/s, perforating site is (225 ,-147 ,-962), and simulation seismic waveform uses 50Hz Seismic wavelet be described.
A, near perforation define a three-dimensional target region, i.e. this region be likely to occur microseismic event.? In the present embodiment, on the basis of perforation coordinate, selected target region.The three-dimensional coordinate of selected target area is X ∈ [-300,300], Y ∈ [-300,300], Z ∈ [-1000 ,-800].Microseism surface geophone becomes star-like shape Shape arranges, totally 6 surveys line, 16 cymoscopes of every survey line (96 road), as shown in Figure 4.Choose together As library track M, it is desirable to this road has first arrival lineups the most clearly, and relatively high s/n ratio.
B, according to geographical position and frequency of seismic wave, the size of selected mesh generation first is 40m, will choosing Fixed region is several three-dimensional grids according to size of mesh opening subdivision, and arranging minimum dimension difference is Lmin
On the basis of C, the method corrected by perforation, more former rate pattern, set up a relatively accurate speed Degree model, sets up rate pattern, V=[800,1000,1700,2200,2700], definition according to analog case Primary power value E (V)=0, dead time is Tmax
D, reading the data of each cymoscope, each detector data is a track data.The generated data in 96 roads As shown in Figure 5.
E, under this rate pattern, travel through each grid carry out forward modelling, calculate each road relative to library track Travel-time difference:
Δtcal=[t1-tM,t2-tM,...,tN-tM] (1)
The signal collected by each cymoscope carries out parallel shifting on a timeline according to the time difference of its correspondence Dynamic, the seismic signal collecting all cymoscopes does same process relative to same three-dimensional grid.
F, the data wire these translated are overlapped, and calculate energy accumulating value E of each grid.Set The centre coordinate of underground i-th grid is (xi,yi,zi), then grid i to all geophone microseismograms according to ΔtcalAfter offseting, the energy summation E (x obtained by superpositioni,yi,zi) it is:
E ( x i , y i , z i ) = &Sigma; j = 1 N &lsqb; &Sigma; r e c = 1 M S ( x i , y i , z i , r e c , j ) &rsqb; - - - ( 2 )
Wherein S (xi,yi,zi, rec, is j) to rec cymoscope at selected i-th three-dimensional grid center Amplitude of vibration size in the j moment;M is the quantity of cymoscope;Rec is the arbitrary integer between 1 to M, generation The numbering of table cymoscope;N is time window length.If this grid is micro-seismic event point, then through multiple tracks After superposition, overall signal can amplify several times, and signal to noise ratio is greatly improved, otherwise, overall signal will not obtain and add By force, even can cancel out each other.
G, target area is carried out subdivision after, traversal target area all three-dimensional grids, by each grid After all data translate superposition according to formula (1) and (2), find Voice segment maximum E (xi,yi,zi) and corresponding Coordinate, the Energy maximum value calculated and E (V) are compared, if bigger than E (V), then by Energy maximum value Point coordinates is considered as perforating site.In the present embodiment, according to above calculation procedure, obtain Voice segment maximum Point coordinates is (240 ,-160 ,-940).
H, reach T dead time when the coordinate of Energy maximum valuemaxOr size of mesh opening difference is when reaching Lmin, fortune Calculation process terminates.
If I not up to termination condition, with last subdivision calculated Voice segment maximum of points coordinate (240 ,-160 ,-940) are as new center point coordinate.
J, former target area radius half as a new target area radius, secondary subdivision is the most former The half of size of mesh opening, i.e. 20m.
K, all mesh points in traversal fresh target region, such as new Voice segment maximum, then update E (V) value And respective coordinates.In the present embodiment, according to method described in above-mentioned steps, the energy that secondary subdivision obtains is Big value point coordinates is (229 ,-150 ,-949).
L, judge whether to reach termination condition, if not up to, the Voice segment maximum obtained with secondary subdivision Point coordinates (229 ,-150 ,-949) halves as new center point coordinate, target area radius, grid chi Very little it is reduced to 10m, carries out three subdivisions according to the method described above.
It is (225 ,-145 ,-960) that M, for the third time subdivision are calculated Energy maximum value point coordinates, so Update successively, until reaching certain size of mesh opening to deduct last size of mesh opening less than certain specific Lmin Till.
In the present embodiment, select different sizes as grid subdivision size first respectively, select 10m altogether 9 packet sizes between 50m carry out tentative calculation.When subdivision is smaller in size than 45m first of selection, it is fixed Position error has controlled within 3m, and location time-consumingly only needs tens seconds, it is thus achieved that extraordinary locating effect.Fixed Position error and location are time-consuming as shown in Fig. 6 (b).It can be seen that the algorithm after Gai Jining can be effective EQUILIBRIUM CALCULATION FOR PROCESS precision and computational efficiency, especially when grid first subdivision a size of 40m, position error is low To 3m, time-consuming as little as about the 60s in location.During actual micro-seismic monitoring, according to local geographical feelings Condition, selects suitable mesh generation size first, it is possible to realize improving location while ensureing positioning precision Efficiency.

Claims (2)

1. the grid gradually subdivision method for microseism location, it is characterised in that comprise the following steps:
A, centered by shooting point, set up three-dimensional target region, select reference channel M;
B, determine the size of mesh opening L0 of mesh generation first, minimum dimension difference Lmin;
C, setting up initial velocity model, definition E (V)=0, dead time is Tmax;
D, reading perforation data;
E, travel through all of grid, calculate each road time difference relative to library track;
F, by each track data translate superposition, obtain the Energy maximum value E under existing rate pattern and coordinate thereof;
G, the value of E is assigned to E (V), updates ceiling capacity point coordinates;
The coordinate of H, E (V) reaches Tmax dead time or till size of mesh opening difference reaches Lmin;
I, end.
2., according to a kind of grid gradually subdivision method for microseism location described in claim 1, it is special Levying and be, the coordinate of the E (V) described in step H reaches Tmax dead time to be terminated, if not up to Tmax Size of mesh opening difference is less than preliminary dimension Lmin, then carry out gradually mesh generation, comprise the following steps:
A, Energy maximum value point is as new mesh generation center;
B, halve using the half of former zone radius as new divided region radius, mesh generation size;
C, all grids in traversal fresh target region, carry out subdivision around new center, and gradually mesh generation reaches Last size of mesh opening is deducted less than particular value Lmin to size of mesh opening.
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CN107728200A (en) * 2017-09-29 2018-02-23 中国石油化工股份有限公司 Ground micro-seismic fracturing fracture dynamic spread method of real-time
CN109901105A (en) * 2019-03-25 2019-06-18 四川超影科技有限公司 A kind of indoor orientation method based on space values iteration
CN110133715A (en) * 2019-05-29 2019-08-16 长江大学 A kind of microseism seismic source location method based on the first arrival time difference and addition of waveforms
CN110515122A (en) * 2019-08-15 2019-11-29 刘建中 The positioning of forward modeling grid search and microseism signal recognition method and device
CN110609321A (en) * 2019-09-24 2019-12-24 中国科学院武汉岩土力学研究所 Micro seismic source positioning method based on speed model database
CN110609321B (en) * 2019-09-24 2020-11-13 中国科学院武汉岩土力学研究所 Micro seismic source positioning method based on speed model database
CN112462420A (en) * 2020-11-17 2021-03-09 大连理工大学 Slope locking section intelligent positioning and feature identification method

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Application publication date: 20160921