CN105944542A - 一种高效硫化氢气体吸收装置 - Google Patents

一种高效硫化氢气体吸收装置 Download PDF

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CN105944542A
CN105944542A CN201610494578.6A CN201610494578A CN105944542A CN 105944542 A CN105944542 A CN 105944542A CN 201610494578 A CN201610494578 A CN 201610494578A CN 105944542 A CN105944542 A CN 105944542A
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hydrogen sulfide
sulfide gas
absorption
adsorber
liquid
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CN201610494578.6A
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王依谋
马良
陈剑
张革松
李兵
刘安林
何梦雅
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华东理工大学
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Abstract

本发明涉及一种高效硫化氢气体吸收装置,主要解决工业气体中硫化氢净化问题。一种高效硫化氢气体吸收装置,包含旋流喷射吸附器、脱附—再生一体化装置、循环液泵,所述旋流喷射吸附器为单级或多级连接,所述旋流喷射吸附器设有混合气体入口、吸附液入口、净化后气体出口、吸附液出口,所述旋流喷射吸附器底部接有单向阀;所述脱附—再生一体化装置设有空气入口、硫单质出口、吸附液出口、取样口,吸附液出口与循环液泵相连;所述循环液泵将吸附液输送至旋流喷射吸附器吸附液入口,管路中连接检测仪表及单向阀。本发明提高了气体中硫化氢吸收效率,增强了吸收装置稳定性。

Description

一种高效硫化氢气体吸收装置
技术领域
[0001 ]本发明属于石油化工与环保领域,涉及一种硫化氢气体吸收装置,主要解决工业气体中硫化氢净化问题。背景技术
[0002] H2S是一种无色刺激性气体,具有强烈的臭鸡蛋气味,极性分子,相对分子质量为 34.08,嗅觉阈值约为0.00041??111,相对密度为1.19(空气密度为1),熔点为-85.5°(:,沸点为-60.4°C,易溶于水和乙醇。
[0003] 在我国石化行业天然气净化和石油炼制的过程中,伴生高浓度的硫化氢,硫化氢气体泄漏导致的中毒事故在石油化工领域频繁发生。一旦发生硫化氢泄漏将严重危及装置生产安全和人员的生命安全,并且会严重污染附近空气,破坏生态环境。硫化氢是毒性极大的大气污染物之一,必须对其排放进行严格控制。《恶臭污染物排放标准》GB14554-1993,将 H2S列为8种限制排放的恶臭污染物之一,对硫化氢的排放浓度作了明确限制。
[0004] 在化学工业中,单质硫被认为是最主要的四种基本原料之一。传统的单质硫生产工艺主要是通过矿产转化得到。随着人类环保意识的不断增强,含硫产品的回收与转化过程,越来越受到人们的重视。一直以来,含硫产品的回收与转化主要集中在硫化氢和二氧化硫转化为单质的过程上。
[0005] 目前常用的硫化氢脱除回收方法主要有两类:一类是湿法脱硫,包括物理吸收法、 化学吸收法等,另一类是干法脱硫,包括物理吸附法、氧化法等,大部分方法都存在一定问题和不足。专利CN94191218采用多层逆流接触脱除硫化氢;专利CN201110060792采用加湿喷淋脱除硫化氢;专利CN201310402593将硫化氢和吸收液通入旋转填料床吸收硫化氢气体;如前述,目前未见到采用多级旋流器进行硫化氢高效回收的研究报道。[〇〇〇6]目前工业使用的硫化氢吸收回收设备多为大型装置,组成元件多,流程较复杂。如专利CN94191218硫化氢气体吸收方法及设备为塔式设备;CN201110060792硫化氢气体吸收系统包括沼气池、除水装置、引风机、脱硫设备和储气罐等;CN201110239659硫化氢废气的收集净化处理装置包括收集罩、耐酸风机、净化塔、喷淋装置、碱液接触池、碱液栗、石墨加热器和引风槽等;CN201210075896酸性气体中少量硫化氢脱除装置及方法包括鼓泡吸收器、降膜吸收塔、第一离心栗、双氧水高位槽、过滤器、储罐、第二离心栗;CN201310140947— 种硫化氢循环再利用装置及方法包含30多个设备;CN201310402593脱除工业气体中硫化氢的装置及工艺包括旋转填料床、再生系统、贫液栗、贫液槽、富液槽、除雾器等; CN201510804233—种硫化氢净化装置包括吸收室、吸收液储槽、反应液储槽、洗涤室、排放室、水储槽、硫沫储槽等。但这些现有技术在装置组成、设备及流程上都存在较大差异,且存在设备大型,组成元件多,流程复杂,压降大、能耗高、操作成本高等问题。
[0007]因此,迫切需要开发一种能够降低成本,简化系统,同时提高效果的高效硫化氢气体吸收装置。发明内容
[0008]为了克服上述问题,本发明提供了一种硫化氢气体吸收装置。
[0009] 本发明的具体技术方案是:一种硫化氢气体吸收装置,内部是旋流喷射吸附器,该吸附器的结构包括:在该喷射吸附器的上部设有含硫气体入口、强碱性吸附液的入口;该喷射吸附器的底部与收集吸附液的循环液槽管路连接;该喷射吸附器的顶部设有净化后气体出口;以及与循环液槽管路连接用于脱附单质硫并回收的脱附、再生一体化装置。
[0010] 进一步的,所述含硫气体从吸附器顶部的入口是切向进入。
[0011] 进一步的,所述强碱性吸附液的入口是从吸附器侧壁小孔喷入。
[0012] 进一步的,所述旋流喷射吸附器底部接有单向阀;所述脱附、再生一体化装置设有空气入口、硫单质出口、吸附液出口、取样口;吸附液出口与循环液栗相连;所述循环液栗将吸附液输送至旋流喷射吸附器吸附液入口,管路连接检测仪表及单向阀。
[0013] 优选的,所述的旋流喷射吸附器可单级连接或多级串、并联。
[0014] 优选的,所述的旋流喷射吸附器具有内夹套、外夹套结构。
[0015] 优选的,所述的旋流喷射吸附器内、外夹套侧壁小孔直径为0.5〜5_。
[0016] 优选的,所述的旋流喷射吸附器采用不同直径,可处理不同风量的工业气体。
[0017] 优选的,所述的脱附一再生一体化装置具有加热吸附液、脱附出吸附液中单质硫、 再生催化剂的功能。
[0018] 优选的,所述的脱附一再生一体化装置中液体包含吸附碱液、金属离子催化剂、多酚物质。
[0019] 优选的,所述的脱附一再生一体化装置中部有加热盘管,可加热装置中液体。
[0020] 优选的,所述的脱附一再生一体化装置底部设有过滤层,将硫单质与吸附液分离。
[0021] 本发明装置的特点如下:(1)采用旋流喷射吸附器多级串联和并联,有效提高去除硫化氢效果,增加硫化氢气体处理量。[〇〇22] (2)旋流吸附器具有内外夹套结构,增强气液传质能力,提高去除硫化氢效果。[〇〇23] (3)金属离子催化剂脱硫效率高,再生完全,可长期循环使用。
[0024] (4)金属离子催化剂中含有离子型表面活性物质,可以降低溶液的表面张力,使单质硫易富集,易析出。[〇〇25] (5 )单级旋流喷射吸附器的脱硫吸附效率在99%以上。
[0026] (6)该装置易集成,旋流喷射吸附器、脱附一再生一体化装置体积小,减少装置的总占地面积和总投资。附图说明[〇〇27]图1是高效硫化氢气体吸收装置图。
[0028] 图2是本发明的单夹套旋流喷射吸附器装置图。
[0029] 图3是本发明的双夹套旋流喷射吸附器装置图。
[0030] 符号说明:1过滤层;2阀门;3循环栗;4加热盘管;5脱附一再生一体化装置;6采样口; 7单向阀;8旋流喷射吸附器;9液体流量计;10液体压力计;11单夹套旋流喷射吸附器;12双夹套旋流喷射吸附器。具体实施方式[〇〇31]本发明的技术构思如下:如图1、2和3所示,炼化工厂排放的含硫化氢混合气体进入单夹套旋流喷射吸附器11和双夹套旋流喷射吸附器12中,同时将脱附一再生一体化装置5中盘管加热后的强碱性吸附液由循环栗3输送至单夹套旋流喷射吸附器11和双夹套旋流喷射吸附器12中,吸附液与混合气体在单夹套旋流喷射吸附器11和双夹套旋流喷射吸附器12中进行吸附反应;反应后净化气体由旋流喷射吸附器8顶部出口流出;单夹套旋流喷射吸附器11和双夹套旋流喷射吸附器12中含硫化物吸附液由底部出口流出,流入脱附一再生一体化装置5中,在催化剂作用下进行脱附一再生反应;脱附一再生一体化装置5产生的硫磺单质经过滤聚集后输送至后续设备进行回收处理;脱附一再生一体化装置5中多酚物质与空气中氧生成醌,醌将脱附一再生一体化装置5中被还原的金属离子催化剂氧化复活,使其恢复氧化脱硫能力,完成吸附一脱硫一再生的循环。
[0032]本发明提供了一种高效硫化氢气体吸收装置,该装置包括:单级或多级旋流喷射吸附器,用于高效吸附硫化氢;与旋流喷射吸附器连接的脱附一再生一体化装置,脱附单质硫并回收、金属离子催化剂再生;脱附一再生一体化装置中有加热盘管,用于加热装置中的液体;脱附一再生一体化装置中有过滤层,用于分离硫单质与液体;在本发明中,单级旋流喷射吸附器的脱硫吸附效率在99%以上。[〇〇33]本发明工艺和装置的优点在于:采用旋流喷射吸附器多级串联和并联,有效提高去除硫化氢效果,增加硫化氢气体处理量;旋流吸附器具有内外夹套结构,增强气液传质能力,提高去除硫化氢效果;金属离子催化剂脱硫效率高,再生完全,可长期循环使用;金属离子催化剂中含有离子型表面活性物质,可以降低溶液的表面张力,使单质硫易富集,易析出;单级旋流喷射吸附器的脱硫吸附效率在99%以上;该装置易集成,旋流喷射吸附器、脱附一再生一体化装置体积小,减少装置的总占地面积和总投资。
[0034] 以上所述内容仅为本发明构思下的基本说明,而依据本发明的技术方案所作的任何等效变换,均应属于本发明的保护范围。下面结合实施例对本发明进一步说明,实施例并不限制本发明的范围。实施例1:对工业中煤气的硫化氢进行脱除:工艺待处理煤气气量为15000m3/h,硫化氢含量为 1600mg/m3,配制脱硫吸附液140 m3。
[0035] 开启该装置,待装置稳定后(约5分钟),开启循环栗,调节液量至100m3/h,待液相运转平稳后,开启气相,通过调节阀逐步达到15000m3/h。气液在该装置中高湍动、强混合、界面极速更新的情况下进行吸收,待整个系统稳定后,即可对气体进出口进行硫化氢含量的检测。
[0036]技术效果:由于采用旋流喷射吸附器回收硫化氢,每级效率在99%以上,总体效率在95%以上,大大提高了硫化氢去除效果与处理量。采用可再生循环的金属离子催化剂,使硫磺单质回收率极大提高。和其他工艺及装置相比,本发明的工艺及装置简化了系统,节省了成本,能产生极大的经济效益。[〇〇37] 实施例2:对天然气中的硫化氢进行脱除,天然气气量为15000m3/h,硫化氢浓度为2400mg/m3。 [〇〇38]技术效果:操作流程如实施例1,待体系稳定后,硫化氢脱除率可达97%以上,硫化氢的出口浓度低于50mg/m3,本工艺与传统湿法相比,设备体积不及塔设备的1/10,液体循环量降低60%, 实施例3:对工业合成气中酸性体系中的硫化氢进行选择性吸收(C〇2体积含量占96.6%,硫化氢体积含量占0.78%,浓度为10.68/1113),工艺待处理气量为280001113/11,硫化氢含量为 10200mg/m3。首先配制脱硫吸附液,液量为300 m3/h。根据旋流吸附器停留时间短的特点, 脱硫吸附液对硫化氢的吸收在瞬间完成,从而提高了吸收的选择性,减少了副反应,降低了碱耗;待体系稳定后,硫化氢脱除率可达94 %以上,C02浓度进出口变化不足0.3 %以上实施例的说明只是用于帮助理解本发明的方法及其核心思想。应当指出,对于本技术领域的普通技术人员来说,在不脱离本发明原理的前提下,还可以对本发明进行若干改进和修饰,这些改进和修饰也落入本发明权利要求的保护范围内。对所公开的实施例的上述说明,使本领域专业技术人员能够实现或使用本发明。对这些实施例的多种修改对本领域的专业技术人员来说将是显而易见的,本文中所定义的一般原理可以在不脱离本发明的精神或范围的情况下,在其它实施例中实现。因此,本发明将不会被限制于本文所示的这些实施例,而是要符合与本文所公开的原理和新颖特点相一致的最宽的范围。

Claims (10)

1.一种硫化氢气体吸收装置,其特征在于,内部是旋流喷射吸附器,该吸附器的结构包 括:在该喷射吸附器的上部设有含硫气体入口、强碱性吸附液的入口;该喷射吸附器的底部 与收集吸附液的循环液槽管路连接;该喷射吸附器的顶部设有净化后气体出口;以及与循环液槽管路连接用于脱附单质硫并回收的脱附、再生一体化装置。
2.根据权利要求1所述的一种硫化氢气体吸收装置,其特征在于,所述含硫气体从吸附 器顶部的入口是切向进入。
3.根据权利要求1所述的一种硫化氢气体吸收装置,其特征在于,所述强碱性吸附液的 入口是从吸附器侧壁小孔喷入。
4.根据权利要求1所述的一种硫化氢气体吸收装置,其特征在于,所述旋流喷射吸附器 底部接有单向阀;所述脱附、再生一体化装置设有空气入口、硫单质出口、吸附液出口、取样 口;吸附液出口与循环液栗相连;所述循环液栗将吸附液输送至旋流喷射吸附器吸附液入 口,管路连接检测仪表及单向阀。
5.根据权利要求1所述的一种硫化氢气体吸收装置,其特征在于,所述的旋流喷射吸附 器是单级连接或多级串、并联。
6.根据权利要求1所述的一种硫化氢气体吸收装置,其特征在于,所述的旋流喷射吸附器具有内夹套、外夹套结构。
7.根据权利要求6所述的一种硫化氢气体吸收装置,其特征在于,所述的旋流喷射吸附 器内、外夹套侧壁小孔直径为0.5〜5mm。
8.根据权利要求1所述的一种硫化氢气体吸收装置,其特征在于,所述的脱附一再生一 体化装置中液体包含吸附碱液、金属离子催化剂、多酚物质。
9.根据权利要求1所述的一种硫化氢气体吸收装置,其特征在于,述的脱附一再生一体 化装置中部有加热盘管,可加热装置中液体。
10.根据权利要求1所述的一种硫化氢气体吸收装置,其特征在于,所述的脱附一再生 一体化装置底部设有过滤层,将硫单质与吸附液分离。
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