CN105921672B - A kind of method of the isothermal forging of straight bevel gear - Google Patents

A kind of method of the isothermal forging of straight bevel gear Download PDF

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Publication number
CN105921672B
CN105921672B CN201610327787.1A CN201610327787A CN105921672B CN 105921672 B CN105921672 B CN 105921672B CN 201610327787 A CN201610327787 A CN 201610327787A CN 105921672 B CN105921672 B CN 105921672B
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China
Prior art keywords
blank
mould
bevel gear
forging
temperature
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Expired - Fee Related
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CN201610327787.1A
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Chinese (zh)
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CN105921672A (en
Inventor
赵新海
刘丹丹
吴向红
刘广荣
徐洪强
王新云
宋立彬
郑超
栾贻国
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Huazhong University of Science and Technology
Shandong University
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Huazhong University of Science and Technology
Shandong University
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Priority to CN201610327787.1A priority Critical patent/CN105921672B/en
Publication of CN105921672A publication Critical patent/CN105921672A/en
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Classifications

    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B21MECHANICAL METAL-WORKING WITHOUT ESSENTIALLY REMOVING MATERIAL; PUNCHING METAL
    • B21KMAKING FORGED OR PRESSED METAL PRODUCTS, e.g. HORSE-SHOES, RIVETS, BOLTS OR WHEELS
    • B21K1/00Making machine elements
    • B21K1/28Making machine elements wheels; discs
    • B21K1/30Making machine elements wheels; discs with gear-teeth
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B21MECHANICAL METAL-WORKING WITHOUT ESSENTIALLY REMOVING MATERIAL; PUNCHING METAL
    • B21JFORGING; HAMMERING; PRESSING METAL; RIVETING; FORGE FURNACES
    • B21J1/00Preparing metal stock or similar ancillary operations prior, during or post forging, e.g. heating or cooling
    • B21J1/06Heating or cooling methods or arrangements specially adapted for performing forging or pressing operations
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B21MECHANICAL METAL-WORKING WITHOUT ESSENTIALLY REMOVING MATERIAL; PUNCHING METAL
    • B21JFORGING; HAMMERING; PRESSING METAL; RIVETING; FORGE FURNACES
    • B21J5/00Methods for forging, hammering, or pressing; Special equipment or accessories therefor
    • B21J5/02Die forging; Trimming by making use of special dies ; Punching during forging
    • B21J5/025Closed die forging

Abstract

The invention discloses a kind of method of the isothermal forging of straight bevel gear, it is unanimous on the whole that blank and mould are heated to temperature respectively, blank is put into mould again, blank excellent suitability for press forming in a mold is then obtained by straight bevel gear by post processing with less deformation velocity;Wherein, the less deformation velocity is less than 0.1mm/s, and the mould uses closed die forging structure.The temperature of blank and mould is heated to equal or of substantially equal by the present invention first, avoids mold temperature less than chilling action caused by the temperature of blank, improves the Plastic Flow of blank;Secondly, mould uses closed die forging structure, and blank bears three-dimensional compressive stress in forging process, is advantageous to the shaping of blank;Again, the application uses the deformation velocity less than 0.1mm/s to make the deflection of blank unit interval small, and deformation is abundant, is more beneficial for blank shaping.

Description

A kind of method of the isothermal forging of straight bevel gear
Technical field
The invention belongs to metal forming field, and in particular to a kind of method of the isothermal forging of straight bevel gear.
Background technology
Bevel gear is the abbreviation of conical gear, and it is used for realizing the transmission between two concurrent aceses, and two crossed axis angle S are referred to as axle Angle, its value can according to transmission it needs to be determined that, it is much more general to use 90 °.The gear teeth of bevel gear are arranged on truncated cone body, and the gear teeth are by tooth The big end of wheel gradually tapers up to small end to diminish.Due to this feature, corresponding to each relevant " cylinder " in roller gear in cone tooth Reformed into wheel " cylinder ", such as pitch cone, pitch cone, base cone, addendum cone.The gear teeth of bevel gear have straight-tooth, helical teeth and curve The forms such as tooth.
The traditional processing method of straight bevel gear is machining, mainly has gear-shaping (to be adapted to small lot, multi items straight-tooth cone The processing of gear and conversion product is easy) and mill teeth (efficiency is higher but adjustment lathe is difficult), but these traditional processing sides The shortcomings that many be present in method:The mechanical properties such as the bending strength of gear, contact fatigue strength reduce;The utilization rate of material is relatively It is low;The efficiency of gear batch production is low etc..
With the development of plastic forming technology, traditional gear forming method is little by little by essences such as cold forging, warm forging, hot forgings Close forming technology is replaced.Although gear precision forging technology still had tooth by the development comparative maturity of more than 60 years The problems such as shape filling is not full, the accuracy of gear is low, plastic force is high.
The content of the invention
The defects of to overcome prior art, can be real the invention provides a kind of method of the isothermal forging of straight bevel gear The existing flank of tooth is without secondary operation, and element precision is high, shaping load is small.
To achieve the above object, the technical scheme is that:
A kind of method of the isothermal forging of straight bevel gear, it is unanimous on the whole that blank and mould are heated to temperature respectively, then Blank is put into mould, then obtained blank excellent suitability for press forming in a mold directly by post processing with less deformation velocity Bevel gear;Wherein, the less deformation velocity is less than 0.1mm/s, and the mould uses closed die forging structure.
The temperature of blank and mould is heated to equal or of substantially equal by the present invention first, avoids mould and blank is swashed Cold-working is used, and improves the Plastic Flow of blank;Secondly, mould uses closed die forging structure, and blank bears three in forging process To compression, be advantageous to the shaping of blank;Again, the application uses the deformation velocity less than 0.1mm/s to make the blank unit interval Deflection it is small, deformation is abundant, is more beneficial for blank shaping.
Preferably, its step is:
(1) preparation of blank and mould:Bar steel are carried out with blanking and carries out preliminary treatment obtaining blank, then distinguished It is unanimous on the whole that blank and mould are heated to temperature, then blank is put into even heat adjustment mould temperature in mould;
(2) isothermal forging:It is about to blank jumping-up under tooth die, after back cone mould and tooth die closing, by upper punch with Mold cavity is filled up while formed by drift opposing compression blank has certain thickness punching recess, and shaping terminates, after the demoulding Produce forging.
(3) forging is post-processed to obtain straight bevel gear.
It is further preferred that the heating process of blank is that blank is preheating into 80-120 DEG C first in the step (1), Commercial colloidal graphite mixed with water is sprayed, then proceedes to be heated to forging temperature.Preheating is in order to avoid blank directly heated Crack during high-temperature, while contribute to after being preheating to certain temperature by lubricant even application in blank outer surface.
It is further preferred that the post processing of the step (3) includes punching, for by the forging of acquisition the step of the punching It is put into perforating die, blind hole is gone out with tooth shape locating using residual temperature, is then air-cooled to room temperature., should compared with the hot piercing of routine Step is punched out using the residual temperature of isothermal forging, reduces the heating before hot piercing;Compared with the cold punching hole of routine, the step Plastic force it is relatively low, punching difficulty is smaller.
It is further preferred that the post processing of the step (3) includes removing surface, the removing surface using ball blast or Sandblasting removes surface scale.In the case of working condition is preferable, not only can may be used also from bead with scale removal To eliminate the residual stress of part, part deformation after heat treatment is reduced, improves that piece surface is wear-resisting and compression capability.And at sandblasting Reason can be with manual operation, the simple and easy shot-blast apparatus that need not be automated, also can preferably scale removal.
It is further preferred that the post processing of the step (3) include machining, it is described machining include center hole machined with Back cone sphere is processed, and the flank of tooth is without secondary operation.The step reduces the processing to tooth surfaces of bevel gears compared with other techniques, Therefore the utilization rate of material and the production efficiency of part are improved.
It is further preferred that the post processing of the step (3) include heat treatment, it is described heat treatment include carburizing, quench and Tempering.Bevel gear can be made to reach hardness HRC59-63, carburizing and quenching depth 09 ± 0.1 after Overheating Treatment.
Still more preferably, the carburizing need to carry out heat stepwise, the kerosene and methanol of each heating period to stove Infusion volume it is all different;
The quenching mode uses 20-40 DEG C of oil quenching;
The tempering step is that furnace temperature is risen into 180 DEG C, after being incubated 2 hours, naturally cools to room temperature.Cone after heat treatment Gear has higher case hardness, impact flexibility and center portion intensity.
It is further preferred that the post processing of the step (3) includes punching, removing surface, machining and heat treatment successively. The better quality of the straight bevel gear forged using the post-processing step under the order.
Preferably, the heater of the mould is the hollow ceramic cylinder that resistance wire is wound with two walls, tooth die and the back of the body Prod cast is separately fixed in two hollow ceramic cylinders.
Preferably, attemperator uses aluminosilicate fiber cotton and asbestos board.
Preferably, the mold materials are N3 alloys.The alloy is that one kind uses solution strengthening, second-phase strength and carbonization Thing and M3B2The nickel-base cast superalloy of intercrystalline strengthening, there is good elevated temperature strength, anti-oxidant and thermal fatigue property, can Meet the requirement of 1100 isothermal forgings.
Preferably, the equipment used during the isothermal forging is isothermal die forging process hydraulic press.
Compared with prior art, the beneficial effects of the invention are as follows:
1st, the plasticity of material is substantially increased, can preferably fill the big end toothed section of die cavity, and obtained forging It is high without residual thermal stress, precision;
2nd, the closed die forging structure used is more beneficial for realizing the near-net-shape of straight bevel gear, improves material use Rate, reduce production cost;
3rd, compared with traditional machining, forging remains continuous fibr tissue, has higher bending strength, connects Touch the mechanical properties such as fatigue strength.
Brief description of the drawings
Fig. 1 is the flow chart of the method for the isothermal forging of straight bevel gear of the present invention;
Fig. 2 is isothermal forging closed die forging structural representation of the present invention;
Fig. 3 is the structural representation of heater;
Wherein, 1. tooth die, 2. back cone moulds, 3. upper punch, 4. blanks, 5. low punches, 6. resistance wires, 7. hollow ceramics Cylinder.
Embodiment
The invention will be further described below in conjunction with the accompanying drawings.
Embodiment 1
As shown in figure 1, the method for the isothermal forging of straight bevel gear of the present invention includes following steps:
The first step:The calculation material of blank and blanking.According to bevel gear forging drawing, with reference to constancy of volume theoretical calculation blank chi It is very little.Blanking is carried out to bar steel using cutter, then takes out billet surface oxide skin, turning outer surface, chamfering obtain institute The blank shape and size needed.
Second step:Mould heats and heating and the lubrication of blank.The heater of mould uses resistance wire ceramic heat Circle, as shown in figure 3, to be wound with the hollow ceramic cylinder 7 of resistance wire 6 in two walls.The heating means of blank select intermediate frequency furnace Carry out sensing heating.Blank is preheating to 80-120 DEG C first, sprays commercial colloidal graphite mixed with water, then proceedes to be heated to forge Make temperature.It is put into after blank heating in mold heat, soaking 5-15min adjustment mould temperature.
3rd step:Isothermal forging forming process.Mould uses closed die forging structure, as shown in Fig. 2 tooth die 1 with It is about to the jumping-up of blank 4 under 0.05mm/s speed, after back cone mould 2 and the closing of tooth die 1, by upper punch 3 and low punch 5 with phase Mold cavity is filled up while formed by same 0.05mm/s speed opposing compression blank has certain thickness punching recess, into After shape terminates, the demoulding.The speed that deformation velocity is the downstream rate of tooth die 1 and upper punch 3 and low punch 5 are extruded blank Degree.
4th step:Punching.The bevel gear that a upper process obtains is put into perforating die, using the residual temperature of a upper process with tooth Blind hole is gone out in shape positioning, is then air-cooled to room temperature.
5th step:Removing surface.Surface scale is removed using secondary shot-peening or sandblasting.
6th step:Machining.Processed including center hole machined and back cone sphere, the flank of tooth is without secondary operation.During machining With tooth shape locating, be held in position mode it is consistent in case occur positioning datum it is different and caused by deviation accumulation it is excessive.
7th step:Heat treatment.The stage includes carburizing, quenching and tempering.Carbon impregnation stage need to carry out heat stepwise to stove, The kerosene of each heating period and the infusion volume of methanol are different;Quenching mode uses 20-40 DEG C of oil quenching;Tempering stage Furnace temperature is risen to 180 DEG C, after being incubated 2 hours, naturally cools to room temperature.
The infusion volume of carbon impregnation stage described in 7th step, specific bringing-up section and raw material is:1) workpiece continues after entering stove When heating makes furnace temperature to 850 DEG C, kerosene, about 50 drops/per minute are instilled, and light discharged waste gas;2) heat temperature raising is continued To 930 DEG C, ensureing kerosene infusion volume 100-110 drops/per minute, methanol infusion volume 30 drips/and it is per minute;3) furnace temperature reaches 930 DEG C Afterwards, 8 hours are incubated, often check the instillation dosage of kerosene and methanol, and observe inlet hole and whether steam vent is clear and coherent.This implementation Equipment needed for example is isothermal die forging process hydraulic press, and required mold materials are N3 nickel-base cast superalloy.
Embodiment 2
The present embodiment is same as Example 1, and difference is, in the isothermal forging forming process of the 3rd step, tooth die 1 To be about to the jumping-up of blank 4 under 0.08mm/s speed, after back cone mould 2 and tooth die 1 are closed, by upper punch 3 and low punch 5 with Mold cavity is filled up while formed by identical 0.08mm/s speed opposing compression blank has certain thickness punching recess, Shaping terminates, the demoulding.
Embodiment 3
The present embodiment is same as Example 1, and difference is, in the isothermal forging forming process of the 3rd step, tooth die 1 To be about to the jumping-up of blank 4 under 0.03mm/s speed, after back cone mould 2 and tooth die 1 are closed, by upper punch 3 and low punch 5 with Mold cavity is filled up while formed by identical 0.03mm/s speed opposing compression blank has certain thickness punching recess, Shaping terminates, the demoulding.
Embodiment 4
The present embodiment is same as Example 1, and difference is, in the isothermal forging forming process of the 3rd step, tooth die 1 To be about to the jumping-up of blank 4 under 0.01mm/s speed, after back cone mould 2 and tooth die 1 are closed, by upper punch 3 and low punch 5 with Mold cavity is filled up while formed by identical 0.01mm/s speed opposing compression blank has certain thickness punching recess, Shaping terminates, the demoulding.
Above-mentioned although the embodiment of the present invention is described with reference to accompanying drawing, not to invention protection domain Limitation, one of ordinary skill in the art should be understood that on the basis of technical scheme those skilled in the art are not required to Pay various modifications that creative work can make or deformation is still within the scope of the present invention.

Claims (9)

1. a kind of method of the isothermal forging of straight bevel gear, it is characterized in that, blank and mould are heated to temperature substantially respectively Unanimously, then by blank it is put into mould, then with less deformation velocity by blank excellent suitability for press forming in a mold, by post processing Obtain straight bevel gear;Wherein, the less deformation velocity is less than 0.1mm/s, and the mould uses closed die forging structure;
Its step is:
(1) preparation of blank and mould:Bar steel are carried out with blanking and carries out preliminary treatment obtaining blank, then respectively by base It is unanimous on the whole that material and mould are heated to temperature, then blank is put into even heat adjustment mould temperature in mould;
(2) isothermal forging:It is about to blank jumping-up under tooth die, after back cone mould and tooth die closing, by upper punch and low punch Mold cavity is filled up while formed by opposing compression blank has certain thickness punching recess, and shaping terminates, produced after the demoulding Forging;
(3) forging is post-processed to obtain straight bevel gear.
2. a kind of method of the isothermal forging of straight bevel gear as claimed in claim 1, it is characterized in that, in the step (1) The heating process of blank is that blank is preheating into 80-120 DEG C first, sprays commercial colloidal graphite mixed with water, then proceedes to heat To forging temperature.
3. a kind of method of the isothermal forging of straight bevel gear as claimed in claim 1, it is characterized in that, the step (3) Post processing includes punching, for the forging of acquisition is put into perforating die the step of the punching, is rushed using residual temperature with tooth shape locating Go out blind hole, be then air-cooled to room temperature.
4. a kind of method of the isothermal forging of straight bevel gear as claimed in claim 1, it is characterized in that, the step (3) Post processing includes removing surface, and the removing surface removes surface scale using secondary shot-peening or sandblasting.
5. a kind of method of the isothermal forging of straight bevel gear as claimed in claim 1, it is characterized in that, the step (3) Post processing includes machining, and the machining includes center hole machined and the processing of back cone sphere, and the flank of tooth is without secondary operation.
6. a kind of method of the isothermal forging of straight bevel gear as claimed in claim 1, it is characterized in that, the step (3) Post processing includes heat treatment, and the heat treatment includes carburizing, quenching and tempering.
7. a kind of method of the isothermal forging of straight bevel gear as claimed in claim 6, it is characterized in that, the carburizing need to be to stove Son carries out heat stepwise, and the kerosene of each heating period and the infusion volume of methanol are different;
The quenching mode uses 20-40 DEG C of oil quenching;
The tempering step is that furnace temperature is risen into 180 DEG C, after being incubated 2 hours, naturally cools to room temperature.
8. a kind of method of the isothermal forging of straight bevel gear as claimed in claim 1, it is characterized in that, the step (3) Post processing includes punching, removing surface, machining and heat treatment successively.
9. a kind of method of the isothermal forging of straight bevel gear as claimed in claim 1, it is characterized in that, the heating of the mould Device is the hollow ceramic cylinder that resistance wire is wound with two walls, and tooth die and back cone mould are separately fixed at two hollow ceramic cylinders It is interior.
CN201610327787.1A 2016-05-17 2016-05-17 A kind of method of the isothermal forging of straight bevel gear Expired - Fee Related CN105921672B (en)

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CN106391983B (en) * 2016-11-02 2018-12-11 贵州航飞精密制造有限公司 It is a kind of precisely to fast implement the molding processing method of tooth and mold
CN106825345B (en) * 2017-02-16 2019-06-28 上海汽车变速器有限公司 The implementation method of monoblock type combination gear based on enclosed warm forging
CN110238342A (en) * 2019-07-17 2019-09-17 重庆市忠德锻压有限公司 The forging and manufacturing process of gear
CN111036820A (en) * 2019-12-25 2020-04-21 江西景航航空锻铸有限公司 Press-in type free forging forming method
CN113084468A (en) * 2021-04-08 2021-07-09 玉环森淼机械有限公司 Forging forming method of triple gear

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CN2871060Y (en) * 2005-10-31 2007-02-21 华中科技大学 Closed geared cold precisive forging mould of straight-toothed shaped cone
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Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
JPS58122144A (en) * 1982-01-14 1983-07-20 Honda Motor Co Ltd Manufacture of gear blank material having dog hole, and its device
CN2871060Y (en) * 2005-10-31 2007-02-21 华中科技大学 Closed geared cold precisive forging mould of straight-toothed shaped cone
CN101480691A (en) * 2009-01-08 2009-07-15 上海交通大学 Hot forging method of magnesium alloy straight bevel gear
KR20110095431A (en) * 2010-02-19 2011-08-25 삼웅단조 (주) Forging apparatus for undercut bevel gear

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