CN105891025B - For studying Explosive stress wave and the experiment loading system and method for moving crack interaction - Google Patents

For studying Explosive stress wave and the experiment loading system and method for moving crack interaction Download PDF

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CN105891025B
CN105891025B CN201610214531.XA CN201610214531A CN105891025B CN 105891025 B CN105891025 B CN 105891025B CN 201610214531 A CN201610214531 A CN 201610214531A CN 105891025 B CN105891025 B CN 105891025B
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explosive
test specimen
synchronous machine
impact head
pack
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CN105891025A (en
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岳中文
王煦
陈程
宋耀
邱鹏
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China University of Mining and Technology Beijing CUMTB
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China University of Mining and Technology Beijing CUMTB
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    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01NINVESTIGATING OR ANALYSING MATERIALS BY DETERMINING THEIR CHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
    • G01N3/00Investigating strength properties of solid materials by application of mechanical stress
    • G01N3/30Investigating strength properties of solid materials by application of mechanical stress by applying a single impulsive force, e.g. by falling weight
    • G01N3/313Investigating strength properties of solid materials by application of mechanical stress by applying a single impulsive force, e.g. by falling weight generated by explosives
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01NINVESTIGATING OR ANALYSING MATERIALS BY DETERMINING THEIR CHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
    • G01N3/00Investigating strength properties of solid materials by application of mechanical stress
    • G01N3/30Investigating strength properties of solid materials by application of mechanical stress by applying a single impulsive force, e.g. by falling weight
    • G01N3/303Investigating strength properties of solid materials by application of mechanical stress by applying a single impulsive force, e.g. by falling weight generated only by free-falling weight

Abstract

It is used to study Explosive stress wave and the experiment loading system and method for moving crack interaction the invention discloses a kind of, impact head is hit by free-falling of dropping hammer, impact head applies impact load to test specimen, test specimen crack initiation is produced moving crack;In the moment that is contacted with impact head of dropping hammer, an electric signal is produced, electric signal is delivered to automatic tracking type synchronous machine by signal wire, and automatic tracking type synchronous machine sends trigger signal at most channel pulse igniter;Automatic tracking type synchronous machine, which receives electric signal, can pre-set to the interval time for sending trigger signal;Multichannel pulse igniter discharges immediately after being connected to trigger signal, and the explosive in the detonation probe tip electric discharge of detonating cord connection, primer, produces Explosive stress wave;The experiment loading system ignites one or more packs in the different times that moving crack extends, and the interval time of multiple pack explosions also can manually be set, and meet different requirement of experiment.

Description

For study the interaction of Explosive stress wave and moving crack experiment loading system and Method
Technical field
The present invention relates to the explosion testing experimental system of fracture mechanics research field, more particularly to a kind of research detonation stresses The experiment loading system and method for ripple and moving crack interaction mechanism.
Background technology
Drill eye blasting technology has in opencut and Deep Mine, road construction, tunnel and vertical excavate widely should With.Blast action is high temperature, high pressure and the high speed processes completed a moment.The overwhelming majority is by quick-fried medium --- and rock material is What 1 years natural sediments were formed, there are the hole and crackle of different order random distributions;Macroscopically, natural rock mass is non-equal Matter, non-resilient, anisotropic material.Due to the effect of tectonic movement and other stress, natural rock mass is by various geology Structural plane-joint, crack, tomography are cut.Due in rock mass there are substantial amounts of Geological Defects, as crackle, the plane of disruption, joint, Tomography, hole etc., rock shows the physical mechanics process of complexity under Blast Loads, so that the research of this problem Become complex and difficulty.
In recent years, with the continuous progress of science and technology, researcher is by advanced experimental facilities as taken the photograph at a high speed Shadow instrument etc. such as strains various phenomenons caused by explosion moment rock mass, stress, the observation of rupture, explosion to rock destroys The research of mechanism achieves certain achievement, has certain guidance meaning and practical value to practical engineering application.But rock mass Middle preservation a large amount of cracks and plane of weakness, thus is often related to the effect of Explosive stress wave and these discontinuity surfaces in engineering explosion.By In the precision and delayed ignition technology of priming system, part blasthole is necessarily caused first to detonate, detonate after the blasthole of part, it is thus inevitable The interaction of the stress wave produced in the presence of the crackle that first quick-fried blasthole produces with rear quick-fried blasthole and quick-fried raw lead crack are mutually communicated The problems such as.It is but relatively fewer on Explosive stress wave and experiment and research that moving crack interacts at present.Therefore, having must The influence of the process and mechanism, stress wave to interact to Explosive stress wave and moving crack to moving crack propagation law etc. Problem is studied.This all has for Blasting Parameters Optimization, the development for improving blasting technology and theory of dynamic fracture mechanics etc. Important theoretical and practical significance.
The content of the invention
Interact regarding the issue above, the present invention provides one kind can study Explosive stress wave with moving crack Explosively loading experimental system.The system can apply explosive load during experiment specimen crack extension to test specimen, make quick-fried Fried stress wave activity in moving crack, while can utilize delayed ignition technical controlling Explosive stress wave act on crackle when Between, and can be by varying explosive drug package dose, pack position, pack quantity, different pack burst times etc. because usually Change the experiment conditions such as stress intensity of wave, stress wave incidence angle, stress wave superimposition effect, should so as to study explosion under different condition Reeb and the mechanism of action of moving crack.
The purpose of the present invention is what is be achieved through the following technical solutions:
For studying Explosive stress wave and the experiment loading system of moving crack interaction, by dropping hammer, free-falling is hit Middle impact head, impact head apply impact load to test specimen, test specimen crack initiation is produced moving crack;Dropping hammer what is contacted with impact head Moment, an electric signal is produced, electric signal is delivered to automatic tracking type synchronous machine, automatic tracking type synchronous machine hair by signal wire Go out trigger signal at most channel pulse igniter;When automatic tracking type synchronous machine receives electric signal to the interval for sending trigger signal Between can pre-set;Multichannel pulse igniter discharges immediately after being connected to trigger signal, in the detonation probe of detonating cord connection Point discharge, the explosive in primer, produces Explosive stress wave;The difference that the experiment loading system is extended in moving crack Period ignites one or more packs, and the interval time of multiple pack explosions also can manually be set, and meet different requirement of experiment.
The experiment loading system, the experiment loading system include stent (14), impact head (1), drop hammer (2), press from both sides Have (12), test specimen (13), explosive pack (16), crossbeam is set on stent (14), impact head (1) one end carries sharp portion, impact Head (1) is contacted through the through hole on the crossbeam, the sharp portion with test specimen (13);Stent is additionally provided with vertical rail on (14), Drop hammer (2) and vertical rail coordinates, can be moved downward along vertical rail and impact head (1) is impacted, manufactured on sample Moving crack;Test specimen is arranged as required to one or more blastholes on (13);The fixed end (11) of fixture (12) is clipped in test specimen (13) explosive pack (16) both sides in, are adjusted to suitable position by test specimen (13) and are fixed, and ensure test specimen (13) The leakproofness of stability and explosive pack (16);The tip insertion explosive pack (16) of detonation probe (10), then by explosive medicine In the blasthole for wrapping (16) insertion test specimen (13);Impact head (1), drop hammer (2) automatic tracking type is connected to by conducting wire and signal wire The triggering target port of synchronous machine, before impact head is hit in whereabouts of dropping hammer, signal wire keeps off state;Drop hammer and hit impact head When, signal wire is with dropping hammer, impact head forms a close access, and automatic tracking type synchronous machine receives trigger signal at this time;Automatically After tracking mode synchronous machine is connected to trigger signal, sent out again to multichannel pulse igniter after one section of delay time set in advance Go out pulse signal, multichannel pulse igniter electric discharge ignition charge pack (16).
The experiment loading system, in order to increase the impact force to drop hammer, one or more weights of (2) top fixed placement of dropping hammer Code (3).
The experiment loading system, described dropping hammer are made with impact head of metal, in the moment meeting that both contact Circuit pathways are formed, electric signal is produced and passes to automatic tracking type synchronous machine.
The experiment loading system, explosive pack (16) is highly identical with test specimen (13) thickness, and explosive pack (16) is outside Footpath is identical with the blasthole diameter of test specimen (13).
The experiment loading system, if having multiple blastholes in test specimen, it is necessary to set fixture and the fixation of respective numbers Pack is fixed in termination, and the size of fixture can be according to the location determination of pack.
The experiment loading system, automatic tracking type synchronous machine have multiple signal output ports, once can freely set Multiple delay times are put, with s grades of precision controlling delay times of μ.
The method to be interacted according to any experiment loading system research Explosive stress wave and moving crack, including Following steps:
First, automatic tracking type synchronous machine and multichannel pulse igniter are connected with signal wire, and in multichannel pulse point The corresponding discharge channel of firearm connects signal wire;
Then, needed to load a certain amount of explosive in explosive pack according to experiment, and detonation probe made with enameled wire, Probe tip is inserted into explosive, explosive pack is fitted into test specimen blasthole;
Afterwards, the voltage output amplitude of automatic tracking type synchronous machine and the time of each control passage delay are set, examination Part is fixed on fixture;
Finally, the signal wire of multichannel pulse igniter discharge channel is connected with detonation probe end, by a signal One end of line is connected with the triggering target port of automatic tracking type synchronous machine, and other end connection at the same time is dropped hammer and impact head, opens certainly Motion tracking formula synchronous machine and multichannel pulse igniter, make free-falling of dropping hammer.
The experiment loading system for being used to study Explosive stress wave and the moving crack mechanism of action of the present invention, can study not The influence of same intensity, different incidence angles, the Explosive stress wave of different superposition situations to moving crack propagation law, Explosive stress wave In the diffraction at moving crack tip, reflection, scattering situation, the different phase Explosive stress wave in crack propagation process is to movement The influence of crackle, and strain of the moving crack tip under the influence of Explosive stress wave, change of stress field situation, and it is basic herein On it is theoretical to blasting rock-broken carry out deeper into research.
System triggers automatic tracking type synchronous machine using dropping hammer to be in contact with impact head made of metal, operation letter Just, reliability is high.By the triggering target port of signal wire one end connection automatic tracking type synchronous machine, the other end draws two conducting wires point It Lian Jie not drop hammer and impact head, before impact head is hit in whereabouts of dropping hammer, signal wire keeps off state.Drop hammer and hit impact head When, signal wire is with dropping hammer, impact head forms a close access, and automatic tracking type synchronous machine receives trigger signal at this time.Movement The expansion rate of crackle is generally 300m/s or so, drops hammer and hits impact head and make test specimen is by the impact load to be applied to test specimen crack initiation It is also required to the tens of microseconds time.And the speed of Explosive stress wave is generally 2000m/s or so, being far longer than crack propagation velocity is Guarantee Explosive stress wave can interact with moving crack, it is necessary to which stringent control test specimen is by the impact load and explosive Explosion produces the interval time between Explosive stress wave.Therefore system is set using automatic tracking type synchronous machine as delays time to control It is standby, after it is connected to trigger signal, arteries and veins is sent to multichannel pulse igniter again after one section of delay time set in advance Rush signal.Automatic tracking type synchronous machine has multiple signal output ports, once can freely set multiple delay times, with s grades of μ Precision controlling delay time, fully meet the required precision of blasting experiment, and strong antijamming capability, it is easy to operate, can The reliability of guarantee system and the success rate of experiment.System, can be one using multichannel pulse igniter electric discharge primer One or more packs are ignited in secondary experiment, there is very big flexibility, disclosure satisfy that different experiments requirement.
Brief description of the drawings
Fig. 1 is the structure principle chart of the embodiment of the present invention;
The test specimen that Fig. 2 is the present invention fixes schematic diagram;
Fig. 3 is the charging means schematic diagram of the present invention;
In figure:1 impact head, 2 drop hammer, 3 counterweights, 4 conducting wires, 5 signal wire a, 6 automatic tracking type synchronous machines, 7 signal wire b, 8 Multichannel pulse igniter, 9 signal wire c, 10 detonation probes, 11 fixed ends, 12 fixtures, 13 test specimens, 14 stents, 15 bolts, 16 explosive packs.
Embodiment
Below in conjunction with specific embodiment, the present invention is described in detail.
With reference to figure 1-3, research Explosive stress wave and the experiment loading system of moving crack interaction mechanism include stent 14th, impact head 1, drop hammer 2, crossbeam is set on stent 14, and 1 one end of impact head carries sharp portion, and impact head 1 is through on the crossbeam Through hole, the sharp portion are contacted with test specimen 13;Vertical rail is additionally provided with stent 14, drop hammer 2 coordinates with vertical rail, can be with Moved downward along vertical rail and impact head 1 is impacted, moving crack is manufactured on sample, in order to increase the impact dropped hammer Power, dropping hammer 2 tops can be with one or more counterweight 3 of fixed placement;One or more blastholes, explosive medicine are arranged as required on test specimen 13 It is identical with 13 thickness of test specimen to wrap 16 height, 16 outside diameter of explosive pack is identical with the blasthole diameter of test specimen 13.
The tip insertion explosive pack 16 of detonation probe 10, the end for detonation probe 10 of being polished with sand paper.Then by explosive Pack 16 is inserted into the blasthole of test specimen 13.
16 both sides of the explosive pack fixed end 11 of fixture 12 being clipped in test specimen 13, are adjusted to suitable by test specimen 13 Position, turns bolt 15 and test specimen 13 is fixed, to ensure the leakproofness of the stability of test specimen 13 and explosive pack 16.
If having multiple blastholes in test specimen, it is necessary to set the fixture of respective numbers and fixed end to fix pack, fixture Size can be according to the location determination of pack.
Impact head 1, the 2 triggering target ports for being connected to automatic tracking type synchronous machine by conducting wire and signal wire of dropping hammer, are falling Before impact head is hit in hammer whereabouts, signal wire keeps off state.Drop hammer when hitting impact head, signal wire and drop hammer, impact head A close access is formed, automatic tracking type synchronous machine receives trigger signal at this time;Automatic tracking type synchronous machine is connected to triggering letter After number, pulse signal, multichannel pulse are sent to multichannel pulse igniter again after one section of delay time set in advance Igniter electric discharge ignition charge pack 16.
Automatic tracking type synchronous machine has multiple signal output ports, multiple delay times once can be freely set, with μ s The precision controlling delay time of level, fully meets the required precision of blasting experiment, and strong antijamming capability, easy to operate, energy Enough ensure the reliability of system and the success rate of experiment.
The experiment loading system for being used to study Explosive stress wave and the moving crack mechanism of action of the present invention, its concrete operations Method is:
First, automatic tracking type synchronous machine and multichannel pulse igniter are connected with signal wire, and in multichannel pulse point The corresponding discharge channel of firearm connects signal wire;
Then, needed to load a certain amount of explosive in explosive pack according to experiment, and detonation probe made with enameled wire, Probe tip is inserted into explosive, explosive pack is fitted into test specimen blasthole, is needed to place counterweight on dropping hammer according to experiment;
Afterwards, the voltage output amplitude of automatic tracking type synchronous machine and the time of each control passage delay are set, examination Part is fixed on fixture.
Finally, the signal wire of multichannel pulse igniter discharge channel is connected with detonation probe end, by a signal One end of line is connected with the triggering target port of automatic tracking type synchronous machine, and other end connection at the same time is dropped hammer and impact head, opens certainly Motion tracking formula synchronous machine and multichannel pulse igniter, make free-falling of dropping hammer.
Described dropping hammer is made with impact head of metal, can be formed circuit pathways in the moment that both contact, be produced electricity Signal passes to automatic tracking type synchronous machine.
The automatic tracking type synchronous machine can reach the precision setting snooze interval of Microsecond grade, meet blasting experiment Required precision.
The multichannel pulse igniter can be with once blasting one or more pack.
Illustrated so that the 100 μ s that are delayed after crackle crack initiation ignite a pack as an example.
As shown in Figure 1, 2, 3, specific steps include:
Step 1: the powder charge in explosive pack 16.With reference to Fig. 2-Fig. 3, blasting parameter as needed, as charging quality, Degree of packing etc., weigh with scale suitable explosive, loads cylindrical explosive pack 16.16 height of explosive pack is thick with test specimen 13 Spend identical, 16 outside diameter of explosive pack is identical with the blasthole diameter of test specimen 13.Explosive pack 16 is inserted at the tip for the probe 10 that detonates, With the end of sand paper polishing detonation probe 10.Then explosive pack 16 is inserted into the blasthole of test specimen 13.
Step 2: fixed test specimen 13.With reference to Fig. 2-Fig. 3, the explosive fixed end 11 of fixture 12 being clipped in test specimen 13 16 both sides of pack, suitable position is adjusted to by test specimen 13, turns bolt 15 and test specimen 13 is fixed, to ensure test specimen 13 The leakproofness of stability and explosive pack 16.
Step 3: with reference to Fig. 1, according to experiment needs, in the counterweight 3 that appropriate weight is added on 2 of dropping hammer, then 2 are being dropped hammer With an each piece conducting wire 4 of connection on impact head 1, the other end of two conducting wires is all connected to the same end of signal wire 5, then by signal wire 5 other end is connected with the triggering target port of automatic synchronous tracing machine 6.
Step 4: by No. 1 signal output port of 7 one end of signal wire connection automatic tracking type synchronous machine 6, the other end connects No. 1 signal input port of multichannel pulse igniter 8.Connect in 8 corresponding No. 1 discharge channel ports of multichannel pulse igniter Upper signal wire 9.The end connection of detonation probe 10 on the other end and test specimen of signal wire 9.
Step 5: opening automatic tracking type synchronous machine 6, first press the Reset button and recover instrument initial setting up, then will be defeated Go out voltage amplitude and be adjusted to 5V, triggering mode is arranged to single target triggering, and No. 1 signal output port delay time is arranged to 100 μ s. Then multichannel pulse igniter is opened, then opens the switch of No. 1 discharge channel.
Step 6: making 2 free-fallings of dropping hammer, impact head 1 is hit, impact load is applied to test specimen 13, test specimen 13 is cracked. 2 are dropped hammer when hitting impact head 1, closed circuit is formed in signal wire 5, produces electric signal triggering automatic tracking type synchronous machine 6. After 100 μ s, automatic tracking type synchronous machine 6 transmits pulse signal triggering multichannel pulse igniter 8, makes multichannel pulse igniter 8 electric discharge ignition charge packs 16, Explosive stress wave is produced in test specimen 13.Then No. 1 discharge channel, multichannel arteries and veins are closed successively Rush igniter 8, the switch of automatic tracking type synchronous machine 6.Drop hammer 2 hit impact head 1 while, high-speed photography can be used Instrument, high-speed schlieren equipment, ultra dynamic strain test instrument, DIC systems, dynamic photo-elasticity light path system, digital dynamic caustic linear light The equipment such as road system such as strain various phenomenons caused by test specimen in moving crack expansion process, stress, rupture see Survey, record.The changing rule of study movement crack tip region stress intensity factor, stress, strain field accordingly, whole test specimen are complete The stress distribution of field, changing rule, the diffraction of crack tip stress wave, Scattering Rules, so as to further analyze Explosive stress wave With the interaction mechanism of moving crack.
It should be appreciated that for those of ordinary skills, can according to the above description be improved or converted, And all these modifications and variations should all belong to the protection domain of appended claims of the present invention.

Claims (7)

1. for studying Explosive stress wave and the experiment loading system of moving crack interaction, it is characterised in that by dropping hammer Impact head is hit in free-falling, and impact head applies impact load to test specimen, test specimen crack initiation is produced moving crack;Dropping hammer and rushing Tap the head moment of contact, produce an electric signal, electric signal is delivered to automatic tracking type synchronous machine by signal wire, from motion tracking Formula synchronous machine sends trigger signal at most channel pulse igniter;Automatic tracking type synchronous machine receives electric signal to be believed to triggering is sent Number interval time can pre-set;Multichannel pulse igniter discharges immediately after being connected to trigger signal, is connected in detonating cord The electric discharge of detonation probe tip, the explosive in primer, produces Explosive stress wave;The experiment loading system is in moving crack The different times of extension ignite one or more packs, and the interval time of multiple pack explosions also can manually be set, and meet different Requirement of experiment;It is described experiment loading system include stent (14), impact head (1), drop hammer (2), fixture (12), test specimen (13), Explosive pack (16), sets crossbeam on stent (14), and impact head (1) one end carries sharp portion, and impact head (1) is through on the crossbeam Through hole, the sharp portion contacts with test specimen (13);Stent is additionally provided with vertical rail on (14), and drop hammer (2) and vertical rail Coordinate, can be moved downward along vertical rail and impact head (1) is impacted, moving crack is manufactured on sample;Test specimen (13) On be arranged as required to one or more blastholes;The fixed end (11) of fixture (12) is clipped in the explosive pack (16) in test specimen (13) Both sides, are adjusted to suitable position by test specimen (13) and are fixed, and ensure the stability and explosive pack (16) of test specimen (13) Leakproofness;The tip insertion explosive pack (16) of detonation probe (10), then by explosive pack (16) insertion test specimen (13) In blasthole;Impact head (1), drop hammer (2) the triggering target port of automatic tracking type synchronous machine is connected to by conducting wire and signal wire, Drop hammer before whereabouts hits impact head, signal wire keeps off state;Drop hammer when hitting impact head, signal wire is with dropping hammer, impacting Capitiform receives trigger signal into a close access, at this time automatic tracking type synchronous machine;Automatic tracking type synchronous machine is connected to triggering After signal, pulse signal, multichannel arteries and veins are sent to multichannel pulse igniter again after one section of delay time set in advance Rush igniter electric discharge ignition charge pack (16).
2. experiment loading system according to claim 1, it is characterised in that in order to increase the impact force to drop hammer, drop hammer (2) One or more counterweights (3) of top fixed placement.
3. experiment loading system according to claim 1, it is characterised in that described dropping hammer uses made of metal with impact head Into can form circuit pathways in the moment that both contact, produce electric signal and pass to automatic tracking type synchronous machine.
4. experiment loading system according to claim 1, it is characterised in that explosive pack (16) is highly thick with test specimen (13) Spend identical, explosive pack (16) outside diameter is identical with the blasthole diameter of test specimen (13).
5. experiment loading system according to claim 1, it is characterised in that if having multiple blastholes in test specimen, it is necessary to set The fixture and fixed end for putting respective numbers fix pack, and the size of fixture can be according to the location determination of pack.
6. experiment loading system according to claim 1, it is characterised in that automatic tracking type synchronous machine has multiple signals defeated Exit port, once can freely set multiple delay times, with s grades of precision controlling delay times of μ.
7. interacted according to any experiment loading system research Explosive stress waves of claim 1-6 with moving crack Method, it is characterised in that comprise the following steps:
First, automatic tracking type synchronous machine and multichannel pulse igniter are connected with signal wire, and in multichannel pulse igniter Corresponding discharge channel connects signal wire;
Then, needed to load a certain amount of explosive in explosive pack according to experiment, and detonation probe is made with enameled wire, will visited In needle tip insertion explosive, explosive pack is fitted into test specimen blasthole;
Afterwards, the voltage output amplitude of automatic tracking type synchronous machine and the time of each control passage delay are set, test specimen is consolidated It is scheduled on fixture;
Finally, the signal wire of multichannel pulse igniter discharge channel is connected with detonation probe end, by signal wire One end is connected with the triggering target port of automatic tracking type synchronous machine, and the other end connects drop hammer and impact head at the same time, open automatically with Track formula synchronous machine and multichannel pulse igniter, make free-falling of dropping hammer.
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