CN105882741B - A kind of independent vehicular modular wheel set and rear-axle steering control method driven with turning to - Google Patents

A kind of independent vehicular modular wheel set and rear-axle steering control method driven with turning to Download PDF

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Publication number
CN105882741B
CN105882741B CN201610348141.1A CN201610348141A CN105882741B CN 105882741 B CN105882741 B CN 105882741B CN 201610348141 A CN201610348141 A CN 201610348141A CN 105882741 B CN105882741 B CN 105882741B
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China
Prior art keywords
wheel
steering
subframe
column
angle
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CN201610348141.1A
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Chinese (zh)
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CN105882741A (en
Inventor
李刚
聂亮
厉蒋
张兴旺
王月
李吉山
孙威
白鸿飞
严朝雷
雷永强
李高超
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Hangzhou Smooth Scientific And Technological Engineering Co Ltd Of Uncle
Liaoning University of Technology
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Hangzhou Smooth Scientific And Technological Engineering Co Ltd Of Uncle
Liaoning University of Technology
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Priority to CN201610348141.1A priority Critical patent/CN105882741B/en
Publication of CN105882741A publication Critical patent/CN105882741A/en
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Classifications

    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60KARRANGEMENT OR MOUNTING OF PROPULSION UNITS OR OF TRANSMISSIONS IN VEHICLES; ARRANGEMENT OR MOUNTING OF PLURAL DIVERSE PRIME-MOVERS IN VEHICLES; AUXILIARY DRIVES FOR VEHICLES; INSTRUMENTATION OR DASHBOARDS FOR VEHICLES; ARRANGEMENTS IN CONNECTION WITH COOLING, AIR INTAKE, GAS EXHAUST OR FUEL SUPPLY OF PROPULSION UNITS IN VEHICLES
    • B60K7/00Disposition of motor in, or adjacent to, traction wheel
    • B60K7/0007Disposition of motor in, or adjacent to, traction wheel the motor being electric
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B62LAND VEHICLES FOR TRAVELLING OTHERWISE THAN ON RAILS
    • B62DMOTOR VEHICLES; TRAILERS
    • B62D5/00Power-assisted or power-driven steering
    • B62D5/04Power-assisted or power-driven steering electrical, e.g. using an electric servo-motor connected to, or forming part of, the steering gear
    • B62D5/0418Electric motor acting on road wheel carriers
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60GVEHICLE SUSPENSION ARRANGEMENTS
    • B60G3/00Resilient suspensions for a single wheel
    • B60G3/18Resilient suspensions for a single wheel with two or more pivoted arms, e.g. parallelogram
    • B60G3/20Resilient suspensions for a single wheel with two or more pivoted arms, e.g. parallelogram all arms being rigid
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60GVEHICLE SUSPENSION ARRANGEMENTS
    • B60G7/00Pivoted suspension arms; Accessories thereof
    • B60G7/008Attaching arms to unsprung part of vehicle
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60KARRANGEMENT OR MOUNTING OF PROPULSION UNITS OR OF TRANSMISSIONS IN VEHICLES; ARRANGEMENT OR MOUNTING OF PLURAL DIVERSE PRIME-MOVERS IN VEHICLES; AUXILIARY DRIVES FOR VEHICLES; INSTRUMENTATION OR DASHBOARDS FOR VEHICLES; ARRANGEMENTS IN CONNECTION WITH COOLING, AIR INTAKE, GAS EXHAUST OR FUEL SUPPLY OF PROPULSION UNITS IN VEHICLES
    • B60K17/00Arrangement or mounting of transmissions in vehicles
    • B60K17/04Arrangement or mounting of transmissions in vehicles characterised by arrangement, location, or kind of gearing
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B62LAND VEHICLES FOR TRAVELLING OTHERWISE THAN ON RAILS
    • B62DMOTOR VEHICLES; TRAILERS
    • B62D5/00Power-assisted or power-driven steering
    • B62D5/04Power-assisted or power-driven steering electrical, e.g. using an electric servo-motor connected to, or forming part of, the steering gear
    • B62D5/0457Power-assisted or power-driven steering electrical, e.g. using an electric servo-motor connected to, or forming part of, the steering gear characterised by control features of the drive means as such
    • B62D5/046Controlling the motor
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B62LAND VEHICLES FOR TRAVELLING OTHERWISE THAN ON RAILS
    • B62DMOTOR VEHICLES; TRAILERS
    • B62D6/00Arrangements for automatically controlling steering depending on driving conditions sensed and responded to, e.g. control circuits
    • B62D6/002Arrangements for automatically controlling steering depending on driving conditions sensed and responded to, e.g. control circuits computing target steering angles for front or rear wheels
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B62LAND VEHICLES FOR TRAVELLING OTHERWISE THAN ON RAILS
    • B62DMOTOR VEHICLES; TRAILERS
    • B62D9/00Steering deflectable wheels not otherwise provided for
    • B62D9/002Steering deflectable wheels not otherwise provided for combined with means for differentially distributing power on the deflectable wheels during cornering
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60GVEHICLE SUSPENSION ARRANGEMENTS
    • B60G2200/00Indexing codes relating to suspension types
    • B60G2200/40Indexing codes relating to the wheels in the suspensions
    • B60G2200/44Indexing codes relating to the wheels in the suspensions steerable
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60GVEHICLE SUSPENSION ARRANGEMENTS
    • B60G2204/00Indexing codes related to suspensions per se or to auxiliary parts
    • B60G2204/10Mounting of suspension elements
    • B60G2204/14Mounting of suspension arms

Abstract

The invention discloses a kind of for four motorized wheels and the electromobile modularization wheel set of steering, including vehicle frame;Steering motor is fixed on the vehicle frame;And subframe, form accommodation space;The subframe is rotatably supported on the vehicle frame;Subframe described in the output axis connection of the steering motor, the subframe can be rotated around output shaft;Driving motor is fixed in the accommodation space, for wheel to be driven to rotate;Column, wheel hub are rotatably supported on the column;The column has through hole, and the output shaft of the driving motor drives wheel through the through hole;Upper suspension swing arm, both ends are connected to by rubber packing between the upper end of the accommodation space and the column;Lower suspension swing arm, both ends are connected to by rubber packing between the lower end of the accommodation space and the column.Wheel set integrated driving, braking, suspension and the steering of the present invention realizes four motorized wheels with turning to.

Description

A kind of independent drive controls with the vehicular modular wheel set and rear-axle steering turned to Method
Technical field
The invention belongs to automotive fields, and in particular to four motorized wheels with turn to electric vehicle driving, braking, suspension and Steering module wheel set structure.
Background technology
Auto electric technology using electric vehicle as representative has become the focus of world today's automotive engineering research and development One of, due to distributed-driving electric automobile compared with orthodox car stability, active safety and it is energy saving etc. have it is aobvious The important development direction of New Generation of Electric Vehicle will be become by writing control advantage.Four motorized wheels are with turning to electric vehicle conduct One kind of distributed-driving electric automobile, in addition to four driving motors drive automobile, four steering motors control four wheels Corner, four-wheel drive or braking moment, four-wheel corner are individually controllable, compared with traditional chassis distributed-driving electric automobile system Response faster, not only with more controllable degrees of freedom, but also controls more accurate, it has also become the representative of New Generation of Electric Vehicle. Four motorized wheels mainly use four-wheel In-wheel motor driving with independent steering electric vehicle both at home and abroad at present, and use wheel hub electricity Machine driving has a disadvantage that:1. since wheel hub motor is mounted on inside wheel, braking system, suspension system is made to be not easy to arrange; 2. wheel hub motor adds automobile nonspring carried mass, make the ride comfort of vehicle and handling variation;3. existing wheel hub motor power Relatively small with torque, vehicle dynamic quality is poor.
The content of the invention
It is an object of the present invention to provide a kind of wheel set using Direct wheel drives, by suspension, steering, driving and system The dynamic structure that becomes one makes the weight of driving motor improve vehicle running smoothness and maneuverability by suspension to carry, goes forward side by side One step improves vehicle dynamic quality.
Another goal of the invention of the present invention is to provide in four-wheel independent steering, a kind of control method of trailing wheel corner, Wheel can be made to keep pure rolling operation, reduce resistance, reduce tire wear, improve control stability.
In order to realize these purposes and further advantage according to the present invention, a kind of four motorized wheels that are used for are provided with turning To electromobile modularization wheel set, including:
Vehicle frame;
Steering motor is fixed on the vehicle frame;And
Subframe forms accommodation space;The subframe is rotatably supported on the vehicle frame;The steering motor Output axis connection described in subframe, the subframe can rotate around output shaft;
Driving motor is fixed in the accommodation space, for wheel to be driven to rotate;
Column, wheel hub are rotatably supported on the column;The column has through hole, the output of the driving motor Axis drives wheel through the through hole;
Upper suspension swing arm, both ends are connected to by rubber packing between the upper end of the accommodation space and the column;
Lower suspension swing arm, both ends are connected to by rubber packing between the lower end of the accommodation space and the column.
Preferably, the upper end of the accommodation space has the raised stent upwardly extended;
The wheel set further includes:Spring cushion assembly, both ends are respectively supported at the raised stent and described Between suspension upper swing arm.
Preferably, further include:Spring cushion assembly, both ends are respectively supported at the accommodation space upper end and described Between suspension lower swing arm.
Preferably, further include:
Brake disc is fixedly connected with wheel hub;
Caliper is fixed on the column, can clamp brake disc in braking.
Preferably, the output shaft of the steering motor is straight down;The bottom of the subframe is rotatable by shaft It is supported on the vehicle frame, the output shaft of the shaft and the steering motor is coaxial.
Preferably, the output shaft rotatable connection internal spherical cage of the driving motor, internal spherical cage connect wheel hub by semiaxis.
Preferably, upper flange plate and lower flange are further included, the steering motor passes through upper flange plate and lower flange It is fixed on vehicle frame.
Preferably, secondary steering spindle is further included, is symmetrically mounted on the output shaft of the steering motor above and below subframe Both sides, the pair steering spindle are rotated with steering motor output shaft synchronous.
A kind of four motorized wheels and the rear-axle steering control method of the electric vehicle turned to,
The actual rotational angle of front-wheel is detected by sensor;The target rotation angle of front-wheel is calculated according to Ackermam theorem;
By the actual rotational angle of the difference and off-front wheel of the actual rotational angle of the near front wheel and the target rotation angle and institute The difference for stating target rotation angle inputs the first fuzzy controller;
The corner of the first fuzzy controller output trailing wheel;
To it is expected yaw velocity and actual yaw velocity difference, expectation side slip angle and actual side slip angle it Difference the second fuzzy controller of input;
The angle correction of the second fuzzy controller output trailing wheel;
According to the sum of angle correction of the corner of the trailing wheel and the trailing wheel, steering motor control rear wheel.
Preferably, further include:The angle correction of the trailing wheel is weighted according to the difference of speed and steering wheel angle It corrects.
The present invention includes at least following advantageous effect:The present invention is driving, braking, suspension and steering in each wheel It is integrated, forms modular cart wheel assembly structure, the weight of Direct wheel drives motor passes through the bogie that is supported on vehicle frame It carries, the weight conversion of driving motor is become sprung mass.Vehicle frame is just constituted plus four modular cart wheel assemblies Four motorized wheels are with turning to electric vehicle chassis framework.Present invention decreases automobile unsprung mass, improve vehicle running smoothness And maneuverability, improve vehicle dynamic quality.
Part is illustrated to embody by further advantage, target and the feature of the present invention by following, and part will also be by this The research and practice of invention and be understood by the person skilled in the art.
Description of the drawings
Fig. 1 be the present invention electric vehicle and wheel set a kind of realization method structure principle chart.
Fig. 2 is the structure chart of another realization method of the wheel set of the present invention.
Fig. 3 is the front view of another realization method of the wheel set of the present invention.
Fig. 4 is complete vehicle structure figure of the four motorized wheels of the present invention with turning to electric vehicle.
Fig. 5 is front-wheel steer ideograph of the four motorized wheels of the present invention with turning to electric vehicle.
Fig. 6 is rear-axle steering pattern figure of the four motorized wheels of the present invention with turning to electric vehicle.
Fig. 7 is four-wheel steering pattern figure of the four motorized wheels of the present invention with turning to electric vehicle.
Fig. 8 is diagonal ideograph of the four motorized wheels of the present invention with turning to electric vehicle.
Fig. 9 is row ideograph of the four motorized wheels of the present invention with turning to electric vehicle.
Figure 10 is pivot stud ideograph of the four motorized wheels of the present invention with turning to electric vehicle.
Figure 11 is that the four-wheel drive torque of the present invention and four-wheel corner control distribution principle schematic diagram.
Figure 12 is the triangle membership function figure of the input variable of the present invention.
Figure 13 is the triangle membership function figure of the output variable of the present invention.
Figure 14 is the triangle membership function figure of the input variable of the present invention.
Figure 15 is the triangle membership function figure of the output variable of the present invention.
Figure 16 is the yaw moment control weight coefficient figure of the present invention.
Figure 17 is the active steering controller weight coefficient figure of the present invention.
Figure 18 is the triangle membership function figure of the input variable of the present invention.
Figure 19 is the triangle membership function figure of the output variable of the present invention.
Specific embodiment
The present invention is described in further detail below in conjunction with the accompanying drawings, to make those skilled in the art with reference to specification text Word can be implemented according to this.
It should be appreciated that such as " having ", "comprising" and " comprising " term used herein do not allot one or more The presence or addition of a other elements or its combination.
Fig. 1 shows four motorized wheels according to the present invention with turning to the one of electric vehicle and its modular cart wheel assembly Kind realization method, including vehicle frame 100, wheel set 200, controller.Vehicle frame 100 is metal alloy material, has certain resist Pressure and impact resistance and the ability that deforms.4 wheel sets 200 are symmetrically arranged before and after it, the wheel set 200 is with motor-car Frame 100 moves.Wheel set 200 include subframe 210, driving motor 220, steering motor 230, brake disc 240, wheel 250, Vibration damper assembly 260, upper suspension swing arm 270, lower suspension swing arm 280 and column 290.
Subframe 210 is cuboid framework structure, is supported on by two bearing installations on vehicle frame 100, can bear one Fixed axially and radially load, 210 inner hollow of subframe form accommodation space, and the accommodation space is used to place and consolidate Determine driving motor 220, driving motor 220 is driven to be synchronized with the movement with subframe 210.Subframe 210 is provided with raised stent above 211, the protrusion stent 211 is fixedly connected with the output shaft 231 of steering motor 230, and the subframe 210 is fixedly connected below to be turned To the secondary steering spindle 232 of motor 220, the steering motor 230 drives subframe 210 to rotate about 0-180 degree, is driven so as to drive Dynamic motor is synchronized with the movement with subframe 210.
Driving motor 220 includes output shaft 221, internal spherical cage 222, semiaxis 223, and driving motor 220 is bolted In the accommodation space of subframe 210, the output shaft 221 of driving motor passes through the central through hole of column 290, by spline fitted Cage 222, semiaxis 223, which suspends, to be mounted between internal spherical cage 222 and wheel hub 252, makes wheel 250 can be compared with driving motor 220 Upper and lower low-angle rocks.Driving motor 220 drives wheel 250 to be rotated around its center, plays before driving wheel set 200 Into so as to which vehicle frame 100 be driven to advance, realizing the effect of the advance of vehicle.
Steering motor 230 includes output shaft 231, secondary steering spindle 232, upper flange plate 233, lower flange 234, steering motor For 230 top half by 233 gun iron link of upper flange plate on vehicle frame 100, the latter half of steering motor 230 passes through laxative remedy Blue disk 234 is fixed on subframe 210, is further, and steering motor output shaft 231 is fixed on the protrusion branch of subframe 210 On frame 211, secondary steering spindle 232 is fixed on subframe 210 in the following, pair 232 installation site of steering spindle and the position of output shaft 131 It puts corresponding, is separately positioned on the both sides up and down of output driving motor output shaft 221, secondary 232 other end of steering spindle passes through bearing Connecting vehicle frame 100 makes the secondary steering spindle 232 be synchronized with the movement with steering motor output shaft 231 in point K.In short, steering motor 230 are fixed on vehicle frame 100, and output shaft 231 and secondary steering spindle 232 drive subframe 210 to rotate about 0-180 degree, realize The steering of wheel set 200.
Brake disc 240 includes clamp 241, and the brake disc 240 is arranged in the accommodation space of wheel rim 251, with wheel hub 252 It is parallel and pass through four and be bolted together;Wherein, the clamp 241 of the brake disc 240 are fixed on column 290.It is described Brake disc 240 plays braking action to wheel set 200.
Wheel 250 includes wheel rim 251, wheel hub 252, and tire is set on 251 periphery of wheel rim, and wheel rim 251 and wheel hub 252 are logical It crosses four to be bolted together, wheel hub 252 and column 290 are installed by two bearing interference.Vibration damper assembly 260 passes through ball Hinge E is connected to the raised stent 211 of subframe 210, and the other end is hinged on by flexural pivot C in lower suspension swing arm 280.
Suspension system includes:Upper suspension swing arm 270, lower suspension swing arm 280, column 290 have subframe 210, vehicle The effect that wheel 250 and vibration damper assembly 260 become one.Upper suspension swing arm 270 is triangular frame structure, and vertex passes through Flexural pivot A is mounted on column 290, and another two endpoint is mounted on raised 211 both sides of stent by flexural pivot J;Lower suspension swing arm 280 is Ladder-shaped frame structure, the two-end-point of the upper bottom edge of ladder-shaped frame structure are fixed on by flexural pivot H two below the subframe 210 End, ladder-shaped frame structure bottom is fixed on by flexural pivot B on column;Column 290 has through hole, and wheel hub is connected by bearing 252.The ABHJ double leval jib transmission turnings mechanism that upper suspension swing arm 270, lower suspension swing arm 280, column 290 form, function tool Body is that the output shaft 221 of driving motor 220 passes through the through hole of column 290, and driving wheel 250 rotates;When steering motor 230 is driven Dynamic subframe 210 rotates by a certain angle, and subframe 210 is deflected by ABHJ double leval jib transmission turnings mechanism band motor car wheel 250, from And it realizes vehicle frame 100 and turns to.
If Fig. 2 and 3 shows another way of realization of wheel set 300, wheel set 300 includes subframe 310, drives Dynamic motor 320, steering motor 330, brake disc, wheel 350, vibration damper assembly 360, upper suspension swing arm 370, lower suspension swing arm 380 and column 390.Described its inner housing space of subframe 310 drives driving motor for placing and fixing driving motor 320 320 synchronous movements are synchronous turn to.The output shaft of driving motor 320 is pierced by subframe 310, the through hole by column 390 The wheel hub of rotatable connection wheel 350 afterwards.330 main body of steering motor is fixed on vehicle frame 100, output shaft and secondary steering spindle with it is secondary The top and bottom protrusion stent of vehicle frame 310 is fixedly connected, and subframe 310 is driven to rotate 0-180 degree.Brake disc is mounted on wheel In 350, braking action is played to wheel set 300.Wheel 350 includes tire, wheel rim and wheel hub, and wheel hub passes through with column 390 Bearing connects, and motor output shaft passes through the wheel hub of rotatable connection wheel 350 after column 390, rotates wheel 350, drives wheel 350 rotate that wheel set 300 is driven to advance.360 upper end of vibration damper assembly passes through flexural pivot and the protrusion of 310 upper end of subframe Stent is hinged, and lower end is hinged lower suspension swing arm 380 by flexural pivot, refers to Fig. 2 and 3, and two damper collective effects mitigate vehicle The vibrations of wheel assembly 300.Upper 370 both ends of suspension swing arm are respectively hinged at subframe 310 above and above column 390, lower suspension 380 both ends of swing arm are respectively articulated with subframe 310 below and column 390 is in the following, the upper suspension swing arm 370, lower suspension swing arm 380 Connecting rod steering mechanism is hingedly formed with column 390, when steering motor 330 drives subframe 310 to rotate, subframe 310 passes through Quadric chain band motor car wheel 350 rotates, and realizes the steering of vehicle frame 100.Due to subframe 310, without bounce, upper suspension is put Arm 370, lower suspension swing arm 380 are into line bounce, so spring can only be compressed by vibration damper assembly 360 to absorb road at this time The shock loading that face is transmitted.
Fig. 4-10 shows the electric car of installing wheel assembly 200 or 300 of the present invention, symmetrical thereon to lay four Wheel set, the independent steering of four wheels of realization and driving.It is with a variety of Turning travel patterns, including front-wheel steer mould Formula, rear-axle steering pattern, four-wheel steering pattern, diagonal pattern, row pattern and pivot stud pattern.
As shown in figure 5, when electric car is turned to, angular displacement sensor acquisition steering wheel angle information, via controller into After row processing, controller sends two front-wheels turn signal, and control trailing wheel does not rotate, the steering in front-wheel steer electric machines test direction Signal respectively drives front-drive according to turn signal steering motor, is further, steering motor driving front two-wheeled rotation Different angle, makes front wheels and rear wheels meet Ackermam theorem, and two front-wheels drive electric car to be rotated around the center of circle and realize front-wheel steer mould Formula.
As shown in fig. 6, when electric car is turned to, angular displacement sensor acquisition steering wheel angle information, via controller into After row processing, controller sends two trailing wheels turn signal, and control front-wheel does not rotate, the steering in rear-axle steering electric machines test direction Signal, steering motor respectively drive rear wheel, are further, and steering motor drives two-wheeled different rotation angle below, makes Front wheels and rear wheels meet Ackermam theorem, and two trailing wheels drive electric car to be rotated around the center of circle and realize rear-axle steering pattern.
As shown in fig. 7, when electric car is turned to, angular displacement sensor acquisition steering wheel angle information, via controller into After row processing, controller sends turn signal to front and rear wheel respectively, makes the deflection direction of front wheels and rear wheels on the contrary, front-wheel steer The turn signal in electric machines test direction, steering motor driving front two-wheeled different rotation angle;Rear-axle steering electric machines test side To turn signal, steering motor driving two-wheeled different rotation angle below, is further that front wheels and rear wheels is made to meet Ah Gram graceful theorem, front and rear wheel drive electric car rotate realization four-wheel steering pattern around the center of circle.
As shown in figure 8, electric car carry out diagonal when, angular displacement sensor acquisition steering wheel angle information, via controller into After row processing, controller respectively sends front and rear wheel identical turn signal, makes deflection direction and the deflection angle of front wheels and rear wheels Identical, the turn signal in front-wheel steer electric machines test direction, steering motor driving front two-wheeled rotates equal angular and direction; The turn signal in rear-axle steering electric machines test direction, two-wheeled rotates equal angular and direction below for steering motor driving, realizes Diagonal pattern.
As shown in figure 9, electric car carry out row when, angular displacement sensor acquisition steering wheel angle information, via controller into After row processing, controller respectively sends front and rear wheel identical turn signal, makes deflection direction and the deflection angle of front wheels and rear wheels Identical, the turn signal in front-wheel steer electric machines test direction, steering motor driving front two-wheeled is rotated by 90 °;Rear-axle steering electricity The turn signal in machine testing direction, two-wheeled is rotated by 90 ° below for steering motor driving, realizes row pattern.
As shown in Figure 10, when electric car carries out pivot stud, angular displacement sensor acquisition steering wheel angle information, through control After device is handled, controller sends different turn signals to four wheels respectively, makes the deflection direction of the near front wheel and off hind wheel Identical, off-front wheel is identical with the deflection direction of left rear wheel.It specifically acts and is:The steering letter in two front-wheel steer electric machines test directions Number, steering motor respectively drives front two-wheeled different rotation angle;The turn signal in two rear-axle steering electric machines test directions, Steering motor part driving two-wheeled different rotation angle below is further that front wheels and rear wheels is made to meet Ackermam theorem, preceding, Trailing wheel drives electric car to be rotated around the center of circle and realizes pivot stud pattern.
When being turned to, angular displacement sensor acquisition steering wheel angle information after via controller is handled, makes steering Motor turns over certain angle, and bogie, driving motor, transmission system, suspension system, braking system, wheel is driven to rotate together, Four steering motors rotate simultaneously, realize the independent steering of four wheels.
As a preferred embodiment, four-wheel drive torque and four-wheel corner control distribution method are as shown in figure 11.Reference model root It is expected yaw velocity according to actual vehicle speed, the output of driver's steering wheel angle, it is expected side slip angle;Direct yaw moment control Device is according to the difference meter for it is expected difference of yaw velocity and actual yaw velocity, expectation side slip angle and actual side slip angle Calculate the direct yaw moment value ensured needed for vehicle steadily traveling;Active steering controller is according to expectation yaw velocity and reality The difference of border yaw velocity it is expected that the difference of side slip angle and actual side slip angle calculates trailing wheel corner correction value;Coordinate Controller is according to speed and steering wheel angle distribution direct yaw moment, the weight coefficient of trailing wheel corner correction value;Driving force point Orchestration calculates target drives torque according to driver's desired speed, actual vehicle speed, and four-wheel is driven according to direct yaw moment value Kinetic moment is allocated;Front wheel angle controller calculates target front wheel corner according to the input of driver's steering wheel angle;Trailing wheel Rotary corner controller calculates trailing wheel corner according to the difference of target front wheel corner and actual front wheel corner, corrects corner by trailing wheel and repaiies Just become trailing wheel target rotation angle afterwards.The control method can realize the reasonable distribution to four-wheel drive torque, four-wheel corner, improve Four motorized wheels and the control stabilities and driving safety for turning to electric vehicle.
Linear two degrees of freedom auto model is chosen to be used as with reference to model, according to two-freedom model differential equation of motion and road Face constraints obtains it is expected yaw velocity and it is expected side slip angle:
It is expected yaw velocity ωrd
It is expected side slip angle βd
In formula:k1、k2For the front and back wheel cornering stiffness of automobile;A is the distance of front axle and barycenter;B be rear axle and barycenter away from From;L is front and rear wheel base;U is longitudinal speed;δfFor front wheel angle;IzFor rotary inertia;μ is coefficient of road adhesion;Kγ、KβFor Retardation coefficient;K is stability factor;M is complete vehicle quality.
Direct yaw moment control device is according to difference, the expectation barycenter lateral deviation for it is expected yaw velocity and actual yaw velocity The difference of angle and actual side slip angle calculates the direct yaw moment value ensured needed for vehicle steadily traveling.Yaw moment control Device uses Mamdani fuzzy rule principles, using negative-feedback fuzzy control strategy, carries out Anti-fuzzy using weight method during anti fuzzy method Change and calculate, so as to acquire fuzzy controller output variable.Fuzzy controller input variable is the preferable side slip angle with reality Difference, the preferable difference with actual yaw velocity, domain is [- 1,1].Corresponding mould language for honest, center, it is just small, zero, It is negative it is small, negative in, it is negative big, be denoted as { PB, PM, PS, Z, NS, NM, NB }.The output variable of controller is additional yaw moment Mz, it is defeated Go out fuzzy language for honest, center, it is just small, zero, it is negative it is small, negative in, it is negative big, be denoted as { PB, PM, PS, Z, NS, NM, NB }.Such as figure Shown in 12 and 13:It inputs membership function and uses triangle membership function.
According to the influence of side slip angle and yaw velocity to additional yaw moment, fuzzy rule is obtained by experiment Table, as shown in table 1.In table Δ β be side slip angle deviation, Δ ωrFor yaw velocity deviation
1 fuzzy reasoning table of table
Active steering controller according to it is expected the difference of yaw velocity and actual yaw velocity, expectation side slip angle and The difference of actual side slip angle calculates trailing wheel and corrects corner.Active steering controller is designed using fuzzy control theory, is adopted With Mamdani fuzzy rule principles, using negative-feedback fuzzy control strategy, anti fuzzy method meter is carried out using weight method during anti fuzzy method It calculates, so as to acquire fuzzy controller output variable.Fuzzy controller input variable is preferable difference with the side slip angle of reality, The difference of preferable and actual yaw velocity, domain are [- 2.5,2.5].The output of controller is to add trailing wheel corner, corresponding mould Paste language for it is negative maximum, negative it is big, negative in, it is negative it is small, zero, just small, center, honest, positive maximum, be denoted as NVB, NB, NM, NS, ZO, PS, PM, PB, PVB }, as shown in FIG. 14 and 15:The membership function of input variable and output variable uses triangle degree of membership Function.
According to the influence that side slip angle and yaw velocity control active steering, fuzzy rule is obtained by experiment Table, as shown in table 2.In table Δ β be side slip angle deviation, Δ ωrFor yaw velocity deviation.
2 fuzzy control rule table of table
As a preferred embodiment, can also increase tuning controller corrects corner weight coefficient to direct yaw moment and trailing wheel It is allocated, to make the effect of control more preferable.The power of the two under different speeds and steering wheel angle is obtained by many experiments Weight coefficient, as shown in Figure 16, Figure 17, table 3 and table 4.
3 yaw moment control device weight coefficient table of table
4 active steering controller weight coefficient table of table
Driving force dispensing controller calculates required target drives torque according to driver's desired speed and actual vehicle speed, It is allocated according to direct yaw moment value according to control targe and constraints.Regulation yaw moment (Δ M) to the left for just, Steering wheel angle (δ) is to the left for just.Four-wheel drive power point is carried out according to direct yaw moment, steering wheel angle symbol and size Match somebody with somebody, driving force distribution is as shown in table 5.F in tablefl、Ffr、Frl、FrrThe respectively drive of the near front wheel, off-front wheel, left rear wheel and off hind wheel Power, driving moment total F, B are wheelspan.
5 driving force allocation rule table of table
The steering wheel angle of driver's output, vehicle front wheel steering angle is obtained by Ackermam front-wheel steer principle.
The control formula of Ackermann angle front-wheel steer:
In formula, a is distance of the barycenter to front axle, and b is barycenter to the distance of rear axle, B1It is front axle away from B2For hind axle It is wheelbase away from, L=a+b, R=K+1/ (2*B2) for turning radius, K is distance of the O points in turning center away from off hind wheel, δfrBefore the right side Take turns steering angle, δ be equivalent front wheel steering angle, δfrFor the near front wheel steering angle.
Trailing wheel rotary corner controller is designed based on fuzzy control theory.Fuzzy control input is two front-wheel target rotation angles and reality Corner deviation is exported as two trailing wheel corners.Two front wheel angles are obtained by Ackermam front-wheel steer controller, on this basis The corner of two trailing wheels is calculated by fuzzy controller.Using Mamdani fuzzy rule principles, using negative-feedback fuzzy control Strategy carries out defuzzification calculating during anti fuzzy method, so as to acquire fuzzy controller output variable using gravity model appoach.Fuzzy control The input quantity of device is left and right front-wheel target rotation angle and actual rotational angle deviation, and setting quantizing factor is all 1, and domain is [- 2,2].Control The output of device processed is vehicle rear wheel corner, corresponding fuzzy language for it is negative maximum, negative it is big, negative in, it is negative it is small, zero, just small, center, Honest, positive maximum }, it is denoted as { NVB, NB, NM, NS, ZE, PS, PM, PB, PVB }, membership function uses triangle membership function, As shown in the figure:
Fuzzy reasoning table is obtained by many experiments, as shown in table 6.
6 fuzzy control rule table of table
Note:ΔδflFor the near front wheel target rotation angle and actual rotational angle deviation, Δ δfrFor off-front wheel target rotation angle and actual rotational angle Deviation
Although the embodiments of the present invention have been disclosed as above, but its be not restricted in specification and embodiment it is listed With.It can be applied to various suitable the field of the invention completely.It, can be easily for those skilled in the art Realize other modification.Therefore without departing from the general concept defined in the claims and the equivalent scope, it is of the invention and unlimited In specific details and shown here as the legend with description.

Claims (10)

1. a kind of for four motorized wheels and the electromobile modularization wheel set of steering, feature exists
In, including:
Vehicle frame;
Steering motor is fixed on the vehicle frame;And
Subframe forms accommodation space;The subframe is rotatably supported on the vehicle frame;The steering motor it is defeated Go out subframe described in axis connection, the subframe can be rotated around output shaft;
Driving motor is fixed in the accommodation space, for wheel to be driven to rotate;
Column, wheel hub are rotatably supported on the column;The column has through hole, and the output shaft of the driving motor is worn Cross the through hole driving wheel;
Upper suspension swing arm, both ends are connected to by rubber packing between the upper end of the accommodation space and the column;
Lower suspension swing arm, both ends are connected to by rubber packing between the lower end of the accommodation space and the column;
Wherein, the upper suspension swing arm and lower suspension swing arm are not parallel.
2. as described in claim 1 for four motorized wheels and the electromobile modularization wheel set turned to, feature It is, the upper end of the accommodation space has the raised stent upwardly extended;
The wheel set further includes:Spring cushion assembly, both ends are respectively supported at the raised stent and described outstanding Between frame swing arm.
3. as described in claim 1 for four motorized wheels and the electromobile modularization wheel set turned to, feature It is, further includes:Spring cushion assembly, both ends be respectively supported at the accommodation space upper end and the lower suspension swing arm it Between.
4. as claimed in claim 2 or claim 3 for four motorized wheels and the electromobile modularization wheel set turned to, spy Sign is, further includes:
Brake disc is fixedly connected with wheel hub;
Caliper is fixed on the column, can clamp brake disc in braking.
5. as claimed in claim 4 for four motorized wheels and the electromobile modularization wheel set turned to, feature It is, the output shaft of the steering motor is straight down;The bottom of the subframe is rotatably supported at the vehicle by shaft On frame, the output shaft of the shaft and the steering motor is coaxial.
6. as claimed in claim 5 for four motorized wheels and the electromobile modularization wheel set turned to, feature It is, the output shaft rotatable connection internal spherical cage of the driving motor, internal spherical cage connects wheel hub by semiaxis.
7. as claimed in claim 6 for four motorized wheels and the electromobile modularization wheel of steering
Assembly, which is characterized in that further include upper flange plate and lower flange, the steering motor passes through upper flange plate and lower flange Disk is fixed on vehicle frame.
8. as claimed in claim 7 for four motorized wheels and the electromobile modularization wheel set turned to, feature It is, further includes secondary steering spindle, is symmetrically mounted on both sides above and below subframe with the output shaft of the steering motor, the pair turns It is rotated to axis and steering motor output shaft synchronous.
9. a kind of four motorized wheels and the rear-axle steering control method of the electric vehicle turned to, it is characterised in that:
The actual rotational angle of front-wheel is detected by sensor;The target rotation angle of front-wheel is calculated according to Ackermam theorem;
By the actual rotational angle of the difference and off-front wheel of the actual rotational angle of the near front wheel and the target rotation angle and the mesh The difference for marking corner inputs the first fuzzy controller;
The corner of the first fuzzy controller output trailing wheel;
It will it is expected the difference of yaw velocity and actual yaw velocity, it is expected that the difference of side slip angle and actual side slip angle is defeated Enter the second fuzzy controller;
The angle correction of the second fuzzy controller output trailing wheel;
According to the sum of angle correction of the corner of the trailing wheel and the trailing wheel, steering motor control rear wheel.
10. rear-axle steering control method according to claim 9, it is characterised in that:It further includes:
The angle correction of the trailing wheel is weighted amendment according to the difference of speed and steering wheel angle.
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