CN105863319A - Cooling tower of double-layer reticulated shell steel structure - Google Patents

Cooling tower of double-layer reticulated shell steel structure Download PDF

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Publication number
CN105863319A
CN105863319A CN201610301657.0A CN201610301657A CN105863319A CN 105863319 A CN105863319 A CN 105863319A CN 201610301657 A CN201610301657 A CN 201610301657A CN 105863319 A CN105863319 A CN 105863319A
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CN
China
Prior art keywords
tower
node
chord
adjacent
double
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Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Pending
Application number
CN201610301657.0A
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Chinese (zh)
Inventor
丁大益
许良
朱伟亮
田永胜
舒畅
杨朋超
Current Assignee (The listed assignees may be inaccurate. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of the list.)
Beijing Jiapuyuanfeng Technology Development Co Ltd
CHINA WUZHOU ENGINEERING GROUP Co Ltd
Original Assignee
Beijing Jiapuyuanfeng Technology Development Co Ltd
CHINA WUZHOU ENGINEERING GROUP Co Ltd
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Application filed by Beijing Jiapuyuanfeng Technology Development Co Ltd, CHINA WUZHOU ENGINEERING GROUP Co Ltd filed Critical Beijing Jiapuyuanfeng Technology Development Co Ltd
Priority to CN201610301657.0A priority Critical patent/CN105863319A/en
Publication of CN105863319A publication Critical patent/CN105863319A/en
Pending legal-status Critical Current

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Classifications

    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04BGENERAL BUILDING CONSTRUCTIONS; WALLS, e.g. PARTITIONS; ROOFS; FLOORS; CEILINGS; INSULATION OR OTHER PROTECTION OF BUILDINGS
    • E04B1/00Constructions in general; Structures which are not restricted either to walls, e.g. partitions, or floors or ceilings or roofs
    • E04B1/62Insulation or other protection; Elements or use of specified material therefor
    • E04B1/92Protection against other undesired influences or dangers
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04BGENERAL BUILDING CONSTRUCTIONS; WALLS, e.g. PARTITIONS; ROOFS; FLOORS; CEILINGS; INSULATION OR OTHER PROTECTION OF BUILDINGS
    • E04B1/00Constructions in general; Structures which are not restricted either to walls, e.g. partitions, or floors or ceilings or roofs
    • E04B1/62Insulation or other protection; Elements or use of specified material therefor
    • E04B1/92Protection against other undesired influences or dangers
    • E04B1/98Protection against other undesired influences or dangers against vibrations or shocks; against mechanical destruction, e.g. by air-raids
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04HBUILDINGS OR LIKE STRUCTURES FOR PARTICULAR PURPOSES; SWIMMING OR SPLASH BATHS OR POOLS; MASTS; FENCING; TENTS OR CANOPIES, IN GENERAL
    • E04H5/00Buildings or groups of buildings for industrial or agricultural purposes
    • E04H5/10Buildings forming part of cooling plants
    • E04H5/12Cooling towers

Abstract

The invention discloses a cooling tower of a double-layer reticulated shell steel structure. The cooling tower comprises an upper tower drum, a transfer truss and a bottom latticed column. The upper tower drum is installed on the transfer truss, the transfer truss is installed on the latticed column, the upper tower drum comprises an inner layer tower drum body and a lower layer tower drum body, the inner layer tower drum body is connected with the outer layer tower drum body, the upper tower drum is composed of a columnar tower drum body and a conical tower drum body which are connected, the conical tower drum body is installed on the transfer truss, the columnar tower drum body comprises a columnar outer tower drum main body and a columnar inner tower drum main body which are connected, and the conical tower drum main body comprises a conical outer tower drum main body and a conical inner tower drum main body which are connected. The upper tower drum is composed of the columnar tower drum body and the conical tower drum body, and the cooling tower is good in thermal performance. Compared with a concrete thin-shell tower, self weight is low, basic processing is easy, and construction is convenient. Compared with a single-layer reticulated shell steel tower, structural components are mainly used for bearing compressive stress, strength of materials is given full play, the steel use amount is small, and structural stiffness is large under the condition that the steel use amount is the same.

Description

A kind of Double-level Reticulated Shell steel structure cooling tower
Technical field
The present invention relates to cooling tower, particularly relate to a kind of Double-level Reticulated Shell steel structure cooling tower.
Background technology
At present, domestic large cooling column many employings hyperbolic steel reinforced concrete shell structure.This structural shape is reliable because of it Property high, Corrosion Protection is good, service life length and be widely used.At present can be with intended diameter more than 150m, highly 200m The large cooling column of left and right.Along with the development of long strands, large-scale dry type gravity-flow ventilation steel structure cooling tower relatively xoncrete structure There is increasing technical advantage.It is from heavy and light, and construction is simple, speed is fast, and antidetonation, wind resistance are excellent, comprehensive cost Low, environmental protection aspect, head tower terminates rear steel and can again recycle service life, and factors makes the advantage of head tower the most prominent Go out.The patent No. be 201110330021.6 Chinese patent disclose the large-scale double-curve steel structure cooling tower of a kind of power plant, this Tower uses the single-layer latticed shell of straight line oblique column intersection composition, along the anti-side of height distribution stiffening ring enhancement Layer increase single-layer lattice shell Rigidity.Batter post thinks that bending stress is main, and steel using amount is big, and single-layer lattice shell steel construction need to do rigid joint, and construct and construct complexity.
Summary of the invention
It is an object of the invention to, it is provided that a kind of Double-level Reticulated Shell steel structure cooling tower, thermal property is good, and based process is simple, Constructing convenient, steel using amount is low, and compared with single-layer latticed shell, under same steel using amount, the rigidity of structure is big, can realize component scene and spell Dress, construction is simple, and installation rate is fast, and structural seismic, wind resistance are excellent.
For solving above-mentioned technical problem, the present invention adopts the following technical scheme that:
A kind of Double-level Reticulated Shell steel structure cooling tower, including top tower, transfer truss and bottom lattice column, top tower is arranged on On transfer truss, transfer truss is arranged on the lattice column of bottom, and top tower includes internal layer tower and outer layer tower, internal layer tower Being connected with outer layer tower, top tower is made up of the cylindricality tower being connected and taper tower, and taper tower is arranged on transfer truss, Cylindricality tower includes the outside tower of cylindricality and the cylindrical internal tower being connected, and taper tower includes taper outer tower and the cone being connected The internal tower of shape.Using double-layer latticed shell structure to replace single-layer lattice shell head tower, in the case of steel using amount is identical, rigidity is bigger, antidetonation, Wind resistance is more outstanding.Wherein, the effect of transfer truss is to be connected with top tower by bottom lattice column, it is achieved bottom lattice The conversion of structural system between post and top tower, by lotuses such as deadweight, temperature load, wind load and the geological processes of top tower Carry and be applied to bottom lattice column by transfer truss.The node of bottom lattice column uses gusset plate or passes through weldering welding mutually.This kind sets Meter construction is convenient, compared to hyperbolic form, pocket lamp profile tower, especially straight drum part, is easily standardized producing, The substantial amounts of time can be saved in building process.Compared to hyperbola Double-level Reticulated Shell steel structure cooling tower, the pocket lamp of the present invention The top tower of formula Double-level Reticulated Shell steel structure cooling tower uses straight tube shape, so processing and construction can use standardization flow process, easily In reduction processing and construction duration and expense.
In aforesaid a kind of Double-level Reticulated Shell steel structure cooling tower, the angle between sidewall and the horizontal plane of taper tower more than or etc. In 50 degree, and less than or equal to 80 degree.
In aforesaid a kind of Double-level Reticulated Shell steel structure cooling tower, the angle between sidewall and the horizontal plane of taper tower is equal to 87 degree. When angle between sidewall and horizontal plane is equal to 87 degree, global reliability is the highest, and stability is best.
In aforesaid a kind of Double-level Reticulated Shell steel structure cooling tower, the outside tower of cylindricality includes primary nodal point and secondary nodal point, same water The most adjacent flat primary nodal point is connected by the first chord member with secondary nodal point, and two primary nodal points that vertical direction is adjacent pass through the Two chord members are connected, and the primary nodal point that vertical direction is adjacent is connected by the 3rd chord member with secondary nodal point.
In aforesaid a kind of Double-level Reticulated Shell steel structure cooling tower, cylindrical internal tower includes the 3rd node and fourth node, same water Flat the 3rd the most adjacent node is connected by the 4th chord member with fourth node, and two the 3rd nodes that vertical direction is adjacent pass through the Five chord members are connected, and the 3rd node that vertical direction is adjacent is connected by the 6th chord member with fourth node.
In aforesaid a kind of Double-level Reticulated Shell steel structure cooling tower, primary nodal point that same level height is adjacent and the 3rd node are by the Seven chord members are connected, and the primary nodal point that same level height is adjacent is connected by the 8th chord member with fourth node, same level height phase Adjacent secondary nodal point and the 3rd node are connected by the 9th chord member.
In aforesaid a kind of Double-level Reticulated Shell steel structure cooling tower, taper outer tower includes node a and node b, and same level is high Spending adjacent node a to be connected by chord member a with node b, two node a that vertical direction is adjacent are connected by chord member b, perpendicular Nogata is connected by chord member c with node b to adjacent node a.
In aforesaid a kind of Double-level Reticulated Shell steel structure cooling tower, cone-shaped internal part tower includes node c and node d, and same level is high Spending adjacent node c to be connected by chord member d with node d, two node c that vertical direction is adjacent are connected by chord member e, perpendicular Nogata is connected by chord member f with node d to adjacent node c.
In aforesaid a kind of Double-level Reticulated Shell steel structure cooling tower, adjacent node a is connected by chord member g with node c, adjacent Node a is connected by chord member h with node d, and adjacent node b is connected by chord member i with node c.Wherein, node a and Node d is not at same level height, and the perpendicular truss structure mechanical property of this kind of arrangement form formation is more reasonable, it is provided that more preferably Anti-side rigidity, be conducive to saving material usage, reduce cost.
In aforesaid a kind of Double-level Reticulated Shell steel structure cooling tower, bottom lattice column is that X-shaped crossing plane truss, herringbone four pipe are vertical Body truss or splayed four pipe space truss.
Top tower can be configured with the clad steel structure of stable form by this kind of set-up mode, and the internal layer of top tower is with outer Layer mutually according to holding, has bigger rigidity compared to the cooling tower of single-layer latticed shell.Further, this kind of design and construction are convenient, phase Compared with hyperbolic form, pocket lamp profile tower, especially straight drum part, easily it is standardized producing, energy in building process Enough save the substantial amounts of time.
Compared with prior art, the top tower of the present invention is made up of cylindricality tower and taper tower, and thermal property is good;With mixed Solidifying Tu Baoketa ratio, from heavy and light, based process is simple, constructs convenient;Compared with single-layer lattice shell head tower, structural elements is with tension and compression Stress is main, gives full play to the intensity of material, and steel using amount is low, and under same steel using amount, the rigidity of structure is big;By rational connecting joint Point design, can realize component on-site consolidation, and construction is simple, speed is fast, and antidetonation, wind resistance are excellent.
Accompanying drawing explanation
Fig. 1 is the structural representation of a kind of embodiment of the present invention;
Fig. 2 is the partial enlarged drawing of a kind of embodiment of cylindricality tower;
Fig. 3 is the partial enlarged drawing of a kind of embodiment of taper tower;
Fig. 4 is the structural representation of transfer truss;
Fig. 5 is the structural representation of a kind of embodiment of bottom lattice column.
Reference: 1-top tower, 2-transfer truss, lattice column bottom 3-, 4-taper tower, 5-cylindricality tower, 6-post The outside tower of shape, 7-cylindrical internal tower, 8-primary nodal point, 9-secondary nodal point, 10-the first chord member, 11-the second chord member, 12- 3rd chord member, 13-the 3rd node, 14-fourth node, 15-the 5th chord member, 16-the 6th chord member, 17-the 7th chord member, 18- Eight chord members, 19-the 9th chord member, 20-cone-shaped internal part tower, 21-taper outer tower, 22-node a, 23-node b, 24- Chord member a, 25-chord member b, 26-chord member c, 27-node c, 28-node d, 29-chord member d, 30-chord member e, 31-chord member f, 32-chord member g, 33-chord member h, 34-chord member i, 35-the 4th chord member.
The present invention is further illustrated with detailed description of the invention below in conjunction with the accompanying drawings.
Detailed description of the invention
Embodiments of the invention 1: as shown in Figures 1 to 5, a kind of Double-level Reticulated Shell steel structure cooling tower, including top tower 1, Transfer truss 2 and bottom lattice column 3, top tower 1 is arranged on transfer truss 2, and transfer truss 2 is arranged on bottom lattice On post 3, top tower 1 includes internal layer tower and outer layer tower, and internal layer tower is connected with outer layer tower, and top tower 1 is by phase Cylindricality tower 5 even and taper tower 4 form, and taper tower 4 is arranged on transfer truss 2, and cylindricality tower 5 includes being connected The outside tower 6 of cylindricality and cylindrical internal tower 7, taper tower 4 includes taper outer tower 21 and the cone-shaped internal part tower being connected Cylinder 20.Angle between sidewall and the horizontal plane of taper tower 4 is equal to 80 degree.
The outside tower 6 of cylindricality includes primary nodal point 8 and secondary nodal point 9, the primary nodal point 8 and second that same level height is adjacent Node 9 is connected by the first chord member 10, and two primary nodal points 8 that vertical direction is adjacent are connected, vertically by the second chord member 11 The adjacent primary nodal point 8 in direction is connected by the 3rd chord member 12 with secondary nodal point 9.Cylindrical internal tower 7 includes the 3rd node 13 and fourth node 14, the 3rd node 13 that same level height is adjacent is connected by the 4th chord member 35 with fourth node 14, Two the 3rd nodes 13 that vertical direction is adjacent are connected by the 5th chord member 15, the 3rd node 13 and the 4th that vertical direction is adjacent Node 14 is connected by the 6th chord member 16.Primary nodal point 8 and the 3rd node 13 that same level height is adjacent pass through the 7th chord member 17 are connected, and the primary nodal point 8 that same level height is adjacent is connected by the 8th chord member 18 with fourth node 14, and same level is high Spend adjacent secondary nodal point 9 to be connected by the 9th chord member 19 with the 3rd node 13.Bottom lattice column 3 is that splayed four pipe is three-dimensional Truss.Top tower can be configured with the clad steel structure of stable form by this kind of set-up mode, the internal layer of top tower and Outer layer mutually according to holding, has bigger rigidity compared to the cooling tower of single-layer latticed shell.
Embodiment 2: as shown in Figures 1 to 5, a kind of Double-level Reticulated Shell steel structure cooling tower, including top tower 1, transfer truss 2 and bottom lattice column 3, top tower 1 is arranged on transfer truss 2, and transfer truss 2 is arranged on the lattice column 3 of bottom, on Portion's tower 1 includes internal layer tower and outer layer tower, and internal layer tower is connected with outer layer tower, and top tower 1 is by the cylindricality tower being connected Cylinder 5 and taper tower 4 form, and taper tower 4 is arranged on transfer truss 2, and cylindricality tower 5 includes outside the cylindricality that is connected Tower 6 and cylindrical internal tower 7, taper tower 4 includes taper outer tower 21 and the cone-shaped internal part tower 20 being connected.Taper Angle between sidewall and the horizontal plane of tower 4 is equal to 50 degree.
The outside tower 6 of cylindricality includes primary nodal point 8 and secondary nodal point 9, the primary nodal point 8 and second that same level height is adjacent Node 9 is connected by the first chord member 10, and two primary nodal points 8 that vertical direction is adjacent are connected, vertically by the second chord member 11 The adjacent primary nodal point 8 in direction is connected by the 3rd chord member 12 with secondary nodal point 9.Cylindrical internal tower 7 includes the 3rd node 13 and fourth node 14, the 3rd node 13 that same level height is adjacent is connected by the 4th chord member 35 with fourth node 14, Two the 3rd nodes 13 that vertical direction is adjacent are connected by the 5th chord member 15, the 3rd node 13 and the 4th that vertical direction is adjacent Node 14 is connected by the 6th chord member 16.Primary nodal point 8 and the 3rd node 13 that same level height is adjacent pass through the 7th chord member 17 are connected, and the primary nodal point 8 that same level height is adjacent is connected by the 8th chord member 18 with fourth node 14, and same level is high Spend adjacent secondary nodal point 9 to be connected by the 9th chord member 19 with the 3rd node 13.Top tower can be set by this kind of set-up mode Being set to the clad steel structure with stable form, the internal layer of top tower and outer layer are mutually according to holding, compared to single-layer latticed shell Cooling tower has bigger rigidity.
Taper outer tower 21 includes node a22 and node b23, and node a22 and node b23 that same level height is adjacent lead to Crossing chord member a24 to be connected, two node a22 that vertical direction is adjacent are connected by chord member b25, the node a22 that vertical direction is adjacent It is connected by chord member c26 with node b23.Cone-shaped internal part tower 20 includes node c27 and node d28, same level height phase Adjacent node c27 is connected by chord member d29 with node d28, and two node c27 that vertical direction is adjacent pass through chord member e30 phase Even, the node c27 that vertical direction is adjacent is connected by chord member f31 with node d28.Adjacent node a22 and node c27 leads to Crossing chord member g32 to be connected, adjacent node a22 is connected by chord member h33 with node d28, adjacent node b23 and node c27 It is connected by chord member i34.Bottom lattice column 3 is X-shaped crossing plane truss, herringbone four pipe space truss or splayed four pipe Space truss.Top tower can be configured with the clad steel structure of stable form by this kind of set-up mode, top tower interior Layer and outer layer mutually according to holding, have bigger rigidity compared to the cooling tower of single-layer latticed shell.

Claims (10)

1. a Double-level Reticulated Shell steel structure cooling tower, including top tower (1), transfer truss (2) and bottom lattice column (3), Top tower (1) is arranged on transfer truss (2), and transfer truss (2) is arranged on bottom lattice column (3), upper column Cylinder (1) includes internal layer tower and outer layer tower, and internal layer tower is connected with outer layer tower, it is characterised in that top tower (1) Cylindricality tower (5) and taper tower (4) by being connected form, and taper tower (4) is arranged on transfer truss (2), post Shape tower (5) includes the outside tower (6) of the cylindricality that is connected and cylindrical internal tower (7), and taper tower (4) includes being connected Taper outer tower (21) and cone-shaped internal part tower (20).
A kind of Double-level Reticulated Shell steel structure cooling tower the most according to claim 1, it is characterised in that taper tower (4) Angle between sidewall and horizontal plane is more than or equal to 50 degree, and less than or equal to 80 degree.
A kind of Double-level Reticulated Shell steel structure cooling tower the most according to claim 2, it is characterised in that taper tower (4) Angle between sidewall and horizontal plane is equal to 70 degree.
4. according to a kind of Double-level Reticulated Shell steel structure cooling tower described in any one of claims 1 to 3, it is characterised in that outside cylindricality Portion's tower (6) includes primary nodal point (8) and secondary nodal point (9), the primary nodal point (8) and second that same level height is adjacent Node (9) is connected by the first chord member (10), and two primary nodal points (8) that vertical direction is adjacent pass through the second chord member (11) Being connected, the primary nodal point (8) that vertical direction is adjacent is connected by the 3rd chord member (12) with secondary nodal point (9).
A kind of Double-level Reticulated Shell steel structure cooling tower the most according to claim 4, it is characterised in that cylindrical internal tower (7) Including the 3rd node (13) and fourth node (14), the 3rd node (13) that same level height is adjacent and fourth node (14) Being connected by the 4th chord member (35), two the 3rd nodes (13) that vertical direction is adjacent are connected by the 5th chord member (15), The 3rd node (13) that vertical direction is adjacent is connected by the 6th chord member (16) with fourth node (14).
A kind of Double-level Reticulated Shell steel structure cooling tower the most according to claim 5, it is characterised in that same level height is adjacent Primary nodal point (8) and the 3rd node (13) be connected by the 7th chord member (17), the primary nodal point that same level height is adjacent (8) it is connected by the 8th chord member (18) with fourth node (14), secondary nodal point (9) that same level height is adjacent and the Three nodes (13) are connected by the 9th chord member (19).
A kind of Double-level Reticulated Shell steel structure cooling tower the most according to claim 6, it is characterised in that taper outer tower (21) Including node a (22) and node b (23), node a (22) and node b (23) that same level height is adjacent pass through chord member A (24) is connected, and two node a (22) that vertical direction is adjacent are connected by chord member b (25), the joint that vertical direction is adjacent Point a (22) is connected by chord member c (26) with node b (23).
A kind of Double-level Reticulated Shell steel structure cooling tower the most according to claim 7, it is characterised in that cone-shaped internal part tower (20) Including node c (27) and node d (28), node c (27) and node d (28) that same level height is adjacent pass through chord member D (29) is connected, and two node c (27) that vertical direction is adjacent are connected by chord member e (30), the joint that vertical direction is adjacent Point c (27) is connected by chord member f (31) with node d (28).
A kind of Double-level Reticulated Shell steel structure cooling tower the most according to claim 8, it is characterised in that adjacent node a (22) Being connected by chord member g (32) with node c (27), adjacent node a (22) and node d (28) passes through chord member h (33) Being connected, adjacent node b (23) and node c (27) is connected by chord member i (34).
10. according to a kind of Double-level Reticulated Shell steel structure cooling tower described in any one of claim 5 to 9, it is characterised in that bottom Lattice column (3) is X-shaped crossing plane truss, herringbone four pipe space truss or splayed four pipe space truss.
CN201610301657.0A 2016-05-09 2016-05-09 Cooling tower of double-layer reticulated shell steel structure Pending CN105863319A (en)

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Citations (8)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3761067A (en) * 1971-04-15 1973-09-25 Ipari Epuelettervezoe Vallalat Large-size metal-framed tower
DE2743240A1 (en) * 1976-10-01 1978-04-06 Waagner Biro Ag Power station cooling tower - made of prefabricated steel parts (OE 15.12.77)
FR2476190A1 (en) * 1980-02-18 1981-08-21 Electricite De France CHIMNEY OR VERTICAL CONDUIT FOR THE FLOW OF GAS
CN103924802A (en) * 2014-04-16 2014-07-16 中国电力工程顾问集团西北电力设计院 Large vertical-cylinder conical-section profile steel structure cooling tower
CN105064739A (en) * 2015-08-11 2015-11-18 中国五洲工程设计集团有限公司 Hyperbolic double-layer reticulated shell steel structure cooling tower
CN205012720U (en) * 2015-08-11 2016-02-03 中国五洲工程设计集团有限公司 X -shaped bottom lattice column of double layer reticulated shell steel construction cooling tower
CN205012719U (en) * 2015-08-11 2016-02-03 中国五洲工程设计集团有限公司 Splayed bottom lattice column of double layer reticulated shell steel construction cooling tower
CN205805056U (en) * 2016-05-09 2016-12-14 中国五洲工程设计集团有限公司 A kind of Double-level Reticulated Shell steel structure cooling tower

Patent Citations (8)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3761067A (en) * 1971-04-15 1973-09-25 Ipari Epuelettervezoe Vallalat Large-size metal-framed tower
DE2743240A1 (en) * 1976-10-01 1978-04-06 Waagner Biro Ag Power station cooling tower - made of prefabricated steel parts (OE 15.12.77)
FR2476190A1 (en) * 1980-02-18 1981-08-21 Electricite De France CHIMNEY OR VERTICAL CONDUIT FOR THE FLOW OF GAS
CN103924802A (en) * 2014-04-16 2014-07-16 中国电力工程顾问集团西北电力设计院 Large vertical-cylinder conical-section profile steel structure cooling tower
CN105064739A (en) * 2015-08-11 2015-11-18 中国五洲工程设计集团有限公司 Hyperbolic double-layer reticulated shell steel structure cooling tower
CN205012720U (en) * 2015-08-11 2016-02-03 中国五洲工程设计集团有限公司 X -shaped bottom lattice column of double layer reticulated shell steel construction cooling tower
CN205012719U (en) * 2015-08-11 2016-02-03 中国五洲工程设计集团有限公司 Splayed bottom lattice column of double layer reticulated shell steel construction cooling tower
CN205805056U (en) * 2016-05-09 2016-12-14 中国五洲工程设计集团有限公司 A kind of Double-level Reticulated Shell steel structure cooling tower

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Application publication date: 20160817