CN105836898B - Artificial wetland composite substrate containing modified waste bricks and preparation method thereof - Google Patents

Artificial wetland composite substrate containing modified waste bricks and preparation method thereof Download PDF

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CN105836898B
CN105836898B CN201610358868.8A CN201610358868A CN105836898B CN 105836898 B CN105836898 B CN 105836898B CN 201610358868 A CN201610358868 A CN 201610358868A CN 105836898 B CN105836898 B CN 105836898B
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waste
bricks
sodium
matrix
waste brick
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CN105836898A (en
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梁丽珍
王杰
权燕
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Shengshi Ecology Environment Co ltd
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    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C02TREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02FTREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02F3/00Biological treatment of water, waste water, or sewage
    • C02F3/34Biological treatment of water, waste water, or sewage characterised by the microorganisms used
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C02TREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02FTREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02F3/00Biological treatment of water, waste water, or sewage
    • C02F3/32Biological treatment of water, waste water, or sewage characterised by the animals or plants used, e.g. algae
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C02TREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02FTREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02F2101/00Nature of the contaminant
    • C02F2101/10Inorganic compounds
    • C02F2101/105Phosphorus compounds
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C02TREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02FTREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02F2101/00Nature of the contaminant
    • C02F2101/10Inorganic compounds
    • C02F2101/16Nitrogen compounds, e.g. ammonia

Abstract

The invention discloses a preparation method of constructed wetland composite matrix containing modified waste bricks, which comprises the steps of crushing and sieving waste bricks or building blocks, respectively adding the crushed and sieved waste bricks or building blocks into a sodium chloride solution and an aluminum chloride solution at room temperature, soaking, stirring, washing, filtering and drying to obtain a sodium-waste brick matrix and an aluminum-waste brick matrix, curing nitrobacteria on the sodium-waste brick matrix to obtain a biological sodium-waste brick matrix, and finally mixing or layering biological Na-waste brick matrix, Al-waste brick matrix and zeolite to obtain the constructed wetland composite matrix containing the modified waste bricks. The invention uses the waste bricks as the main raw material of the denitrification substrate, treats waste with waste, crushes, chemically modifies and solidifies nitrobacteria on the waste bricks, so as to enhance the removal effect of the waste bricks on the main pollutant nitrogen in sewage and provide nutrient substances and root system extension carriers for aquatic plants; the modified waste brick matrixes have complementary synergistic effect, so that the sewage treatment capability of the artificial wetland is greatly improved.

Description

Artificial wetland composite substrate containing modified waste bricks and preparation method thereof
Technical Field
The invention belongs to the technical field of water treatment materials, and particularly relates to an artificial wetland composite matrix containing modified waste bricks and a preparation method thereof.
Background
The substrate (also called as filler) is used as a main part for forming the artificial wetland, not only is a main carrier of microorganism, but also provides a carrier and a nutrition support for aquatic plants, and is a main site of sewage treatment, and the substrate can remove pollutants through the actions of ion exchange, obligatory and non-obligatory adsorption, chelation, sedimentation reaction and the like. However, the selection of the matrix is single at present, so that the removal rate of pollutants is low, the matrix is easy to saturate and block, the operation period of the artificial wetland is shortened, and the popularization and application of the artificial wetland in China are severely limited. The novel matrix filler is explored and found, the aim of efficiently removing toxic and harmful organic matters is achieved, and particularly, industrial wastes which are high in adsorption capacity and small in environmental hazard are discovered and utilized, resources are reasonably utilized, and the novel matrix filler has important practical significance and practical application value.
Most of the buildings in the six and seventies removed in China are of brick-concrete structures, most of the construction wastes are broken bricks, and the disposal of the construction wastes is a great problem in the current urban construction. The waste broken bricks (hereinafter referred to as waste bricks) have the characteristics of porosity, large specific surface area and good water permeability, and if the waste bricks can be utilized, the problem of disposal of construction waste is solved, manpower and material resources are saved, and energy conservation and environmental protection are realized.
Disclosure of Invention
The invention aims to provide an artificial wetland composite substrate containing modified waste bricks and a preparation method thereof, which can enhance the removal effect of nitrogen and phosphorus in sewage treatment by modifying and synergizing the waste bricks.
In order to achieve the purpose, the invention adopts the technical scheme that:
a preparation method of an artificial wetland composite matrix containing modified waste bricks comprises the following steps:
(1) crushing and sieving the waste bricks or building blocks to obtain crushed bricks with the particle size of 5-25 mm;
(2) adding the broken bricks obtained in the step (1) into a sodium chloride solution and an aluminum chloride solution respectively, completely submerging the broken bricks in the solution, soaking for 1-2 hours, stirring for 0.5-2 hours, washing with water, filtering, and drying to obtain a sodium-waste brick matrix and an aluminum-waste brick matrix; wherein the mass fraction of the sodium chloride solution is 0.5-5%, and the mass fraction of the aluminum chloride solution is 0.5-5%;
(3) adding the sodium-waste brick matrix obtained in the step (2) into neutral curing liquid, completely submerging the sodium-waste brick matrix in the neutral curing liquid, and standing and curing at 20-30 ℃ for 16-24 hours to obtain a biological sodium-waste brick matrix; the neutral solidified liquid is an aqueous solution containing 2-5% of nitrobacteria, 0.5-2% of bean cake powder, 1-4% of corn starch, 0.02-0.2% of monopotassium phosphate and 0.02-0.2% of magnesium chlorate;
(4) laying the biological sodium-waste brick matrix obtained in the step (3), the sodium-waste brick matrix and the aluminum-waste brick matrix obtained in the step (2) and zeolite in a dry weight ratio of 1: 1.5-2.5: 2-8: 1.5-2.5 in a layering manner, wherein the sodium-waste brick matrix is not positioned on the uppermost layer during layering laying; or uniformly mixing according to the dry weight ratio of 1: 1.5-2.5: 2-8: 1.5-2.5 to obtain the composite material.
The artificial wetland composite substrate containing the modified waste bricks is obtained by adopting the preparation method.
Preferably, the porosity of the constructed wetland composite substrate containing the modified waste bricks is 39-47.3%, and the bulk density is 0.85-0.94 g/cm3
Wherein the waste bricks or building blocks are derived from construction waste, and the nitrobacteria, the bean cake powder, the corn starch, the potassium dihydrogen phosphate and the magnesium phosphate are all common commercial products.
The invention has the beneficial effects that:
(1) the adopted waste bricks or building blocks are derived from construction waste, the construction waste is prepared into an artificial wetland matrix, waste is treated by waste, and resource recycling is realized; the waste brick particles contain trace elements, can increase the nutrient content of soil and promote the growth of wetland plants, and have strong adsorbability and can adsorb amine, phenol and heavy metal pollutants in water.
(2) The microporous structure and the adsorption active site of the waste brick particles modified by the sodium chloride solution and the aluminum chloride solution are changed, so that the adsorption of nitrogen and phosphorus is facilitated; the nitrogen adsorbed on the surface of the Na-waste brick matrix can be quickly nitrified by the solidified nitrifying bacteria, so that the utilization rate and the regeneration rate of active sites of the Na-waste brick matrix and the removal rate of nitrogen in water are improved.
(3) Zeolite is a cheap non-metallic mineral, rich in reserves in China, low in price, high in porosity, large in specific surface area, ion exchange property, adsorbability and the like, can remove various pollutants in sewage, and particularly has good selective adsorbability on ammonia nitrogen.
(4) The addition of the modified waste brick particles can inhibit the hardening effect of the conventional gravel and loam wetland matrix packing layer, enhance the drainability of the wetland matrix layer and increase the dissolved oxygen in the wetland matrix layer; the modified waste bricks have large specific surface area and high porosity, are not easy to cause substrate blockage, are beneficial to the extension of wetland plant roots, improve the rhizosphere environment of plants and promote the growth of the plants.
(5) The artificial wetland composite substrate containing the modified waste bricks contains Na+、Al3+、Ca2+、Fe3+、Mg2+The plasma and other active sites and functional groups generated by the chemical modification can be adsorbed and reacted with nitrogen and phosphorus in the water, so that eutrophication substances in the water can be effectively removed.
(6) The artificial wetland composite substrate has the advantages of economical and easily obtained raw materials, simple process and strong operability.
In a word, the invention utilizes the waste brick as the main raw material of the denitrification substrate, treats waste with waste, pulverizes, chemically modifies the waste brick, solidifies nitrobacteria, in order to strengthen the waste brick to the removal effect of main pollutant nitrogen in the sewage, provide nutrient substance and root system to extend carriers for the aquatic plant; the modified waste brick matrixes have complementary synergistic effect, so that the sewage treatment capability of the artificial wetland is greatly improved.
Detailed Description
The present invention will be described in further detail with reference to preferred examples, but the scope of the present invention is not limited thereto.
Example 1
A preparation method of an artificial wetland composite matrix containing modified waste bricks comprises the following steps:
(1) conveying waste bricks or building blocks with the diameter not more than 250mm to a crusher by using a belt conveyor for primary crushing, conveying the crushed products to coarse powder grinding equipment by using the belt conveyor for further crushing, and sieving to obtain crushed bricks with the particle size of 5-25 mm;
(2) adding the broken bricks obtained in the step (1) into a NaCl solution, completely submerging the broken bricks with the NaCl solution, stirring for 0.5 hour after soaking for 1 hour at the temperature of 20-25 ℃, then washing for 3 times, filtering and drying to obtain the finished productNa-waste brick matrix; simultaneously, adding AlCl into the broken bricks obtained in the step (1)3In solution and AlCl3Completely submerging broken bricks in the solution, soaking for 1 hour at the temperature of 20-25 ℃, stirring for 0.5 hour, then washing for 3 times, filtering and drying to obtain an Al-waste brick matrix; wherein the mass fraction of the NaCl solution is 1 percent, and the AlCl solution3The mass fraction of the solution is 1 percent;
(3) adding water into a neutral curing pool, adding nitrobacteria, bean cake powder, corn starch, potassium dihydrogen phosphate and magnesium chlorate to obtain neutral curing liquid, then adding the Na-waste brick matrix obtained in the step (2) into the neutral curing pool, just completely immersing the Na-waste brick matrix, and standing and curing at the temperature of 20-30 ℃ for 16 hours to obtain a biological Na-waste brick matrix; wherein the mass fraction of nitrobacteria in the neutral solidified liquid is 2%, the mass fraction of the bean cake powder is 0.8%, the mass fraction of the corn starch is 1.5%, the mass fraction of the monopotassium phosphate is 0.07%, and the mass fraction of the magnesium chlorate is 0.1%;
(4) and (3) aiming at domestic sewage containing more nitrogen, uniformly mixing the biological Na-waste brick matrix obtained in the step (3), the Na-waste brick matrix obtained in the step (2), the Al-waste brick matrix and zeolite according to a dry weight ratio of 1:2:2:2 to obtain the biological Na-waste brick.
The waste bricks or building blocks are derived from construction wastes, the nitrifying bacteria, the bean cake powder, the corn starch, the potassium dihydrogen phosphate and the magnesium phosphate are common commercial products, the nitrifying bacteria are selected from third-generation nitrifying bacteria of Defeng biotechnology limited company, and the bean cake powder is non-transgenic bean cake powder of Heilongjiang eight flag grain and oil limited company. The main parameters of the belt conveyor are: the belt width is 400mm, the conveying length is 12-20 m, the power is 2.2-4 kW, the conveying speed is 1.25-2.0 m/s, and the conveying capacity is 5-15 t/h; the main parameters of the crusher are: the specification phi is 1000mm multiplied by 700mm, the size of a feed inlet is 400mm multiplied by 730mm, the maximum feed size is 250mm, the processing capacity is 10-20 t/h, and the electrode power is 10-20 kW; the main parameters of the coarse grinding equipment are as follows: the diameter of the rotor is 750mm, the length of the rotor is 800mm, the speed of the rotor is 800-1000 r/min, the maximum feeding granularity is less than 70mm, the discharging granularity is 0-3 mm, the processing capacity is 10-25 t/h, and the power of the motor is 25 kW.
The artificial containing modified waste bricks is obtained by adopting the preparation methodThe wetland composite substrate is tested to have the porosity of 40.1 percent and the bulk density of 0.88g/cm3Specific surface area of 6.2m2/g。
Na-waste brick matrix and broken bricks with the same mass are respectively added into sewage containing 100mg/L ammonia nitrogen according to the adding amount of 10g/L, and the saturated adsorption capacity of the Na-waste brick matrix to ammonia nitrogen is improved by about 3 times compared with that of the broken bricks; the Al-waste brick matrix and the broken bricks with the same mass are respectively added into sewage containing 100mg/L of phosphorus according to the adding amount of 10g/L, and the saturated adsorption capacity of the Al-waste brick matrix to the phosphorus is improved by 3.5 times compared with the broken bricks.
And (3) adding 2g of the biological Na-waste brick matrix obtained in the step (3) and 5g of the Na-waste brick matrix obtained in the step (2) into 0.4L of same sewage respectively, wherein the sewage contains 50mg/L of ammonia nitrogen, the removal rate of the ammonia nitrogen in the sewage treated by the biological Na-waste brick matrix reaches more than 99% after 50min, and the removal rate of the ammonia nitrogen in the sewage treated by the Na-waste brick matrix reaches more than 99% after 90 min.
When in use, 80cm of the artificial wetland composite substrate is paved above the waterproof layer of the artificial wetland, then about 10cm of soil layer is covered, and aquatic plants are planted. And (3) introducing sewage into the artificial wetland, wherein the ammonia nitrogen content in the sewage is 50mg/L, the phosphorus content in the sewage is 20mg/L, the sewage flows through the artificial wetland in an underflow manner and is discharged after 30 min, and the removal rate of ammonia nitrogen and phosphorus reaches more than 99%.
Example 2
A preparation method of an artificial wetland composite matrix containing modified waste bricks comprises the following steps:
(1) conveying waste bricks or building blocks with the diameter not more than 250mm to a crusher by using a belt conveyor for primary crushing, conveying the crushed products to coarse powder grinding equipment by using the belt conveyor for further crushing, and sieving to obtain crushed bricks with the particle size of 5-25 mm;
(2) adding the broken bricks obtained in the step (1) into a NaCl solution, completely submerging the broken bricks with the NaCl solution, soaking for 1.5 hours at the temperature of 20-25 ℃, stirring for 1.5 hours, then washing for 3 times, filtering and drying to obtain a Na-waste brick matrix; simultaneously, adding AlCl into the broken bricks obtained in the step (1)3In solution and AlCl3Completely submerging broken bricks in the solution, soaking for 1.5 hours at the temperature of 20-25 ℃, stirring for 1.5 hours, then washing for 3 times, filtering and drying to obtain an Al-waste brick matrix; wherein the mass fraction of the NaCl solution is 4 percent, and the AlCl solution3The mass fraction of the solution is 4 percent;
(3) adding water into a neutral curing pool, adding nitrobacteria, bean cake powder, corn starch, potassium dihydrogen phosphate and magnesium chlorate to obtain neutral curing liquid, then adding the Na-waste brick matrix obtained in the step (2) into the neutral curing pool, just completely immersing the Na-waste brick matrix, and standing and curing at 20-30 ℃ for 24 hours to obtain biological Na-waste brick matrix; wherein the mass fraction of nitrobacteria in the neutral solidified liquid is 2%, the mass fraction of the bean cake powder is 0.8%, the mass fraction of the corn starch is 1.5%, the mass fraction of the monopotassium phosphate is 0.07%, and the mass fraction of the magnesium chlorate is 0.1%;
(4) and (3) aiming at domestic sewage containing more phosphorus, sequentially paving zeolite, the biological sodium-waste brick matrix obtained in the step (3), the Na-waste brick matrix obtained in the step (2) and the Al-waste brick matrix according to a dry weight ratio of 2:1:2:5 from bottom to top, and thus obtaining the biological sodium-waste brick.
The waste bricks or building blocks are derived from construction waste, the nitrobacteria liquid, the bean cake powder, the corn starch, the monopotassium phosphate and the magnesium phosphate are common commercial products, and the main parameters of the belt conveyor are as follows: the belt width is 400mm, the conveying length is 12-20 m, the power is 2.2-4 kW, the conveying speed is 1.25-2.0 m/s, and the conveying capacity is 5-15 t/h; the main parameters of the crusher are: the specification phi is 1000mm multiplied by 700mm, the size of a feed inlet is 400mm multiplied by 730mm, the maximum feed size is 250mm, the processing capacity is 10-20 t/h, and the electrode power is 10-20 kW; the main parameters of the coarse grinding equipment are as follows: the diameter of the rotor is 750mm, the length of the rotor is 800mm, the speed of the rotor is 800-1000 r/min, the maximum feeding granularity is less than 70mm, the discharging granularity is 0-3 mm, the processing capacity is 10-25 t/h, and the power of the motor is 25 kW.
The artificial wetland composite substrate containing the modified waste bricks is obtained by the preparation method, and tests show that the porosity is 45.3 percent and the bulk density is 0.91g/cm3Specific surface area of 5.5m2/g。
Na-waste brick matrix and broken bricks with the same mass are respectively added into sewage containing 100mg/L ammonia nitrogen according to the adding amount of 10g/L, and the saturated adsorption capacity of the Na-waste brick matrix to ammonia nitrogen is improved by about 3 times compared with that of the broken bricks; the Al-waste brick matrix and the broken bricks with the same mass are respectively added into sewage containing 100mg/L of phosphorus according to the adding amount of 10g/L, and the saturated adsorption capacity of the Al-waste brick matrix to the phosphorus is improved by 3.5 times compared with the broken bricks.
And (3) adding 2g of the biological Na-waste brick matrix obtained in the step (3) and 5g of the Na-waste brick matrix obtained in the step (2) into 0.4L of same sewage respectively, wherein the sewage contains 50mg/L of ammonia nitrogen, the removal rate of the ammonia nitrogen in the sewage treated by the biological Na-waste brick matrix reaches more than 99% after 50min, and the removal rate of the ammonia nitrogen in the sewage treated by the Na-waste brick matrix reaches more than 99% after 90 min.
When in use, 80cm of the artificial wetland composite substrate is paved above the waterproof layer of the artificial wetland, then about 10cm of soil layer is covered, and aquatic plants are planted. And (3) introducing sewage into the artificial wetland, wherein the ammonia nitrogen content in the sewage is 20mg/L, the phosphorus content in the sewage is 50mg/L, the sewage flows through the artificial wetland in an underflow manner and is discharged after 30 min, and the removal rate of ammonia nitrogen and phosphorus reaches more than 99%.

Claims (1)

1. The artificial wetland containing the modified waste bricks is characterized in that: laying 80cm of artificial wetland composite substrate above a waterproof layer of the artificial wetland, then covering a 10cm soil layer, and planting aquatic plants, wherein the artificial wetland composite substrate is formed by laying biological sodium-waste brick substrate, aluminum-waste brick substrate and zeolite in a dry weight ratio of 1: 1.5-2.5: 2-8: 1.5-2.5 in a layering manner, and the sodium-waste brick substrate is not positioned on the uppermost layer during layering; the porosity of the constructed wetland composite substrate containing the modified waste bricks is 39-47.3%, and the bulk density is 0.85-0.94 g/cm3
The sodium-waste brick matrix and the aluminum-waste brick matrix are prepared according to the following steps:
(1) crushing and sieving the waste bricks or building blocks to obtain crushed bricks with the particle size of 5-25 mm;
(2) adding the broken bricks obtained in the step (1) into a sodium chloride solution and an aluminum chloride solution respectively, completely submerging the broken bricks in the solution, soaking for 1-2 hours, stirring for 0.5-2 hours, washing with water, filtering, and drying to obtain a sodium-waste brick matrix and an aluminum-waste brick matrix; wherein the mass fraction of the sodium chloride solution is 0.5-5%, and the mass fraction of the aluminum chloride solution is 0.5-5%;
the biological sodium-waste brick matrix is prepared according to the following steps:
adding the sodium-waste brick matrix into a neutral curing liquid, completely submerging the sodium-waste brick matrix in the neutral curing liquid, and standing and curing at 20-30 ℃ for 16-24 hours to obtain a biological sodium-waste brick matrix; the neutral solidified liquid is an aqueous solution containing 2-5% of nitrobacteria, 0.5-2% of bean cake powder, 1-4% of corn starch, 0.02-0.2% of monopotassium phosphate and 0.02-0.2% of magnesium chlorate.
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