CN105830711B - Submerged plant patch inlays the ecological method for controlling and giving birth to filamentous algae hyper-proliferative - Google Patents

Submerged plant patch inlays the ecological method for controlling and giving birth to filamentous algae hyper-proliferative Download PDF

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CN105830711B
CN105830711B CN201610208770.4A CN201610208770A CN105830711B CN 105830711 B CN105830711 B CN 105830711B CN 201610208770 A CN201610208770 A CN 201610208770A CN 105830711 B CN105830711 B CN 105830711B
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submerged plant
algae
water
plant
patch
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CN105830711A (en
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吴振斌
蔺庆伟
刘碧云
马剑敏
张义
周巧红
代志刚
曾磊
谭谈
贺锋
徐栋
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Institute of Hydrobiology of CAS
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G22/00Cultivation of specific crops or plants not otherwise provided for
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G33/00Cultivation of seaweed or algae
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C02TREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02FTREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02F3/00Biological treatment of water, waste water, or sewage
    • C02F3/32Biological treatment of water, waste water, or sewage characterised by the animals or plants used, e.g. algae
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02ATECHNOLOGIES FOR ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02A40/00Adaptation technologies in agriculture, forestry, livestock or agroalimentary production
    • Y02A40/80Adaptation technologies in agriculture, forestry, livestock or agroalimentary production in fisheries management
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02WCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES RELATED TO WASTEWATER TREATMENT OR WASTE MANAGEMENT
    • Y02W10/00Technologies for wastewater treatment
    • Y02W10/10Biological treatment of water, waste water, or sewage

Abstract

It is inlayed the invention discloses a kind of submerged plant patch and controls the ecological method for giving birth to filamentous algae hyper-proliferative, step is: 1) investigating the area to be restored depth of water, water flow, transparency, deposit, nutritive salt, planktonic organism and filamentous algae water environment;2) nylon rope purse seine is used, pendant net contact substrate is artificial to expel if more herbivorous fishes in submerged plant patch mosaic structure recovery district;3) the recovery district water environment obtained according to investigation selects submerged plant type;4) according to submerged plant locating ecological niche, growth and breeding and water level under water, submerged plant patch mosaic structure is designed;5) it is planted by the submerged plant patch mosaic structure of design being sunk in a manner of Cheng Cong;6) periodic monitoring submerged plant growing way.It solves the problems, such as that submerged plant survival rate is low, underwater ecological niche is single, restores submerged plant cover degree and be up to 70%;Effectively control that eutrophic lake is low to wait raw silk shape algae abnormality proliferation, raw filamentous algae growth rate averagely decline 35%.

Description

Submerged plant patch inlays the ecological method for controlling and giving birth to filamentous algae hyper-proliferative
Technical field
The invention belongs to landscape water body restoration of the ecosystem, surface water quality improves and is promoted field, is more particularly to a kind of shallow The ecological method for giving birth to filamentous algae hyper-proliferative is controlled in water eutrophication lake by building submerged vegetation patch mosaic structure, The conversion of control improvement and the turbid type water body of algae to the clear type water body of water plant suitable for shallow lake eutrophication.
Background technique
The eutrophication of the water bodys such as shallow lake, reservoir will affect Regional Economic Development and social harmony, therefore by society Meeting all circles more and more pay attention to.The outburst of especially Filamentous algal tufa can largely consume the dissolved oxygen in water body, discharge toxic substance, Water pollution is caused, the growth of other aquatiles is influenced.Submerged plant improves self detergent power of lake, stabilization due to having Substrate inhibits the ecological functions such as algal grown by allelopathy, by the life as a kind of important control water eutrophication State technology is widely used for repairing and improving the Lake Water ecosystem.
With the recovery and reconstruction of submerged plant, be suitable for clear water state raw filamentous algae also can mass propagation, undue growth. In aquatic ecosystem, equally be used as primary producer, raw silk shape algae can with submerged plant compete illumination, nutrition and dissolution The ecological resources such as oxygen, and growth and breeding is rapid, and in the case where condition is suitable for situation, biomass increases severely, and influences the growth of submerged plant. On the other hand, rotten algae may discharge some substances for being unfavorable for submerged plant growth.Currently, the control for filamentous algae Mainly there are physics, chemistry and ecological method, but the physical methods cost such as aeration, salvaging and late maintenance cost are higher, are suitble to Small-scale Landscape Water Bodies;The method for launching chemical agent can generate secondary pollution, have long term toxicity effect.Ecological method is mainly Inhibit its growth and breeding, applied widely, nothing two using the restrictive ecological factor in Filamentous algae growth course and environment Secondary pollution, lasts are good, have stability and specificity, are easy to replicate and manage.
Submerged plant patch, which is inlayed, refers to that various submerged plants form patch not of uniform size, various Plant patch phases in water It mutually inlays, combine, to constitute the group that a kind of special heterogeneity is larger, structure is more complex.Reasonable construction submerged plant patch Mosaic structure, function Consistency Regulation principle and submerged plant heterogeneous by different biotype submerged plant ecological niche space-times Ecological algae control can be realized by generating allelopathy to algae.The process is related to the profile, ecological niche, the succession of community, life of group Multiple theories such as object diversity, final purpose are to establish that bio-diversity is higher, the preferable Health- Ecosystem of stability, are inhibited The hyper-proliferative of raw filamentous algae.
Summary of the invention
For the deficiencies in the prior art, the purpose of the invention is to provide a kind of submerged plant patches to inlay The ecological method for giving birth to filamentous algae hyper-proliferative is controlled, using submerged plant ecological niche space-time is heterogeneous and function Consistency Regulation is former Reason competes ecological resources using submerged plant and realizes ecological algae control to algae allelopathy.This method is easy to operate, and design is closed Reason, ecological, environmental protective, convenient for being widely popularized, the compound group of rapid build submerged plant patch mosaic structure, formation tool " upper-in- Under " the submerged forest Distribution Pattern of vertical gradient, underwater ecological niche is sufficiently occupied, with Filamentous algae competition illumination, nutritive salt, molten The ecological resources such as oxygen and growing space, while allelopathy is generated against raw silk shape algae, it solves current submerged plant and restores Underwater ecological niche Single-issue present in reconstruction also effectively inhibits in water raw silk shape algae excessive proliferation.
In order to achieve the above technical purposes, this invention takes following technical measures:
A kind of submerged plant patch inlays the ecological method for controlling and giving birth to filamentous algae hyper-proliferative, the steps include:
1) water environments such as the area to be restored depth of water, water flow, transparency, deposit, nutritive salt, planktonic organism and filamentous algae are investigated Feature designs submerged plant patch mosaic structure recovery district area and shape;
2) along recovery district periphery, every 4-6m follows closely stake, with solid fine and closely woven nylon rope purse seine, pendant net contact substrate.If heavy More herbivorous fishes (grass carp, crucian, carp, catfish etc.) in water Plant patch mosaic structure recovery district, can be caught taking human as net or It drives away;
3) according to the recovery district Features of Water Environment investigated in step 1), according to submerged plant plant height, leaf area, root system Feature and whether have allelopathic algal control effect, select suitable submerged plant type eel grass, black algae, hornwort, watermifoil, comb tooth eye Sub- dish and Potamogeton maackianu is one such or any combination;
4) according to selected submerged plant locating ecological niche, growth and breeding feature and suitable water level (0.6-1.8m under water Left and right), scientific and reasonable design submerged plant patch mosaic structure, every kind of plantation it is several (depending on the area of recovery district, general 20- 50 square metres) square metre, block one by one is formed, is spaced 2-3m between two kinds of plant blocks.Eel grass type, black algae type, canopy are high Large-scale plant had not only been intersected but also complementary, the above eel grass type, black algae type, canopy large-diameter plant cultivated area ratio about 5:3:2, with hardship Other water plants of arranging in pairs or groups based on grass form similar land " arbor-shrub-ground quilt " and are vertically and horizontally distributed.
The black algae type is black algae, hornwort;The canopy large-diameter is watermifoil, comb tooth bog pondweed and micro- tooth eye Sub- dish is one such or any combination.
5) pass through cultivation heavy in a manner of Cheng Cong or the selected heavy water of cuttage plantation by the submerged plant patch mosaic structure of design Plant eel grass, black algae, hornwort, watermifoil, comb tooth bog pondweed and Potamogeton maackianu is one such or any combination, reach institute Submerged plant density (12-15 clumps/m needed2, 10 plants/m2) and growth conditions.Eel grass type, black algae type, three type of canopy large-diameter Existing " high-medium-low " vertical demixing of type submerged plant has horizontal cross distribution again, sufficiently occupies underwater ecological niche, continuous, rigid with water The ecological resources such as the Filamentous algae competition illumination such as hair algae, nutritive salt, dissolved oxygen and growing space, while utilizing opposite raw silk shape algae Allelopathy, be finally reached effectively control filamentous algae purpose.
6) periodically (every 3 days or 5 days or one week or 10 days) monitor submerged plant growing way, and plant highest plant height is no more than water Face.It monitors the decline of filamentous algae growth rate and biomass reduces situation.Submerged plant cover degree reaches 70% or so, raw silk shape algae Growth rate decline 35% or so.
Compared with prior art, the present invention having the following advantages that and effect:
Using submerged plant ecological niche space-time is heterogeneous and function Consistency Regulation principle, building submerged plant patch inlays lattice Office realizes ecological algae control using submerged plant competition ecological resources and to algae allelopathy.It is root in place of technology of the invention According to waters Features of Water Environment to be restored and plant biotype, reproductive characteristic, selection, the submerged plant patch edge for configuring proper proportion Embedding pattern.The present invention effectively controls that eutrophic lake is low to wait raw silk shape algae abnormality proliferation, raw filamentous algae growth rate Averagely decline 35 % or so;Survival rate is low during solving current recovery submerged plant, and the single problem of underwater ecological niche is extensive Multiple submerged plant cover degree may be up to 70% or so.This method design is reasonable, easy to operate, ecological, environmental protective, convenient for being widely popularized and imitating Fruit duration is good.
The beneficial effects of the present invention are inhibition eutrophic lake raw silk shape algae excessive proliferation, efficiently restore rapidly Degeneration lake submerged vegetation group, cover degree are up to 70% or so, and the nutrient concentrations such as TN, TP decline 30.8% and 43.3% left side respectively The right side, aquatic organism diversity increase by 50% or so, realize that the turbid type water body of algae turns to the careless type of clear water (1.8 m or more of transparency) It changes.
Detailed description of the invention
Fig. 1 is a kind of submerged plant patch mosaic structure tactic pattern figure.
Description of symbols in figure: 1- aquarium or nylon purse seine, 2- eel grass type submerged plant, the black algae type submerged plant of 3-, 4- Canopy large-diameter submerged plant.
Specific embodiment
In order to better understand the present invention, below with reference to the embodiment content that the present invention is furture elucidated, but in the present invention Appearance is not limited only to embodiment.
Embodiment 1:
A kind of submerged plant patch inlays the ecological method for controlling and giving birth to filamentous algae hyper-proliferative, the steps include:
1) several specifications identical cm of aquarium 1(L × W × H=70 is set outside the present embodiment choice experiment room The cm of × 50 cm × 80), the lake mud of 15 cm or so thickness, addition 60 cm of the depth of water or so, each Shui nationality are laid in aquarium Cylinder is a submerged plant patch mosaic structure recovery district.
2) whether according to submerged plant plant height, leaf area and root characteristics and with allelopathic algal control effect, it is suitable heavy to select Water plant eel grass type 2(eel grass), the black algae of black algae type 3(, hornwort), canopy large-diameter 4(watermifoil, comb tooth bog pondweed and micro- tooth Bog pondweed is one such or any combination).
3) according to selected submerged plant underwater locating ecological niche, growth and breeding feature and suitable water level (0.6 or 0.8 or 1 1.2 or 1.4 or 1.6 or 1.8m or so), scientific and reasonable design submerged plant patch mosaic structure is divided into 12 small patches, presses Eel grass type, black algae type and the plantation of canopy large-diameter 5:3:2 patch mosaic structure cross complementary.It is planted respectively in aquarium identical (150 plants/m of density2) single submerged plant (eel grass, hornwort, watermifoil, black algae, comb tooth bog pondweed, Potamogeton maackianu its One of) and submerged plant patch mosaic community (eel grass+black algae+watermifoil, eel grass+hornwort+Potamogeton maackianu, eel grass+ Black algae+comb tooth bog pondweed is one such or any combination), other water plants of being arranged in pairs or groups based on eel grass form similar land " arbor- Shrub-ground quilt " is vertically and horizontally distributed.Add same amount of raw silk shape algae respectively simultaneously.
4) selected submerged plant is planted by cuttage, reaches (150 plants/m of set submerged plant density2), it is eel grass type, black Algae type, canopy large-diameter submerged plant " high-medium-low " vertical demixing have horizontal cross distribution again, sufficiently occupy underwater ecological niche, The ecological resources such as illumination, nutritive salt, dissolved oxygen and growing space are competed with Filamentous algae, while utilizing the change against raw silk shape algae Sense effect, final effectively control filamentous algae excessively increase.
5) every 3 days or 5 days or one week monitoring submerged plant growing ways, plant highest plant height are no more than the water surface.Monitor filamentous algae Growth rate decline and biomass reduce situation.Submerged plant growth is good after 2 months, and cover degree basically reaches 90% or more.
6) the result shows that compared with single submerged plant, kind planting submerged plant patch mosaic community more inhibits the present embodiment The growth of raw filamentous algae.Submerged plant patch mosaic community water body chlorophyll alpha content reduces more;Eel grass+black algae+watermifoil Relatively individually three kinds of water plants of plantation when filamentous algae growth rate be averaged relative reduction 37%, eel grass+hornwort+Potamogeton maackianu is more independent Filamentous algae growth rate is averaged relative reduction 31.3% when planting three kinds of water plants, and eel grass+black algae+comb tooth bog pondweed more individually plants three Filamentous algae growth rate is averaged relative reduction 34.2% when kind of water plant.
Embodiment 2:
A kind of submerged plant patch inlays the ecological method for controlling and giving birth to filamentous algae hyper-proliferative, the steps include:
1) it investigates the depth of water of the Hangzhou West Lake west water inlet port domain Mao Jia lake region, water flow, transparency, deposit, nutritive salt, swim The Features of Water Environment such as biology and filamentous algae select the waters being located near the mountain Ding Jia to inlay as submerged plant patch and control life The submerged plant patch mosaic structure area (m of 36m × 25m=900 is designed in filamentous algae hyper-proliferative pilot scale region2) and shape (rectangle), the region depth of water is within the scope of 1.1-1.8 m.
2) stake is followed closely along pilot scale area periphery every 4 or 5 or 6m, with solid fine and closely woven 1 purse seine of nylon wire, pendant net contact substrate.Such as More herbivorous fishes in fruit submerged plant patch mosaic structure recovery district, can catch or drive away taking human as net.
3) according to the recovery district Features of Water Environment and submerged plant plant height, leaf area, root characteristics investigated in step 1) And whether have allelopathic algal control effect, select suitable submerged plant: eel grass type 2(eel grass), the black algae of black algae type 3(, hornwort), Canopy large-diameter 4(watermifoil, comb tooth bog pondweed and Potamogeton maackianu is one such or any combination).
4) ecological niche underwater locating according to selected submerged plant, growth and breeding feature and suitable water level (0.6 or 0.9 or 1.3 or 1.5 or 1.8m or so), scientific and reasonable design submerged plant patch mosaic structure is divided into 12 patches, every two patch It is spaced 2m.Eel grass type, black algae type, canopy large-diameter three types plant patch had not only been intersected but also complementary in 5:3:2 ratio, with eel grass Based on other water plants of arranging in pairs or groups form similar land " arbor-shrub-ground quilt " vertical demixing and horizontal distribution.
5) selected sink is planted by the heavy plantation of soil package in a manner of Cheng Cong by the submerged plant patch mosaic structure of design Water plant, every kind of submerged plant planting 50 or 70 or 95 or 130 or 150 m2, 15 clumps every square metre or so, 10 plants/clump are formed One patch.Canopy large-diameter 4(watermifoil, comb tooth bog pondweed, Potamogeton maackianu) 1 or 2 m high can be grown, water body upper layer is occupied, Upper layer nutritive salt and sunlight are competed with algae;The black algae of the black algae type 3(of middle layer plant, hornwort) underwater middle layer can be occupy;It is short and small Plant eel grass type 2(eel grass) bottom is taken root, occupy underwater lower ecological niche.So they sufficiently occupy underwater ecological niche, with silk Shape algae competes the ecological resources such as illumination, nutritive salt, dissolved oxygen and growing space, while being made using the allelopathic against raw silk shape algae With, be finally reached effectively control filamentous algae purpose.
6) every 5 days or one week or 10 days monitoring submerged plant growing way, highest plant height are no more than the water surface.Monitor filamentous algae growth Rate decline and biomass reduce situation.Submerged vegetation recovery cover degree reaches 67.5 % after 2 months, forms the spot based on eel grass The Submerged plant communities of block mosaic structure, raw filamentous algae growth be well controlled.
7) invention trial work in the control of " 12th Five-Year Plan " country water special project West Lake lower algae abnormality proliferation ecology synthesis It is applied in journey and obtains good result.Monitoring result proves in pilot scale region that raw filamentous algae is grown and obviously controlled, Water quality is improved, and water transparency and bio-diversity significantly improve.In pilot scale research region raw silk shape algae content it is aobvious Writing reduces, by 93.2 DW/m of primary quantity2It is reduced to 51.8 DW/m2, growth rate decline 32.7%.Phytoplankton abundance obviously subtracts It is few, by May 2.688 × 105Ind/L drops to the 1.158 × 10 of October5ind/L;Species number first increases and declines afterwards, highest Reach 48 kinds, most months, its Margalef diversity indices pilot scale research area was big compared with check plot;Water body chlorophyll alpha content is most Reduce by 12.393 mg/L.

Claims (1)

1. a kind of submerged plant patch inlays the ecological method for controlling and giving birth to filamentous algae hyper-proliferative, the steps include:
1) the area to be restored depth of water, water flow, transparency, deposit, nutritive salt, planktonic organism and filamentous algae water environment, design are investigated Submerged plant patch mosaic structure recovery district area and shape;
2) along recovery district periphery, every 4-6m follows closely stake, and with nylon rope purse seine, pendant net contact substrate, submerged plant patch inlays lattice More herbivorous fishes in office recovery district, artificial net are caught or are driven away;
3) according to the recovery district water environment investigated in step 1), according to submerged plant plant height, leaf area, root system and there is change Feel algal control effect, selects submerged plant type eel grass, black algae, hornwort, watermifoil, comb tooth bog pondweed and Potamogeton maackianu wherein One kind or any combination;
4) according to selected submerged plant locating ecological niche, growth and breeding feature and water level under water, submerged plant patch is designed Mosaic structure, every kind of plantation 20-50 m2, block one by one is formed, is spaced 2-3m between two kinds of plant blocks, it is eel grass type, black Algae type, canopy large-diameter plant had not only been intersected but also complementary, eel grass type, black algae type, canopy large-diameter plant cultivated area ratio 5:3: 2, it forms similar land arbor-shrub-ground with eel grass other water plants of arranging in pairs or groups and is vertically and horizontally distributed;
The black algae type is black algae, hornwort;The canopy large-diameter is watermifoil, comb tooth bog pondweed and Potamogeton maackianu One such or any combination;
5) selected submerged plant is planted cultivation heavy in a manner of Cheng Cong or cuttage by the submerged plant patch mosaic structure of design Eel grass, black algae, hornwort, watermifoil, comb tooth bog pondweed and Potamogeton maackianu is one such or any combination, reach heavy water and plant Object density: 12-15 clumps/m2, 10 plants/m2And growth conditions: in the existing height-of eel grass type, black algae type, canopy large-diameter submerged plant- Low vertical demixing has horizontal cross distribution again, occupies underwater ecological niche, competes illumination, nutrition with water silk floss, bristle algal filament shape algae Salt, dissolved oxygen and growing space, while filamentous algae undue growth is controlled using the allelopathy against raw silk shape algae;
6) periodic monitoring submerged plant growing way, every 3 days or 5 days or one week or 10 days, plant highest strain was no more than the water surface, monitored silk The decline of shape algae growth rate and biomass are reduced.
CN201610208770.4A 2016-04-06 2016-04-06 Submerged plant patch inlays the ecological method for controlling and giving birth to filamentous algae hyper-proliferative Active CN105830711B (en)

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CN106954440A (en) * 2017-02-07 2017-07-18 江苏江达生态环境科技有限公司 A kind of method of shallow lake ecological recovery submerged vegetation
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