CN105830711A - Ecological method for controlling excessive proliferation of periphytic filamentous algae through submerged plant patch mosaic pattern - Google Patents

Ecological method for controlling excessive proliferation of periphytic filamentous algae through submerged plant patch mosaic pattern Download PDF

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CN105830711A
CN105830711A CN201610208770.4A CN201610208770A CN105830711A CN 105830711 A CN105830711 A CN 105830711A CN 201610208770 A CN201610208770 A CN 201610208770A CN 105830711 A CN105830711 A CN 105830711A
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submerged plant
algae
water
ecological
submerged
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CN105830711B (en
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吴振斌
蔺庆伟
刘碧云
马剑敏
张义
周巧红
代志刚
曾磊
谭谈
贺锋
徐栋
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Institute of Hydrobiology of CAS
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G22/00Cultivation of specific crops or plants not otherwise provided for
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G33/00Cultivation of seaweed or algae
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C02TREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02FTREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02F3/00Biological treatment of water, waste water, or sewage
    • C02F3/32Biological treatment of water, waste water, or sewage characterised by the animals or plants used, e.g. algae
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02ATECHNOLOGIES FOR ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02A40/00Adaptation technologies in agriculture, forestry, livestock or agroalimentary production
    • Y02A40/80Adaptation technologies in agriculture, forestry, livestock or agroalimentary production in fisheries management
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02WCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES RELATED TO WASTEWATER TREATMENT OR WASTE MANAGEMENT
    • Y02W10/00Technologies for wastewater treatment
    • Y02W10/10Biological treatment of water, waste water, or sewage

Abstract

The invention discloses an ecological method for controlling excessive proliferation of periphytic filamentous algae through a submerged plant patch mosaic pattern. The ecological method comprises steps as follows: 1), water environment features including water depth, water flow, transparency, sediments, nutritive salts, plankton and the filamentous algae of a to-be-restored area are surveyed; 2), purse seining is performed by the aid of nylon ropes, a purse seine is dropped to be contacted with the sediments, and if a number of herbivorous fishes exist in the submerged plant patch mosaic pattern restoration area, the herbivorous fishes are expelled manually; 3), submerged plant species are selected according to the restoration area water environment obtained through the survey; 4), the submerged plant patch mosaic pattern is designed according to underwater ecological niche, growth and propagation features and water level of submerged plants; 5), submerged planting is performed in a clustering manner according to the designed submerged plant patch mosaic pattern; 6), the growth vigor of the submerged plants is monitored regularly. With the adoption of the ecological method, the problems of low survival rate and single underwater ecological niche of the submerged plants are solved, and the cover degree of the restored submerged plants is up to 70%; abnormal proliferation of the low-grade periphytic filamentous algae in a lake with eutrophication is effectively controlled, and the growth rate of the periphytic filamentous algae is reduced by 35% averagely.

Description

Submerged plant speckle inlays the ecological method controlling to give birth to filamentous algae hyper-proliferative
Technical field
The invention belongs to landscape water body restoration of the ecosystem, surface water quality improves and the field of lifting, is more particularly to a kind of shallow Water eutrophication lake controls to give birth to the ecological method of filamentous algae hyper-proliferative by structure submerged vegetation speckle mosaic structure, The control being applicable to shallow lake eutrophication is administered, and algae turbid type water body is to the conversion of pasture and water clear type water body.
Background technology
The eutrophication meeting influence area economic development of the water body such as shallow lake, reservoir and social harmony, therefore suffer from society Can all circles more and more pay attention to.The outburst of the most thread algal tufa can consume the dissolved oxygen in water body in a large number, discharges toxic substance, Cause water pollution, affect other hydrobiological growths.Submerged plant is owing to having raising lake oneself's detergent power, stablizing Substrate, by the allelopathy suppression ecological functions such as algal grown, by as a kind of important life controlling body eutrophication State technology, is widely used for repairing and improving Lake Water ecosystem.
Along with recovery and the reconstruction of submerged plant, suitable clear water state raw filamentous algae also can amount reproduction, undue growth. In aquatic ecosystem, equally as primary producer, raw silk shape algae and can compete illumination, nutrition and dissolving with submerged plant The ecological resources such as oxygen, and growth and breeding is rapid, and in the case of condition is suitable, Biomass increases severely, and affects the growth of submerged plant. On the other hand, the algae rotted may discharge some materials being unfavorable for submerged plant growth.Control currently for filamentous algae Mainly there are physics, chemistry and ecological method, but the physical method cost such as aeration, salvaging and later maintenance are costly, be suitable for Small-scale Landscape Water Bodies;The method throwing in chemical agent can produce secondary pollution, has long term toxicity effect.Ecological method is mainly Utilize the restrictive ecological factor in thread algae growth course and environment to suppress its growth and breeding, applied widely, without two Secondary pollution, lasts is good, there is stability and specificity, be prone to replicate and management.
Submerged plant speckle is inlayed and is referred to that in water, various submerged plants form speckle not of uniform size, various Plant patch phases Inlay mutually, combine, thus constitute the group that a kind of special heterogeneity is relatively big, structure is more complicated.Reasonable construction submerged plant speckle Mosaic structure, heterogeneous by different living form submerged plant Ecological niche space-times, function Consistency Regulation principle, and submerged plant Algae is produced allelopathy and can realize ecological algae control.This process relates to the profile of group, the Ecological niche, the succession of community, life Multiple theories such as thing multiformity, final purpose is to set up that bio-diversity is higher, the preferable Health-Ecosystem of stability, suppression The hyper-proliferative of raw filamentous algae.
Summary of the invention
For the deficiencies in the prior art, it is an object of the invention to there are provided a kind of submerged plant speckle and inlay Controlling to give birth to the ecological method of filamentous algae hyper-proliferative, employing submerged plant Ecological niche space-time is heterogeneous and function Consistency Regulation is former Reason, utilizes submerged plant competition ecological resources and algae allelopathy is realized ecological algae control.The method is simple to operate, and design is closed Reason, ecological, environmental protective, it is simple to be widely popularized, the compound group of rapid build submerged plant speckle mosaic structure, formation tool " upper-in- Under " the submerged forest Distribution Pattern of vertical gradient, fully occupy the Ecological niche under water, with thread algae competition illumination, nutritive salt, molten The ecological resources such as oxygen and growing space, produce allelopathy facing to raw silk shape algae simultaneously, solve current submerged plant and recover Ecological niche Single-issue under water present in reconstruction, the most effectively inhibits in water raw silk shape algae excessive propagation.
In order to realize above-mentioned technical purpose, this invention takes following technical measures:
A kind of submerged plant speckle inlays the ecological method controlling to give birth to filamentous algae hyper-proliferative, the steps include:
1) water environments such as the area to be restored depth of water, current, transparency, deposit, nutritive salt, plankton and filamentous algae are investigated special Levy, design submerged plant speckle mosaic structure recovery district area and shape;
2) stake is followed closely along the every 4-6m of recovery district periphery, with solid fine and closely woven nylon rope purse seine, pendant net contact substrate.If heavy water is planted In thing speckle mosaic structure recovery district, many herbivorous fisheses (Ctenopharyngodon idellus, Carassius auratus, Cyprinus carpio, Silurus asotus fish etc.), artificially can catch or drive by net Go out;
3) according to step 1) is investigated the recovery district Features of Water Environment obtained, according to submerged plant plant height, leaf area, root characteristics And whether there is allelopathic algal control effect, select suitable submerged plant kind Herba vallisneriae Spiralis, black algae, hornwort, watermifoil, Bi Chi Herba potamogetonis distincti One therein with Potamogeton maackianu or combination in any;
4) according to the Ecological niche, growth and breeding feature and suitable water level (the 0.6-1.8m left side that selected submerged plant is residing under water Right), scientific and reasonable design submerged plant speckle mosaic structure, every kind of plantation some (depending on the area of recovery district, general 20-50 Square metre) square metre, form block one by one, between two kinds of plant blocks, be spaced 2-3m.Herba vallisneriae Spiralis type, black algae type, canopy are tall and big Type plant is not only intersected but also complementary, and the high large-scale plant cultivated area ratio about 5:3:2 of above Herba vallisneriae Spiralis type, black algae type, canopy, with Herba vallisneriae Spiralis It is that other pasture and water of main collocation form similar land " arbor-shrub-ground quilt " and are vertically and horizontally distributed.
Described black algae type is black algae, hornwort;Described canopy is high large-scale for watermifoil, Bi Chi Herba potamogetonis distincti and micro-tooth eye Sub-dish one therein or combination in any.
5) plant or the selected heavy water of cuttage plantation by the submerged plant speckle mosaic structure of design is heavy by the way of with Cheng Cong Plant Herba vallisneriae Spiralis, black algae, hornwort, watermifoil, Bi Chi Herba potamogetonis distincti and Potamogeton maackianu one therein or combination in any, reach institute Submerged plant density (12-15 clump/the m needed2, 10 strains/m2) and growth conditions.High large-scale three kinds of Herba vallisneriae Spiralis type, black algae type, canopy Type submerged plant existing " high-medium-low " vertical demixing has again horizontal cross to be distributed, and fully occupies the Ecological niche under water, continuous with water, just The ecological resources such as the competition illumination of the thread algae such as Mao Zao, nutritive salt, dissolved oxygen and growing space, utilize facing to raw silk shape algae simultaneously Allelopathy, be finally reached the purpose effectively controlling filamentous algae.
6) periodically (every 3 days or 5 days or one week or 10 days) monitor submerged plant growing way, and the highest plant height of plant is less than water Face.Monitoring filamentous algae rate of growth declines and Biomass reduces situation.Submerged plant cover degree reaches about 70%, raw silk shape algae Rate of growth declines about 35%.
The present invention compared with prior art, has the following advantages and effect:
Use submerged plant Ecological niche space-time heterogeneous and function Consistency Regulation principle, build submerged plant speckle mosaic structure profit With submerged plant competition ecological resources and algae allelopathy is realized ecological algae control.It is in place of the technology of the present invention according to treating Recover waters Features of Water Environment and plant living form, reproductive characteristic, select, configure the submerged plant speckle of proper proportion to inlay lattice Office.The present invention effectively controls that eutrophic lake is low waits raw silk shape algae abnormality proliferation, raw filamentous algae rate of growth average Decline about 35 %;During solving current recovery submerged plant, survival rate is low, the problem that the Ecological niche is single under water, recovers heavy Water plant cover degree may be up to about 70%.The method is reasonable in design, simple to operate, ecological, environmental protective, it is simple to be widely popularized and effect is held Continuous property is good.
The beneficial effects of the present invention is suppression eutrophic lake and raw silk shape algae excessive propagation, recover the most rapidly Degeneration lake submerged vegetation group, cover degree is up to about 70%, and it is left that the nutrient concentrations such as TN, TP declines 30.8% and 43.3% respectively The right side, aquatic organism multiformity increases about 50%, it is achieved algae turbid type water body turns to clear water (transparency 1.8 more than m) grass type Change.
Accompanying drawing explanation
Fig. 1 is a kind of submerged plant speckle mosaic structure structural models figure.
Description of symbols in figure: 1-aquarium or nylon purse seine, 2-Herba vallisneriae Spiralis type submerged plant, 3-black algae type submerged plant, 4- The high large-scale submerged plant of canopy.
Detailed description of the invention
In order to be better understood from the present invention, it is further elucidated with present disclosure below in conjunction with embodiment, but present invention is not It is only limited to embodiment.
Embodiment 1:
A kind of submerged plant speckle inlays the ecological method controlling to give birth to filamentous algae hyper-proliferative, the steps include:
1) the present embodiment choice experiment outdoor arranges aquarium 1(L × cm × 50, W × H=70 that some specifications are identical Cm × 80 cm), aquarium to be laid the thick lake mud of about 15 cm, adds the depth of water 60 about cm, each aquarium is one Submerged plant speckle mosaic structure recovery district.
2) according to submerged plant plant height, leaf area and root characteristics and whether have allelopathic algal control effect, it is suitable heavy to select Water plant Herba vallisneriae Spiralis type 2(Herba vallisneriae Spiralis), the black black algae of algae type 3(, hornwort), the high large-scale 4(watermifoil of canopy, Bi Chi Herba potamogetonis distincti and micro-tooth Herba potamogetonis distincti's one therein or combination in any).
3) according to the Ecological niche, growth and breeding feature and suitable water level (0.6 or 0.8 or 1 that selected submerged plant is residing under water Or 1.2 or 1.4 or 1.6 or about 1.8m), scientific and reasonable design submerged plant speckle mosaic structure, it is divided into 12 little specklees, presses The high large-scale 5:3:2 speckle mosaic structure cross complementary plantation of Herba vallisneriae Spiralis type, black algae type and canopy.Aquarium is planted respectively identical Density (150 strains/m2) single submerged plant (Herba vallisneriae Spiralis, hornwort, watermifoil, black algae, Bi Chi Herba potamogetonis distincti, Potamogeton maackianu its In one) with submerged plant speckle mosaic community (Herba vallisneriae Spiralis+black algae+watermifoil, Herba vallisneriae Spiralis+hornwort+Potamogeton maackianu, Herba vallisneriae Spiralis+ Black algae+Bi Chi Herba potamogetonis distincti one therein or combination in any), with Herba vallisneriae Spiralis be other pasture and water of main collocation formed similar land " arbor- Shrub-ground quilt " vertically and horizontally it is distributed.Add same amount of raw silk shape algae the most respectively.
4) by the selected submerged plant of cuttage plantation, set submerged plant density (150 strains/m is reached2), Herba vallisneriae Spiralis type, black Algae type, canopy high large-scale submerged plant " high-medium-low " vertical demixing has again horizontal cross to be distributed, and fully occupies the Ecological niche under water, Compete the ecological resources such as illumination, nutritive salt, dissolved oxygen and growing space with thread algae, utilize the change facing to raw silk shape algae simultaneously Sense effect, the final filamentous algae that effectively controls excessively increases.
5) every 3 days or 5 days or one week monitoring submerged plant growing ways, the highest plant height of plant is less than the water surface.Monitoring filamentous algae Rate of growth declines and Biomass reduces situation.After February, submerged plant growth is good, and cover degree all basically reaches more than 90%.
6) the present embodiment result shows to compare with single submerged plant, plants planting submerged plant speckle mosaic community and more suppresses The growth of raw filamentous algae.Submerged plant speckle mosaic community water body chlorophyll alpha content reduces more;Herba vallisneriae Spiralis+black algae+watermifoil More individually during three kinds of pasture and water of plantation, filamentous algae rate of growth average relative reduces by 37%, and Herba vallisneriae Spiralis+hornwort+Potamogeton maackianu is more independent During three kinds of pasture and water of plantation, filamentous algae rate of growth average relative reduces by 31.3%, and Herba vallisneriae Spiralis+black algae+Bi Chi Herba potamogetonis distincti more individually plants three When planting pasture and water, filamentous algae rate of growth average relative reduces by 34.2%.
Embodiment 2:
A kind of submerged plant speckle inlays the ecological method controlling to give birth to filamentous algae hyper-proliferative, the steps include:
1) the investigation depth of water of lake region, Mao Jia port, water inlet territory, Hangzhou West Lake west, current, transparency, deposit, nutritive salt, plankton And the Features of Water Environment such as filamentous algae, select to be positioned at the waters near Ding Jiashan and inlay as submerged plant speckle and control raw silk shape Algae hyper-proliferative pilot scale region, designs submerged plant speckle mosaic structure area (36m × 25m=900 m2) and shape (square Shape), this region depth of water is in the range of 1.1-1.8 m.
2) stake is followed closely along pilot scale district periphery every 4 or 5 or 6m, with solid fine and closely woven nylon wire 1 purse seine, pendant net contact substrate.As Really many herbivorous fisheses in submerged plant speckle mosaic structure recovery district, artificially can catch or drive away by net.
3) according to the recovery district Features of Water Environment investigated in step 1) and submerged plant plant height, leaf area, root characteristics And whether there is allelopathic algal control effect, select suitable submerged plant: Herba vallisneriae Spiralis type 2(Herba vallisneriae Spiralis), the black black algae of algae type 3(, hornwort), The high large-scale 4(watermifoil of canopy, Bi Chi Herba potamogetonis distincti and Potamogeton maackianu one therein or combination in any).
4) according to the residing under water Ecological niche of selected submerged plant, growth and breeding feature and suitable water level (0.6 or 0.9 or 1.3 or 1.5 or about 1.8m), scientific and reasonable design submerged plant speckle mosaic structure, it is divided into 12 specklees, each two speckle Interval 2m.The high large-scale three types plant speckle of Herba vallisneriae Spiralis type, black algae type, canopy not only intersects but also complementary in 5:3:2 ratio, with Herba vallisneriae Spiralis It is that other pasture and water of main collocation form similar land " arbor-shrub-ground quilt " vertical demixing and horizontal distribution.
5) in the way of Cheng Cong, selected sink is planted by the heavy plantation of earth parcel by the submerged plant speckle mosaic structure of design Water plant, every kind of submerged plant planting 50 or 70 or 95 or 130 or 150 m2, every square metre about 15 clumps, 10 strains/clump, formed One speckle.Canopy high large-scale 4(watermifoil, Bi Chi Herba potamogetonis distincti, Potamogeton maackianu) 1 or 2 m height can be grown, occupy water body upper strata, With algae competition upper strata nutritive salt and sunlight;The middle level plant black algae black algae of type 3(, hornwort) intermediate layer under water can be occupy;Short and small Plant Herba vallisneriae Spiralis type 2(Herba vallisneriae Spiralis) take root the bottom, occupy the lower Ecological niche under water.So they fully occupy the Ecological niche under water, with silk The ecological resources such as the competition illumination of shape algae, nutritive salt, dissolved oxygen and growing space, utilize the allelopathic facing to raw silk shape algae to make simultaneously With, it is finally reached the purpose effectively controlling filamentous algae.
6) every 5 days or one week or 10 days monitoring submerged plant growing ways, the highest plant height is less than the water surface.Monitoring filamentous algae growth Rate declines and Biomass reduces situation.After 2 months, submerged vegetation recovery cover degree reaches 67.5 %, defines the speckle based on Herba vallisneriae Spiralis The Submerged plant communities of block mosaic structure, raw filamentous algae growth well controlled.
7) this invention trial work in " 12 " country water special project West Lake lower algae abnormality proliferation ecology synthesis controls Journey is applied and obtains good result.Monitoring result proves in pilot scale region that raw filamentous algae grows and is substantially controlled, Water quality is improved, and water transparency and bio-diversity significantly improve.In pilot scale research region raw silk shape algae content show Write and reduce, by primary quantity 93.2 DW/m2It is reduced to 51.8 DW/m2, rate of growth declines 32.7%.Phytoplankton abundance substantially subtracts Few, by May 2.688 × 105Ind/L drops to the 1.158 × 10 of October5ind/L;Species number first increases and declines afterwards, the highest Reaching 48 kinds, most months, its Margalef diversity indices pilot scale research district was big compared with check plot;Water body chlorophyll alpha content is most Reduce by 12.393 mg/L.

Claims (1)

1. submerged plant speckle inlays the ecological method controlling to give birth to filamentous algae hyper-proliferative, the steps include:
1) the investigation area to be restored depth of water, current, transparency, deposit, nutritive salt, plankton and filamentous algae water environment, design Submerged plant speckle mosaic structure recovery district area and shape;
2) following closely stake along the every 4-6m of recovery district periphery, use nylon rope purse seine, pendant net contact substrate, submerged plant speckle inlays lattice Many herbivorous fisheses in office recovery district, artificial net is caught or drives away;
3) according to step 1) is investigated the recovery district water environment obtained, according to submerged plant plant height, leaf area, root system and having Sense algal control effect, selects submerged plant kind Herba vallisneriae Spiralis, black algae, hornwort, watermifoil, Bi Chi Herba potamogetonis distincti and Potamogeton maackianu wherein One or combination in any;
4) according to the Ecological niche, growth and breeding feature and the water level that selected submerged plant is residing under water, submerged plant speckle is designed Mosaic structure, every kind of plantation 20-50 m2, form block one by one, between two kinds of plant blocks, be spaced 2-3m, Herba vallisneriae Spiralis type, black The high large-scale plant of algae type, canopy is not only intersected but also complementary, high large-scale plant cultivated area ratio 5:3 of Herba vallisneriae Spiralis type, black algae type, canopy: 2, form similar land arbor-shrub-ground be vertically and horizontally distributed with Herba vallisneriae Spiralis other pasture and water of arranging in pairs or groups;
Described black algae type is black algae, hornwort;Described canopy is high large-scale for watermifoil, Bi Chi Herba potamogetonis distincti and Potamogeton maackianu One therein or combination in any;
5) bitter by the submerged plant speckle mosaic structure of design heavy cultivation or the selected submerged plant of cuttage plantation by the way of with Cheng Cong Algae careless, black, hornwort, watermifoil, Bi Chi Herba potamogetonis distincti and Potamogeton maackianu one therein or combination in any, reach submerged plant Density: 12-15 clump/m2, 10 strains/m2And growth conditions: the high existing height of large-scale submerged plant of Herba vallisneriae Spiralis type, black algae type, canopy-medium-low Vertical demixing has again horizontal cross to be distributed, and occupies the Ecological niche under water, bristle algal filament shape algae competition illumination continuous with water, nutritive salt, The ecological resources such as dissolved oxygen and growing space, utilize the allelopathy facing to raw silk shape algae to control filamentous algae undue growth simultaneously;
6) periodic monitoring submerged plant growing way, every 3 days or 5 days or one week or 10 days, the highest strain of plant is less than the water surface, monitors silk Shape algae rate of growth declines and Biomass reduces.
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