CN105805729B - Low nox combustion method and low nox combustion system - Google Patents

Low nox combustion method and low nox combustion system Download PDF

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Publication number
CN105805729B
CN105805729B CN201410853837.0A CN201410853837A CN105805729B CN 105805729 B CN105805729 B CN 105805729B CN 201410853837 A CN201410853837 A CN 201410853837A CN 105805729 B CN105805729 B CN 105805729B
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China
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zone
burner
low nox
reburning
gas
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CN201410853837.0A
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Chinese (zh)
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CN105805729A (en
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李明
孙树翁
龚泽儒
宋林波
甄晓伟
李强
邹鹏
张超群
董永胜
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烟台龙源电力技术股份有限公司
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Abstract

The invention discloses a kind of low NOx combustion method and low NOx combustion systems.Low NOx combustion method includes:The excess air coefficient in the primary zone of main fuel input burner hearth (91), primary zone is less than 1;The excess air coefficient of the reburning zone positioned at primary zone downstream of reburning fuel input burner hearth (91), reburning zone is less than 1;The excess air coefficient of the burning-out zone positioned at reburning zone downstream of burnout degree input burner hearth (91), burning-out zone is more than 1.Present invention reasonable combination reburning technology on the basis of primary zone and burning-out zone carry out Researched of Air Staging Combustion Burning Pulverized Coal, can be reliably achieved the purpose of furnace outlet NOx low emissions, to realize higher NOx abatement rate.

Description

Low NOx combustion method and low NOx combustion system
Technical field
The present invention relates to thermal machine field, more particularly to a kind of low NOx combustion method and low NOx combustion system.
Background technology
The main component of coal is C, H, O, N, S etc., pollution pollutant that mainly its burning generate of the coal to environment Pollution to environment.It will produce a large amount of pollutant such as dust, SOx (oxysulfide, including SO after coal burning2、SO3、S2O3、 SO、S2O7And SO4), NOx (nitrogen oxides, including NO, NO2And N2) and CO O2Deng.In NOx, N2O can lead to greenhouse effects, NO And NO2It is considered as the major reason for causing ground level ozone, photochemical fog and acid rain to be formed.Therefore, NOx is considered as air One of main source of pollutant.
The NOx worldwide discharged by combustion of fossil fuels occupies significant proportion, example in all NOx emissions Such as, the NOx that coal burning generates accounts for the 67% of China's soot emissions NOx total amounts.How generation and the row of NOx are efficiently controlled It puts, and then it is today's society one of major issue urgently to be resolved hurrily to improve atmosphere quality.Meanwhile increasingly strict environmental law Rule require to develop advanced technology the discharge to reduce the pollutants such as NOx, and (from July, 2014, environmental regulation requires existing fire Power power plant boiler NOx emission concentration is no more than 100mg/m3).Therefore, low NOx combusting technology has the energy-saving and emission-reduction in China Highly important meaning.
The measure for the NOx emission that control fuel combustion generates in the prior art is to control NOx in burning to generate or firing NOx is restored after burning.
The method that NOx emission is controlled after fired coal combustion is using SCR (Selective Catalytic Reduction, choosing Selecting property catalytic reduction method).Although this method emission reduction rate is high, NO can be made to become N2Conversion ratio reach 80% or more, but its disadvantage It is that initial cost is big, operating cost is excessively high, some flue-gas denitrification technologies based on amino also occur that the leakage of ammonia, influence downstream and set Standby safe operation.
Control during fired coal combustion generally uses low NOx combusting technology, such as Researched of Air Staging Combustion Burning Pulverized Coal, low excess air Coefficient operation, low-NOx combustor burning, flue gas recirculation and reburning technology etc..
Some low NOx combusting technologies, as Researched of Air Staging Combustion Burning Pulverized Coal, low excess air coefficient operation, low-NOx combustor burning, The NOx abatement rate of the low NOx combusting technologies such as flue gas recirculation is 10~40%.These low NOx combusting technologies control what NOx was generated Reaction condition and the guarantee clean-burning reaction condition of coal dust contradict.
The one kind of reburning technology as low NOx combusting technology, because NOx abatement rate highest can reach 50%, at low cost, also It can ensure the good burning condition of primary zone coal dust, therefore increasingly be used widely.Even so, but reburning technology NOx abatement rate still need to cooperation larger capacity fired coal combustion after control NOx emission equipment (such as SCR denitration equipment) can be only achieved The requirement of NOx emission.Moreover, because being more than 1 using the primary zone excess air coefficient of reburning technology, extra oxygen enters to be fired again Area can consume more reburning fuels, be unfavorable for the formation of reburning zone reducing atmosphere, increase part that reburning fuel accounts for total fuel Volume.
Reburning fuel is typically chosen the higher natural gas of reactivity or lignite, bituminous coal in reburning technology.From reburning technology From the point of view of itself, between gas reburning is happened at gas phase due to its reduction reaction, reaction speed is exceedingly fast, and is burnt the effect fired again with gas Better than coal powder recombustion, therefore gaseous fuel is that reburning fuel preferably selects.It is reburning fuel that foreign countries, which mostly use natural gas,.Except day Outside right gas, coke-stove gas, biogas, subterranean coal gas etc. all can serve as gas reburning fuel.
Due to China's gas burning maldistribution of the resources, supply relative shortage, in the power plant of not air source, for specific Coal-powder boiler suffers from the limitation of gas reburning fuel source, there are input-output ratio in terms of worry, it is difficult to using gas make Implement reburning technology for reburning fuel.
And directly to use coal derived fuel to there is a problem of for reburning fuel certain for reburning fuel, uses conventional pulverized-coal to fire again Fuel burn-off rate is relatively low, and unburned combustible in fly ash is high, influences efficiency of combustion and has secondary pollution.In order to be applied even more extensively again Combustion technology, the technologies such as domestic scientific and technical personnel are directed to fine coal reburning, water-coal-slurry is fired again have carried out extensive research.
For example, Chinese patent CN1240965C is conveyed out of pulverizer coal feeder comes superfine powder to stove using flue gas after primary zone Reburning zone carry out denitration by refueling, artificial primary zone and reburning zone are isolated, and flue gas is closely caused very much in reburning zone from furnace outlet Unburned carbon in flue dust increases, and difference is big to the adjustment of powder mode coordinated operation and management difficulty, affects the general of technology application Property.Moreover, superfine powder is for the more convenient (fine Coal in tertiary air of the smaller the ball type pulverizer system station boiler of capacity Powder), but heavy duty boiler is for safety and occupation of land are considered as unit pulverized-coal system, it is therefore, super without what is largely stablized Fine breeze source.
To sum up, how reburning technology is utilized, reburning technology is improved to be suitble to China using coal as the state of main fuel Feelings become promotes the key of reburning technology in China.
Invention content
The purpose of the present invention is to provide a kind of low NOx combustion method and low NOx combustion systems, it is intended to realize higher NOx abatement rate.
First aspect present invention provides a kind of low NOx combustion method, including:Main fuel is inputted to the primary zone of burner hearth, institute The excess air coefficient for stating primary zone is less than 1;Reburning fuel is inputted to the firing again positioned at the primary zone downstream of the burner hearth The excess air coefficient in area, the reburning zone is less than 1;Burnout degree is inputted to the combustion positioned at the reburning zone downstream of the burner hearth The excess air coefficient in area to the greatest extent, the burning-out zone is more than 1.
Further, the low NOx combustion method further includes:Pre- burnout degree is inputted into being fired again positioned at described for the burner hearth Pre- burning-out zone between area and the primary zone.
Further, ranging from the 0.8~0.95 of the excess air coefficient a in the primary zone.
Further, the calorific value of the reburning fuel account for into the burner hearth whole fuel calorific value 5%~ 12%.
Further, the main fuel includes coal dust, and the reburning fuel includes coal gasification product.
Further, the main fuel includes the carbon residue after coal dust and coal gasification, and the reburning fuel is coal gasification gas Product.
Further, the main fuel includes being delivered to a gaseous fuel between wind snout and overfire air port.
Second aspect of the present invention provides a kind of low NOx combustion method realized described in any one of first aspect present invention Low NOx combustion system, including furnace body, the furnace body have burner hearth, and the burner hearth includes the master set gradually from upstream to downstream It includes wind snout, two being respectively arranged on the furnace body to fire area, reburning zone and burning-out zone, the low NOx combustion system Secondary wind snout, fire air nozzle and recombustion burner, a wind snout and the overfire air port are located at the primary zone, The recombustion burner is located at the reburning zone, and the fire air nozzle is located at the burning-out zone.
Further, the burner hearth further includes the pre- burning-out zone between the primary zone and the reburning zone, described Low NOx combustion system further includes the pre- fire air nozzle being set on the furnace body, and the pre- fire air nozzle is located at described pre- Burning-out zone.
Further, the low NOx combustion system further includes gasification reactor, the reactor outlet of the gasification reactor It is connected to the recombustion burner.
Further, the low NOx combustion system further includes gas-solid separator, and the gas-solid separator includes gas solid separation The device cylinder and gas-solid mixture entrance being respectively arranged on the gas-solid separator cylinder, gas vent and carbon residue outlet, institute The reactor outlet for stating gasification reactor is connected to the gas-solid mixture entrance, the gas vent and the recombustion burner Connection.
Further, the low NOx combustion system further includes the carbon residue burner being set on the furnace body, the carbon residue Burner is located at the primary zone, and the carbon residue outlet is connected to the carbon residue burner.
Further, the gasification reactor is plasma reactor, and the plasma reactor includes plasma Reactor according cylinder, plasma generator, primary wind and powder entrance, gas-vapor mix spout and reactor outlet, the plasma Body generator is set in the plasma reactor cylinder, the primary wind and powder entrance, the gas-vapor mix spout and institute Reactor outlet is stated to be set on the plasma reactor cylinder.
Further, the power adjustable of the plasma generator saves land setting;And/or the gas-vapor mix spout Eject position be adjustably arranged.
Further, the plasma reactor has reactor central axes, and the reactor central axes are vertically arranged Or there is angle b with vertical direction, wherein 0<b≤90°.
Further, the low NOx combustion system includes the coal burner being set on the furnace body, the coal dust combustion Burner is located at the primary zone and includes a wind snout and the overfire air port, wherein the coal burner is also Including assisting gaseous fuel jets, the auxiliary gaseous fuel jets be located at a wind snout and the overfire air port it Between.
Based on low NOx combustion method provided by the invention and low NOx combustion system, low NOx combustion method includes being fired main The primary zone of material input burner hearth, the excess air coefficient in primary zone are less than 1, by being located under primary zone for reburning fuel input burner hearth The excess air coefficient of the reburning zone of trip, reburning zone is less than 1, and burnout degree is inputted to the after-flame positioned at reburning zone downstream of burner hearth The excess air coefficient in area, burning-out zone is more than 1.Therefore, the present invention carries out the base of Researched of Air Staging Combustion Burning Pulverized Coal in primary zone and burning-out zone Reasonable combination reburning technology on plinth can be reliably achieved the purpose of furnace outlet NOx low emissions, to realize higher NOx Emission reduction rate.
By referring to the drawings to the detailed description of exemplary embodiment of the present invention, other feature of the invention and its Advantage will become apparent.
Description of the drawings
Attached drawing described herein is used to provide further understanding of the present invention, and is constituted part of this application, this hair Bright illustrative embodiments and their description are not constituted improper limitations of the present invention for explaining the present invention.In the accompanying drawings:
Fig. 1 is the low NOx combustion system arrangement schematic diagram of first embodiment of the invention.
Fig. 2 is the low NOx combustion system arrangement schematic diagram of second embodiment of the invention.
Fig. 3 is the low NOx combustion system arrangement schematic diagram of third embodiment of the invention.
Fig. 4 is the low NOx combustion system arrangement schematic diagram of fourth embodiment of the invention.
Fig. 5 is the plasma gasification reactor arrangement signal of the low NOx combustion system of fifth embodiment of the invention Figure.
Specific implementation mode
Following will be combined with the drawings in the embodiments of the present invention, and technical solution in the embodiment of the present invention carries out clear, complete Site preparation describes, it is clear that described embodiments are only a part of the embodiments of the present invention, instead of all the embodiments.Below Description only actually at least one exemplary embodiment is illustrative, is never used as to the present invention and its application or makes Any restrictions.Based on the embodiments of the present invention, those of ordinary skill in the art are not making creative work premise Lower obtained every other embodiment, shall fall within the protection scope of the present invention.
Unless specifically stated otherwise, positioned opposite, the digital table of the component and step that otherwise illustrate in these embodiments It is not limited the scope of the invention up to formula and numerical value.Simultaneously, it should be appreciated that for ease of description, attached each portion shown in the drawings The size divided not is to be drawn according to actual proportionate relationship.For technology, side known to person of ordinary skill in the relevant Method and equipment may be not discussed in detail, but in the appropriate case, and the technology, method and apparatus should be considered as authorizing explanation A part for book.In shown here and discussion all examples, any occurrence should be construed as merely illustrative, and Not by way of limitation.Therefore, the other examples of exemplary embodiment can have different values.It should be noted that:Similar label Similar terms are indicated in following attached drawing with letter, therefore, once it is defined in a certain Xiang Yi attached drawing, then subsequent attached It need not be further discussed in figure.
First embodiment
Fig. 1 is the low NOx combustion system arrangement schematic diagram of first embodiment of the invention.The low NOx of first embodiment Combustion system includes furnace body, plasma reactor 21, gas-solid separator 31, recombustion burner 41, carbon residue burner 51, coal dust Burner 61, fire air nozzle 71 and pre- fire air nozzle 72.Wherein, the space of furnace interior forms burner hearth 91.Burner hearth 91 has There are burner hearth central axes 81, burner hearth central axes 81 to be vertically arranged.
Recombustion burner 41, carbon residue burner 51, coal burner 61, pre- fire air nozzle 72 and fire air nozzle 71 are equal It is installed on furnace body and is passed through in burner hearth 91.
In first embodiment, coal burner 61 divides is total to two layers of cloth for lower layer's coal burner and upper layer coal burner It sets;51 1 layer arrangement of carbon residue burner;41 1 layer arrangement of recombustion burner;72 1 layer arrangement of pre- fire air nozzle;Burnout degree sprays 71 1 layer arrangements of mouth.Recombustion burner 41, carbon residue burner 51, coal burner 61, pre- fire air nozzle 72 and burnout degree spray The order of placement of mouth 71 is followed successively by from top to bottom:Lower layer's coal burner, upper layer coal burner, carbon residue burner 51, pre-burning Wind snout 72, recombustion burner 41 and fire air nozzle 71 to the greatest extent.
In first embodiment, in burner hearth 91, lower layer's coal burner to the region between carbon residue burner 51 forms main combustion Area;Carbon residue burner 51 to the region between pre- fire air nozzle 72 forms reducing zone;Pre- fire air nozzle 72 is to reburning Region between device 41 forms pre- burning-out zone;Recombustion burner 41 to the region between fire air nozzle 71 forms reburning zone;Combustion Wind snout 71 to the region between furnace outlet forms burning-out zone to the greatest extent.
Coal burner 61 is preferably low NO.It can be fired in Researched of Air Staging Combustion Burning Pulverized Coal and again using low NO The NOx emission in fuel combustion process is further decreased on the basis of technology reasonable combination.
In the present embodiment, the coal dust in plasma reactor 21 once passes through, without cyclic process, plasma reaction The range of reaction temperature of device 21 is 900~1200K.
Plasma reactor 21 includes plasma generator 211, primary wind and powder entrance 212, plasma reactor Cylinder 213, gas-vapor mix spout 214, reactor outlet 216 and elbow 217.Plasma generator 211 for occur etc. from Daughter flame 215.Plasma reactor 21 has reactor central axes 11, and reactor central axes 11 are vertical in first embodiment Setting.One primary wind and powder that plasma reactor 21 is connected to for conveying the pulverized coal conveying pipeline of a mixture of powder and dust On entrance 212.Gas-vapor mix spout 214 is mounted on plasma reactor cylinder 213.In the present embodiment, gas-vapor mix Spout 214 is located at the downstream of plasma flame 215, gas-vapor mix spout 214 and 213 top of plasma reactor cylinder The distance between primary wind and powder entrance 212 accounts in the range of the 1/3 to 1/2 of the overall length of plasma reactor cylinder 213.
Enter a mixture of powder and dust of plasma reactor cylinder 213 in plasma by primary wind and powder entrance 212 Pyrolytic gasification is carried out under the action of flame 215.When coal dust and the plasma flame 215 of heat carry out heat exchange, coal dust is by wink Shi Jiare, when temperature is 900~1200K, volatile materials explosive release from coal generates a large amount of CO, CO2And it is a small amount of H2And CH4.Gas-vapor mix is sprayed by gas-vapor mix spout 214, not by the half of 215 pyrolytic gasification of plasma flame Burnt then continuation reacts with vapor, continues to generate a large amount of CO and H2, the product of last plasma reactor 21 passes through anti- Device outlet 216 and elbow 217 is answered to spray.
Therefore, can be generated in plasma reactor 21 largely has CO, H2And a small amount of CH4Etc. gas componants Reducibility gas, to plasma reactor 21 can be provided for the reburning zone of burner hearth 91 largely be used for restore NOx's Reducibility gas solves the problems, such as the station boiler drastic reduction NOx of not air source.
In other unshowned embodiments, the gasification reactor of other forms, such as fluidized-bed gasification furnace may be used Deng.But using plasma reactor 21 can produce component than the gasification reactor taken other form and be more suitable for also The gaseous product of former NOx.
In plasma reactor 21 generate with reducibility gas gaseous product while also generate it is a certain amount of These non-pneumatic ingredients are referred to as carbon residue by the non-pneumatics ingredient such as uncompleted burned carbon, semicoke, tar in the following description.Carbon residue It is sprayed from reactor outlet 216 and elbow 217 with together with gaseous product.
Control can be adjusted in the power of plasma generator 211, to ensure in plasma reactor 21 rationally Reaction temperature.In addition, the position of gas-vapor mix spout 214 is adjustable, to ensure condition that gasification reaction is normally carried out.It is preferred that Control optimization is mutually adjusted in ground, the power of plasma generator 211 and both positions of gas-vapor mix spout 214, to ensure The stability and continuity of 21 composition of gases within of plasma reactor provide advantageous item to reduce NOx discharge for depth Part.Can specifically gas-vapor mix spout 214 be set to the mode of adjustable angle and adjust gas-vapor mix spout to realize 214 position.
As shown in Figure 1, gas-solid separator 31 goes out including gas-solid separator cylinder 312, gas-solid mixture entrance 311, gas Mouth 313, carbon residue outlet 314.Gas-solid mixture entrance 311, gas vent 313, carbon residue outlet 314 with gas-solid separator cylinder 312 connect and are connected to the inner cavity of gas-solid separator cylinder 312.
The multiphase mixture generated by the gasification of plasma reactor 21 enters gas-solid by gas-solid mixture entrance 311 Membrane Separator Cylinder for CFB Boiler 312 by can be used as again combustion gas body includes CO, H in the gas-solid separator cylinder 3122、CH4Equal reducibility gas Gaseous product and carbon residue inside separates.Gaseous product enters reburning as reburning fuel by gas vent 313 Device 41 sprays into burner hearth 91 reburning zone.And carbon residue enters carbon residue by carbon residue outlet 314 as a part for main fuel and burns Device 51 sprays into the primary zone of burner hearth 91.
Recombustion burner 41 including firing gas spout 411 and firing gas pipeline 412 again again.The position of gas spout 411 is fired again Set can according to different types of coal, the type of furnace stove in pollutant generate situation be adjusted.
The gaseous product that plasma reactor 21 generates fires gas spout again by firing gas pipeline 412 again and being delivered to 411, the reburning zone of burner hearth 91 is sprayed into after accelerated, with NO, NO in main flue gas2Equal pollutants carry out reduction reaction, generate N2, And stronger reducing atmosphere is formed in this region, the trend for effectively inhibiting NO intermediate products to change to NO generates N2.Cause This, first embodiment realizes the base of the integrated air fractional combustion in coal burner 61 and the stove of the formation of fire air nozzle 71 On plinth, in conjunction with reburning technology, drastic reduction NOx is achieved the purpose that.
In addition, in first embodiment, including pre- fire air nozzle 72 and fire air nozzle 71.Gas spout 411 is fired again to exist Location arrangements on furnace body are between pre- fire air nozzle 72 and fire air nozzle 71.The purpose being arranged in this way is:Main fuel exists In burner hearth 91 after the preliminary Researched of Air Staging Combustion Burning Pulverized Coal that coal burner 61 and pre- fire air nozzle 72 are formed, in burner hearth 91 NOx is largely restored when by reducing zone in flue gas, but after pre- fire air nozzle 72, and flue gas is in pre- burning-out zone Part NOx intermediate products have regenerated NOx, then fire gas spout 411 pre- fire air nozzle 72 and fire air nozzle 71 it Between arrange, by the NOx regenerated in the flue gas after pre- fire air nozzle 72 restore, while further drastic reduction in master Fire NOx in the flue gas that area is formed.
In order to improve the emission reduction rate of NOx, residence time of the gaseous product in reburning zone as reburning fuel is not less than 0.3 second.It is different according to 91 interior air-flow speed of burner hearth, then fire the height of the reburning zone between gas spout 411 and fire air nozzle 71 Degree is 1~3m.
Carbon residue burner 51 includes carbon residue burner nozzle 511 and carbon residue conveyance conduit 512.From the residual of gas-solid separator 31 The carbon residue sprayed in carbon outlet 314 is delivered to carbon residue burner nozzle by carbon residue conveyance conduit 512 using First air air-flow 511, and the primary zone of burner hearth 91 is sprayed into, continue to complete combustion process.
Most main fuel is sent into the primary zone of burner hearth 91, in primary zone in the low NOx combustion system of the present embodiment Excess air factor a be 0.8~0.95 under conditions of burning generate NOx.Remaining fuel is passed through into plasma reactor 21 gasify, and in the gaseous product that plasma reactor 21 generates, heat accounts for 5~12% gaseous product of whole fuel heats It is transported to the reburning zone burning of burner hearth 91 as reburning fuel, restores in the generated NOx in upstream, to reduce the discharge of NOx It is horizontal.
In the present embodiment, coal burner 61 includes a wind snout and overfire air port.Coal burner 61 is specially The turbulent burner of wall opposed firing boiler.Wherein, the gaseous product that plasma reactor 21 generates is all as reburning fuel It is delivered to reburning zone.
In a unshowned embodiment, coal burner 61 is turbulent burner, including wind snout, a Secondary Air Spout and auxiliary gaseous fuel jets, auxiliary gaseous fuel jets are located at one time between wind snout and overfire air port.Plasma The gaseous product that reactor according 21 generates can be that a part is delivered to reburning zone as reburning fuel, and remaining gas product is from rotation The auxiliary gaseous fuel jets for flowing burner are sent between First air and Secondary Air, to postpone the First air and two of turbulent burner The mixing opportunity of secondary wind reduces the NOx total amounts in primary zone to form the initial reduction atmosphere of turbulent burner.Certainly, If there is other fuel gas sources, the gaseous fuel being sent into turbulent burner from auxiliary gaseous fuel jets can also be other Fuel gas, and will plasma reactor 21 generate gaseous product be all delivered to reburning zone as reburning fuel.
First embodiment is unlike the low NOx combustion system for utilizing reburning technology in the prior art, in air classification Reburning is carried out on the basis of burning, the excess air coefficient a in primary zone is less than 1, it is therefore preferable to 0.8~0.95.Reburning zone Excess air coefficient a be less than 1, to spraying into reburning fuel under reducing atmosphere, therefore, compared to the prior art in again For combustion technology, NOx that the NOx that can be generated in primary zone with drastic reduction and reduction generate after being mixed with pre- burnout degree.Moreover, Less reburning fuel can be consumed compared with the existing technology.
Pre- fire air nozzle 72 and fire air nozzle 71 can individually control flow.After-flame is arranged in the top of reburning zone Wind snout 71, it is ensured that imperfect combustion full combustion of gas improves boiler combustion efficiency.Fire air nozzle 71 is with up to stove The region of thorax outlet is burning-out zone, is 1.05~1.20 in the excess air coefficient of burning-out zone, in order to make uncombusted main fuel With the abundant after-flame of reburning fuel, it need to ensure that uncombusted main fuel and reburning fuel are more than 1 second in the residence time of burning-out zone.For This, fire air nozzle 71 is preferably 7~11m, for example, 10m at a distance from furnace outlet.
The present embodiment is in the stokehold of the coal burning boiler of power station of Researched of Air Staging Combustion Burning Pulverized Coal installation plasma reactor 21 as normal Laminate section coal gasification generating means, the gaseous product that plasma reactor 21 is generated restore NOx for reburning fuel.Below Illustrate the reaction mechanism of first embodiment.
Gasification mechanism in plasma reactor 21 is as follows:
C+O2→CO2
C+CO2→CO
C+H2O→CO+H2
Reduction mechanism in burner hearth is as follows:
In above formula, (1) represents the reaction occurred in an oxidizing atmosphere, and (2) are represented can occur under reducing atmosphere Reaction, wherein a represents excess air coefficient.
H+NO+M→HNO+M
HNO→NHi
NHi+NO→N2
CO+NO→CO2+N2
CH4→CH
CH+NO→HCN
HCN+OH→NH2
NH2+NO→N2
The low NOx combustion method of first embodiment includes:Main fuel is inputted to the primary zone of burner hearth 91, the excess in primary zone Air coefficient is less than 1;Pre- burnout degree is inputted to the pre- burning-out zone between primary zone and reburning zone of burner hearth 91;It will fire again The reburning zone positioned at primary zone downstream of material input burner hearth 91, the excess air coefficient of reburning zone are less than 1;Burnout degree is inputted into stove The excess air coefficient of the burning-out zone positioned at reburning zone downstream of thorax, burning-out zone is more than 1.
Other unaccounted parts can refer to the low NOx of first embodiment in the low NOx combustion method of first embodiment Related content in combustion system.
First embodiment can make the emission reduction rate of the NOx in flue gas in power station boiler reach 50~70%, NOx abatement effect ten It is clearly demarcated aobvious.
Second embodiment
Fig. 2 is the low NOx combustion system arrangement schematic diagram of second embodiment of the invention.
As shown in Fig. 2, the low NOx combustion system of second embodiment includes furnace body, plasma reactor 21, gas solid separation Device 31, recombustion burner 41, carbon residue burner 51, coal burner 61 and fire air nozzle 71.Wherein, the space of furnace interior Form burner hearth 91.Recombustion burner 41, carbon residue burner 51, coal burner 61, fire air nozzle 71 are mounted on furnace body And it is passed through in burner hearth 91.There are burner hearth 91 burner hearth central axes 81, plasma reactor 21 to have reactor central axes 11.
In second embodiment, coal burner 61 divides is total to two layers of cloth for lower layer's coal burner and upper layer coal burner It sets;51 1 layer arrangement of carbon residue burner;41 1 layer arrangement of recombustion burner;Fire air nozzle 71 divide for lower layer's fire air nozzle and Two layers of arrangement of upper layer fire air nozzle.Recombustion burner 41, carbon residue burner 51, coal burner 61 and fire air nozzle 71 Order of placement is followed successively by from top to bottom:Lower layer's coal burner, upper layer coal burner, carbon residue burner 51, recombustion burner 41, lower layer's fire air nozzle and upper layer fire air nozzle.
In second embodiment, in burner hearth 91, lower layer's coal burner to the region between carbon residue burner 51 forms main combustion Area;Carbon residue burner 51 to the region between recombustion burner 41 forms reducing zone;Recombustion burner 41 to lower layer's burnout degree sprays Region between mouthful forms reburning zone;Lower layer's fire air nozzle to the region between furnace outlet forms burning-out zone.
Second embodiment unlike the low NOx combustion system of first embodiment, arrange by recombustion burner 41 of the present invention Between carbon residue burner 51 and lower layer's fire air nozzle 71.
In second embodiment, Researched of Air Staging Combustion Burning Pulverized Coal is carried out by coal burner 61 and fire air nozzle 71, by main combustion NOx is largely restored in main flue gas behind area and reducing zone, but there are still the unreduced NOx production in part and HCN, NHi etc. NOx intermediate products, recombustion burner 41 are arranged between carbon residue burner 51 and lower layer's fire air nozzle, can be burnt in carbon residue Reburning fuel is sprayed into region between device 51 and fire air nozzle 71, the oxygen in main flue gas is consumed, to make main flue gas be formed More strong reducing atmosphere, CO, H in reburning fuel2And CH4After equal reducibility gas are sufficiently mixed with NOx in main flue gas, Play the role of drastic reduction NOx so that NOx emission concentration can decline 50% left side again on the basis of former Researched of Air Staging Combustion Burning Pulverized Coal The right side, to ensure the relatively low emission of furnace outlet NOx.
The low NOx combustion method of second embodiment includes:Main fuel is inputted to the primary zone of burner hearth, the excessive sky in primary zone Gas coefficient is less than 1;Reburning fuel is inputted to the reburning zone positioned at primary zone downstream of burner hearth, the excess air coefficient of reburning zone is small In 1;Burnout degree is inputted to the burning-out zone positioned at reburning zone downstream of burner hearth, the excess air coefficient of burning-out zone is more than 1.
Other unaccounted parts can refer to the low NOx of second embodiment in the low NOx combustion method of second embodiment Related content in combustion system.
Other unaccounted parts can refer to the associated description of first embodiment in second embodiment.
3rd embodiment
Fig. 3 is the low NOx combustion system arrangement schematic diagram of third embodiment of the invention.
As shown in figure 3, the low NOx combustion system of 3rd embodiment includes furnace body, plasma reactor 21, reburning Device 41, coal burner 61, pre- fire air nozzle 72 and fire air nozzle 71.Wherein, the space of furnace interior forms burner hearth 91. Recombustion burner 41, coal burner 61, pre- fire air nozzle 72 and fire air nozzle 71 are mounted on furnace body and are passed through stove In thorax 91.There are burner hearth 91 burner hearth central axes 81, plasma reactor 21 to have reactor central axes 11.
In 3rd embodiment, coal burner 61 divides for lower layer's coal burner, middle level and upper layer coal burner three totally Layer arrangement;41 1 layer arrangement of recombustion burner;72 1 layer arrangement of pre- fire air nozzle;71 1 layer arrangement of fire air nozzle.Coal dust Burner 61, recombustion burner 41, pre- fire air nozzle 72 and fire air nozzle 71 order of placement be followed successively by from top to bottom:Under Layer coal burner, middle level coal burner, upper layer coal burner, pre- fire air nozzle 72, recombustion burner 41 and after-flame Wind snout 71.
In 3rd embodiment, in burner hearth 91, lower layer's coal burner to the region between the coal burner of upper layer forms master Fire area;Upper layer coal burner to the region between pre- fire air nozzle 72 forms reducing zone;Pre- fire air nozzle 72 to firing again Region between burner 41 forms pre- burning-out zone;Recombustion burner 41 is formed to the region between fire air nozzle 71 to be fired again Area;Fire air nozzle 71 to the region between furnace outlet forms burning-out zone.
3rd embodiment does not use gas-solid separator and carbon residue unlike the low NOx combustion system of first embodiment Burner, but the reactor outlet of plasma reactor 21 216 is connected by elbow 217 and pipeline with recombustion burner 41 It is logical, to which whole products of plasma reactor 21 are delivered to reburning zone.In addition, the plasma of 3rd embodiment occurs 211 power of device can carry out wide scope adjusting control, and the ratio of gas-vapor mix can basis in gas-vapor mix spout 214 Chemical reaction mechanism condition is suitably adjusted, to make the temperature and pressure in plasma reactor 21 can be according to above-mentioned ginseng Number is adjusted, to ensure the reducibility gas ingredient of zone of reasonableness.And preferably, plasma reactor 21 is in plasma Body generator 211 is may be implemented when exiting from steady combustion.
Since the ratio of generated gaseous product and carbon residue can change in 3rd embodiment plasma reactor 21 Become, when the carbon residue formed in plasma reactor 21 is with the change institute of pressure, temperature parameter in plasma reactor 21 When the amount of generation is smaller or small, after spraying into burner hearth 91 apparent influence not will produce on boiler operating parameter and efficiency of combustion. Therefore, even if the low NOx combustion system of 3rd embodiment does not use gas-solid separator and carbon residue burner, plasma reactor The gaseous product and a small amount of carbon residue formed in 21 sprays into together carries out reduction reaction in the reburning zone of burner hearth 91, will not be to boiler Burning, burnout generation significantly affect.The a small amount of carbon residue generated in plasma reactor 21 is together with gaseous product It is injected directly into burner hearth 91, increases the amount of NOx reducing agents in reburning fuel, therefore, drastic reduction NOx in stove can be strengthened Degree.
3rd embodiment is compared with the low NOx combustion system of first embodiment, and equipment composition is simpler, and technological process is more Add simplification, system maintenance work amount small.
The low NOx combustion method of 3rd embodiment includes:Main fuel is inputted to the primary zone of burner hearth, the excessive sky in primary zone Gas coefficient is less than 1;Pre- burnout degree is inputted to the pre- burning-out zone between primary zone and reburning zone of burner hearth;Reburning fuel is defeated Enter the reburning zone positioned at primary zone downstream of burner hearth, the excess air coefficient of reburning zone is less than 1;Burnout degree is inputted to the position of burner hearth The excess air coefficient of burning-out zone in reburning zone downstream, burning-out zone is more than 1.
Other unaccounted parts can refer to the low NOx of 3rd embodiment in the low NOx combustion method of 3rd embodiment Related content in combustion system.
Other unaccounted parts can refer to the associated description of first embodiment and second embodiment in 3rd embodiment.
Fourth embodiment
Fig. 4 is the low NOx combustion system arrangement schematic diagram of fourth embodiment of the invention.
As shown in figure 4, the low NOx combustion system of fourth embodiment includes furnace body, plasma reactor 21, reburning Device 41, coal burner 61, fire air nozzle 71.Wherein, the space of furnace interior forms burner hearth 91.Coal burner 61, again Burner 41, fire air nozzle 71 are mounted on furnace body and are passed through in burner hearth 91.Burner hearth 91 has burner hearth central axes 81, etc. Plasma reactor 21 has reactor central axes 11.
In fourth embodiment, coal burner 61 divides for lower layer's coal burner, middle level coal burner and upper layer coal dust Burner totally three layer arrangement;41 1 layer arrangement of recombustion burner;Fire air nozzle 71 is divided for lower layer's fire air nozzle and upper layer combustion Two layers of arrangement of wind snout to the greatest extent.The order of placement of recombustion burner 41, coal burner 61 and fire air nozzle 71 from top to bottom according to It is secondary to be:Lower layer's coal burner, middle level coal burner, upper layer coal burner, recombustion burner 41, lower layer's fire air nozzle With upper layer fire air nozzle.
In fourth embodiment, in burner hearth 91, lower layer's coal burner to the region between the coal burner of upper layer forms master Fire area;Upper layer coal burner to the region between recombustion burner 41 forms reducing zone;Recombustion burner 41 is to lower layer's after-flame Region between wind snout forms reburning zone;Lower layer's fire air nozzle to the region between furnace outlet forms burning-out zone.
Fourth embodiment is unlike the low NOx combustion system of first embodiment, the low NOx combustion system of fourth embodiment System does not use gas-solid separator and carbon residue burner, and what is formed in plasma reactor 21 includes gaseous product and a small amount of carbon residue Whole products inside spray into together carries out reduction reaction in burner hearth 91.
For fourth embodiment unlike the low NOx combustion system of 3rd embodiment, recombustion burner 41 is arranged in coal dust Between burner 61 and fire air nozzle 71.
In fourth embodiment, behind primary zone and reducing zone burning, the NOx in main flue gas is largely restored coal dust, but There are still NOx intermediate products such as the unreduced NOx production in part and HCN, NHi, reburning fuel is sprayed into coal by recombustion burner 41 Between powder burner 61 and fire air nozzle 71, the oxygen in main flue gas is consumed, forms more strong reducing atmosphere, then combustion CO, H in material2And CH4Etc. after NOx is sufficiently mixed in gas componants and main flue gas, play the role of drastic reduction NOx so that NOx Concentration of emission declines 50% or so on the basis of former Researched of Air Staging Combustion Burning Pulverized Coal, ensures the relatively low emission of furnace outlet NOx.
The low NOx combustion method of fourth embodiment includes:Main fuel is inputted to the primary zone of burner hearth, the excessive sky in primary zone Gas coefficient is less than 1;Reburning fuel is inputted to the reburning zone positioned at primary zone downstream of burner hearth, the excess air coefficient of reburning zone is small In 1;Burnout degree is inputted to the burning-out zone positioned at reburning zone downstream of burner hearth, the excess air coefficient of burning-out zone is more than 1.
Other unaccounted parts can refer to the low NOx of fourth embodiment in the low NOx combustion method of fourth embodiment Related content in combustion system.
Other unaccounted parts can refer to first embodiment to the associated description of 3rd embodiment in fourth embodiment.
5th embodiment
5th embodiment is the variation of first embodiment, and wherein Fig. 5 illustrates only the low NOx combustion system of the 5th embodiment The plasma reactor arrangement schematic diagram of system.And the other parts of the 5th embodiment can refer to the phase of first embodiment Hold inside the Pass.
As shown in figure 5, plasma reactor 21 include plasma generator 211, primary wind and powder entrance 212, etc. from Daughter reactor cylinder 213, gas-vapor mix spout 214, reactor outlet 216 and elbow 217.Plasma reactor 21 has Reactor central axes 11, reactor central axes 11 have angle b relative to vertical direction in the 5th embodiment.The angle of angle b Ranging from composition and share have larger impact, while the angle change of angle b can be become according to practical boiler spatial position Change, therefore according to the ginsengs such as required reducibility gas composition and share, low NOx combustion system space layout position in boiler main flue gas The angle of several changes, plasma reactor 21 can carry out appropriate rational adjustment.0 b≤90 ° < in the present embodiment.One Pulverized coal conveying pipeline for conveying a mixture of powder and dust is connected to the primary wind and powder entrance 212 of plasma reactor 21 On.
Other unaccounted parts can refer to the associated description of first embodiment in 5th embodiment.
It should be noted that although the 5th embodiment is the variation to first embodiment, but the 5th embodiment etc. from Daughter reactor arrangement is equally applicable to second to fourth embodiment.
In addition, the present invention can also be realized by other various ways.Such as:
On the basis of five embodiment, the type of main fuel and reburning fuel can change, coal burner, Recombustion burner, pre- fire air nozzle, the arrangement number of plies of fire air nozzle are also changeable.
In the first to the 5th embodiment, use is coal burner 61, can be in an alternate embodiments Coal burner 61 is replaced with a wind snout and overfire air port.Such as in Process In A Tangential Firing, by a wind snout (coal Powder spout) and overfire air port be installed on furnace body and be located at primary zone, including a wind snout, pre- fire air nozzle (also may be used To be not provided with pre- fire air nozzle) and fire air nozzle including each air port and coal dust spout use Researched of Air Staging Combustion Burning Pulverized Coal skill Art carries out reasonable Arrangement, and recombustion burner correspondence is arranged in reburning zone.Each air port is connect with bellows, and bellows can be Groove profile bellows.Each fuel nozzle ports both pass through bellows and are connected with respective fuel system.
The low NOx combustion system of the above various embodiments utilizes having for coal gasification generation in plasma reactor largely to go back The gaseous product or gaseous product and a small amount of carbon residue of originality gas spray into the main combustion of Researched of Air Staging Combustion Burning Pulverized Coal system as reburning fuel Reburning zone between area and burning-out zone in the original NOx reduction effects for not influencing classifired combustion, and does not change substantially On the basis of the excess air coefficient proportioning of changing air fractional combustion, the emission reduction rate of NOx in boiler smoke is made to reach 50% or more, Generally in 60%~70% range, the NOx emission concentration of SCR denitration system entrance is further decreased, realizes coal dust firing Low NOx drainage, in the case where not putting into SCR denitration system, NOx discharge usually can be controlled in 100~150mg/m3Range It is interior, it might even be possible to reach 100mg/m3Hereinafter, greatly reducing investment and the operating cost of SCR denitration system.It even can be In the case of the SCR denitration system that do not come into operation, NOx emission in flue gas in power station boiler is made to reach National Environmental discharge standard or less.It is special It is not to provide a kind of power station self-made gas for the power plant of not air source to be used to fire the low NOx combustion system for carrying out drastic reduction NOx again System.
In addition, plasma reactor floor space is small, normal pressure or pressurized operation, securely and reliably, fine coal partial gasification The gas componant and share generated afterwards meets needed for gas reburning, achievees the effect that drastic reduction NOx, and substituted tail portion denitration The possibility of system, to solve, the investment for using SCR denitration system to bring and operating cost are expensive, influence downstream equipment safety The problems such as.
The reburning technology share of reburning fuel compared with the existing technology needed for the body system and method is few, not more than The 12% of boiler total amount of heat, preferably more than the 10% of boiler total amount of heat, and there is a large amount of air to be mixed into step by step, improve boiler combustion Burn efficiency.
Finally it should be noted that:The above embodiments are merely illustrative of the technical scheme of the present invention and are not intended to be limiting thereof;To the greatest extent The present invention is described in detail with reference to preferred embodiments for pipe, those of ordinary skills in the art should understand that:Still It can modify to the specific implementation mode of the present invention or equivalent replacement is carried out to some technical characteristics;Without departing from this hair The spirit of bright technical solution should all cover within the scope of the technical scheme claimed by the invention.

Claims (14)

1. a kind of low NOx combustion method, which is characterized in that the low NOx combustion method includes:By main fuel input burner hearth (91) Primary zone, the excess air coefficient in the primary zone is less than 1;By reburning fuel input the burner hearth (91) be located at the master The reburning zone in area downstream is fired, the excess air coefficient of the reburning zone is less than 1;Pre- burnout degree is inputted to the position of the burner hearth (91) Pre- burning-out zone between the reburning zone and the primary zone;Burnout degree is inputted into being fired again positioned at described for the burner hearth (91) The excess air coefficient of the burning-out zone in area downstream, the burning-out zone is more than 1.
2. low NOx combustion method according to claim 1, which is characterized in that the excess air coefficient a's in the primary zone Ranging from 0.8~0.95.
3. low NOx combustion method according to claim 1, which is characterized in that the calorific value of the reburning fuel accounts for entrance The 5%~12% of the calorific value of whole fuel of the burner hearth (91).
4. low NOx combustion method according to claim 1, which is characterized in that the main fuel includes coal dust, described to fire again Fuel includes coal gasification product.
5. low NOx combustion method according to claim 1, which is characterized in that the main fuel includes coal dust and coal gasification Carbon residue afterwards, the reburning fuel are coal gasification gaseous product.
6. low NOx combustion method according to claim 1, which is characterized in that the main fuel includes being delivered to First air Gaseous fuel between spout and overfire air port.
7. a kind of low NOx combustion system for realizing low NOx combustion method according to any one of claims 1 to 6, including stove Body, the furnace body have burner hearth (91), which is characterized in that the burner hearth (91) includes the main combustion set gradually from upstream to downstream Area, reburning zone and burning-out zone, the low NOx combustion system includes a wind snout being respectively arranged on the furnace body, secondary Wind snout, fire air nozzle (71) and recombustion burner (41), a wind snout and the overfire air port are located at described Primary zone, the recombustion burner (41) are located at the reburning zone, and the burner hearth (91) further includes being located at the primary zone and institute The pre- burning-out zone between reburning zone is stated, the low NOx combustion system further includes the pre- fire air nozzle being set on the furnace body (72), the pre- fire air nozzle (72) is located at the pre- burning-out zone, and the fire air nozzle (71) is located at the burning-out zone.
8. low NOx combustion system according to claim 7, which is characterized in that the low NOx combustion system further includes gasification The reactor outlet (216) of reactor, the gasification reactor is connected to the recombustion burner (41).
9. low NOx combustion system according to claim 8, which is characterized in that the low NOx combustion system further includes gas-solid Separator (31), the gas-solid separator (31) include gas-solid separator cylinder (312) and are respectively arranged at the gas solid separation Gas-solid mixture entrance (311), gas vent (313) on device cylinder (312) and carbon residue outlet (314), the gasification reaction The reactor outlet (216) of device is connected to the gas-solid mixture entrance (311), and the gas vent (313) is fired again with described Burner (41) is connected to.
10. low NOx combustion system according to claim 9, which is characterized in that the low NOx combustion system further includes setting The carbon residue burner (51) being placed on the furnace body, the carbon residue burner (51) are located at the primary zone, the carbon residue outlet (314) it is connected to the carbon residue burner (51).
11. low NOx combustion system according to claim 8, which is characterized in that the gasification reactor is that plasma is anti- Answer device (21), the plasma reactor (21) include plasma reactor cylinder (213), plasma generator (211), Primary wind and powder entrance (212), gas-vapor mix spout (214) and reactor outlet (216), the plasma generator (211) it is set in the plasma reactor cylinder (213), the primary wind and powder entrance (212), gas-vapor mix spray Mouth (214) and the reactor outlet (216) are set on the plasma reactor cylinder (213).
12. low NOx combustion system according to claim 11, which is characterized in that the plasma generator (211) Power adjustable saves land setting;And/or the eject position of the gas-vapor mix spout (214) is adjustably arranged.
13. low NOx combustion system according to claim 12, which is characterized in that plasma reactor (21) tool There are reactor central axes (11), the reactor central axes (11) to be vertically arranged or there is angle b with vertical direction, wherein 0 B≤90 ° <.
14. low NOx combustion system according to claim 7, which is characterized in that the low NOx combustion system includes setting In the coal burner (61) on the furnace body, the coal burner (61) is located at the primary zone and includes the First air Spout and the overfire air port, wherein the coal burner (61) further includes auxiliary gaseous fuel jets, the auxiliary gas Fluid fuel spout is between a wind snout and the overfire air port.
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