CN105772981A - Aluminum alloy welding wire for high speed train and preparation method of aluminum alloy welding wire for high speed train - Google Patents

Aluminum alloy welding wire for high speed train and preparation method of aluminum alloy welding wire for high speed train Download PDF

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Publication number
CN105772981A
CN105772981A CN201610350519.1A CN201610350519A CN105772981A CN 105772981 A CN105772981 A CN 105772981A CN 201610350519 A CN201610350519 A CN 201610350519A CN 105772981 A CN105772981 A CN 105772981A
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aluminium alloy
welding wire
acid
aluminum alloy
aluminum
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CN105772981B (en
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刘运强
刘晓刚
叶东
张文凤
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Guilin University of Aerospace Technology
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Guilin University of Aerospace Technology
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    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B23MACHINE TOOLS; METAL-WORKING NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • B23KSOLDERING OR UNSOLDERING; WELDING; CLADDING OR PLATING BY SOLDERING OR WELDING; CUTTING BY APPLYING HEAT LOCALLY, e.g. FLAME CUTTING; WORKING BY LASER BEAM
    • B23K35/00Rods, electrodes, materials, or media, for use in soldering, welding, or cutting
    • B23K35/22Rods, electrodes, materials, or media, for use in soldering, welding, or cutting characterised by the composition or nature of the material
    • B23K35/24Selection of soldering or welding materials proper
    • B23K35/28Selection of soldering or welding materials proper with the principal constituent melting at less than 950 degrees C
    • B23K35/286Al as the principal constituent
    • B23K35/288Al as the principal constituent with Sn or Zn
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B23MACHINE TOOLS; METAL-WORKING NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • B23KSOLDERING OR UNSOLDERING; WELDING; CLADDING OR PLATING BY SOLDERING OR WELDING; CUTTING BY APPLYING HEAT LOCALLY, e.g. FLAME CUTTING; WORKING BY LASER BEAM
    • B23K35/00Rods, electrodes, materials, or media, for use in soldering, welding, or cutting
    • B23K35/40Making wire or rods for soldering or welding

Abstract

The invention relates to an aluminum alloy welding wire for a high speed train and a preparation method of the aluminum alloy welding wire for the high speed train. The aluminum alloy welding wire for the high speed train is characterized by comprising the following chemical components in percentages by mass: 4.0-6.5% of Mg, 0.06-0.2% of Ti, 0.1-0.3% of Cr, 0.05-0.2% of Mn, 0.05-0.2% of La, 0.05-0.2% of Te, 0.01-0.05% of Bi, less than or equal to 0.25% of Si, less than or equal to 0.2% of Fe, less than or equal to 0.20% of Zn, less than or equal to 0.05% of single content of other impurity elements, less than or equal to 0.15% of total content of other impurity elements and the balance of Al. The preparation method of the aluminum alloy welding wire for the high speed train comprises the following steps: smelting, refining, casting, homogenization, extrusion, drawing, and surface treatment. The aluminum alloy welding wire for the high speed train provided by the invention is fine in weld microstructure and good in crack resistance; the tensile strength, the plasticity and the toughness of welded joints are remarkably higher than those of common ER5356 and ER5183 welding wires.

Description

Aluminum alloy solder wire for rapid trains and preparation method thereof
Technical field
The present invention relates to the processing technique field of a kind of aluminium alloy welding wire, be specifically related to a kind of aluminium alloy welding wire being applicable to bullet train and preparation method thereof.
Background technology
Aluminium alloy has high specific strength, specific modulus, fracture toughness, fatigue strength and corrosion resistance, the most also there is good forming technology and weldability, in addition cost ratio is relatively low, therefore, the most widely used class non-ferrous metal structural materials in field such as Aeronautics and Astronautics, boats and ships, automobile, train, chemical industry, military affairs are become.Such as, the commander compartment of airship is all welded by Aluminium alloy structural material with subway train aluminium alloy compartment, pressure vessels for the chemical industry etc. with lunar module, carrier rocket tank, satellite tank, tactical missile housing, housing peculiar to vessel, bullet train.Aluminium alloy welding wire is packing material necessary to Welded, thus becomes one of key factor affecting weldquality.The quality of welding wire has material impact to the extensively application of Welded structure.Aluminium alloy welding wire internal soundness is heavily dependent on the quality of primary aluminum material.Aluminium alloy smelting degassing effect is the best, it will enable aluminum alloy to welding wire hydrogen content higher, causes and generates more pore in welding process.Welding wire aluminium alloy contains more impurity, and has obvious component segregation, not only can affect the drawing forming of welding wire, welding wire is made easily to break, lumber recovery declines, and the impurity in aluminium alloy can transmit in whole production process, thus causes Quality of Final Welding Wire inferior.
Along with the fast development of China Railway, railway transport vehicle presents lightweight, high speed, and existing speed train cars the most gradually replaces steel or rustless steel with aluminium alloy extrusions, sheet material.Bullet train aluminum alloy bodywork is the welded unit using Large Flat width thin-wall aluminum alloy profile as skeleton, and welding can reduce by the carman of 40% and measure.The welded performance of aluminum alloy bodywork, in the case of base material is certain, depends primarily on welding procedure and the alloying component of welding wire and performance.And for the section bar of corresponding long slab particularly overlength plate aluminum alloy specification, need to use advanced automatic welding.Welding point and mother metal etc. epistasis be a great problem of Welded.At present, the material that bullet train aluminum alloy bodywork mainly uses has Al-Mg, Al-Mg-Si, Al-Zn-Mg system alloy, when using common ER5356 and ER5183 welding wire welding, its strength of joint often only has the 60%-70% of strength of parent, this safety that will be unfavorable for that bullet train is runed, particularly fatigue life.And the aluminium alloy welding wire that China produces now is compared with import welding wire, hydrogen content is higher with oxide inclusion content, has had a strong impact on the quality of weld seam.Welding wire often occurs the phenomenon broken in drawing process, high mainly due to oxide inclusion content, and coarse grains exists dendritic segregation, causes the plasticity of aluminium alloy to decline.
Therefore, bullet train aluminum alloy bodywork welding wire prepared from aluminum alloy in use for welding, is all monopolized by external producer at present, and the Chinese government the most actively makes the high-speed railway of Chinese Industrial Standards (CIS), promoting China's high ferro to walk out, this proposes more urgent requirement for the production domesticization of high-end aluminium welding wire.
Summary of the invention
The invention aims to overcome the deficiencies in the prior art, it is provided that a kind of seam organization is fine and closely woven, the crack resistance of welding point is good, tensile strength, plasticity and toughness significantly improve, aluminum alloy solder wire for rapid trains that joint comprehensive mechanical property is good and preparation method thereof.
The present invention is achieved in that
A kind of aluminum alloy solder wire for rapid trains, it is characterized in that, its chemical constituent is by mass percentage: Mg:4.0-6.5%, Ti:0.06-0.2%, Cr:0.1-0.3%, Mn:0.05-0.2%, La:0.05-0.2%, Te:0.05-0.2%, Bi:0.01-0.05%, Si≤0.25%, Fe≤0.2%, Zn≤0.20%, single content≤0.05% of other impurity element, other impurity element total content≤0.15%, surplus is Al.
The preparation method of aluminum alloy solder wire for rapid trains of the present invention, it is characterised in that: including that melting, refine, casting, homogenization, extruding, drawing and surface process, step is as follows:
(1) melting: aluminium ingot and intermediate alloy are put into smelting furnace and is carrying out melting, in smelting furnace, refining agent is added equably by the 0.05-0.1% of aluminium alloy total amount, and use ferrum cage to throw in smelting furnace by magnesium ingot, speed of melting is accelerated by electromagnetic agitation in fusion process, after temperature of aluminum liquid reaches 700-730 DEG C, skimming the aluminum liquid slag inclusion in smelting furnace with forklift for slag, controlling slag-removing time is 30-40 minute, and aluminum liquid smelting time is 6-8h;
(2) refine: smelting aluminum liquid goes to holding furnace insulation, then furnace refining is carried out, the blow head of rotary impreller degassing device is stretched in the aluminum liquid of holding furnace, it is passed through chlorine by rotary blowing nozzle to aluminum liquid and argon carries out refine, online hydrogen meter is used to measure the liquified hydrogen content of aluminum liquid during refine, aluminum liquid is stood filter cleaner after 5-10min after completing by refine, and the aluminum liquid through slagging-off can directly be cast;
(3) casting: use the Round Crystallizer of a diameter of 110mm or 120mm to cast continuously, is cast into bar-shaped aluminium alloy strand by aluminum liquid, and casting controls temperature and is 700-730 DEG C, and casting speed is 110-130mm/min, and water pressure of cooling water is 0.04-0.10MPa;
(4) homogenization: sent into by aluminium alloy strand in heat-treatment furnace and carry out two grades of homogenizing annealings process, is first incubated aluminium alloy strand 25-30h at a temperature of 440-450 DEG C, is then incubated 5-10h at a temperature of 460-500 DEG C;
(5) extruding: the aluminium alloy strand extruder through homogenization is squeezed into the aluminium alloy wire base of diameter 12mm, and extrusion ratio controls 28, and extrusion speed is 2.5-5.0m/min;
(6) draw: before drawing, first aluminium alloy wire base is carried out stress relief annealing, then draw, return again to an operation after drawing and carry out stress relief annealing process, draw again, stress relief annealing is carried out with drawing cycle, and draw elongation percentage is 12%-20% every time, until aluminium alloy wire base is drawn into the aluminium alloy welding wire of a diameter of 0.8mm, 1.0mm, 1.2mm, 1.6mm or 2.4mm specification, stress relief annealing temperature is 380-420 DEG C, and temperature retention time is 1.5-3h;
(7) surface processes: by aluminium alloy welding wire after defat, polishing and be passivated, can encapsulate warehouse-in.
Further, described ferrum cage throws in magnesium ingot for be neatly stacked in ferrum cage by magnesium ingot, uses fork truck and support bar to be sling by pig cage feeding smelting furnace, and slowly moves at smelting furnace furnace interior, melts completely until intermediate alloy.
Further, described refining agent includes the raw material of following weight fraction: KCl35-50 part, MgCl230-40 part, AlF3 5-10 part, Na3AlF610-15 part, Mg3N2 5-10 part, Na2CO3 2-5 part, C2Cl6 2-5 part.
Further, the rotary speed of described rotary impreller degassing device blow head is 500-650r/min, and argon flow amount is 0.2-0.5m3/ h, argon pressure 200-300Kpa, chlorine flowrate is 0.05-0.2m3/ h, chlorine gas pressure is 50-200Kpa, and refining time is 5-10min.
Further, described slagging-off uses three grades of slagging-off, the slagging-off of first order level to use filter cloth slagging-off, and second level slagging-off uses ceramic filter plate slagging-off, and the aluminum liquid after double-filtration enters back into tubular filter case and carries out third level filter cleaner.
Further, described defat carries out ungrease treatment for first being put into by aluminium alloy welding wire in degreaser, and then aluminium alloy welding wire places into pickling after washing in acid solution, acid solution be mass fraction be the H of 18%2SO4Solution, pickling temperature 50-55 DEG C, pickling time 10s-20s;
Further, described degreaser includes the raw material of following parts by weight: cocoanut fatty acid diethanolamide 20-30 part, dodecylbenzene sodium sulfonate 5-10 part, sodium bicarbonate 5-10 part, tertiary sodium phosphate 3-5 part, water 200-300 part.
Further, described polishing uses mixed acid solution to be polished welding wire surface, polish temperature 100-110 DEG C, polishing time 20-30s;Described mixed acid each composition quality ratio is for phosphoric acid: sulphuric acid: nitric acid: carbamide: distilled water=70:15:6.5:3.5:5;Described phosphoric acid quality percent concentration is 85%, and sulphuric acid mass percent concentration is 98%, and nitric acid mass percent concentration is 65%.
Further, described passivation is that welding wire surface is passivated by 20-40g/L passivator aqueous solution for using mass fraction, and passivation temperature is 30-50 DEG C, passivation time 5-10min, after passivation, with pure water, aluminium alloy welding wire is rinsed immediately, finally with hot blast, aluminum alloy welding wire surface is dried up;The component of described passivator solution is fluorine zirconic acid, Fluohydric acid., glycerol and Polymeric sodium metaphosphate., and the mass ratio of fluorine zirconic acid, Fluohydric acid., glycerol and Polymeric sodium metaphosphate. is 1-2:2-3:3-4:3-5.
The prominent substantive distinguishing features of the present invention with significantly progress is:
1, aluminum alloy solder wire for rapid trains seam organization of the present invention is fine and closely woven, crack resistance good;The tensile strength of welding point, plasticity and toughness compare common ER5356 Increase significantly with ER5183 welding wire.
2, the present invention is by being adjusted aluminium alloy welding wire composition, adds trace La, Bi and Te element, reduces the surface tension of aluminium alloy welding wire, adds its wettability and spreadability, reduces welding leak source incidence rate.Add Bi and can substantially drop low-alloyed surface tension;Te has the strongest dehydrogenation, can reduce the hydrogen content of aluminum liquid, the formation of suppression hydrogen blistering further;Impurities H in La energy Al adsorption liquid, reaches the effect of degasification, can react with aluminium oxide again and displace aluminum, thus reduce the quantity that oxide in weld seam is mingled with, moreover it is possible to reach Grain Refinement Effect.
3, the present invention uses rotary impreller degassing device and three grades of deslagging devices to remove oxide, non-metallic inclusion and other harmful metal impurity in aluminum liquid, the H content in ingot casting is made to control at below 0.05ml/100gAl, degassing efficiency and degasification quality can be significantly improved, reduce the crackle of aluminium alloy cast ingot, loose, pinhole, the casting flaw such as be mingled with, make ingot casting yield rate reach more than 96%.
4, the present invention uses ferrum cage to throw in the mode of magnesium ingot in fusion process so that magnesium ingot burn out rate is reduced to 6%-7%, has greatly saved the usage amount of magnesium ingot;The uniformity of composition obtains bigger improvement, takes two sample analysis of difference that distance in stove is bigger, without larger difference;Temperature homogeneity is improved, and solves after skimming, the phenomenon that melt temperature significantly declines;Decrease employee in the high-temperature region operating time, reduce labor intensity;Save the energy, it is to avoid aluminum slag band too much heat away.
5, the present invention uses passivator aqueous solution to be passivated welding wire surface, synergism by material each in passivator aqueous solution so that the passivating film that the surface of the aluminium alloy welding wire after immersion is formed has that film is thin, the good and corrosion resistant characteristic of dense uniform, glossiness.
Detailed description of the invention
Embodiment 1
The chemical constituent of aluminium alloy welding wire is by mass percentage:
Mg:5.0%, Ti:0.1%, Cr:0.2%, Mn:0.1%, La:0.1%, Te:0.1%, Bi:0.02%, Si:0.25%, Fe:0.2%, Zn:0.20%, single content≤0.05% of other impurity element, other impurity element total content≤0.15%, surplus is Al.
Its preparation method is:
(1) melting: aluminium ingot and intermediate alloy are put into smelting furnace and is carrying out melting, in smelting furnace, refining agent is added equably by the 0.05-0.1% of aluminium alloy total amount, and use ferrum cage to throw in smelting furnace by magnesium ingot, speed of melting is accelerated by electromagnetic agitation in fusion process, after temperature of aluminum liquid reaches 700-730 DEG C, skimming the aluminum liquid slag inclusion in smelting furnace with forklift for slag, controlling slag-removing time is 30-40 minute, and aluminum liquid smelting time is 8h;
(2) refine: smelting aluminum liquid goes to holding furnace insulation, then furnace refining is carried out, the blow head of rotary impreller degassing device is stretched in the aluminum liquid of holding furnace, it is passed through chlorine by rotary blowing nozzle to aluminum liquid and argon carries out refine, online hydrogen meter is used to measure the liquified hydrogen content of aluminum liquid during refine, aluminum liquid is stood filter cleaner after 5-10min after completing by refine, and the aluminum liquid through slagging-off can directly be cast;
(3) casting: use the Round Crystallizer of a diameter of 110mm to cast continuously, is cast into bar-shaped aluminium alloy strand by aluminum liquid, and casting controls temperature and is 700-730 DEG C, and casting speed is 110-130mm/min, and water pressure of cooling water is 0.04-0.10MPa;
(4) homogenization: sent into by aluminium alloy strand in heat-treatment furnace and carry out two grades of homogenizing annealings process, is first incubated aluminium alloy strand 25h at a temperature of 440-450 DEG C, is then incubated 5-10h at a temperature of 460-500 DEG C;
(5) extruding: the aluminium alloy strand extruder through homogenization is squeezed into the aluminium alloy wire base of diameter 12mm, and extrusion ratio controls 28, and extrusion speed is 2.5m/min;
(6) draw: before drawing, first aluminium alloy wire base is carried out stress relief annealing, then draw, return again to an operation after drawing and carry out stress relief annealing process, draw again, stress relief annealing is carried out with drawing cycle, and draw elongation percentage is 12-20% every time, until aluminium alloy wire base is drawn into the aluminium alloy welding wire of a diameter of 1.2mm specification, stress relief annealing temperature is 380-420 DEG C, and temperature retention time is 1.5-3h;
(7) surface processes: by aluminium alloy welding wire after defat, polishing and be passivated, can encapsulate warehouse-in;
Described degreaser includes the raw material of following parts by weight: cocoanut fatty acid diethanolamide 20 parts, dodecylbenzene sodium sulfonate 5 parts, sodium bicarbonate 5 parts, tertiary sodium phosphate 3 parts, 200 parts of water.
Described polishing uses mixed acid solution to be polished welding wire surface, polish temperature 100-110 DEG C, polishing time 20-30s;Described mixed acid each composition quality ratio is for phosphoric acid: sulphuric acid: nitric acid: carbamide: distilled water=70:15:6.5:3.5:5;Described phosphoric acid quality percent concentration is 85%, and sulphuric acid mass percent concentration is 98%, and nitric acid mass percent concentration is 65%.
Described passivation is that welding wire surface is passivated by 20g/L passivator aqueous solution for using mass fraction, passivation temperature is 30-50 DEG C, and passivation time 5min, after passivation, with pure water, aluminium alloy welding wire is rinsed immediately, finally with hot blast, aluminum alloy welding wire surface is dried up;The component of described passivator solution is fluorine zirconic acid, Fluohydric acid., glycerol and Polymeric sodium metaphosphate., and the mass ratio of fluorine zirconic acid, Fluohydric acid., glycerol and Polymeric sodium metaphosphate. is 1:2:3:3.
Embodiment 2
The chemical constituent of aluminium alloy welding wire is by mass percentage:
Mg:5.5%, Ti:0.15%, Cr:0.25%, Mn:0.15%, La:0.15%, Te:0.15%, Bi:0.04%, Si:0.20%, Fe:0.15%, Zn:0.18%, single content≤0.05% of other impurity element, other impurity element total content≤0.15%, surplus is Al.
Its preparation method is:
(1) melting: aluminium ingot and intermediate alloy are put into smelting furnace and is carrying out melting, in smelting furnace, refining agent is added equably by the 0.05-0.1% of aluminium alloy total amount, and use ferrum cage to throw in smelting furnace by magnesium ingot, speed of melting is accelerated by electromagnetic agitation in fusion process, after temperature of aluminum liquid reaches 700-730 DEG C, skimming the aluminum liquid slag inclusion in smelting furnace with forklift for slag, controlling slag-removing time is 30-40 minute, and aluminum liquid smelting time is 6h;
(2) refine: smelting aluminum liquid goes to holding furnace insulation, then furnace refining is carried out, the blow head of rotary impreller degassing device is stretched in the aluminum liquid of holding furnace, it is passed through chlorine by rotary blowing nozzle to aluminum liquid and argon carries out refine, online hydrogen meter is used to measure the liquified hydrogen content of aluminum liquid during refine, aluminum liquid is stood filter cleaner after 5-10min after completing by refine, and the aluminum liquid through slagging-off can directly be cast;
(3) casting: use the Round Crystallizer of a diameter of 120mm to cast continuously, is cast into bar-shaped aluminium alloy strand by aluminum liquid, and casting controls temperature and is 700-730 DEG C, and casting speed is 110-130mm/min, and water pressure of cooling water is 0.04-0.10MPa;
(4) homogenization: sent into by aluminium alloy strand in heat-treatment furnace and carry out two grades of homogenizing annealings process, is first incubated aluminium alloy strand 30h at a temperature of 440-450 DEG C, is then incubated 5-10h at a temperature of 460-500 DEG C;
(5) extruding: the aluminium alloy strand extruder through homogenization is squeezed into the aluminium alloy wire base of diameter 12mm, and extrusion ratio controls 28, and extrusion speed is 5.0m/min;
(6) draw: before drawing, first aluminium alloy wire base is carried out stress relief annealing, then draw, return again to an operation after drawing and carry out stress relief annealing process, draw again, stress relief annealing is carried out with drawing cycle, and draw elongation percentage is 12%-20% every time, until aluminium alloy wire base is drawn into the aluminium alloy welding wire of a diameter of 0.8mm specification, stress relief annealing temperature is 380-420 DEG C, and temperature retention time is 1.5-3h;
(7) surface processes: by aluminium alloy welding wire after defat, polishing and be passivated, can encapsulate warehouse-in;
Described degreaser includes the raw material of following parts by weight: cocoanut fatty acid diethanolamide 30 parts, dodecylbenzene sodium sulfonate 10 parts, sodium bicarbonate 10 parts, tertiary sodium phosphate 5 parts, 300 parts of water.
Described polishing uses mixed acid solution to be polished welding wire surface, polish temperature 100-110 DEG C, polishing time 20-30s;Described mixed acid each composition quality ratio is for phosphoric acid: sulphuric acid: nitric acid: carbamide: distilled water=70:15:6.5:3.5:5;Described phosphoric acid quality percent concentration is 85%, and sulphuric acid mass percent concentration is 98%, and nitric acid mass percent concentration is 65%.
Described passivation is that welding wire surface is passivated by 40g/L passivator aqueous solution for using mass fraction, passivation temperature is 30-50 DEG C, and passivation time 6min, after passivation, with pure water, aluminium alloy welding wire is rinsed immediately, finally with hot blast, aluminum alloy welding wire surface is dried up;The component of described passivator solution is fluorine zirconic acid, Fluohydric acid., glycerol and Polymeric sodium metaphosphate., and the mass ratio of fluorine zirconic acid, Fluohydric acid., glycerol and Polymeric sodium metaphosphate. is 2:3:4:5.
Embodiment 3
The chemical constituent of aluminium alloy welding wire is by mass percentage:
Mg:4.0%, Ti:0.06%, Cr:0.1%, Mn:0.05%, La:0.05%, Te:0.05%, Bi:0.01%, Si:0.23%, Fe:0.16%, Zn:0.18%, single content≤0.05% of other impurity element, other impurity element total content≤0.15%, surplus is Al.
Its preparation method is:
(1) melting: aluminium ingot and intermediate alloy are put into smelting furnace and is carrying out melting, in smelting furnace, refining agent is added equably by the 0.05-0.1% of aluminium alloy total amount, and use ferrum cage to throw in smelting furnace by magnesium ingot, speed of melting is accelerated by electromagnetic agitation in fusion process, after temperature of aluminum liquid reaches 700-730 DEG C, skimming the aluminum liquid slag inclusion in smelting furnace with forklift for slag, controlling slag-removing time is 30-40 minute, and aluminum liquid smelting time is 7h;
(2) refine: smelting aluminum liquid goes to holding furnace insulation, then furnace refining is carried out, the blow head of rotary impreller degassing device is stretched in the aluminum liquid of holding furnace, it is passed through chlorine by rotary blowing nozzle to aluminum liquid and argon carries out refine, online hydrogen meter is used to measure the liquified hydrogen content of aluminum liquid during refine, aluminum liquid is stood filter cleaner after 5-10min after completing by refine, and the aluminum liquid through slagging-off can directly be cast;
(3) casting: use the Round Crystallizer of a diameter of 110mm to cast continuously, is cast into bar-shaped aluminium alloy strand by aluminum liquid, and casting controls temperature and is 700-730 DEG C, and casting speed is 110-130mm/min, and water pressure of cooling water is 0.04-0.10MPa;
(4) homogenization: sent into by aluminium alloy strand in heat-treatment furnace and carry out two grades of homogenizing annealings process, is first incubated aluminium alloy strand 26h at a temperature of 440-450 DEG C, is then incubated 5-10h at a temperature of 460-500 DEG C;
(5) extruding: the aluminium alloy strand extruder through homogenization is squeezed into the aluminium alloy wire base of diameter 12mm, and extrusion ratio controls 28, and extrusion speed is 3.0m/min;
(6) draw: before drawing, first aluminium alloy wire base is carried out stress relief annealing, then draw, return again to an operation after drawing and carry out stress relief annealing process, draw again, stress relief annealing is carried out with drawing cycle, and draw elongation percentage is 12%-20% every time, until aluminium alloy wire base is drawn into the aluminium alloy welding wire of a diameter of 1.6mm specification, stress relief annealing temperature is 380-420 DEG C, and temperature retention time is 1.5-3h;
(7) surface processes: by aluminium alloy welding wire after defat, polishing and be passivated, can encapsulate warehouse-in;
Described degreaser includes the raw material of following parts by weight: cocoanut fatty acid diethanolamide 25 parts, dodecylbenzene sodium sulfonate 6 parts, sodium bicarbonate 6 parts, tertiary sodium phosphate 4 parts, 250 parts of water.
Described polishing uses mixed acid solution to be polished welding wire surface, polish temperature 100-110 DEG C, polishing time 20-30s;Described mixed acid each composition quality ratio is for phosphoric acid: sulphuric acid: nitric acid: carbamide: distilled water=70:15:6.5:3.5:5;Described phosphoric acid quality percent concentration is 85%, and sulphuric acid mass percent concentration is 98%, and nitric acid mass percent concentration is 65%.
Described passivation is that welding wire surface is passivated by 30g/L passivator aqueous solution for using mass fraction, passivation temperature is 30-50 DEG C, and passivation time 10min, after passivation, with pure water, aluminium alloy welding wire is rinsed immediately, finally with hot blast, aluminum alloy welding wire surface is dried up;The component of described passivator solution is fluorine zirconic acid, Fluohydric acid., glycerol and Polymeric sodium metaphosphate., and the mass ratio of fluorine zirconic acid, Fluohydric acid., glycerol and Polymeric sodium metaphosphate. is 1:2:4:4.
Embodiment 4
The chemical constituent of aluminium alloy welding wire is by mass percentage:
Mg:6.5%, Ti:0.2%, Cr:0.3%, Mn:0.2%, La:0.2%, Te:0.2%, Bi:0.05%, Si:0.18%, Fe:0.2%, Zn:0.20%, single content≤0.05% of other impurity element, other impurity element total content≤0.15%, surplus is Al.
Its preparation method is:
(1) melting: aluminium ingot and intermediate alloy are put into smelting furnace and is carrying out melting, in smelting furnace, refining agent is added equably by the 0.05-0.1% of aluminium alloy total amount, and use ferrum cage to throw in smelting furnace by magnesium ingot, speed of melting is accelerated by electromagnetic agitation in fusion process, after temperature of aluminum liquid reaches 700-730 DEG C, skimming the aluminum liquid slag inclusion in smelting furnace with forklift for slag, controlling slag-removing time is 30-40 minute, and aluminum liquid smelting time is 7.5h;
(2) refine: smelting aluminum liquid goes to holding furnace insulation, then furnace refining is carried out, the blow head of rotary impreller degassing device is stretched in the aluminum liquid of holding furnace, it is passed through chlorine by rotary blowing nozzle to aluminum liquid and argon carries out refine, online hydrogen meter is used to measure the liquified hydrogen content of aluminum liquid during refine, aluminum liquid is stood filter cleaner after 5-10min after completing by refine, and the aluminum liquid through slagging-off can directly be cast;
(3) casting: use the Round Crystallizer of a diameter of 120mm to cast continuously, is cast into bar-shaped aluminium alloy strand by aluminum liquid, and casting controls temperature and is 700-730 DEG C, and casting speed is 110-130mm/min, and water pressure of cooling water is 0.04-0.10MPa;
(4) homogenization: sent into by aluminium alloy strand in heat-treatment furnace and carry out two grades of homogenizing annealings process, is first incubated aluminium alloy strand 28h at a temperature of 440-450 DEG C, is then incubated 5-10h at a temperature of 460-500 DEG C;
(5) extruding: the aluminium alloy strand extruder through homogenization is squeezed into the aluminium alloy wire base of diameter 12mm, and extrusion ratio controls 28, and extrusion speed is 4.0m/min;
(6) draw: before drawing, first aluminium alloy wire base is carried out stress relief annealing, then draw, return again to an operation after drawing and carry out stress relief annealing process, draw again, stress relief annealing is carried out with drawing cycle, and draw elongation percentage is 12%-20% every time, until aluminium alloy wire base is drawn into the aluminium alloy welding wire of a diameter of 2.4mm specification, stress relief annealing temperature is 380-420 DEG C, and temperature retention time is 1.5-3h;
(7) surface processes: by aluminium alloy welding wire after defat, polishing and be passivated, can encapsulate warehouse-in;
Described degreaser includes the raw material of following parts by weight: cocoanut fatty acid diethanolamide 28 parts, dodecylbenzene sodium sulfonate 8 parts, sodium bicarbonate 8 parts, tertiary sodium phosphate 5 parts, 280 parts of water.
Described polishing uses mixed acid solution to be polished welding wire surface, polish temperature 100-110 DEG C, polishing time 20-30s;Described mixed acid each composition quality ratio is for phosphoric acid: sulphuric acid: nitric acid: carbamide: distilled water=70:15:6.5:3.5:5;Described phosphoric acid quality percent concentration is 85%, and sulphuric acid mass percent concentration is 98%, and nitric acid mass percent concentration is 65%.
Described passivation is that welding wire surface is passivated by 35g/L passivator aqueous solution for using mass fraction, passivation temperature is 30-50 DEG C, and passivation time 8min, after passivation, with pure water, aluminium alloy welding wire is rinsed immediately, finally with hot blast, aluminum alloy welding wire surface is dried up;The component of described passivator solution is fluorine zirconic acid, Fluohydric acid., glycerol and Polymeric sodium metaphosphate., and the mass ratio of fluorine zirconic acid, Fluohydric acid., glycerol and Polymeric sodium metaphosphate. is 2:2:3:5.
Test effect
Using MIG welding method, the aluminium alloy welding wire using the present embodiment 1-4 to prepare carries out vertical masonry joint butt welding, then detection welding point tension test, welding point bend test and elongation after fracture to hot extrusion state 3mm thickness aluminum alloy plate materials, and result is as follows:
The mechanical property of aluminium alloy welding wire of the present invention:
Inspection project Standard Embodiment 1 Embodiment 2 Embodiment 3 Embodiment 4
Welding point tension test ≥485*80%MPa 463 458 472 469
Welding point bend test ≥407*80%MPa 435 425 431 428
Elongation after fracture ≥8.0% 10.6 10.5 11.0 11.3

Claims (10)

1. an aluminum alloy solder wire for rapid trains, it is characterized in that, its chemical constituent is by mass percentage: Mg:4.0-6.5%, Ti:0.06-0.2%, Cr:0.1-0.3%, Mn:0.05-0.2%, La:0.05-0.2%, Te:0.05-0.2%, Bi:0.01-0.05%, Si≤0.25%, Fe≤0.2%, Zn≤0.20%, single content≤0.05% of other impurity element, other impurity element total content≤0.15%, surplus is Al.
2. the preparation method of aluminum alloy solder wire for rapid trains as claimed in claim 1, it is characterised in that: including melting, refine, casting, homogenization, extrude, draw and surface processes, step is as follows:
(1) melting: aluminium ingot and intermediate alloy are put into smelting furnace and is carrying out melting, in smelting furnace, refining agent is added equably by the 0.05-0.1% of aluminium alloy total amount, and use ferrum cage to throw in smelting furnace by magnesium ingot, speed of melting is accelerated by electromagnetic agitation in fusion process, after temperature of aluminum liquid reaches 700-730 DEG C, skimming the aluminum liquid slag inclusion in smelting furnace with forklift for slag, controlling slag-removing time is 30-40 minute, and aluminum liquid smelting time is 6-8h;
(2) refine: smelting aluminum liquid goes to holding furnace insulation, then furnace refining is carried out, the blow head of rotary impreller degassing device is stretched in the aluminum liquid of holding furnace, it is passed through chlorine by rotary blowing nozzle to aluminum liquid and argon carries out refine, online hydrogen meter is used to measure the liquified hydrogen content of aluminum liquid during refine, aluminum liquid is stood filter cleaner after 5-10min after completing by refine, and the aluminum liquid through slagging-off can directly be cast;
(3) casting: use the Round Crystallizer of a diameter of 110mm or 120mm to cast continuously, is cast into bar-shaped aluminium alloy strand by aluminum liquid, and casting controls temperature and is 700-730 DEG C, and casting speed is 110-130mm/min, and water pressure of cooling water is 0.04-0.10MPa;
(4) homogenization: sent into by aluminium alloy strand in heat-treatment furnace and carry out two grades of homogenizing annealings process, is first incubated aluminium alloy strand 25-30h at a temperature of 440-450 DEG C, is then incubated 5-10h at a temperature of 460-500 DEG C;
(5) extruding: the aluminium alloy strand extruder through homogenization is squeezed into the aluminium alloy wire base of diameter 12mm, and extrusion ratio controls 28, and extrusion speed is 2.5-5.0m/min;
(6) draw: before drawing, first aluminium alloy wire base is carried out stress relief annealing, then draw, return again to an operation after drawing and carry out stress relief annealing process, draw again, stress relief annealing is carried out with drawing cycle, and draw elongation percentage is 12%-20% every time, until aluminium alloy wire base is drawn into the aluminium alloy welding wire of a diameter of 0.8mm, 1.0mm, 1.2mm, 1.6mm or 2.4mm specification, stress relief annealing temperature is 380-420 DEG C, and temperature retention time is 1.5-3h;
(7) surface processes: by aluminium alloy welding wire after defat, polishing and be passivated, can encapsulate warehouse-in.
The preparation method of aluminum alloy solder wire for rapid trains the most according to claim 2, it is characterized in that: described ferrum cage throws in magnesium ingot for be neatly stacked in ferrum cage by magnesium ingot, fork truck and support bar is used to be sling by pig cage feeding smelting furnace, and slowly move at smelting furnace furnace interior, until intermediate alloy melts completely.
The preparation method of aluminum alloy solder wire for rapid trains the most according to claim 2, it is characterised in that: described refining agent includes the raw material of following parts by weight: KCl 35-50 part, MgCl230-40 part, AlF3 5-10 part, Na3AlF6 10-15 part, Mg3N2 5-10 part, Na2CO3 2-5 part, C2Cl6 2-5 part.
The preparation method of aluminum alloy solder wire for rapid trains the most according to claim 2, it is characterised in that: the rotary speed of described rotary impreller degassing device blow head is 500-650r/min, and argon flow amount is 0.2-0.5m3/ h, argon pressure 200-300Kpa, chlorine flowrate is 0.05-0.2m3/ h, chlorine gas pressure is 50-200Kpa, and refining time is 5-10min.
The preparation method of aluminum alloy solder wire for rapid trains the most according to claim 2, it is characterized in that: described slagging-off uses three grades of slagging-off, the slagging-off of first order level uses filter cloth slagging-off, second level slagging-off uses ceramic filter plate slagging-off, and the aluminum liquid after double-filtration enters back into tubular filter case and carries out third level filter cleaner.
The preparation method of aluminum alloy solder wire for rapid trains the most according to claim 2, it is characterized in that: described defat carries out ungrease treatment for first being put into by aluminium alloy welding wire in degreaser, then aluminium alloy welding wire is placed into after washing pickling in acid solution, acid solution be mass fraction be the H of 18%2SO4 Solution, pickling temperature 50-55 DEG C, pickling time 10s-20s.
The preparation method of aluminum alloy solder wire for rapid trains the most according to claim 7, it is characterised in that: described degreaser includes the raw material of following parts by weight: cocoanut fatty acid diethanolamide 20-30 part, dodecylbenzene sodium sulfonate 5-10 part, sodium bicarbonate 5-10 part, tertiary sodium phosphate 3-5 part, water 200-300 part.
The preparation method of aluminum alloy solder wire for rapid trains the most according to claim 2, it is characterised in that: described polishing uses mixed acid solution to be polished welding wire surface, polish temperature 100-110 DEG C, polishing time 20-30s;Described mixed acid each composition quality ratio is for phosphoric acid: sulphuric acid: nitric acid: carbamide: distilled water=70:15:6.5:3.5:5;Described phosphoric acid quality percent concentration is 85%, and sulphuric acid mass percent concentration is 98%, and nitric acid mass percent concentration is 65%.
The preparation method of aluminum alloy solder wire for rapid trains the most according to claim 2, it is characterized in that: described passivation is that welding wire surface is passivated by 20-40g/L passivator aqueous solution for using mass fraction, passivation temperature is 30-50 DEG C, passivation time 5-10min, after passivation, with pure water, aluminium alloy welding wire is rinsed immediately, finally with hot blast, aluminum alloy welding wire surface is dried up;The component of described passivator solution is fluorine zirconic acid, Fluohydric acid., glycerol and Polymeric sodium metaphosphate., and the mass ratio of fluorine zirconic acid, Fluohydric acid., glycerol and Polymeric sodium metaphosphate. is 1-2:2-3:3-4:3-5.
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CN106282687A (en) * 2016-07-29 2017-01-04 安徽飞狐焊业股份有限公司 A kind of aluminium alloy welding wire of argentiferous and stannum and preparation method thereof
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CN109093283A (en) * 2018-07-27 2018-12-28 含山县林宏铸造厂 A kind of casting aluminum alloy welded wire
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CN106238953A (en) * 2016-07-29 2016-12-21 安徽飞弧焊业股份有限公司 A kind of bullet train dedicated aluminium alloy welding wire and preparation method thereof
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CN109940306A (en) * 2019-04-02 2019-06-28 安徽省金兰金盈铝业有限公司 Transport facility aluminum alloy junction component Al-Mg alloy welding wire
CN109967915A (en) * 2019-04-19 2019-07-05 中国兵器科学研究院宁波分院 A kind of Mo-bearing granitoid welding wire for high-performance aluminium alloy
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CN110181193A (en) * 2019-05-17 2019-08-30 江西理工大学 A kind of new A l-Mg-Ti alloy welding wire and preparation method thereof
CN110181193B (en) * 2019-05-17 2021-01-08 江西理工大学 Novel Al-Mg-Ti alloy welding wire and preparation method thereof

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