CN105750542A - Mould plasma 3D printing equipment and mould plasma 3D printing method - Google Patents

Mould plasma 3D printing equipment and mould plasma 3D printing method Download PDF

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Publication number
CN105750542A
CN105750542A CN201610120587.9A CN201610120587A CN105750542A CN 105750542 A CN105750542 A CN 105750542A CN 201610120587 A CN201610120587 A CN 201610120587A CN 105750542 A CN105750542 A CN 105750542A
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China
Prior art keywords
printing
plasma
distance
powder
plasma generator
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CN201610120587.9A
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Chinese (zh)
Inventor
华云峰
程国君
郝勇
魏志宇
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Sinoadditive Manufacturing Equipment Co Ltd
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Sinoadditive Manufacturing Equipment Co Ltd
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Priority to CN201610120587.9A priority Critical patent/CN105750542A/en
Publication of CN105750542A publication Critical patent/CN105750542A/en
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    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B22CASTING; POWDER METALLURGY
    • B22FWORKING METALLIC POWDER; MANUFACTURE OF ARTICLES FROM METALLIC POWDER; MAKING METALLIC POWDER
    • B22F10/00Additive manufacturing of workpieces or articles from metallic powder
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B22CASTING; POWDER METALLURGY
    • B22FWORKING METALLIC POWDER; MANUFACTURE OF ARTICLES FROM METALLIC POWDER; MAKING METALLIC POWDER
    • B22F12/00Apparatus or devices specially adapted for additive manufacturing; Auxiliary means for additive manufacturing; Combinations of additive manufacturing apparatus or devices with other processing apparatus or devices
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B22CASTING; POWDER METALLURGY
    • B22FWORKING METALLIC POWDER; MANUFACTURE OF ARTICLES FROM METALLIC POWDER; MAKING METALLIC POWDER
    • B22F10/00Additive manufacturing of workpieces or articles from metallic powder
    • B22F10/10Formation of a green body
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B22CASTING; POWDER METALLURGY
    • B22FWORKING METALLIC POWDER; MANUFACTURE OF ARTICLES FROM METALLIC POWDER; MAKING METALLIC POWDER
    • B22F10/00Additive manufacturing of workpieces or articles from metallic powder
    • B22F10/20Direct sintering or melting
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B33ADDITIVE MANUFACTURING TECHNOLOGY
    • B33YADDITIVE MANUFACTURING, i.e. MANUFACTURING OF THREE-DIMENSIONAL [3-D] OBJECTS BY ADDITIVE DEPOSITION, ADDITIVE AGGLOMERATION OR ADDITIVE LAYERING, e.g. BY 3-D PRINTING, STEREOLITHOGRAPHY OR SELECTIVE LASER SINTERING
    • B33Y10/00Processes of additive manufacturing
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B33ADDITIVE MANUFACTURING TECHNOLOGY
    • B33YADDITIVE MANUFACTURING, i.e. MANUFACTURING OF THREE-DIMENSIONAL [3-D] OBJECTS BY ADDITIVE DEPOSITION, ADDITIVE AGGLOMERATION OR ADDITIVE LAYERING, e.g. BY 3-D PRINTING, STEREOLITHOGRAPHY OR SELECTIVE LASER SINTERING
    • B33Y30/00Apparatus for additive manufacturing; Details thereof or accessories therefor
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02PCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES IN THE PRODUCTION OR PROCESSING OF GOODS
    • Y02P10/00Technologies related to metal processing
    • Y02P10/25Process efficiency

Abstract

The invention discloses a mould plasma 3D printing equipment and a mould plasma 3D printing equipment method. The equipment consists of a monitoring system, a plasma beam processing system, a horizontal printing table for placing a to-be-formed mould and a temporary fixing member, wherein the plasma beam processing system consists of a plasma generator, a printing position adjusting device, a gas supply device and a powder supplier; the printing position adjusting device comprises a horizontal moving device and a printing distance adjusting device; the monitoring system comprises a horizontal movement controller, a temperature detection unit, a distance detection unit and a printing distance adjustment controller; the temperature detection unit and the printing distance adjustment controller form a temperature control device. The method comprises the following steps: (I) obtaining three-dimensional stereo model and carrying out hierarchical slicing treatment; (II) scanning path filling; (III) printing path obtaining; and (IV) carrying out layer-by-layer printing from bottom to top. The equipment and the method disclosed by the invention have the advantages of reasonable design, simplicity and convenience in operation, high efficiency and good use effect; and moreover, the forming process is directly carried out in the atmospheric environment, and the formed mould has good quality.

Description

A kind of mould plasma 3D printing device and method
Technical field
The invention belongs to rapid shaping technique field, especially relate to a kind of mould plasma 3D printing device and method.
Background technology
Mould refers to the various moulds and the instrument that obtain required product in commercial production in order to methods such as injection moulding, blowing, extrusion, die casting or forging forming, smelting, punching presses.In brief, mould is used to the instrument of shaped article.Mould is the important tool in formed product processing, and expense accounts for the 10%~30% of product cost.The forming surface of mould refers to the surface in order to moulded products (also referred to as product), and forming surface is the surface directly contacted with institute moulded products.Wherein, the forming surface of die cavity refers to the outer surface in order to moulded products, and the forming surface of core is then the inner surface in order to moulded products.The crudy of mould surface, machining accuracy and serviceability all require higher, directly determine crudy and the machining accuracy of institute moulded products, and multiple operations such as in machining, mould surface need to be machined, cleans, polishing just can machine.In mould use procedure, forming surface effectively need to be protected, once the defects such as breakage, cracking, abrasion occurs in forming surface, then directly affect the molding effect of mould, even result in mould and scrap.
At present, the main manufacture methods of mould have casting, powder metallurgy, modularity group and etc..Publication number as disclosed in 5 days November in 2014 is in the Chinese invention patent " microalloying cast iron glass mold and manufacture method thereof " of CN104131215A, discloses the casting preparation method of a kind of microalloying cast iron glass mold.Publication number disclosed in 27 days Augusts in 2014 is the casting preparation method of a kind of diel disclosed in the Chinese invention patent application file of CN104004966A, this casting method prepares mould, cast material, casting cycle and sand mold are required higher, the follow-up processing being also performed to heat treatment and multi-pass, mould and performance designability thereof are poor, and manufacturing process is loaded down with trivial details.Publication number disclosed in 12 days March in 2014 is in the Chinese invention patent " powder metallurgy molybdenum base material and die forming method for hotwork extrusion die " of CN103627940A, discloses a kind of method that molybdenum base material powder metallurgy prepares hotwork extrusion die.Publication number disclosed in JIUYUE in 2014 24 days is the method for preparing powder metallurgy of a kind of hard alloy tool and mould disclosed in the Chinese invention patent application file of CN104057271A, due to every mould product all corresponding one secondary moulds, the constriction coefficient of different-alloy powder is different, need the every secondary mould that design is corresponding, cause that mould production cost is high;The making time of mould is long, and preparation efficiency is low;When powder is filled, under frictional force effect, corner is filled uneven, causes that intensity is uneven, affects the service life of mould product.Publication number disclosed in 24 days October in 2012 is in the Chinese invention patent " a kind of high strength steel plate hot stamping die manufacture method " of CN102744328A, discloses modularity group and the preparation method of a kind of high strength steel plate hot stamping die.Publication number disclosed in 13 days Augusts in 2008 is modularity group and the method for a kind of ingot casting mould disclosed in the patent of invention " ingot casting mould and manufacture the method for ingot casting mould and casting method " of CN101242923A, when this modularity group and method prepare mould, require that machining accuracy and the fit dimension precision of each module are very high, the fixing intensity of each module, required precision is also very high, cause that the preparation cost of mould is significantly high.Additionally, when adopting above-mentioned existing mould manufacturing method to carry out Making mold, it is both needed to spend substantial amounts of manpower and materials to be shaped face processing, multiple operations such as forming surface need to be machined, cleans, polishing, the course of processing is complicated, and has that working (machining) efficiency is low, crudy can not obtain defects such as being effectively ensured.
By analysis, mould adds man-hour, only the crudy of forming surface and requirement on machining accuracy are high, as mould being divided into die matrix (also referred to as die ontology) and the forming surface working lining two parts being laid on die matrix, owing to the crudy of die matrix requires relatively low, and the crudy of forming surface working lining and requirement on machining accuracy are high, thus only forming surface working lining need to be carried out fine design, so can significantly simplify the manufacture process of mould, effectively reduce the difficulty of processing of mould, and can guarantee that crudy and the result of use of mould.
It addition, the die matrix of mould manufactured by nowadays and forming surface working lining generally all adopt processing method of the same race to be processed, and die matrix and forming surface working lining generally all adopt same material to process.But actually, there is a great difference in the user demand of die matrix and forming surface working lining, die matrix mainly meets strength and stiffness needs (namely meeting support demand), and forming surface working lining meets wear-resistant temperature-resistant requirement, the measure of precision of mould is only relevant with forming surface working lining with service life.Thus, die matrix and forming surface working lining are adopted same material so that mold materials is relatively costly.
At present, domestic and international metal parts rapid shaping technique is mainly precinct laser fusion rapid molding technology (Selectivelasermelting, SLM).The basic functional principle of precinct laser fusion rapid molding equipment is: first utilize Pro/e on computers, UG, the 3D sculpting softwares such as CATIA design the three-dimensional entity model (i.e. three-dimensional stereo model) of part, then pass through Slice Software and this threedimensional model is carried out hierarchy slicing, obtain the outline data in each cross section, generated by outline data and fill scanning pattern, tile certain thickness powder in working cylinder, control according to computer, laser beam optionally melts fore-put powder layer by the mode of vibration mirror scanning according to the slicing treatment result of three-dimensional parts figure;Subsequently, working cylinder decline certain distance also spreads powder again, and laser beam completes the manufacture of next layer of parts under the drive of galvanometer again according to the 3-D graphic of parts;So repeat degradation operation under paving powder, scanning and working cylinder, thus realizing the manufacture of three-dimensional parts.Nowadays, precinct laser fusion rapid molding technology is primarily present following three aspect problems: the first, precinct laser fusion rapid molding technology needs protective atmosphere or vacuum environment, to avoid the oxidation of metal parts in forming process.This makes precinct laser fusion rapid molding device structure complicated, and forming part size is restricted, and energy source Optical Maser System price is high, and former is expensive;The second, precinct laser fusion rapid molding technology needs the moulding cylinder system of paving powder.This makes precinct laser fusion rapid molding device structure complicated, and not only forming part size is restricted, and shaping efficiency is relatively low;3rd, in order to ensure part mechanical property, precinct laser fusion rapid molding technology needs the globular metallic powder of good fluidity.This makes precinct laser fusion rapid molding equipment operating cost significantly high.
It addition, metal parts rapid shaping technique also has electron beam rapid shaping technique.But at present, Selected area electron bundle rapid shaping technique is primarily present following three aspect problems: the first, electron beam rapid shaping technique needs vacuum environment, to form energy source electron beam and to avoid the oxidation of metal parts in forming process.This makes electron beam rapid forming equipment structure complicated, and forming part size is restricted, and former is expensive;The second, electron beam rapid shaping technique needs paving powder system or moulding material feed system.This makes electron beam rapid forming equipment structure complicated, and not only forming part size is restricted, and shaping efficiency is relatively low;3rd, in order to ensure part mechanical property, electron beam rapid shaping technique needs the globular metallic powder of good fluidity.This makes precinct laser fusion rapid molding equipment operating cost significantly high.
Summary of the invention
The technical problem to be solved is in that for above-mentioned deficiency of the prior art, a kind of mould plasma 3D printing device is provided, its simple in construction, reasonable in design and use easy and simple to handle, shaping efficiency is high, result of use good, without airtight forming room, forming process directly carries out under atmospheric environment, and institute's mould quality is good.
For solving above-mentioned technical problem, the technical solution used in the present invention is: a kind of mould plasma 3D printing device, it is characterised in that: carried out interim fixing temporary fixing piece by monitoring system, plasma beam system of processing, the horizontal stamp pad for mould to be formed placement and the die matrix to described mould to be formed and form;Described mould to be formed includes die matrix and the forming surface working lining being laid on die matrix;Described temporary fixing piece is laid on horizontal stamp pad;
Described plasma beam system of processing is by being provided with shower nozzle and for producing the plasma generator of beam-plasma, the print position adjusting apparatus that the position of described plasma generator is adjusted, providing the feeder of working gas for described plasma generator and for forming to the powder feeder sending into printed material in described plasma generator continuously, and described plasma generator is positioned at above horizontal stamp pad;Described feeder is connected with the air inlet opened on described plasma generator by air supply pipe;The powder flow paths of described powder circulation it is provided in described plasma generator, described powder flow paths with communicate inside the arc chamber in described plasma generator and it connects with described air inlet, the external port of described powder flow paths is powder inlet, and the powder feeding mouth of described powder feeder is connected with powder inlet by powder feeding pipe;Horizontally moving device that described print position adjusting apparatus includes driving described plasma generator to move in the horizontal plane and drive described plasma generator and described horizontally moving device synchronizing moving and tackle the printing distance adjusting means that the distance between the outlet of described shower nozzle and horizontal stamp pad is adjusted mutually, described plasma generator is arranged on described horizontally moving device, and described horizontally moving device is arranged in described printing distance adjusting means;
Described monitoring system includes moving horizontally controller to what described horizontally moving device was controlled, described plasma beam system of processing Working position place temperature on described mould to be formed is carried out the temperature detecting unit of detection in real time, the distance detection unit that distance between outlet and the horizontal stamp pad of described shower nozzle is carried out detection in real time and the printing distance regulable control device that described printing distance adjusting means is controlled, the described controller that moves horizontally is connected with described horizontally moving device, the described distance regulable control device that prints is connected with described printing distance adjusting means, described temperature detecting unit and distance detection unit are all connected apart from regulable control device with printing;Described temperature detecting unit forms temperature control device with printing distance regulable control device.
Above-mentioned a kind of mould plasma 3D printing device, it is characterized in that: detection of gas flow rate unit that plasma generator controller that described monitoring system also includes described plasma generator is controlled, gas flow to air supply pipe carry out detection in real time and the gas flow controller that the flow control valve installed on air supply pipe is controlled, described plasma generator controller is connected with described plasma generator, and described detection of gas flow rate unit is connected with gas flow controller.
Above-mentioned a kind of mould plasma 3D printing device, is characterized in that: described plasma generator includes plasma gun, described shower nozzle is the anode nozzle of plasma gun front end;Described plasma gun includes having the gun body of described air inlet, being positioned at the anode nozzle of gun body dead ahead and be plugged in the negative electrode of gun body, described anode nozzle is positioned on front side of negative electrode, described arc chamber is positioned on front side of negative electrode and it is positioned at the posterior medial of anode nozzle, and the front inner of described anode nozzle is spout.
Above-mentioned a kind of mould plasma 3D printing device, is characterized in that: described anode nozzle, negative electrode and arc chamber are all laid in coaxial with gun body;Described powder flow paths and the inclined laying of gun body and its front end stretch in spout, described powder flow paths be straight channel and it include the back side walkway being laid in gun body and the front side channel being laid in anode nozzle.
Above-mentioned a kind of mould plasma 3D printing device, is characterized in that: described air inlet is positioned on rear side of gun body, and described spout is laid with gun body in coaxial or laid in coaxial with powder flow paths.
Above-mentioned a kind of mould plasma 3D printing device, is characterized in that: the angle between central axis and the vertical plane of the beam-plasma that described plasma generator produces is not more than 45 °;Described printing distance adjusting means is the adjusting apparatus up and down described shower nozzle adjusted up and down along the central axis of described beam-plasma, and described distance detection unit is to the distance detection device carrying out detection in real time along the central axis of described beam-plasma from the distance exported between horizontal stamp pad of described shower nozzle;
Described horizontal stamp pad is be arranged on stamp pad position regulator and the mobile platform that can move up and down;
Described monitoring system also includes the position adjustment controller that described stamp pad position regulator is controlled, and described position adjustment controller is connected with described stamp pad position regulator.
Above-mentioned a kind of mould plasma 3D printing device, is characterized in that: described powder feeder includes the shell that top has charging aperture and the powder feeding wheel being arranged in described shell, and described powder feeding wheel is driven by drive motor;Described powder feeding mouth is positioned at described outer casing underpart;
Described monitoring system also includes the powder mass flow detection unit that the powder feeding flow of powder feeding pipe carries out detection in real time and the powder feeding flow controller that drive motor is controlled, and described powder mass flow detection unit is connected with powder feeding flow controller.
Meanwhile, invention additionally discloses the mould plasma 3D Method of printing that a kind of method step is simple, reasonable in design and realization is convenient, result of use is good, it is characterised in that: the method comprises the following steps:
Step one, three-dimensional stereo model obtain and hierarchy slicing processes: adopt data handling equipment and call the three-dimensional stereo model that image processing module obtains the forming surface working lining of described mould to be formed, recall the hierarchy slicing module three-dimensional stereo model to forming surface working lining and carry out hierarchy slicing, and obtain multiple layering cross-sectional image;
Multiple described layering cross-sectional images are the image obtaining multiple layering cross section after the three-dimensional stereo model to forming surface working lining carries out hierarchy slicing, and multiple described layering cross sections are uniformly laid from the bottom to top;
Step 2, scanning pattern are filled: adopt data handling equipment and call described image processing module, described layering cross-sectional images multiple in step one are respectively processed, and complete the scanning pattern filling process in multiple described layering cross section, it is thus achieved that the scanning pattern in multiple described layering cross sections;
Step 3, printing path obtain: the described data handling equipment scanning pattern according to the multiple described layering cross section obtained in step 2, it is thus achieved that the printing path in multiple described layering cross sections;The printing path in each described layering cross section is all identical with the scanning pattern in this layering cross section;
Step 4, from the bottom to top successively printing: first the die matrix of the mould described to be formed of machine-shaping in advance is positioned on horizontal stamp pad, and by described temporary fixing piece, die matrix is fixed temporarily;Further according to the printing path in the multiple described layering cross section obtained in step 3, forming surface working lining is successively printed by die matrix from the bottom to top, it is thus achieved that the forming surface working lining stacking from the bottom to top by multiple shape layers;The quantity of described shape layer is identical with the quantity being layered cross section described in step one, the installation position of multiple described shape layers is all identical with the installation position one_to_one corresponding in multiple described layering cross sections and its thickness respectively, distance between the thickness of described shape layer with adjacent two described layering cross sections is identical, the printing path of the printing path in multiple described layering cross sections respectively multiple described shape layers in step 3;When forming surface working lining is printed, process is as follows:
Step 401, bottom print: described in move horizontally the controller printing path according to current institute printing shaping layer acquired in step 3, described horizontally moving device is controlled and drives described plasma generator to move in the horizontal plane;In described plasma generator moving process, the interior plasma beam with molten melt drop is sprayed onto on die matrix by described plasma beam system of processing continuously;After sprayed molten melt drop all solidifies, complete the print procedure of current institute printing shaping layer;
In this step, current institute printing shaping layer is the shape layer being positioned at bottommost in multiple described shape layer;
Step 402, last layer print, and comprise the following steps:
Step 4021, printing are apart from regulating: horizontal stamp pad in the vertical direction is once moved down and moved down highly identical with the thickness of described shape layer, or drive described plasma generator in the vertical direction once to move up and move up highly identical with the thickness of described shape layer by printing apart from the regulable control device described printing distance adjusting means of control;
Step 4022, print and synchronize temperature control: described in move horizontally the controller printing path according to current institute printing shaping layer acquired in step 3, described horizontally moving device is controlled and drives described plasma generator to move in the horizontal plane;In described plasma generator moving process, the interior plasma beam with molten melt drop is sprayed onto on the upper surface of the current printed described shape layer of the next one by described plasma beam system of processing continuously;After sprayed molten melt drop all solidifies, complete the print procedure of current institute printing shaping layer;
In this step, in described plasma generator moving process, carrying out detecting in real time and by detected temperature information synchronous driving to printing distance regulable control device to the upper surface temperature of the current printed described shape layer of the next one by temperature detecting unit, the distance simultaneously detected between unit outlet and horizontal stamp pad to described shower nozzle by distance carries out detection in real time and by the range information synchronous driving detected to printing apart from regulable control device;Described print temperature information that distance regulable control device detects according to temperature detecting unit and be adjusted by controlling the distance between described printing distance adjusting means outlet and horizontal stamp pad to described shower nozzle, making 0.6 times of the upper surface temperature of the currently printed described shape layer of the next one material fusing point not higher than forming surface working lining;
In plasma generator moving process described in step 401 and step 4022, described printed material is delivered in described plasma generator by described powder feeder continuously, and the printed material sent in described plasma generator is sent in described plasma generator in the beam-plasma of generation and is molten into molten melt drop under the effect of described working gas, described molten melt drop is uniformly distributed in described beam-plasma, and forms the interior plasma beam with molten melt drop;Described printed material is dusty material;
Step 403, repeatedly repetition step 402, until completing the print procedure of all shape layers of forming surface working lining.
The above-mentioned method that mould is carried out plasma 3D printing, it is characterized in that: before step 4 successively prints from the bottom to top, data handling equipment described in step one is first according to the material fusing point pre-build and printing range data storehouse, and combine the Material Name of forming surface working lining pre-entered by parameter input unit, the basis of forming surface working lining is printed distance and is determined;Described parameter input unit connects with described data handling equipment;
In described material fusing point and printing range data storehouse, storage has the material fusing point of various material and prints range information, and the material fusing point of every kind of described material and printing range information all include the title of this kind of material, fusing point and basis printing distance;It is 5mm~1000mm that described basis prints distance, and material fusing point is more high, and it is more near that basis prints distance;
Carrying out in step 401 before bottom printing, the distance exported between horizontal stamp pad of described shower nozzle is adjusted to described basis printing distance according to the range information detected apart from detection unit and by controlling described printing distance adjusting means by described printing distance regulable control device;In step 401 in bottom print procedure, the distance between outlet and the horizontal stamp pad of described shower nozzle is that described basis prints distance;
When step 4021 carries out printing distance adjustment, horizontal stamp pad in the vertical direction is once moved down and is moved down height identical with the thickness of described shape layer;Before step 4022 carrying out print and synchronize temperature control, described printing distance regulable control device detects, according to distance, range information the moving down number of times and moving down highly every time in conjunction with horizontal stamp pad that unit detects, and by controlling described printing distance adjusting means, the distance between outlet and the upper surface of the currently printed described shape layer of the next one of described shower nozzle is adjusted to described basis printing distance;When distance between outlet and the horizontal stamp pad of described shower nozzle is adjusted by step 4022, described print temperature information that distance regulable control device detects according to temperature detecting unit and combine the range information that distance detection unit detects the distance between outlet and the horizontal stamp pad of described shower nozzle is adjusted, making the upper surface temperature of the current printed described shape layer of the next one control between 0.1 times~0.6 times of the material fusing point at forming surface working lining;Further, when the distance between outlet and the horizontal stamp pad of described shower nozzle is adjusted, the amplitude of accommodation is 5mm~60mm, and material fusing point is more high, and the amplitude of accommodation is more little.
The above-mentioned method that mould is carried out plasma 3D printing, is characterized in that: described powder feeder includes the shell that top has charging aperture and the powder feeding wheel being arranged in described shell, and described powder feeding wheel is driven by drive motor;Described powder feeding mouth is positioned at described outer casing underpart;Plasma generator controller that described monitoring system also includes described plasma generator is controlled, gas flow to air supply pipe carry out the detection of gas flow rate unit of detection in real time, the gas flow controller that the flow control valve that air supply pipe is installed is controlled, powder mass flow detection unit that powder feeding flow to powder feeding pipe carries out detection in real time and the powder feeding flow controller that drive motor is controlled, described plasma generator controller is connected with described plasma generator, and described detection of gas flow rate unit is connected with gas flow controller;Described powder mass flow detection unit is connected with powder feeding flow controller;Described distance detection unit is connected with gas flow controller;
Before step 4 successively prints from the bottom to top, data handling equipment described in step one is first according to the gas pre-build and powder mass flow data base, and in conjunction with the thickness of described shape layer set in advance, the base gas flow of air supply pipe and the powder feeding flow of powder feeding pipe are determined;
Described gas and powder mass flow databases contain the powder feeding flow needed for the shape layer of multiple different thickness and base gas flow;Described base gas flow is 50ml/min~15000ml/min, and the powder feeding flow of powder feeding pipe is more big, and described base gas flow is more big;
In plasma generator moving process described in step 401 and step 4022, the powder feeding flow of powder feeding pipe is carried out detection in real time and detected synchronizing information is sent to powder feeding flow controller by described powder mass flow detection unit, drive motor is controlled by described powder feeding flow controller according to powder feeding flow the detected information of combining powder flow detection unit of predetermined powder feeding pipe, and the powder feeding flow making powder feeding pipe is all identical with predetermined powder feeding flow;
Carrying out in step 401 before bottom printing, the gas flow of air supply pipe is adjusted to described base gas flow according to the detected information of detection of gas flow rate unit and by controlling flow control valve by described gas flow controller;In step 401 in bottom print procedure, the gas flow of described air supply pipe is described base gas flow;
Step 4022 carries out print and synchronize in temperature control process, described gas flow controller is according to the detected information of detection of gas flow rate unit and combines apart from detection unit institute detecting distance information, and by controlling flow control valve, the gas flow of air supply pipe carries out increase and decrease adjustment;Further, the distance between outlet and the horizontal stamp pad of described shower nozzle is more big, and the gas flow of described air supply pipe is more big.
The present invention compared with prior art has the advantage that
1, the mould plasma 3D printing device simple in construction that adopts, that reasonable in design and input cost is relatively low, processing and fabricating and installing is laid is convenient.
2, the mould plasma 3D printing device adopted is without airtight forming room, and does not need protective atmosphere or vacuum environment, and Workpiece shaping process directly carries out under atmospheric environment.Thus, structure is very simple, and forming part size is unrestricted, and equipment price is relatively low.
3, the printed material of mould plasma 3D printing device supplies in energy source beam-plasma (the drop plasma beam of material), it is not necessary to the moulding cylinder system of paving powder need not spread powder system, it is only necessary to a powder feeder, structure significantly simplifies.
4, the mould plasma 3D printing device adopted uses easy and simple to handle, intelligence degree and shaping efficiency is high, result of use is good, and institute's mould quality is good.The distance moving horizontally controller, Working position place temperature being carried out between the real-time temperature detecting unit of detection, outlet and the die matrix to shower nozzle that the monitoring system adopted includes that horizontally moving device is controlled carries out the distance of detection in real time and detects unit and the printing distance regulable control device that printing distance adjusting means is controlled, printing and be connected with printing distance adjusting means apart from regulable control device, temperature detecting unit and distance detection unit are all connected apart from regulable control device with printing;Temperature detecting unit forms temperature control device with printing distance regulable control device.
In actually used process, printing distance regulable control device in temperature control device is controlled printing distance adjusting means according to the detected information of temperature detecting unit, make to print distance energy Automatic adjusument, so can prevent because printing the problem that hypotelorism causes the shape layer printed to occur fusing again, and the formed precision caused because of printing hypertelorism also can be prevented relatively low, there is the problems such as solidification before a printable layer outer surface in molten melt drop on being sprayed onto, make forming process easily controllable, and realize conveniently, can effectively prevent the surface of mould surface working lining from aoxidizing simultaneously, because of without arranging airtight vacuum environment.It addition, the monitoring system adopted also includes gas flow Automatic adjusument and powder mass flow Automatic adjusument function, intelligence degree is high.
5, the energy source that mould plasma 3D printing device adopts is beam-plasma, and beam-plasma power is up to tens of kilowatt, energy molten ceramic material, it is achieved the plasma casting rapid shaping of metal, ceramic metal and ceramic part.Producing plasma generator (specifically plasma gun) simple in construction of beam-plasma, operation expense is low, and plasma casting rapid forming equipment cost is low.
6, the drop of mould plasma 3D printing device institute printed material is in plasma beam; beam-plasma itself has protective effect; add the effect of working gas; can effectively prevent the oxidation of printed material; this equipment does not need protective atmosphere or vacuum environment; directly use under atmospheric environment, there is the advantages such as device structure is simple, operating cost is low, forming part size is unrestricted.
7, mould plasma 3D printing device adopts direct current generator drive powder wheel to rotate and deliver in beam-plasma by working gas auxiliary by powder, can use a powder or prilling powder, it is not necessary to spherical powder.This equipment printed material cost is low.
8, when mould plasma 3D printing device prints, materials behavior is become solid-state by settable liquid, and technical process simplifies, and reduces the 3D technology difficulty printed and cost.Simultaneously, under the effect of working gas (beam-plasma includes unionized working gas), powder enters in beam-plasma, and accelerate in described beam-plasma, heat and be fused into molten condition and form small drop, this drop sprays in the lump with beam-plasma, forms the interior plasma beam with molten melt drop;After the molten melt drop that powder is formed after fusing sprays with beam-plasma, formed by the microstream of the molten melt drop being evenly distributed with printed material, form casting type molding, the rounded constrictions phenomenon produced when avoiding molten drop cooled and solidified molding, part mechanical property is high, smooth surface, reduces the technology difficulty of rapid shaping.
9, the mould plasma 3D Method of printing step adopted is simple, reasonable in design and realization is convenient, result of use is good, improved by plasma gun structure and powder is sent directly in beam-plasma and makes powder smelting, the drop plasma beam of formation institute printed material.Beam-plasma has protective effect, it is not necessary to protective atmosphere or vacuum environment, directly prints under atmospheric environment.Further, printed material supplies in energy source beam-plasma (the drop plasma beam of material), it is not necessary to the moulding cylinder system of paving powder.It addition, adopt direct current generator drive powder wheel to rotate and deliver in beam-plasma by working gas auxiliary by powder, a powder or prilling powder can be used, it is not necessary to spherical powder.During printing, materials behavior is become solid-state by settable liquid, and technical process simplifies, and reduces the 3D technology difficulty printed and cost, and it is no longer size-limited to print part.As shown in the above, traditional plasma surfacing method is substantially improved by the present invention, the generally individually plasma arc voltage Height-adjusting device that is provided with of existing plasma surfacing method, and the distance of plasma gun and surface of the work is not more than 15mm, and the scope of application is limited.And in the present invention, print distance can on a large scale in be adjusted, adapting to unlike material prints demand, and can be effectively ensured workpiece (i.e. mould surface working lining) Forming Quality.
Adopt the Method of printing of mould plasma 3D printing device of the present invention and correspondence, can efficient solution determine the problems referred to above that precinct laser fusion rapid molding technology and electron beam rapid shaping technique exist, and provide a kind of brand-new manufacture method for mould, can effectively solve the various problems that existing mold preparation method exists, once machine-shaping forming surface working lining on the die matrix of machine-shaping in advance, has that shaping efficiency height, Forming Quality be good, die matrix and an advantage such as forming surface work interlayer bonding strength mould quality high, machined is good.
10, the forming surface working layer of mould melts formation drop in beam-plasma, and beam-plasma has protection and purification effect, it is to avoid material is smelted and pollution in casting cycle, forming surface working lining stable performance.
11, mould structure designability is strong, and technological process is short, and material is uniform, reduces technology difficulty and the cost of Making mold, improves the performance of mould.Die matrix and forming surface working lining being processed respectively, wherein, the crudy of die matrix requires relatively low, adopts conventional Simplified flowsheet to complete;And the crudy of forming surface working lining and requirement on machining accuracy are high, thus adopt the present invention that forming surface working lining carries out fine design, so can significantly simplify the manufacture process of mould, effectively reduce the difficulty of processing of mould, and can guarantee that crudy and the result of use of mould.
12, die matrix and forming surface working lining being adopted different materials, wherein die matrix adopts the materials such as the metal of low cost commonly used, alloy to be processed;And forming surface working lining adopts the material that cost is high, so can effectively reduce the material cost of mould.Die matrix meets strength and stiffness needs, and forming surface working lining meets wear-resistant temperature-resistant requirement, is not only able to significantly reduce cost, and can significantly improve Making mold efficiency and capability of fast response.
13, in mould surface working layer layering print procedure, droplet solidification speed is fast, and forming surface working layer crystal grain is tiny, and without causing element segregation, the performance of forming surface working lining is good;Further, beam-plasma has protection and purification effect, and making mould print can carry out under atmospheric environment, easy to operate;When adopting the present invention to be printed as profile working lining, in last layer forming surface working layer print procedure, next layer of printed material can be carried out synchronizing heat treatment by plasma beam, and forming surface working lining thermal stress is little, not havinging micro-crack or cracking, yield rate can reach absolutely;When adopting print die forming surface working lining of the present invention, technical process is simple, and technological process is short, and equipment cost is low, can effectively reduce technology difficulty and cost.And, mould plasma 3D printing device disclosed in this invention can directly use under atmospheric environment, forming surface working layer can be fused into liquid stream during molding, realize continuous micro-casting rapid shaping, technical process simplifies, reduce technology difficulty and cost that existing mold manufactures, improve the performance of mould.
Below by drawings and Examples, technical scheme is described in further detail.
Accompanying drawing explanation
Fig. 1 is the structural representation of inventive die plasma 3D printing device.
Fig. 2 is the structural representation of plasma gun in the embodiment of the present invention 1.
Fig. 3 is the schematic block circuit diagram that the present invention monitors system.
Fig. 4 is the structural representation of air inlet ring of the present invention.
Fig. 5 is the structural representation of air inlet ring body of the present invention.
Fig. 6 is the FB(flow block) of inventive die plasma 3D Method of printing.
Fig. 7 is the structural representation of plasma gun in the embodiment of the present invention 2.
Description of reference numerals:
1 feeder;2 powder feeders;3-1 die matrix;
3-2 forming surface working lining;4 horizontal stamp pads;5 air supply pipes;
6 powder feeding pipe;7 plasma generator controllers;
8 distance detection unit;9 temperature detecting units;
10 print distance regulable control device;11 detection of gas flow rate unit;
12 gas flow controllers;13 plasma guns;13-1 gun body;
13-2 anode nozzle;13-3 negative electrode;13-4 arc chamber;
13-5 spout;13-6 insulating barrier;14 powder flow paths;
15 position adjustment controllers;16 three axis numerically controlled machines;About 17 adjusting apparatus;
18 powder mass flow detection unit;19 drive motors;20 powder feeding flow controllers;
21 air inlet rings;21-1 air inlet ring body;21-2 annular sealing cover;
21-3 annular air inlet duct;Air inlet outside 21-4;Air inlet inside 21-5;
22 powder inlets;23 PCs;24 move horizontally controller;
24-1 X-axis travel mechanism;24-2 Y-axis moving mechanism;
25 flow control valves.
Detailed description of the invention
Embodiment 1
A kind of mould plasma 3D printing device as shown in Figure 1, is carried out interim fixing temporary fixing piece by monitoring system, plasma beam system of processing, the horizontal stamp pad 4 for mould to be formed placement and the die matrix 3-1 to described mould to be formed and forms;Described mould to be formed includes die matrix 3-1 and the forming surface working lining 3-2 being laid on die matrix 3-1;Described temporary fixing piece is laid on horizontal stamp pad 4.
Described plasma beam system of processing is by being provided with shower nozzle and for producing the plasma generator of beam-plasma, the print position adjusting apparatus that the position of described plasma generator is adjusted, providing the feeder 1 of working gas for described plasma generator and for forming to the powder feeder 2 sending into printed material in described plasma generator continuously, and described plasma generator is positioned at above horizontal stamp pad 4.Described feeder 1 is connected with the air inlet opened on described plasma generator by air supply pipe 5.In conjunction with Fig. 2, the powder flow paths 14 of described powder circulation it is provided in described plasma generator, described powder flow paths 14 with communicate inside the arc chamber 13-4 in described plasma generator and it connects with described air inlet, the external port of described powder flow paths is powder inlet 22, and the powder feeding mouth of described powder feeder 2 is connected with powder inlet 22 by powder feeding pipe 6;Horizontally moving device that described print position adjusting apparatus includes driving described plasma generator to move in the horizontal plane and drive described plasma generator and described horizontally moving device synchronizing moving and tackle the printing distance adjusting means that the distance between the outlet of described shower nozzle and horizontal stamp pad 4 is adjusted mutually, described plasma generator is arranged on described horizontally moving device, and described horizontally moving device is arranged in described printing distance adjusting means.Described printed material is dusty material (i.e. powder), and, described printed material is the material used by forming surface working lining 3-2 of described mould to be formed.Herein, described plasma beam system of processing is the system of processing being processed into profile working lining 3-2 on the die matrix 3-1 of described mould to be formed.
As shown in Figure 3, what described monitoring system included described horizontally moving device is controlled moves horizontally controller 24, described plasma beam system of processing Working position place temperature on described mould to be formed is carried out the temperature detecting unit 9 of detection in real time, the distance detection unit 8 that distance between outlet and the horizontal stamp pad 4 of described shower nozzle is carried out detection in real time and the printing distance regulable control device 10 that described printing distance adjusting means is controlled, the described controller 24 that moves horizontally is connected with described horizontally moving device, the described distance regulable control device 10 that prints is connected with described printing distance adjusting means, described temperature detecting unit 9 and distance detection unit 8 are all connected apart from regulable control device 10 with printing;Described temperature detecting unit 9 forms temperature control device with printing distance regulable control device 10.Described distance detection unit 8 is laser range sensor.
In the present embodiment, described temporary fixing piece is clamping device (being not drawn in Fig. 1).Time actually used, described temporary fixing piece can also adopt other temporary securing mechanism such as fixture.
In the present embodiment, described temperature detecting unit 9 is the infrared temperature sensor that described plasma beam system of processing print position place (i.e. Working position place) temperature on forming surface working lining 3-2 carries out detection in real time.Described distance detection unit 8 is laser range sensor.
When actual laying is installed, described temperature detecting unit 9 is positioned at above die matrix 3-1.In the present embodiment, described temperature detecting unit 9 is positioned at the surface of die matrix 3-1.Thus, by temperature detecting unit 9, the temperature of forming surface working lining 3-2 upper surface is detected in real time.
In the present embodiment, X-axis travel mechanism 24-1 that described horizontally moving device includes driving described plasma generator to carry out in the X-axis direction moving horizontally and drive described plasma generator to carry out the Y-axis moving mechanism 24-2 moved horizontally in the Y-axis direction, thus described horizontally moving device is X-Y shaft moving device.
Further, described plasma generator is arranged on Y-axis moving mechanism 24-2, and described Y-axis moving mechanism 24-2 is arranged on X-axis travel mechanism 24-1, and described X-axis travel mechanism 24-1 is arranged in described printing distance adjusting means.In actually used process, described plasma generator is driven to move horizontally in the Y-axis direction by Y-axis moving mechanism 24-2, driven by X-axis travel mechanism 24-1 that Y-axis moving mechanism 24-2 is Tong Bu with described plasma generator moves horizontally in the X-axis direction, and described horizontally moving device is Tong Bu with described plasma generator moves on the central axis of described beam-plasma by the drive of described printing distance adjusting means.
In the present embodiment, described Y-axis moving mechanism 24-2, X-axis travel mechanism 24-1 and described printing distance adjusting means composition drive described plasma generator (specifically plasma gun 13) to carry out the mechanical hand of three-dimensional motion.
In the present embodiment, detection of gas flow rate unit 11 that plasma generator controller 7 that described monitoring system also includes described plasma generator is controlled, gas flow to air supply pipe 5 carry out detection in real time and the gas flow controller 12 that the flow control valve 25 installed on air supply pipe 5 is controlled, described plasma generator controller 7 is connected with described plasma generator, and described detection of gas flow rate unit 11 is connected with gas flow controller 12.
In the present embodiment, as in figure 2 it is shown, described plasma generator includes plasma gun 13, described shower nozzle is the anode nozzle 13-2 of plasma gun 13 front end;Described plasma gun 13 includes having the gun body 13-1 of described air inlet, being positioned at the anode nozzle 13-2 of gun body 13-1 dead ahead and be plugged in the negative electrode 13-3 of gun body 13-1, described anode nozzle 13-2 is positioned on front side of negative electrode 13-3, described arc chamber 13-4 is positioned on front side of negative electrode 13-3 and it is positioned at the posterior medial of anode nozzle 13-2, and the front inner of described anode nozzle 13-2 is spout 13-5.
Time actually used, described plasma gun 13 is arranged on Y-axis moving mechanism 24-2.
Time actually used, described horizontally moving device may also be only and drives described plasma generator to carry out the X-axis travel mechanism 24-1 moved horizontally in the X-axis direction.Now, described plasma gun 13 is arranged on X-axis travel mechanism 24-1.
In the present embodiment, described anode nozzle 13-2, negative electrode 13-3 and arc chamber 13-4 all lay in coaxial with gun body 13-1;Described powder flow paths 14 stretches in spout 13-5 with the inclined laying of gun body 13-1 and its front end, described powder flow paths 14 be straight channel and it include the back side walkway being laid in gun body 13-1 and the front side channel being laid in anode nozzle 13-2.
Further, described air inlet is positioned on rear side of gun body 13-1, and described spout 13-5 and gun body 13-1 lays in coaxial or lay in coaxial with powder flow paths 14.
In the present embodiment, between described anode nozzle 13-2 and gun body 13-1, it is provided with insulating barrier 13-6.
In the present embodiment, as in figure 2 it is shown, described spout 13-5 and gun body 13-1 lays in coaxial.
In the present embodiment, described air supply pipe 5 is connected with the air inlet opened on described plasma generator by air inlet ring 21.Further, uniformly supplied in described plasma generator by air inlet ring 21.
Such as Fig. 4, shown in Fig. 5, described air inlet ring 21 be annular and it include air inlet ring body 21-1 and lid be contained on air inlet ring body 21-1 annular sealing cover 21-2, described air inlet ring body 21-1 has an annular air inlet duct 21-3 on annular and its medial wall, described air inlet ring body 21-1 has an outside air inlet 21-4 connected with air supply pipe 5 and its inside have multiple inner side air inlet 21-5, multiple described inner side air inlet 21-5 along the circumferential direction uniformly lay and it is respectively positioned on inside annular air inlet duct 21-3, described outside air inlet 21-4 is positioned at outside annular air inlet duct 21-3, described outside air inlet 21-4 and multiple described inner side air inlet 21-5 all communicates with inside annular air inlet duct 21-3.
Further, described gun body 13-1 along the circumferential direction has multiple respectively with multiple described inner side air inlet 21-5 gun body air inlet communicated.
Time actually used, described powder flow paths 14 can also adopt same passage with the inlet channel of described working gas.
In the present embodiment, the meal outlet of described powder flow paths 14 is positioned on front side of arc chamber 13-4 and it is positioned at the inner back side of spout 13-5.
In plasma gun 13 use procedure as shown in Figure 2, producing plasma in described arc chamber 13-4, produced plasma forms beam-plasma and sprays through spout 13-5;Meanwhile, described powder is tilted towards entering spout 13-5 by powder flow paths 14, and described powder enters in described beam-plasma under the effect of described working gas, and accelerate in described beam-plasma, heat and be fused into molten condition and form small drop, this drop sprays in the lump with beam-plasma, forms the interior plasma beam with molten melt drop;After the molten melt drop that powder is formed after fusing sprays with beam-plasma, formed by the microstream of the molten melt drop being evenly distributed with printed material.Thus, described printed material is powder, to the shape of powder without particular/special requirement.
In the present embodiment, described working gas is noble gas or H2Gas.
Wherein, noble gas is Ar gas, He gas and N2Gas.
In the present embodiment, described horizontal stamp pad 4 is be arranged on stamp pad position regulator and the mobile platform that can move up and down.
Described monitoring system also includes the position adjustment controller 15 that described stamp pad position regulator is controlled, and described position adjustment controller 15 is connected with described stamp pad position regulator.
In the present embodiment, described stamp pad position regulator is three axis numerically controlled machine 16.
Further, described position adjustment controller 15 is the controller of three axis numerically controlled machine 16.
Time actually used, described stamp pad position regulator can also adopt other can complete the device of X, Y and the motion of three directions of Z axis or can the vertically movable device that moves up and down of in the vertical direction.
In actually used process, described horizontal stamp pad 4 can also adopt the fixed fixed platform in position.
In actually used process, the angle between central axis and the vertical plane of the beam-plasma that described plasma generator produces is not more than 45 °;Described printing distance adjusting means is adjusting apparatus 17 up and down described shower nozzle adjusted up and down along the central axis of described beam-plasma, and described distance detection unit 8 be to the distance detection device carrying out from the distance exported between horizontal stamp pad 4 of described shower nozzle detecting in real time along the central axis of described beam-plasma.
In the present embodiment, described upper and lower adjusting apparatus 17 is Z-direction adjusting apparatus.
Further, described upper and lower adjusting apparatus 17 is telescopic hydraulic cylinder.
In the present embodiment, the central axis of the beam-plasma that described plasma generator produces is in vertically to laying.Time actually used, can according to specific needs, the angle between central axis and the vertical plane of the beam-plasma that described plasma generator produces be adjusted accordingly.
In the present embodiment, described powder feeder 2 includes the shell that top has charging aperture and the powder feeding wheel being arranged in described shell, and described powder feeding wheel is driven by drive motor 19;Described powder feeding mouth is positioned at described outer casing underpart.
As shown in Figure 3, described monitoring system also includes the powder mass flow detection unit 18 that the powder feeding flow of powder feeding pipe 6 carries out detection in real time and the powder feeding flow controller 20 that drive motor 19 is controlled, and described powder mass flow detection unit 18 is connected with powder feeding flow controller 20.
In the present embodiment, described drive motor 19 is direct current generator.In actually used process, by changing the rotating speed of described direct current generator, the powder feeding flow of powder feeding pipe 6 is carried out simplicity, quickly adjusts.
In the present embodiment, described monitoring system also includes the displacement in X-axis, Y-axis and Z-direction of the horizontal stamp pad 4 carries out the first displacement detecting unit of detection, the second displacement detecting unit and triple motion detection unit respectively in real time, and described first displacement detecting unit, the second displacement detecting unit and triple motion detection unit are all connected with position adjustment controller 15.
In the present embodiment, described monitoring system also includes respectively to Y-axis moving mechanism 24-2 horizontal displacement in the Y-axis direction, carry out the 4th displacement detecting unit of detection, the 5th displacement detecting unit and the 6th displacement detecting unit in real time to X-axis travel mechanism 24-1 horizontal displacement in the X-axis direction with to the displacement in the Z-axis direction of upper and lower adjusting apparatus 17, described 4th displacement detecting unit and the 5th displacement detecting unit all with move horizontally controller 24 and be connected, described 6th displacement detecting unit is connected with printing distance regulable control device 10.
In the present embodiment, described plasma generator controller 7, gas flow controller 12, position adjustment controller 15, printing distance regulable control device 10, powder feeding flow controller 20 and move horizontally controller 24 and all connect with described data handling equipment, described data handling equipment is PC 23.Described feeder 1 is carried out on off control by PC 23.
A kind of mould plasma 3D Method of printing as shown in Figure 6, comprises the following steps:
Step one, three-dimensional stereo model obtain and hierarchy slicing processes: adopt data handling equipment and call the three-dimensional stereo model that image processing module obtains the forming surface working lining 3-2 of described mould to be formed, recall the hierarchy slicing module three-dimensional stereo model to forming surface working lining 3-2 and carry out hierarchy slicing, and obtain multiple layering cross-sectional image;
Multiple described layering cross-sectional images are the image obtaining multiple layering cross section after the three-dimensional stereo model to forming surface working lining 3-2 carries out hierarchy slicing, and multiple described layering cross sections are uniformly laid from the bottom to top;
Step 2, scanning pattern are filled: adopt data handling equipment and call described image processing module, described layering cross-sectional images multiple in step one are respectively processed, and complete the scanning pattern filling process in multiple described layering cross section, it is thus achieved that the scanning pattern in multiple described layering cross sections;
Step 3, printing path obtain: the described data handling equipment scanning pattern according to the multiple described layering cross section obtained in step 2, it is thus achieved that the printing path in multiple described layering cross sections;The printing path in each described layering cross section is all identical with the scanning pattern in this layering cross section;
Step 4, from the bottom to top successively printing: first the die matrix 3-1 of the mould described to be formed of machine-shaping in advance is positioned on horizontal stamp pad 4, and by described temporary fixing piece, die matrix 3-1 is fixed temporarily;Further according to the printing path in the multiple described layering cross section obtained in step 3, forming surface working lining 3-2 is successively printed by die matrix 3-1 from the bottom to top, it is thus achieved that the forming surface working lining 3-2 stacking from the bottom to top by multiple shape layers;The quantity of described shape layer is identical with the quantity being layered cross section described in step one, the installation position of multiple described shape layers is all identical with the installation position one_to_one corresponding in multiple described layering cross sections and its thickness respectively, distance between the thickness of described shape layer with adjacent two described layering cross sections is identical, the printing path of the printing path in multiple described layering cross sections respectively multiple described shape layers in step 3;When forming surface working lining 3-2 is printed, process is as follows:
Step 401, bottom print: described in move horizontally the controller 24 printing path according to current institute printing shaping layer acquired in step 3, described horizontally moving device is controlled and drives described plasma generator to move in the horizontal plane;In described plasma generator moving process, the interior plasma beam with molten melt drop is sprayed onto on die matrix 3-1 by described plasma beam system of processing continuously;After sprayed molten melt drop all solidifies, complete the print procedure of current institute printing shaping layer;
In this step, current institute printing shaping layer is the shape layer being positioned at bottommost in multiple described shape layer;
Step 402, last layer print, and comprise the following steps:
Step 4021, print distance regulate: horizontal stamp pad 4 in the vertical direction is once moved down and moves down height identical with the thickness of described shape layer, or by print distance regulable control device 10 control described printing distance adjusting means drive described plasma generator in the vertical direction once move up and move up height identical with the thickness of described shape layer;
Step 4022, print and synchronize temperature control: described in move horizontally the controller 24 printing path according to current institute printing shaping layer acquired in step 3, described horizontally moving device is controlled and drives described plasma generator to move in the horizontal plane;In described plasma generator moving process, the interior plasma beam with molten melt drop is sprayed onto on the upper surface of the current printed described shape layer of the next one by described plasma beam system of processing continuously;After sprayed molten melt drop all solidifies, complete the print procedure of current institute printing shaping layer;
In this step, in described plasma generator moving process, carrying out detecting in real time and by detected temperature information synchronous driving to printing distance regulable control device 10 to the upper surface temperature of the current printed described shape layer of the next one by temperature detecting unit 9, the distance simultaneously detected between the unit 8 outlet and horizontal stamp pad 4 to described shower nozzle by distance carries out detection in real time and by the range information synchronous driving detected to printing apart from regulable control device 10;Described print temperature information that distance regulable control device 10 detects according to temperature detecting unit 9 and be adjusted by controlling the distance between described printing distance adjusting means outlet and horizontal stamp pad 4 to described shower nozzle, making 0.6 times of the upper surface temperature of the currently printed described shape layer of the next one material fusing point not higher than forming surface working lining 3-2;
In plasma generator moving process described in step 401 and step 4022, described printed material is delivered in described plasma generator by described powder feeder 2 continuously, and the printed material sent in described plasma generator is sent in described plasma generator in the beam-plasma of generation and is molten into molten melt drop under the effect of described working gas, described molten melt drop is uniformly distributed in described beam-plasma, and forms the interior plasma beam with molten melt drop;Further, described molten melt drop moves along the central axis of described beam-plasma under the effect of described working gas (beam-plasma includes unionized working gas);Described printed material is dusty material;
Step 403, repeatedly repetition step 402, until completing the print procedure of the forming surface all shape layers of working lining 3-2.
In actually used process, when step 4021 carries out printing distance adjustment, controlling described printing distance adjusting means by printing distance regulable control device 10 drives described plasma generator in the vertical direction once to move up, after described plasma generator moves into place, the height of described plasma generator is recorded, and now the height of described plasma generator is the basis printing height of current institute printing shaping layer;When step 402 carries out next layer of printing, after step 4022 completing print and synchronize temperature control, also need to control described printing distance adjusting means by printing distance regulable control device 10, described plasma generator in the vertical direction is driven to move up and down, until being that in step 4021, the basis of current institute printing shaping layer prints height by the height adjustment of described plasma generator.
In the present embodiment, before step 4 successively prints from the bottom to top, when die matrix 3-1 being fixed temporarily by described temporary fixing piece, die matrix 3-1 need to will need to be processed into the machining area of profile working lining 3-2 upward.
In the present embodiment, the thickness of described forming surface working lining 3-2 is 0.01mm~30mm.
Actual add man-hour, the composite that material (i.e. described printed material) used by described forming surface working lining 3-2 is aluminium alloy, copper alloy, cast iron, steel, titanium alloy, hard alloy or enhancing, the composite of described enhancing is that granule strengthens or the aluminum matrix composite of whisker reinforcement, Cu-base composites, iron base composite material, base steel composite material or titanium matrix composite.
Thus, the material (i.e. described printed material) used by described forming surface working lining 3-2 is aluminium alloy, copper alloy, cast iron, steel, titanium alloy or hard alloy.Further, the material used by described forming surface working lining 3-2 can also strengthen or the aluminum matrix composite of whisker reinforcement (i.e. whisker dispersion-strengtherning), Cu-base composites, iron base composite material, base steel composite material or titanium matrix composite for granule.
In the actual course of processing, can according to specific needs, thickness and material used to forming surface working lining 3-2 adjust accordingly.
The material of described die matrix 3-1 is conventional lower cost materials, such as elemental metals (such as ferrum), alloy etc..Described die matrix 3-1 only needs strength and stiffness to need.
In the present embodiment, before step 4 successively prints from the bottom to top, data handling equipment described in step one is first according to the material fusing point pre-build and printing range data storehouse, and combine the Material Name of forming surface working lining 3-2 pre-entered by parameter input unit, the basis of forming surface working lining 3-2 is printed distance and is determined;Described parameter input unit connects with described data handling equipment;
In described material fusing point and printing range data storehouse, storage has the material fusing point of various material and prints range information, and the material fusing point of every kind of described material and printing range information all include the title of this kind of material, fusing point and basis printing distance;It is 5mm~1000mm that described basis prints distance, and material fusing point is more high, and it is more near that basis prints distance;
Carrying out in step 401 before bottom printing, the distance exported between horizontal stamp pad 4 of described shower nozzle is adjusted to described basis printing distance according to the range information detected apart from detection unit 8 and by controlling described printing distance adjusting means by described printing distance regulable control device 10;In step 401 in bottom print procedure, the distance between outlet and the horizontal stamp pad 4 of described shower nozzle is that described basis prints distance;
When step 4021 carries out printing distance adjustment, horizontal stamp pad 4 in the vertical direction is once moved down and is moved down height identical with the thickness of described shape layer;Before step 4022 carrying out print and synchronize temperature control, described printing distance regulable control device 10 detects, according to distance, range information the moving down number of times and moving down highly every time in conjunction with horizontal stamp pad 4 that unit 8 detects, and by controlling described printing distance adjusting means, the distance between outlet and the upper surface of the currently printed described shape layer of the next one of described shower nozzle is adjusted to described basis printing distance;When distance between outlet and the horizontal stamp pad 4 of described shower nozzle is adjusted by step 4022, described print temperature information that distance regulable control device 10 detects according to temperature detecting unit 9 and combine the range information that distance detection unit 8 detects the distance between outlet and the horizontal stamp pad 4 of described shower nozzle is adjusted, making the upper surface temperature of the current printed described shape layer of the next one control between 0.1 times~0.6 times of the material fusing point at forming surface working lining 3-2;Further, when the distance between outlet and the horizontal stamp pad 4 of described shower nozzle is adjusted, the amplitude of accommodation is 5mm~60mm, and material fusing point is more high, and the amplitude of accommodation is more little.
In the present embodiment, before step 4 successively prints from the bottom to top, data handling equipment described in step one is first according to the gas pre-build and powder mass flow data base, and in conjunction with the thickness of described shape layer set in advance, the base gas flow of air supply pipe 5 and the powder feeding flow of powder feeding pipe 6 are determined;
Described gas and powder mass flow databases contain the powder feeding flow needed for the shape layer of multiple different thickness and base gas flow;Described base gas flow is 50ml/min~15000ml/min, and the powder feeding flow of powder feeding pipe 6 is more big, and described base gas flow is more big;
In plasma generator moving process described in step 401 and step 4022, the powder feeding flow of powder feeding pipe 6 is carried out detection in real time and detected synchronizing information is sent to powder feeding flow controller 20 by described powder mass flow detection unit 18, drive motor 19 is controlled by described powder feeding flow controller 20 according to powder feeding flow 18 detection information of combining powder flow detection unit of predetermined powder feeding pipe 6, and the powder feeding flow making powder feeding pipe 6 is all identical with predetermined powder feeding flow;
Carrying out in step 401 before bottom printing, the gas flow of air supply pipe 5 is adjusted to described base gas flow according to 11 detection information of detection of gas flow rate unit and by controlling flow control valve 25 by described gas flow controller 12;In step 401 in bottom print procedure, the gas flow of described air supply pipe 5 is described base gas flow;
Step 4022 carries out print and synchronize in temperature control process, described gas flow controller 12 is according to 11 detection information of detection of gas flow rate unit and combines distance detection 8 detecting distance information of unit, and by controlling flow control valve 25, the gas flow of air supply pipe 5 carries out increase and decrease adjustment;Further, the distance between outlet and the horizontal stamp pad 4 of described shower nozzle is more big, and the gas flow of described air supply pipe 5 is more big.
In the present embodiment, hierarchy slicing module described in step one is hierarchy slicing software.Described hierarchy slicing software is that 3D prints the conventional batch Slice Software adopted, such as Cura, Xbuilder, Makerbot etc..
In the present embodiment, when obtaining the three-dimensional stereo model of forming surface working lining 3-2, utilize the three-dimensional graphics software such as pro/e, UG, CATIA to design the three-dimensional stereo model (i.e. three-dimensional entity model) of forming surface working lining 3-2, or utilize reverse engineering to solve the three-dimensional stereo model of forming surface working lining 3-2;Again through described hierarchy slicing module, this three-dimensional stereo model is carried out hierarchy slicing, and obtain the outline data in each cross section, generated by outline data and fill scanning pattern, the corresponding printing path (i.e. the printing path in each layering cross section) obtaining described plasma beam system of processing.Thus, step one and the method adopted in step 2 are identical with the method that conventional laser selective melting molding or electron beam selective melting molding adopt.Afterwards, carry out in X and Y direction motor process in the horizontal plane according to the printing path obtained, the interior plasma beam with molten melt drop is sprayed onto on die matrix 3-1 or on the upper surface of the current printed described shape layer of the next one by described plasma beam system of processing continuously;After sprayed molten melt drop all solidifies, complete the print procedure of a shape layer;Then, described three axis numerically controlled machine 16 declines in the Z-axis direction, successively prints, thus completing the print procedure of 3 d part.
Owing to horizontal stamp pad 4 is the mobile platform being arranged on stamp pad position regulator, thus the printing path in each described layering cross section acquired in step 3 can also be the machining path of three axis numerically controlled machine 16, now described plasma beam system of processing is not moved in the horizontal plane, but by horizontal stamp pad 4 in horizontal on be moved, thus completing the print procedure of each shape layer.
Actual man-hour, described die matrix 3-1 machine-shaping in advance, and the die matrix 3-1 of adding can adopt Conventional processing methods to be processed, such as casting etc.;Die matrix 3-1 is shaped by the 3D Method of printing that can also adopt routine.Alternatively, it is also possible to adopt mould plasma 3D printing device of the present invention that die matrix 3-1 is shaped, process is as follows:
Step A, three-dimensional stereo model obtain and hierarchy slicing processes: adopt data handling equipment and call the three-dimensional stereo model of image processing module acquisition die matrix 3-1, recall the hierarchy slicing module three-dimensional stereo model to die matrix 3-1 and carry out hierarchy slicing, and obtain multiple layering cross-sectional image;
Multiple described layering cross-sectional images are the image obtaining multiple layering cross section after the three-dimensional stereo model to die matrix 3-1 carries out hierarchy slicing, and multiple described layering cross sections are uniformly laid from the bottom to top along the central axis of die matrix 3-1;
Step B, scanning pattern are filled: adopt data handling equipment and call described image processing module, described layering cross-sectional images multiple in step A are respectively processed, and complete the scanning pattern filling process in multiple described layering cross section, it is thus achieved that the scanning pattern in multiple described layering cross sections;
Step C, printing path obtain: the described data handling equipment scanning pattern according to the multiple described layering cross section obtained in step B, it is thus achieved that the printing path in multiple described layering cross sections;The printing path in each described layering cross section is all identical with the scanning pattern in this layering cross section;
Step D, from the bottom to top successively printing: the printing path according to the multiple described layering cross section obtained in step C, successively print die matrix 3-1, it is thus achieved that the die matrix 3-1 stacking from the bottom to top by multiple shape layers from the bottom to top;The quantity of described shape layer is identical with the quantity being layered cross section described in step A, the installation position of multiple described shape layers is all identical with the installation position one_to_one corresponding in multiple described layering cross sections and its thickness respectively, distance between the thickness of described shape layer with adjacent two described layering cross sections is identical, the printing path of multiple described shape layers in the printing path respectively die matrix 3-1 in multiple described layering cross sections in step C;In die matrix 3-1, the Method of printing of multiple described shape layers is all identical;When die matrix 3-1 is printed, process is as follows:
Step D1, bottom print: described in move horizontally the controller 24 printing path according to current institute printing shaping layer acquired in step C, described horizontally moving device is controlled and drives described plasma generator to move in the horizontal plane;In described plasma generator moving process, the interior plasma beam with molten melt drop is sprayed onto on die matrix 3-1 by described plasma beam system of processing continuously;After sprayed molten melt drop all solidifies, complete the print procedure of current institute printing shaping layer in die matrix 3-1;
In this step, current institute printing shaping layer be die matrix 3-1 multiple described shape layer in be positioned at the shape layer of bottommost;
Step D2, last layer print, and comprise the following steps:
Step D21, print distance regulate: horizontal stamp pad 4 in the vertical direction is once moved down and moves down height identical with the thickness of described shape layer, or by print distance regulable control device 10 control described printing distance adjusting means drive described plasma generator in the vertical direction once move up and move up height identical with the thickness of described shape layer;
Step D22, printing and synchronize temperature control: described in move horizontally the controller 24 printing path according to current institute printing shaping layer acquired in step C, described horizontally moving device is controlled and drives described plasma generator to move in the horizontal plane;In described plasma generator moving process, the interior plasma beam with molten melt drop is sprayed onto on the upper surface of the current printed described shape layer of the next one by described plasma beam system of processing continuously;After sprayed molten melt drop all solidifies, complete the print procedure of current institute printing shaping layer;
In this step, in described plasma generator moving process, carrying out detecting in real time and by detected temperature information synchronous driving to printing distance regulable control device 10 to the upper surface temperature of the described shape layer of the next one current printed in die matrix 3-1 by temperature detecting unit 9, the distance simultaneously detected between the unit 8 outlet and horizontal stamp pad 4 to described shower nozzle by distance carries out detection in real time and by the range information synchronous driving detected to printing apart from regulable control device 10;Described print temperature information that distance regulable control device 10 detects according to temperature detecting unit 9 and be adjusted by controlling the distance between described printing distance adjusting means outlet and horizontal stamp pad 4 to described shower nozzle, making 0.6 times of the upper surface temperature of the currently printed described shape layer of the next one material fusing point not higher than die matrix 3-1;
In plasma generator moving process described in step D1 and step D22, described printed material is delivered in described plasma generator by described powder feeder 2 continuously, and the printed material sent in described plasma generator is sent in described plasma generator in the beam-plasma of generation and is molten into molten melt drop under the effect of described working gas, described molten melt drop is uniformly distributed in described beam-plasma, and forms the interior plasma beam with molten melt drop.Further, described molten melt drop moves along the central axis of described beam-plasma under the effect of described working gas (beam-plasma includes unionized working gas);Herein, described printed material is dusty material and its material used by die matrix 3-1;
Step D3, repeatedly repetition step D2, until completing the print procedure of all shape layers in die matrix 3-1, it is thus achieved that the die matrix 3-1 of machine-shaping.
In the present embodiment, before step D successively prints from the bottom to top, data handling equipment described in step A is first according to the material fusing point pre-build and printing range data storehouse, and combine the Material Name of die matrix 3-1 pre-entered by parameter input unit, the basis of die matrix 3-1 is printed distance and is determined;Described parameter input unit connects with described data handling equipment;
Carrying out in step D1 before bottom printing, the distance between outlet and the horizontal stamp pad 4 of described shower nozzle is adjusted to described basis printing distance by controlling described printing distance adjusting means by described printing distance regulable control device 10;In step D1 in bottom print procedure, the distance between outlet and the horizontal stamp pad 4 of described shower nozzle is that described basis prints distance;
Before step D22 carrying out print and synchronize temperature control, described print distance regulable control device 10, by controlling described printing distance adjusting means, the distance between the upper surface of the described shape layer of the next one current printed in the outlet of described shower nozzle and die matrix 3-1 is adjusted to described basis printing distance;When distance between outlet and the horizontal stamp pad 4 of described shower nozzle is adjusted by step D22, also need by temperature-detecting device, the upper surface temperature of the described shape layer of the next one current printed in die matrix 3-1 to be detected in real time, the distance exported between horizontal stamp pad 4 of described shower nozzle is adjusted by the described temperature information detected according to described temperature-detecting device apart from regulable control device 10 that prints, the upper surface temperature making the described shape layer of the next one current printed in die matrix 3-1 controls between 0.1 times~0.6 times of the material fusing point at die matrix 3-1;Further, when the distance between outlet and the horizontal stamp pad 4 of described shower nozzle is adjusted, the amplitude of accommodation is 5mm~60mm, and the material fusing point of die matrix 3-1 is more high, and the amplitude of accommodation is more little.
In the present embodiment, before step D successively prints from the bottom to top, data handling equipment described in step A is first according to the gas pre-build and powder mass flow data base, and in conjunction with the thickness of shape layer described in die matrix 3-1 set in advance, the base gas flow of air supply pipe 5 and the powder feeding flow of powder feeding pipe 6 are determined;
In plasma generator moving process described in step D1 and step D22, the powder feeding flow of powder feeding pipe 6 is carried out detection in real time and detected synchronizing information is sent to powder feeding flow controller 20 by described powder mass flow detection unit 18, drive motor 19 is controlled by described powder feeding flow controller 20 according to powder feeding flow 18 detection information of combining powder flow detection unit of predetermined powder feeding pipe 6, and the powder feeding flow making powder feeding pipe 6 is all identical with predetermined powder feeding flow;
Carrying out in step D1 before bottom printing, the gas flow of air supply pipe 5 is adjusted to described base gas flow according to 11 detection information of detection of gas flow rate unit and by controlling flow control valve 25 by described gas flow controller 12;In step D1 in bottom print procedure, the gas flow of described air supply pipe 5 is described base gas flow;
Step D22 carries out print and synchronize in temperature control process, described gas flow controller 12 is according to 11 detection information of detection of gas flow rate unit and combines distance detection 8 detecting distance information of unit, and by controlling flow control valve 25, the gas flow of air supply pipe 5 carries out increase and decrease adjustment;Further, the distance between outlet and the horizontal stamp pad 4 of described shower nozzle is more big, and the gas flow of described air supply pipe 5 is more big.
In the present embodiment, mould plasma 3D printing device of the present invention also includes being treated as the machining set-up that mould is machined out, and described machining tool is setting in above horizontal stamp pad 4.
During actual installation, described machining set-up is arranged in three axle travel mechanisms, described three axle travel mechanisms are the travel mechanism that machining set-up can be driven to move in X-axis, Y-axis and Z-direction, as three axle mobile platforms, three-dimensional mechanical hand, three axles regulate support, gimbal etc..In the present embodiment, described three axle travel mechanisms are positioned at above horizontal stamp pad 4.
In the present embodiment, described three axle travel mechanisms are that three axles regulate support, described three axles regulate supports include base, the Z axis regulating arm being arranged on described base, the X-axis regulating arm being arranged on described Z axis regulating arm and the Y-axis regulating arm that is arranged on described X-axis regulating arm, described Y-axis regulating arm is provided with a vertical mounting rod, and described machining set-up is arranged on described vertical mounting rod.
In the present embodiment, described machining set-up is connected with data handling equipment, and described three axle travel mechanisms 29 are controlled by described data handling equipment and it is connected with data handling equipment.
In the present embodiment, described machining set-up includes polishing utensil and removal tool, and described removal tool is drilling tool or cutting tool.
During actual installation, described polishing utensil and removal tool can be installed on a Multifunctional knife rack dish.
In the present embodiment, after step 4 completes printing, it is thus achieved that printing shaping mould;Afterwards, adopt machining set-up that described reparation rear mold is carried out polish.
When adopting machining set-up that described printing shaping mould is carried out polish, specifically the size of described printing shaping mould is carried out polish or the outer surface of described printing shaping mould is polished, by the size of described printing shaping mould is carried out the dimensional requirement that polish makes its size can meet mould finished product, by the requirement making its surface roughness can meet mould finished product that the outer surface of described printing shaping mould is polished, so that described printing shaping mould can directly apply in production.
In the present embodiment, when adopting machining set-up that described printing shaping mould is carried out polish, machining set-up is adopted only the outer surface of described printing shaping mould to be polished so that it is surface roughness can meet the requirement of mould finished product.
Embodiment 2
In the present embodiment, as it is shown in fig. 7, the mould plasma 3D printing device adopted is as different from Example 1: described spout 13-5 lays in coaxial with powder flow paths 14.
So, after the direction of described beam-plasma being changed by spout 13-5, can effectively reduce the plasma jet antianode nozzle 13-2 thermic load produced and impact, improve anode ablation situation.Simultaneously as spout 13-5 lays in coaxial with powder flow paths 14, thus without influence on the acceleration of powder, heating and fusion process, result of use is very good.
In the present embodiment, the remainder structure of adopted mould plasma 3D printing device, annexation are all identical with embodiment 1 with operation principle.
In the present embodiment, the mould plasma 3D Method of printing adopted is identical with embodiment 1.
The above; it it is only presently preferred embodiments of the present invention; not the present invention is imposed any restrictions, every any simple modification, change and equivalent structure change above example made according to the technology of the present invention essence, all still fall within the protection domain of technical solution of the present invention.

Claims (10)

1. a mould plasma 3D printing device, it is characterised in that: carried out interim fixing temporary fixing piece by monitoring system, plasma beam system of processing, the horizontal stamp pad (4) for mould to be formed placement and the die matrix (3-1) to described mould to be formed and form;Described mould to be formed includes die matrix (3-1) and the forming surface working lining (3-2) being laid on die matrix (3-1);Described temporary fixing piece is laid on horizontal stamp pad (4);
Described plasma beam system of processing is by being provided with shower nozzle and for producing the plasma generator of beam-plasma, the print position adjusting apparatus that the position of described plasma generator is adjusted, providing the feeder (1) of working gas for described plasma generator and for form to the powder feeder (2) sending into printed material in described plasma generator continuously, and described plasma generator is positioned at above horizontal stamp pad (4);Described feeder (1) is connected with the air inlet opened on described plasma generator by air supply pipe (5);The powder flow paths (14) of described powder circulation it is provided in described plasma generator, described powder flow paths (14) communicates with arc chamber (13-4) inside in described plasma generator and it connects with described air inlet, the external port of described powder flow paths is powder inlet (22), and the powder feeding mouth of described powder feeder (2) is connected with powder inlet (22) by powder feeding pipe (6);Horizontally moving device that described print position adjusting apparatus includes driving described plasma generator to move in the horizontal plane and drive described plasma generator and described horizontally moving device synchronizing moving and tackle the printing distance adjusting means that the distance between the outlet of described shower nozzle and horizontal stamp pad (4) is adjusted mutually, described plasma generator is arranged on described horizontally moving device, and described horizontally moving device is arranged in described printing distance adjusting means;
What described monitoring system included described horizontally moving device is controlled moves horizontally controller (24), described plasma beam system of processing Working position place temperature on described mould to be formed is carried out the temperature detecting unit (9) of detection in real time, distance detection unit (8) that distance between outlet and the horizontal stamp pad (4) of described shower nozzle is carried out detection in real time and printing distance regulable control device (10) that described printing distance adjusting means is controlled, the described controller (24) that moves horizontally is connected with described horizontally moving device, described distance regulable control device (10) that prints is connected with described printing distance adjusting means, described temperature detecting unit (9) and distance detection unit (8) are all connected apart from regulable control device (10) with printing;Described temperature detecting unit (9) forms temperature control device with printing distance regulable control device (10).
2. a kind of mould plasma 3D printing device described in claim 1, it is characterized in that: described monitoring system also includes the plasma generator controller (7) that described plasma generator is controlled, the detection of gas flow rate unit (11) that the gas flow of air supply pipe (5) is carried out detection in real time and the gas flow controller (12) that the upper flow control valve (25) installed of air supply pipe (5) is controlled, described plasma generator controller (7) is connected with described plasma generator, described detection of gas flow rate unit (11) is connected with gas flow controller (12).
3. a kind of mould plasma 3D printing device described in claim 1 or 2, it is characterized in that: described plasma generator includes plasma gun (13), described shower nozzle is the anode nozzle (13-2) of plasma gun (13) front end;Described plasma gun (13) includes having the gun body (13-1) of described air inlet, being positioned at the anode nozzle (13-2) of gun body (13-1) dead ahead and be plugged in the negative electrode (13-3) of gun body (13-1), described anode nozzle (13-2) is positioned at negative electrode (13-3) front side, described arc chamber (13-4) is positioned at negative electrode (13-3) front side and it is positioned at the posterior medial of anode nozzle (13-2), and the front inner of described anode nozzle (13-2) is spout (13-5).
4. a kind of mould plasma 3D printing device described in claim 3, it is characterised in that: described anode nozzle (13-2), negative electrode (13-3) and arc chamber (13-4) are all laid in coaxial with gun body (13-1);Described powder flow paths (14) and gun body (13-1) inclined laying and its front end stretch in spout (13-5), described powder flow paths (14) for straight channel and it include the back side walkway being laid in gun body (13-1) and the front side channel being laid in anode nozzle (13-2).
5. a kind of mould plasma 3D printing device described in claim 4, it is characterized in that: described air inlet is positioned at gun body (13-1) rear side, and described spout (13-5) is laid with gun body (13-1) in coaxial or laid in coaxial with powder flow paths (14).
6. a kind of mould plasma 3D printing device described in claim 1 or 2, it is characterised in that: the angle between central axis and the vertical plane of the beam-plasma that described plasma generator produces is not more than 45 °;Described printing distance adjusting means is the adjusting apparatus up and down (17) described shower nozzle adjusted up and down along the central axis of described beam-plasma, and described distance detection unit (8) be to the distance detection device carrying out from the distance exported between horizontal stamp pad (4) of described shower nozzle detecting in real time along the central axis of described beam-plasma;
Described horizontal stamp pad (4) is for be arranged on stamp pad position regulator and the mobile platform that can move up and down;
Described monitoring system also includes the position adjustment controller (15) that described stamp pad position regulator is controlled, and described position adjustment controller (15) is connected with described stamp pad position regulator.
7. a kind of mould plasma 3D printing device described in claim 1 or 2, it is characterized in that: described powder feeder (2) includes the shell that top has charging aperture and the powder feeding wheel being arranged in described shell, and described powder feeding wheel is driven by drive motor (19);Described powder feeding mouth is positioned at described outer casing underpart;
Described monitoring system also includes powder mass flow detection unit (18) that the powder feeding flow of powder feeding pipe (6) carries out detection in real time and the powder feeding flow controller (20) that drive motor (19) is controlled, and described powder mass flow detection unit (18) is connected with powder feeding flow controller (20).
8. one kind utilizes the method that mould is carried out plasma 3D printing by 3D printing device as claimed in claim 1, it is characterised in that: the method comprises the following steps:
Step one, three-dimensional stereo model obtain and hierarchy slicing processes: adopt data handling equipment and call the three-dimensional stereo model that image processing module obtains the forming surface working lining (3-2) of described mould to be formed, recall the hierarchy slicing module three-dimensional stereo model to forming surface working lining (3-2) and carry out hierarchy slicing, and obtain multiple layering cross-sectional image;
Multiple described layering cross-sectional images are the image obtaining multiple layering cross section after the three-dimensional stereo model to forming surface working lining (3-2) carries out hierarchy slicing, and multiple described layering cross sections are uniformly laid from the bottom to top;
Step 2, scanning pattern are filled: adopt data handling equipment and call described image processing module, described layering cross-sectional images multiple in step one are respectively processed, and complete the scanning pattern filling process in multiple described layering cross section, it is thus achieved that the scanning pattern in multiple described layering cross sections;
Step 3, printing path obtain: the described data handling equipment scanning pattern according to the multiple described layering cross section obtained in step 2, it is thus achieved that the printing path in multiple described layering cross sections;The printing path in each described layering cross section is all identical with the scanning pattern in this layering cross section;
Step 4, from the bottom to top successively printing: first the die matrix (3-1) of the mould described to be formed of machine-shaping in advance is positioned on horizontal stamp pad (4), and by described temporary fixing piece, die matrix (3-1) is fixed temporarily;Printing path further according to the multiple described layering cross section obtained in step 3, forming surface working lining (3-2) is successively printed by die matrix (3-1) from the bottom to top, it is thus achieved that the forming surface working lining (3-2) stacking from the bottom to top by multiple shape layers;The quantity of described shape layer is identical with the quantity being layered cross section described in step one, the installation position of multiple described shape layers is all identical with the installation position one_to_one corresponding in multiple described layering cross sections and its thickness respectively, distance between the thickness of described shape layer with adjacent two described layering cross sections is identical, the printing path of the printing path in multiple described layering cross sections respectively multiple described shape layers in step 3;When forming surface working lining (3-2) is printed, process is as follows:
Step 401, bottom print: described in move horizontally the controller (24) printing path according to current institute printing shaping layer acquired in step 3, described horizontally moving device is controlled and drives described plasma generator to move in the horizontal plane;In described plasma generator moving process, the interior plasma beam with molten melt drop is sprayed onto on die matrix (3-1) by described plasma beam system of processing continuously;After sprayed molten melt drop all solidifies, complete the print procedure of current institute printing shaping layer;
In this step, current institute printing shaping layer is the shape layer being positioned at bottommost in multiple described shape layer;
Step 402, last layer print, and comprise the following steps:
Step 4021, print distance regulate: horizontal stamp pad (4) in the vertical direction is once moved down and moves down height identical with the thickness of described shape layer, or by print distance regulable control device (10) control described printing distance adjusting means drive described plasma generator in the vertical direction once move up and move up height identical with the thickness of described shape layer;
Step 4022, print and synchronize temperature control: described in move horizontally the controller (24) printing path according to current institute printing shaping layer acquired in step 3, described horizontally moving device is controlled and drives described plasma generator to move in the horizontal plane;In described plasma generator moving process, the interior plasma beam with molten melt drop is sprayed onto on the upper surface of the current printed described shape layer of the next one by described plasma beam system of processing continuously;After sprayed molten melt drop all solidifies, complete the print procedure of current institute printing shaping layer;
In this step, in described plasma generator moving process, carry out detecting in real time and by detected temperature information synchronous driving to printing apart from regulable control device (10) to the upper surface temperature of the current printed described shape layer of the next one by temperature detecting unit (9), detect the distance between the unit (8) outlet and horizontal stamp pad (4) to described shower nozzle by distance simultaneously and carry out detection in real time the range information synchronous driving extremely printing distance regulable control device (10) that will detect;Described print temperature information that distance regulable control device (10) detects according to temperature detecting unit (9) and be adjusted by controlling the distance between described printing distance adjusting means outlet and horizontal stamp pad (4) to described shower nozzle, making 0.6 times of the upper surface temperature of the currently printed described shape layer of the next one material fusing point not higher than forming surface working lining (3-2);
In plasma generator moving process described in step 401 and step 4022, described printed material is delivered in described plasma generator by described powder feeder (2) continuously, and the printed material sent in described plasma generator is sent in described plasma generator in the beam-plasma of generation and is molten into molten melt drop under the effect of described working gas, described molten melt drop is uniformly distributed in described beam-plasma, and forms the interior plasma beam with molten melt drop;Described printed material is dusty material;
Step 403, repeatedly repetition step 402, until completing the print procedure of forming surface working lining (3-2) all shape layers.
9. the method that mould is carried out plasma 3D printing described in claim 8, it is characterized in that: before step 4 successively prints from the bottom to top, data handling equipment described in step one is first according to the material fusing point pre-build and printing range data storehouse, and combine the Material Name of forming surface working lining (3-2) pre-entered by parameter input unit, the basis of forming surface working lining (3-2) is printed distance and is determined;Described parameter input unit connects with described data handling equipment;
In described material fusing point and printing range data storehouse, storage has the material fusing point of various material and prints range information, and the material fusing point of every kind of described material and printing range information all include the title of this kind of material, fusing point and basis printing distance;It is 5mm~1000mm that described basis prints distance, and material fusing point is more high, and it is more near that basis prints distance;
Step 401 carries out before bottom printing, described print distance regulable control device (10) and the distance between outlet and the horizontal stamp pad (4) of described shower nozzle is adjusted to described basic printing distance according to distance detection unit (8) range information that detects and by controlling described printing distance adjusting means;In step 401 in bottom print procedure, the distance between outlet and the horizontal stamp pad (4) of described shower nozzle is that described basis prints distance;
When step 4021 carries out printing distance adjustment, horizontal stamp pad (4) in the vertical direction is once moved down and is moved down height identical with the thickness of described shape layer;Before step 4022 carrying out print and synchronize temperature control, described printing distance regulable control device (10) detects, according to distance, range information the moving down number of times and moving down highly every time in conjunction with horizontal stamp pad (4) that unit (8) detects, and by controlling described printing distance adjusting means, the distance between outlet and the upper surface of the currently printed described shape layer of the next one of described shower nozzle is adjusted to described basis printing distance;When distance between the outlet of described shower nozzle and horizontal stamp pad (4) is adjusted by step 4022, described print temperature information that distance regulable control device (10) detects according to temperature detecting unit (9) and the distance that combines between range information that distance detection unit (8) detects outlet and the horizontal stamp pad (4) to described shower nozzle is adjusted, make the upper surface temperature of the currently printed described shape layer of the next one control between 0.1 times~0.6 times of the material fusing point at forming surface working lining (3-2);Further, when the distance between outlet and the horizontal stamp pad (4) of described shower nozzle is adjusted, the amplitude of accommodation is 5mm~60mm, and material fusing point is more high, and the amplitude of accommodation is more little.
10. the method that mould is carried out plasma 3D printing described in claim 8 or 9, it is characterized in that: described powder feeder (2) includes the shell that top has charging aperture and the powder feeding wheel being arranged in described shell, and described powder feeding wheel is driven by drive motor (19);Described powder feeding mouth is positioned at described outer casing underpart;Described monitoring system also includes the plasma generator controller (7) that described plasma generator is controlled, the gas flow of air supply pipe (5) is carried out the real-time detection of gas flow rate unit (11) detected, the gas flow controller (12) that the upper flow control valve (25) installed of air supply pipe (5) is controlled, powder mass flow detection unit (18) that the powder feeding flow of powder feeding pipe (6) is carried out detection in real time and the powder feeding flow controller (20) that drive motor (19) is controlled, described plasma generator controller (7) is connected with described plasma generator, described detection of gas flow rate unit (11) is connected with gas flow controller (12);Described powder mass flow detection unit (18) is connected with powder feeding flow controller (20);Described distance detection unit (8) is connected with gas flow controller (12);
Before step 4 successively prints from the bottom to top, data handling equipment described in step one is first according to the gas pre-build and powder mass flow data base, and in conjunction with the thickness of described shape layer set in advance, the base gas flow of air supply pipe (5) and the powder feeding flow of powder feeding pipe (6) are determined;
Described gas and powder mass flow databases contain the powder feeding flow needed for the shape layer of multiple different thickness and base gas flow;Described base gas flow is 50ml/min~15000ml/min, and the powder feeding flow of powder feeding pipe (6) is more big, and described base gas flow is more big;
In plasma generator moving process described in step 401 and step 4022, the powder feeding flow of powder feeding pipe (6) is carried out detection in real time and detected synchronizing information is sent to powder feeding flow controller (20) by described powder mass flow detection unit (18), drive motor (19) is controlled by described powder feeding flow controller (20) according to powder feeding flow combining powder flow detection unit (18) the detected information of predetermined powder feeding pipe (6), and the powder feeding flow making powder feeding pipe (6) is all identical with predetermined powder feeding flow;
Carrying out in step 401 before bottom printing, the gas flow of air supply pipe (5) is adjusted to described base gas flow according to detection of gas flow rate unit (11) detected information and by controlling flow control valve (25) by described gas flow controller (12);In step 401 in bottom print procedure, the gas flow of described air supply pipe (5) is described base gas flow;
Step 4022 carries out print and synchronize in temperature control process, described gas flow controller (12) is according to detection of gas flow rate unit (11) institute detection information and combines apart from detection unit (8) institute detecting distance information, and by controlling flow control valve (25), the gas flow of air supply pipe (5) carries out increase and decrease adjustment;Further, the distance between outlet and the horizontal stamp pad (4) of described shower nozzle is more big, and the gas flow of described air supply pipe (5) is more big.
CN201610120587.9A 2016-03-03 2016-03-03 Mould plasma 3D printing equipment and mould plasma 3D printing method Pending CN105750542A (en)

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