CN105743882B - Quantum key distribution based on BB84 agreement eavesdrops method of discrimination - Google Patents

Quantum key distribution based on BB84 agreement eavesdrops method of discrimination Download PDF

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CN105743882B
CN105743882B CN201610040486.0A CN201610040486A CN105743882B CN 105743882 B CN105743882 B CN 105743882B CN 201610040486 A CN201610040486 A CN 201610040486A CN 105743882 B CN105743882 B CN 105743882B
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number
photons
distribution
pulse
probability distribution
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CN201610040486.0A
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CN105743882A (en
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赵楠
刘传起
朱畅华
权东晓
李坚
陈南
裴昌幸
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西安电子科技大学
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    • HELECTRICITY
    • H04ELECTRIC COMMUNICATION TECHNIQUE
    • H04LTRANSMISSION OF DIGITAL INFORMATION, e.g. TELEGRAPHIC COMMUNICATION
    • H04L63/00Network architectures or network communication protocols for network security
    • H04L63/14Network architectures or network communication protocols for network security for detecting or protecting against malicious traffic
    • H04L63/1441Countermeasures against malicious traffic
    • H04L63/1475Passive attacks, e.g. eavesdropping or listening without modification of the traffic monitored
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H04ELECTRIC COMMUNICATION TECHNIQUE
    • H04LTRANSMISSION OF DIGITAL INFORMATION, e.g. TELEGRAPHIC COMMUNICATION
    • H04L63/00Network architectures or network communication protocols for network security
    • H04L63/14Network architectures or network communication protocols for network security for detecting or protecting against malicious traffic
    • H04L63/1441Countermeasures against malicious traffic
    • H04L63/1466Active attacks involving interception, injection, modification, spoofing of data unit addresses, e.g. hijacking, packet injection or TCP sequence number attacks
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H04ELECTRIC COMMUNICATION TECHNIQUE
    • H04LTRANSMISSION OF DIGITAL INFORMATION, e.g. TELEGRAPHIC COMMUNICATION
    • H04L9/00Cryptographic mechanisms or cryptographic arrangements for secret or secure communication
    • H04L9/08Key distribution or management, e.g. generation, sharing or updating, of cryptographic keys or passwords
    • H04L9/0816Key establishment, i.e. cryptographic processes or cryptographic protocols whereby a shared secret becomes available to two or more parties, for subsequent use
    • H04L9/0852Quantum cryptography

Abstract

The invention discloses a kind of, and the quantum key distribution based on BB84 agreement eavesdrops method of discrimination, mainly solves the problems, such as the safety in the quantum cryptography as caused by non-ideal device and incomplete experiment condition.Its technical solution is after listener-in intercepts and captures a part of photon, to retransmit Poisson distribution or normal distribution that number of photons is met according to the Poisson distribution that number of photons is obeyed in pulse is sent, judge the entire probability distribution situation for receiving number of photons in pulse train;According to the entire probability distribution of number of photons, judgement receives the source of information error: if the entire probability distribution of number of photons is destroyed, determining that information error comes from eavesdropping attack, legal participant thinks that this communication is dangerous, cancels communication;Otherwise it is assumed that information error is from non-ideal communication channel, legal participant by adjusting non-ideal communication channel parameter, to reduce the error of information.The present invention improves the efficiency and safety of quantum key distribution, can be used for BB84 agreement.

Description

Quantum key distribution based on BB84 agreement eavesdrops method of discrimination

Technical field

The invention belongs to quantum communications field, in particular to a kind of quantum key distribution based on BB84 agreement, which is eavesdropped, to be differentiated The analysis method of scheme, for solving quantum information efficiency of transmission lowly and by non-ideal device and incomplete experiment condition institute The problem of safety in the quantum cryptography of generation.

Background technique

Quantum communications are the technologies communicated using quantum-mechanical basic principle, and concrete form includes quantum secure Communication, quantum teleportation and Quantum Secure Direct Communication etc..Quantum teleportation is based on Entanglement, can be remote real The transfer of existing quantum state.Quantum Secure Direct Communication can realize the transmission of information under the premise of guaranteeing channel safety.Quantum is protected It is close communication based on quantum key distribution guarantee key distribution unconditional security, it can be achieved that data safe transmission.By Bennett The quantum key distribution QKD proposed jointly with Brassard is considered first application of quantum information science, and Commercial product is practical.Theoretically, the safety that QKD agreement resists the several variables generally attacked has been proven.It is real The technology tested, which has had developed to, makes it possible that key is distributed beyond the stage of the distance of 300km.Due to reality realize in this The non-ideal experimental situation of kind, always some are imperfect in safety and efficiency.

QKD needs between two legal participants, is generally termed as Alice and Bob, generates from a primary key The key of one secret and shared key.Pass through the classical channel between access Alice and Bob, the part letter of primary key Breath can be used to distinguish that eavesdropping whether there is.If it turn out that coming from an illegal participant, it is generally termed as the eavesdropping of Eve Really it is not present, then remaining partial information can be used as last key after completing by privacy amplification and data harmonization. The agreement of first completion is exactly the BB84 agreement that is proposed jointly by Bennett and Brassard.Facts proved that the source of coming from The multi-photon signal of pole and the loss in quantum channel may result in the constraint of rate and distance.

Ideal QKD protocol requirement uses special state, such as single photon and Entangled State.However more tend in practice In using substitute, with transmission of quantum information, such as weak incoherent light, the preparation for it is in current experimental ability Within the scope of.This faulty quantum source provides possibility, commonly referred to as Eve for eavesdropping.It multi-photon signal source and is passing Loss in defeated route, which combines, can be obtained some strong eavesdropping attacks.This light proposed first by He Te and well this Rong Subnumber divides PNS attack, and usually substituting this by a better route of performance has noisy and loss transmission line.It is measuring During son encryption, the signal comprising single photon and at least two photons can be separated by Eve by physical schemes.Legal Loss in quantum channel can be divided into two parts, respectively transmission loss and non-transmitting loss.The generation of transmission loss It is low from minimum transfer loss and detector efficiency.Rather than transmission loss is introduced by illegal participant.Work as transmission When the ratio of loss is sufficiently large, transmission will become dangerous.Because the threshold value of the encryption about loss is discussed determination, surreptitiously The quantum channel that hearer Eve can replace this legal with an ideal channel, intercept all single photon signal and The information for only meeting Bob with multi-photon receives.If loss is not serious, listener-in Eve can intercept a part of monochromatic light Subsignal and these details, and listener-in's Eve energy are collected from remaining single photon by other best eavesdropping attacks Enough hide his behavior.Optical fiber attack includes that blinding is attacked.In addition, even if only single linear optics device, it is strong in thread Big attack can also be initiated.After listener-in Eve has grasped the basis of polarization according to BB84 agreement in public consulting, he Partial photonic in hand will reveal these polarization informations.

In short, listener-in Eve in transmission loss after being benefited, he may be collected into the letter shifted between legal participant Breath, and his behavior is made not to be disclosed for out.

Never stopped about the detection listener-in Eve research for executing the scheme of PNS attack.By utilizing average photon Several variations will not be stolen the fact that hearer Eve is obtained, and impulse method is inveigled to be used by most of BB84 protocol realization devices, with Solve the PNS attack there are the loss of channel height.In practical applications, since the imperfection of experiment and channel can Bypass message can be generated, perhaps listener-in Eve can be unfolded a kind of attack using them.And it is real for the trick state of progress It tests, even if it is also highly difficult for avoiding the eavesdropping from attack based on the more brilliant performance of the prior art.

Summary of the invention

It is an object of the invention to be directed to the deficiency of above-mentioned prior art, the quantum key based on BB84 agreement is provided Distribution eavesdropping method of discrimination, to solve the safety in the quantum cryptography as caused by non-ideal device and incomplete experiment condition The problem of property.

The technical scheme is that by analyzing the mathematical statistics characteristic of quantum in pulse, being based in the presence of eavesdropping The statistical property of their variation and photon in practical quantum channel, differentiates the presence of eavesdropping, and implementation step includes the following:

(1) according to the average photon number parameter in BB84 agreement, the Poisson formula of number of photons distribution is defined, i.e.,

Wherein, μ is the number of photons sent in pulse, and η is the efficiency of transmission under the conditions of different channels, and η≤1, μ η are through believing Road loses the average photon number in afterpulse, and k is the average photon number in pulse, P1[k] is that number of photons channel damages in pulse Probability after mistake, k!It is the factorial of k, e is natural Exponents;

(2) after according to a part of photon of listener-in's interception is set, the distribution that number of photons is met is retransmitted, judgement obtains Receive the entire probability distribution situation of number of photons in pulse train:

If retransmitting number of photons after setting a part of photon of listener-in's interception and meeting Poisson distribution, and be sent to legal arteries and veins It rushes in sequence, then according to the arrival time of photon in the discontinuously arranged characteristic of single photon pulses and reception pulse, convolution < 1 >, determine that the entire probability distribution for receiving number of photons in pulse train is destroyed;

If retransmitting number of photons after setting a part of photon of listener-in's interception and meeting normal distribution:

(3) are thened follow the steps, wherein f (x) is the probability density of number of photons, and e is natural Exponents, and μ is mean value or distribution Expectation, σ is standard variance, σ2It is variance ,-∞ < x <+∞;

(3) following analysis is carried out to determine:

3a) according to μ=0, σ=1, convolution<2>obtains standardized normal distribution:

3b) according to the value of number of photons in Poisson distribution, convolution<3>obtains the discrete probability distribution of number of photons, i.e.,

Wherein, the value of k is 0.1,0.2,0.3 ..., P3[k] is the probability of number of photons in pulse;

3c) according to the number of photons from listener-in Yu the different proportion of legal participant, convolution<1>,<3>and<4>is obtained It is to the probability distribution for receiving number of photons in pulse

Wherein α, β come from the ratio of the number of photons of legal participant and listener-in, α, β >=0 and alpha+beta=1, f respectively (k) be number of photons in pulse probability, k is the average photon number in each pulse, m!It is the factorial of m;

3d) according to BB84 agreement, monochromatic light subnumber in each pulse of faint incoherent light is obtained close to 0.1, in conjunction with Formula<7>, then set μ>=0.1;

3e) according to μ=0.1, the probability distribution of the number of photons of the different proportion of listener-in and legal person is emulated, determines to receive The entire probability distribution of number of photons is destroyed in pulse train;

(4) according to the entire probability distribution of number of photons, judgement receives the source of information error:

If the entire probability distribution of number of photons is destroyed, determine that information error comes from eavesdropping attack, legal participation Person thinks that this communication is dangerous, cancels communication;

Otherwise it is assumed that information error is from non-ideal communication channel, legal participant by adjusting non-ideal communication channel parameter, To reduce the error of information.

The present invention has the advantages that compared with traditional scheme

1) legal participant can distinguish information error source

Traditional scheme cannot distinguish between information error source;The present invention can be according to the whole probability of receiving end number of photons point Cloth, identifying information error are as caused by non-ideal communication channel or eavesdropping attack.

2) efficiency of quantum information transmission is improved

For traditional scheme, legal participant may be misinterpreted as some mistakes as caused by non-ideal communication channel to be to come from In eavesdropping attack, then cancel this communication, quantum information transmission process will restart;But due to not eavesdropping The decaying of channel is always high in the presence of attack, will lead to legal participant and will not may collect from beginning to end and takes office What useful information, makes the efficiency degradation of quantum communications.

Presence of the present invention due to that can perceive eavesdropping attack, improves the efficiency of quantum communications.

Detailed description of the invention

Implementation flow chart Fig. 1 of the invention;

Fig. 2 is to retransmit the entire probability distribution that number of photons meets number of photons in reception pulse under normal distribution in listener-in Figure.

Specific embodiment

Below in conjunction with attached drawing, the present invention will be described in detail:

One, technical principle

Although theoretically the quantum key distribution safety based on BB84 agreement has obtained compellent proof, Due to the imperfection of real device, ideal single-photon light source is such as substituted using weak coherent light source, listener-in Eve can be used and be cut The mode for obtaining-retransmitting eavesdrops quantum key distribution process, and quantum key distribution system is caused to lose safety.According to amount The safety detection of quantum key distribution agreement is based on Probability Statistics Theory, so the present invention uses quantum mathematical statistics method, analysis The probability distribution situation of number of photons in pulse.Application of Statistic Methods is in many researchs and industrial circle, especially in actual rings In border, they are played a very important role.Medical worker tests, with the effect of the various drugs of determination and control people The environmental condition of class, to infer the suitable treatment of various diseases.Engineer is according to sampling product quality characteristics and various controllable Process variable, to determine key variables relevant to product quality.In the past decade, to the probabilistic statistical characteristics of number of photons into The research gone in terms of some quantum.The distribution character of quantum has obtained, and becomes the one of quantum communications and field of cryptography A important basis.

BB84 agreement uses four quantum states for the carrier of quantum information, this four states belong to two groups of conjugated radicles, and every group Two states in base are mutually orthogonal.Two groups of bases are conjugated each other to be referred to: any basic vector in one group of base is any in another group of base Projection on basic vector is all equal, can not thoroughly be differentiated by measuring between non-orthogonal states.

In BB84 agreement, a kind of binary sequence photonic modulation that sender will transmit to polarization state, recipient's selection It is corresponding to measure base to measure the polarization state of the photon received, and convert it into corresponding binary sequence.

The first experiment of feasibility about BB84 agreement achieved success in 1992.Hereafter, several research groups The long distance transmission of quantum key distribution is realized in the past twenty years.However these practical approaches are in many basic aspects It is different from initial theoretical suggestion, because current experimental ability is not able to satisfy technical need.Such as, it is ensured that the peace of BB84 scheme Full property also needs perfect single-photon source, and in practice, replace single-photon source to realize BB84 quantum key point with weak laser pulse Originating party case is then transmitted in the quantum channel of height loss, if number of photons included in a weak laser pulse is more than 1, so that it may There can be the leakage of quantum information.Therefore, all these ideal BB84 agreement and it is practical realize between modification may The safety of agreement can be jeopardized, and cause to include efficiency and apart from upper limitation.Although Heisenberg uncertainty principle and quantum are not Can cloning theorem ensure that the Unconditional security of BB84 agreement, but due to the deficiency of current conditions, or it is difficult to ensure that amount The efficiency of sub-information transmission.

The method that the present invention manages statistical property using analysis quantum number, to try to differentiate by non-ideal communication channel and eavesdropping attack Quantum information efficiency of transmission can be improved in caused information error.

There are many attack strategies can collect not detectedly useful information.Listener-in Eve is in order in attack process It is middle to intercept more photons, and retransmit the photon of regeneration or manipulate legal detection according to the measurement result of malice Device has made many effort.It include vacuum, single photon and multi-photon pulses in quantum channel.According to the demand of BB84 agreement And quantum nature, it is difficult the attack for detecting that quantum channel is vacuum and single photon both types.Therefore, it is necessary to analyze measuring There are the attacks of multi-photon pulses in subchannel.

The present invention is exactly that can be able to satisfy Poisson distribution and normal distribution according to the photon retransmitted from listener-in Eve These two types of distribution situations, to analyze the entire probability distribution situation for receiving number of photons in pulse, to judge coming for information error Source.

Two, embodiments

Referring to Fig.1, steps are as follows for realization of the invention:

Step 1, according to the average photon number parameter in BB84 agreement, definition sends the Poisson point that number of photons is obeyed in pulse Cloth formula, i.e.,

Wherein, μ is the number of photons sent in pulse, and η is the efficiency of transmission under the conditions of different channels, and η≤1, μ η are through believing Road loses the average photon number in afterpulse, and k is the average photon number in pulse, P1[k] is that number of photons channel damages in pulse Probability after mistake, k!It is the factorial of k, e is natural Exponents.

Step 2, after according to a part of photon of listener-in's interception is set, the distribution that number of photons is met is retransmitted, judgement Obtain receiving the entire probability distribution situation of number of photons in pulse train:

It after listener-in intercepts a part of photon, retransmits there are two types of the distributions that number of photons is met: first is that meeting Poisson distribution, second is that meeting normal distribution.

If retransmitting number of photons after setting a part of photon of listener-in's interception and meeting Poisson distribution, then steal in this case Hearer Eve makes its probability distribution and initial to the photon pulse of forgery is resend in legal inceptive impulse sequence The probability distribution of number of photons is identical, but due to actually due to using substitution of the faint incoherent light as single photon signal, Faint incoherent light has good characteristic of the single photon in pulse train, and the specific location of single photon is difficult to determine, because This cannot achieve the number of photons of listener-in's interception as the position where this original partial photonic number, so can be according to monochromatic light The time that the discontinuity and photon of the distribution of subpulse successively reach learns that the entire probability distribution of number of photons is destroyed;

If retransmitting number of photons after setting a part of photon of listener-in's interception and meeting normal distribution, deterministic process such as step 3。

Step 3, judge to receive and retransmit the entire probability distribution situation that number of photons meets normal distribution in pulse train:

As the continuous probability distribution of a very universal generation, ignorant real-valued random variable is distributed for it, Normal distribution is a most suitable function to be used to describe nature and social science.

When listener-in Eve retransmit forge photon when, usual light pulse be it is independent, and number of photons be it is random, Therefore normal distribution can be used to indicate the probability distribution of this event, i.e.,

For convenience, μ=0 is allowed, σ=1 obtains standardized normal distribution:

Because normal distribution is a continuous probability distribution, it describes the distribution of any time on entire time shaft, And stochastic variable of the number of photons in pulse as an independent same distribution, its distribution are discrete.So can lead to Cross the discrete variable for changing traditional normal distribution form to describe number of photons;

According to the value of number of photons in Poisson distribution, convolution<1>and<3>obtain the discrete probability distribution of number of photons, i.e.,

Wherein, the value of k is taken as 0.1,0.2,0.3 ..., these values are all the reasonable values about pulse subnumber.

After listener-in Eve is sent to the photon of forgery in legal pulse train, according to from listener-in Eve and legal The different proportion of the number of photons of participant can be obtained the entire probability distribution for receiving number of photons in pulse by formula<1>and<4>, it may be assumed that

Wherein α, β come from the ratio of the number of photons of legal participant and listener-in, α, β >=0 and alpha+beta=1, f respectively (k) be number of photons in pulse probability, k is the average photon number in each pulse, m!It is the factorial of m;

Monochromatic light subnumber in each pulse of usually weak incoherent light can set μ >=0.1 close to 0.1.

This example sets μ=0.1, and ensures that the value of the entire probability distribution f (k) of number of photons meets f (k) >=0, and emulation is being stolen Hearer retransmits number of photons and meets the entire probability distribution for receiving number of photons in pulse under normal distribution.In order to facilitate observation, this hair It is bright to use a continuous curve, as shown in Figure 2.

Step 4, according to the entire probability distribution of number of photons, judgement receives the source of information error:

Referring to Fig. 2, learn that the entire probability distribution of number of photons is intended to by fixation in legal number of photons and each pulse Number of photons determines together.When forgery number of photons is more than the 25% of overall number of photons, it can be seen that the entire probability distribution of number of photons Significantly it is destroyed.In this case, according to BB84 agreement, this ratio can be received accurately well below listener-in Eve Collect the probability 50% of information, therefore for listener-in Eve, this ratio value is not enough to be collected into from legal participant useful Information, it can be ensured that the safety communicated between legal person.Therefore it can judge to receive letter by the entire probability distribution of number of photons Cease the source of error:

If the entire probability distribution of number of photons is destroyed, determine that information error comes from eavesdropping attack, legal participation Person thinks that this communication is dangerous, cancels communication;

Otherwise it is assumed that information error is from non-ideal communication channel, legal participant by adjusting non-ideal communication channel parameter, To reduce the error of information.

Claims (1)

1. the quantum key distribution based on BB84 agreement eavesdrops method of discrimination, comprising:
(1) according to the average photon number parameter in BB84 agreement, the Poisson formula of number of photons distribution is defined, i.e.,
Wherein, μ is the number of photons sent in pulse, and η is the efficiency of transmission under the conditions of different channels, and η≤1, μ η are channel damages The average photon number in afterpulse is lost, k is the average photon number in pulse, P1[k] be in pulse number of photons channel loss after Probability, k!It is the factorial of k, e is natural Exponents;
(2) after according to a part of photon of listener-in's interception is set, the distribution that number of photons is met is retransmitted, judgement is received The entire probability distribution situation of number of photons in pulse train:
If setting after listener-in intercepts a part of photon, retransmit number of photons and meet Poisson distribution, then listener-in in this case To the photon pulse of forgery is resend in legal inceptive impulse sequence, make the photon probability distribution after retransmitting and just The probability distribution of beginning number of photons is identical, since listener-in cannot achieve the number of photons that interception is retransmitted and this original partial photonic number institute Position consistency, cause the entire probability distribution of number of photons no longer to meet formula<1>, determine the entire probability distribution quilt of number of photons It destroys;
If retransmitting number of photons after setting a part of photon of listener-in's interception and meeting normal distribution, utilize the whole probability of number of photons Distribution is intended to be determined by number of photons fixed in legal number of photons and each pulse, after listener-in intercepts a part of photon, The entire probability distribution that will lead to number of photons generates apparent variation, and convolution<5>emulates and intercepts the situation retransmitted in listener-in The entire probability distribution of lower number of photons determines that the entire probability distribution for receiving number of photons in pulse train is destroyed;
When the repeating transmission number of photons of listener-in meets normal distribution:
(3) are thened follow the steps, wherein f (x) is the probability density of number of photons, and e is natural Exponents, and μ is the phase of mean value or distribution It hopes, σ is standard variance, σ2It is variance ,-∞ < x <+∞;
(3) following analysis is carried out to determine:
3a) according to μ=0, σ=1, convolution<2>obtains standardized normal distribution:
3b) according to the value of number of photons in Poisson distribution, convolution<3>obtains the discrete probability distribution of number of photons, i.e.,
Wherein, the value of k is 0.1,0.2,0.3 ..., P3[k] is the probability of number of photons in pulse;
3c) according to the number of photons from listener-in Yu the different proportion of legal participant, convolution<1>,<3>and<4>is connect The probability distribution of number of photons is in receipts pulse
Wherein α, β come from the ratio of the number of photons of legal participant and listener-in respectively, α, β >=0 and alpha+beta=1, f (k) is The probability of number of photons in pulse, k are the average photon number in each pulse, m!It is the factorial of m;
3d) according to BB84 agreement, monochromatic light subnumber in each pulse of faint incoherent light is obtained close to 0.1, convolution < 1 >, then set μ >=0.1;
3e) according to μ=0.1, convolution<5>emulates the probability distribution of the number of photons of the different proportion of listener-in and legal person, benefit It is intended to be determined by number of photons fixed in legal number of photons and each pulse with the entire probability distribution of number of photons, when forgery light When subnumber is more than the 25% of overall number of photons, it can be seen that the entire probability distribution of number of photons is significantly destroyed, thus determine to connect The entire probability distribution for receiving number of photons in pulse train is destroyed;
(4) according to the entire probability distribution of number of photons, judgement receives the source of information error:
If the entire probability distribution of number of photons is destroyed, determine that information error comes from eavesdropping attack, legal participant recognizes It is dangerous for this communication, cancel communication;
Otherwise it is assumed that information error is from non-ideal communication channel, legal participant by adjusting non-ideal communication channel parameter, with drop The error of low information.
CN201610040486.0A 2016-01-21 2016-01-21 Quantum key distribution based on BB84 agreement eavesdrops method of discrimination CN105743882B (en)

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CN104579564A (en) * 2014-12-30 2015-04-29 华南师范大学 Four-state quantum encoder and decoder for phase modulation polarization encoding and quantum key distribution system

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