CN105710997B - A kind of plastic mixture method for separating and its equipment - Google Patents

A kind of plastic mixture method for separating and its equipment Download PDF

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Publication number
CN105710997B
CN105710997B CN201410711112.8A CN201410711112A CN105710997B CN 105710997 B CN105710997 B CN 105710997B CN 201410711112 A CN201410711112 A CN 201410711112A CN 105710997 B CN105710997 B CN 105710997B
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flotation
density
plastic mixture
sorting
fluid
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CN105710997A (en
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郭玉文
李晓
阮久莉
乔琦
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郭玉文
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    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02WCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES RELATED TO WASTEWATER TREATMENT OR WASTE MANAGEMENT
    • Y02W30/00Technologies for solid waste management
    • Y02W30/50Reuse, recycling or recovery technologies
    • Y02W30/52Mechanical processing of waste for the recovery of materials, e.g. crushing, shredding, separation or disassembly
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02WCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES RELATED TO WASTEWATER TREATMENT OR WASTE MANAGEMENT
    • Y02W30/00Technologies for solid waste management
    • Y02W30/50Reuse, recycling or recovery technologies
    • Y02W30/62Plastics recycling; Rubber recycling

Abstract

A kind of plastic mixture method for separating and its equipment, including floatation, flotation fluid is filled with from flotation trench bottom, while from flotation trench bottom insufflation gas, the plastic mixture particle after wetting is added by the screen cloth that feeds from flotation cell top;Lower jetsam is deposited on bottom land and concentrates discharge, in the interval that charging screen cloth is fed to be scraped to buoyant collecting tank by upper buoyant by scraper plate;Density separation can be added before flotation as Pre-sorting;Floatation equipment includes flotation cell, scraper plate, reciprocating sieve, flotation liquid bath, upper buoyant collecting tank, flotation fluid circulating pump and air pump, if flotation fluid is together filled with flotation cell with gas pressure-resistant seal tank can also be set to be used for the mixing of the two;Density sorting device includes sorting groove, agitating paddle, liquid feeding groove and siphon pipe, by controlling liquid feeding speed and stir speed (S.S.) to prevent plastics from sinking in stirring area.Recovery is efficiently separated by what this method and equipment separating plastic can realize plastics, and it is with low cost, it is simple to operate.

Description

A kind of plastic mixture method for separating and its equipment
Technical field
Field is utilized the present invention relates to waste plastics recovery, specially a kind of method for separating of plastic mixture is used with it Equipment.
Background technology
Waste plastics recycling utilizes the important component for having become China's plastic industry., China's waste plastics production in 2012 Raw about 34,130,000 tons of amount, with very big renewable resource utilization value.The waste plastics compound collected from society constitutes complicated, plants Class is more, it is difficult to directly recognize.Purity requirement of the regeneration of waste plastics to its raw material is very high, and impurity component will be to regeneration more than 5% The performance of product has very big negative effect.And scientific and rational progress waste plastics compound sorting is to obtain high-purity plastic material Important means.Conventional plastics classification has hand-sorting, electrostatic separation, waterpower sorting, infrared sorting, density separation etc..By hand Sorting is not only harmful to but also inefficiency to body;Electrostatic separation is difficult to sub-elect the plastic mixture that electric charge differs very little; Infrared sorting technology is high in technological content and equipment performance requires high, develops at home slower;Density separation technology is due to operation letter Just, with low cost the advantages of, gradually paid close attention in waste plastics separation system by people.However as the increasing of waste plastics species Plus, density, surface between plastics are special etc., and difference is gradually reduced, and increases the sorting difficulty of waste plastics.Therefore, in the urgent need to Develop that a kind of cost is low, the scope of application is wider, the method that disclosure satisfy that the separating plastic demand of similar density.
The content of the invention
In order to the close plastics of more accurate separating density, at the same make sorting it is with low cost, simple to operate, be applicable model Enclose wider, the invention provides a kind of plastic mixture method for separating and its equipment.
To realize this purpose, technical scheme is as follows:
A kind of plastic mixture method for separating, plastic mixture is ground into 1~5mm of particle diameter particle, and plastics are mixed Material particle is sorted with floatation, wherein;
The step of floatation is:
A, preparation flotation fluid, add wetting agent and foaming agent in water, and humectant concentration is 0.01 ~ 5000ppm, foaming agent Concentration is 0.01 ~ 50ppm;
B, from flotation trench bottom by the flotation fluid and gas of preparation together add flotation cell;
C, the flotation fluid for being configured plastic mixture particle step A are moistened;
D, will be soaked through step C after plastic mixture particle by feed vibrating screen panel from flotation cell top add flotation In groove;
Jetsam, which is deposited on bottom land and concentrated, under E, plastic grain is expelled in deposition hopper, and upper buoyant is by scraper plate from flotation cell Scrape in buoyant collecting tank on top;
F, the flotation fluid from flotation cell overflow suitable for reading are back to deposition hopper, while the flotation fluid in deposition hopper is with defeated Liquid pump returns to humectant concentration in flotation cell, flotation cell by step B and keeps constant;The step A is carried out in deposition hopper, Scraper plate and the reciprocating sieve alternation.
Further, the flotation fluid and gas are distinguished by the snorkel and liquid pushing tube set respectively in flotation trench bottom Add in flotation cell.
Further, by setting liquid pushing tube to add in flotation trench bottom after the flotation fluid and gas are mixed outside flotation cell Enter in flotation cell, its process is:First with the infusion pump extracted out from deposition hopper flotation fluid send into one it is closed pressure-resistant In tank, the autoclave send porch to be provided with an air inlet in flotation fluid, and a source of the gas is connected to air inlet, the gas of source of the gas Pressure regulation is to 0.1MPa to 0.5MPa, and gas and flotation fluid are connected to flotation trench bottom after being mixed in autoclave by delivery outlet Liquid pushing tube add flotation cell in.
Further, the wetting agent be alkyl phenol polyglycol ether, it is methylcellulose, lauryl sodium sulfate, wooden One or more of mixture in plain sulfoacid calcium, foaming agent is terpinol or methyl isobutyl carbinol.
Further, the plastic mixture particle is sorted with density-sorting methods first, density-sorting methods are floating The Pre-sorting method of method is selected, the plastic mixture after being sorted through density-sorting methods is sorted through floatation again;
The step of density-sorting methods is:
A, preparation density separation liquid, different density separation liquid are selected according to different densities plastics;
B, plastic mixture is well mixed with density separation liquid obtains plastic mixture suspension;
C, the plastic mixture suspension added in density separation groove, while adding density separation liquid simultaneously in sorting groove It is stirred, lower jetsam enters the collecting region of sorting cell body, upper buoyant flows out from the overfall of flowing water weir-type;
The density-sorting methods carry out multistage densit sorting from high to low by density, and the lower jetsam is received for target plastic Collection, the upper buoyant enters next stage density separation after going out from flowing water weir flow overfall.
Further, surfactant is included in density separation liquid;The surfactant is calcium lignosulfonate, 12 One or more of mixture in serial 7 ethers of sodium alkyl sulfate, NPE and methylcellulose.
A kind of plastic mixture screening installation applied to the method for separating, is the equipment for above-mentioned method for separating, Including disintegrating apparatus and floatation equipment, disintegrating apparatus is used to crush the charging of floatation equipment-plastic mixture, and the flotation is set It is standby to include:Flotation cell, scraper plate, reciprocating sieve, flotation fluid backflash, upper buoyant collecting tank, flotation fluid circulating pump and air pump;It is described to scrape Plate is arranged on the upper notch of flotation cell, and the reciprocating sieve is arranged on the top of notch on flotation cell, and the upper buoyant collecting tank leads to Cross a guiding gutter to connect with the upper notch of flotation cell, to accept the upper buoyant that scraper plate is scraped;In the flotation cell inner bottom part Provided with being connected side by side by many pipe intervals nozzle is uniform-distribution with the comb constituted, the comb;The flotation groove bottom is Turbination, the vertex of a cone is provided with below lower jetsam discharging opening, the lower jetsam discharging opening and is provided with flotation fluid backflash, the flotation fluid Backflash top is provided with screen cloth, and screen cloth is used to collect lower jetsam;The flotation fluid circulating pump and air pump are by comb to flotation cell Middle conveying flotation fluid and gas.
Further, the comb is divided into two groups, two groups of comb horizontal cross or vertically sets, one group of comb with it is floating Liquid circulating pump is selected to be connected to convey flotation fluid, another group of comb is connected to convey gas with air pump.
Further, the flotation screening installation also includes a pressure-resistant seal tank, what pressure-resistant seal tank upper end was set Flotation fluid import and air inlet, pressure-resistant seal tank lower end are provided with mixing wastewater with air outlet, and the flotation fluid circulation pump output terminal connects The flotation fluid import of the pressure-resistant seal tank is connect, the air pump is connected to air inlet by appendix, the pressure-resistant seal tank Lower end outlet be connected to comb import, the air pump air pressure adjustment to 0.1MPa to 0.5MPa, the flotation fluid circulating pump it is defeated Go out end and be also connected with a branch line to the upper end of the reciprocating sieve, setting fountain solution control valve and fountain solution on branch line Nozzle, to be soaked in advance to plastic mixture.
Further, the plastic mixture screening installation also includes density sorting device, and density sorting device is in plastics Set, similar density that density sorting device is sub-elected but different classes of expected as prime equipment in compound sorting flow Particle is sent to flotation screening installation, and the density sorting device includes:Density separation groove, agitating paddle, liquid feeding groove and siphon pipe; The density separation groove side upper inside wall carries the charging deck of sieve aperture provided with bottom surface, and the side outer wall is connected with the liquid feeding groove, Be provided with top-down charging line in the liquid feeding groove, the liquid feeding trench bottom is provided with liquid outlet, the liquid outlet with it is described close Degree sorting groove inner bottom part is communicated, and the agitating paddle is provided with the sorting area inside the side density separation groove;The density separation groove Opposite side upper inside wall is provided with the upper buoyant overfall formed by two pieces of inwardly angled overfall baffle plates, the side density separation groove Inclined bottom surface is formed down in lower jetsam collecting tank, the lower jetsam collecting tank to be used to suction out lower jetsam provided with siphon pipe.
Beneficial effect:
1)Plastics are separated by the surface-active for changing plastics, the close plastic mixture of more multi-density can be separated, The wider method of the scope of application, and experimental facilities composition is low, assembly operation is simple and easy to do, it is adaptable to industrial applications;
2)Flotation cell bottom liquid inlet air inlet, especially bottom are passed through flotation fluid and gas in dissolved air water form, and plastics pass through Adsorption rises with rising dissolved air water haptoreaction, gas, flotation fluid is reacted abundant with frosting;
3)The vibrations charging of reciprocating sieve, makes plastics be evenly distributed in flotation cell, and air inlet connection is traversed in flotation cell Pipeline in equally distributed nozzle ensure that the uniform of air inlet;
4)Scraper plate scrapes upper buoyant in charging interval in time, buoyant is reclaimed facility, and organic efficiency is high;
5)Density separation can realize that continous way is sorted density step by step, by controlling water flow velocity and stir speed (S.S.) to prevent from sinking to moulding Material is assembled under stirring area, overcomes the problem of existing density-sorting methods jetsam under stirring area assembles difficult collect.
Brief description of the drawings
Fig. 1 is plastic mixture density separation, flotation flowsheet figure;
Fig. 2 is the floatation equipment that gas-liquid point is entered;
Fig. 3 is the floatation equipment that gas-liquid mixed is inputted;
Fig. 4 is comb schematic diagram, Fig. 3 A-A sectional views in flotation cell;
Fig. 5 is density sorting device.
Embodiment
It is further described below in conjunction with the accompanying drawings;
1st, flotation cell;1-1, comb;1-2, nozzle;1-3, lower jetsam discharging opening;2nd, scraper plate;3rd, reciprocating sieve;4th, flotation fluid Backflash;4-1 screen clothes;5th, upper buoyant collecting tank;6th, flotation fluid circulating pump;7th, air pump;8th, pressure-resistant seal tank;9th, liquid flowing valve; 10th, upper buoyant guiding gutter;11st, fountain solution control valve;12nd, nozzle for liquid is soaked;13rd, plastic mixture conveyer belt;14th, density Sorting groove;15th, charging deck;16th, agitating paddle, 17, liquid feeding groove;18th, charging line;19th, liquid outlet;20th, sieve aperture;21st, sink Expect collecting tank;22nd, siphon pipe;23rd, upper buoyant overfall;24th, overfall baffle plate.
Embodiment 1
A kind of plastic mixture method for separating, plastic mixture is ground into 1~5mm of particle diameter particle, and plastics are mixed Material particle is sorted with floatation, wherein;
The step of floatation is:
A, preparation flotation fluid, add wetting agent and foaming agent in water, and humectant concentration is 0.01 ~ 5000ppm, foaming agent Concentration is 0.01 ~ 50ppm;
B, from flotation trench bottom by the flotation fluid and gas of preparation together add flotation cell;
C, the flotation fluid for being configured plastic mixture particle step A are moistened, and plastics can use hydroxide before wetting The solution such as the plasticizer such as sodium, sodium carbonate or o-phthalic acid dibutyl ester and diisooctyl phthalate are adjusted;
D, will be soaked through step C after plastic mixture particle bore be 500mm depths 1500mm flotation cell with 60~ 300g/min speed is added in flotation cell by the vibrating screen panel that feeds from flotation cell top;
Jetsam, which is deposited on bottom land and concentrated, under E, plastic grain is expelled in deposition hopper, and upper buoyant is by scraper plate from flotation cell Scrape in buoyant collecting tank on top;
F, the flotation fluid from flotation cell overflow suitable for reading are back to deposition hopper, while the flotation fluid in deposition hopper is with defeated Liquid pump returns to humectant concentration in flotation cell, flotation cell by step B and keeps constant;The step A is carried out in deposition hopper, Scraper plate and the reciprocating sieve alternation.
The plastic mixture is that various different types of waste plastics mix the plastic hybrid to be formed.
Embodiment 2
The present embodiment has two schemes on the basis of embodiment 1 to air inlet and feed liquor mode.
The first scheme is:Gas and liquid are sent directly into groove outside groove, gas passes through the independent comb in groove Bubble is sent out, i.e.,:The flotation fluid and gas are separately added into by the snorkel and liquid pushing tube set respectively in flotation trench bottom In flotation cell, the method bubble is controlled by adjusting air pressure;
Second scheme is:By gas and liquid, then first mixing is being sent into groove outside groove, i.e.,:By the flotation fluid and Gas mixed outside flotation cell after by flotation trench bottom set liquid pushing tube add flotation cell in, its process is:Institute is used first State infusion pump to extract out from deposition hopper in flotation fluid one closed autoclave of feeding, the autoclave sends into mouth in flotation fluid Place is provided with an air inlet, and a source of the gas is connected to air inlet, the air pressure adjustment of source of the gas to 0.1MPa to 0.5MPa, gas and Flotation fluid is connected to the liquid pushing tube of flotation trench bottom by delivery outlet after being mixed in autoclave and added in flotation cell, such a method It is uniform that bubble is produced.
Embodiment 3
The present embodiment is the further improvement on the basis of embodiment 1, and the method for separating also includes density-sorting methods, Density-sorting methods are the Pre-sorting method of floatation, and the plastic mixture after being sorted through density-sorting methods is sorted through floatation again;
The step of density-sorting methods is:
A, preparation density separation liquid, different density separation liquid are selected according to different densities plastics;
B, plastic mixture is well mixed with density separation liquid obtains plastic mixture suspension;
C, the plastic mixture suspension added in sorting groove, density separation liquid and carried out while being added in sorting groove Stirring, plastic mixture suspension adds 400 ~ 800g/min of speed, density separation 4500 ~ 12000mL/min of flow velocity, stirring The rpm/min of speed 200 ~ 600, lower jetsam enters the collecting region of sorting cell body, and upper buoyant flows out from flowing water weir overfall;
The density-sorting methods carry out multistage densit sorting from high to low by density, and the lower jetsam is received for target plastic Collection, the upper buoyant enters next stage density separation after going out from flowing water weir flow overfall.
,, can be in density if density separation effect is bad due to the difference of frosting characteristic in density-sorting methods Surfactant is added in sorting liquid;The surfactant is calcium lignosulfonate, lauryl sodium sulfate, polyoxyethylene nonyl phenyl One or more of mixture in vinethene 7 ethers of series and methylcellulose.
Embodiment 4
The present embodiment is further improved on the basis of embodiment 1,2, the plastic mixture be PVC, POM, PET, PC, PA6, PS, ABS, HDPE and PP compound;
Sorting step is referring to Fig. 1:
It is that density separation liquid sub-elects PET from 1.30g/mL calcium chloride solutions(Lower jetsam), density separation flow velocity 8500mL/min, stir speed (S.S.) is 500rpm/min, sorting index 100%, under PC, PA6, PS, ABS, HDPE and PP compound enter One-level density separation;It is density point from the 1.30g/mL calcium chloride solutions containing serial 7 ethers of 30ppm NPEs Select liquid sort PVC and POM compounds, density separation flow velocity 8500mL/min, stir speed (S.S.) is 500rpm/min;
It is density separation liquid from the 1.16g/mL sodium chloride solutions containing serial 7 ethers of 30ppm NPEs PC, density separation flow velocity 8000mL/min are sorted, stir speed (S.S.) is 400rpm/min, compared with no addition surfactant, PC sorting index is improved to 100% from 67.5%, and PA6, PS, ABS, HDPE and PP compound enter next stage density separation;
It is that density separation liquid sorts PA6, density separation flow velocity 5000mL/min from 1.09g/mL sodium chloride solutions, stirs Speed is mixed for 500rpm/min, sorting index 100%, PS, ABS, HDPE and PP compound enters next stage density separation;
It is that density separation liquid sorts ABS, density separation flow velocity 9000mL/min, stirring speed from 1.00g/mL running water Rate is 250rpm/min, and sorting index 100%, HDPE and PP compounds enter next stage density separation;From containing 30ppm nonyls The 1.00g/mL running water of phenol polyethenoxy ether 7 ethers of series sorts PS, density separation flow velocity 9000mL/ for density separation liquid Min, stir speed (S.S.) is 250rpm/min;
HDPE separates sorting with PP and can select 0.90g/mL ethanol solutions, density separation flow velocity 11000mL/min, stirring Speed is 500rpm/min sorting indexes 100%.
For there is no PVC, POM, PET compound of separation to be directly entered floatation process during density separation.
For there is no ABS the and PS compounds of separation to be directly entered floatation process during density separation.
Plastic mixture is PVC, POM and PET in floatation process, and POM is sorted first, and the wetting agent is dodecyl Sodium sulphate or calcium lignosulfonate, wetting agent concentration of aqueous solution are 0 ~ 1000ppm, pH5 ~ 11, with terpinol or methyl-isobutyl Methanol is foaming agent, and concentration is 0 ~ 20ppm, and flotation time is 0 ~ 30min, and POM is scraped as upper buoyant after flotation is sorted Plate is scraped into collecting tank;
PVC and PET is sorted in floatation process, with alkyl phenol polyglycol ether, methylcellulose, dodecyl sulphate Any one in sodium, calcium lignosulfonate be the wetting agent aqueous solution, wetting agent concentration of aqueous solution be 0 ~ 1500ppm, pH 7 ~ 11, Using terpinol or methyl isobutyl carbinol as foaming agent, concentration is 0 ~ 20ppm, and flotation time is 0 ~ 30min.
Separating plastic mixture is PS and ABS in floatation process, with tannic acid, polyethylene glycol dodecyl second Any one in ether, lauryl sodium sulfate or calcium lignosulfonate be wetting agent, wetting agent concentration of aqueous solution be 0 ~ 3000ppm, using terpinol or methyl isobutyl carbinol as foaming agent, concentration is 0 ~ 20ppm, and flotation time is 0 ~ 40min, is passed through PS is that upper buoyant is scraped into collecting tank by scraper plate after flotation sorting, and ABS is deposited on bottom land collecting region as lower jetsam.
Embodiment 5
A kind of screening installation for being suitable for above-described embodiment plastic mixture separating method, including disintegrating apparatus and flotation are set Standby, disintegrating apparatus is used to crush the charging of floatation equipment-plastic mixture, as shown in Figure 2(Disintegrating apparatus not shown in figure, The floatation equipment includes flotation cell 1, scraper plate 2, reciprocating sieve 3, flotation fluid backflash 4, upper buoyant collecting tank 5, flotation fluid circulation Pump 6, air pump 7.
The scraper plate 2 is arranged on the upper notch of flotation cell 1, and the reciprocating sieve 3 is arranged on the top of notch on flotation cell 1, Reciprocating sieve charging ensures the uniform of charging, and the upper buoyant collecting tank 5 is connected by the upper notch of a guiding gutter 10 and flotation cell 1 Logical, to accept the upper buoyant that scraper plate is scraped, the upper lower section of buoyant collecting tank 5 is flowed back provided with liquid pipe is reclaimed with the flotation fluid Groove 4 is connected, and after thus upper buoyant is collected, the flotation fluid of carrying has been recovered to flotation fluid backflash 4 again.
The comb 1-1, the comb 1-1 for being connected and being constituted side by side by many pipe intervals are provided with the inner bottom part of flotation cell 1 By uniform layout in the whole plane in bottom, nozzle 1-2 is uniform-distribution with the comb 1-1;The flotation fluid that nozzle 1-2 sprays It is covered with the whole plane in bottom with gas to move up, the bottom surface of the bottom comb 1-1 of flotation cell 1 is turbination, the vertex of a cone Provided with lower jetsam discharging opening 1-3, flotation fluid backflash 4, the flotation fluid backflash are provided with below the lower jetsam discharging opening 1-3 4 tops are provided with screen cloth 4-1, and screen cloth 4-1 is used to collect lower jetsam;The flotation fluid circulating pump 6 and air pump 7 by comb 1-1 to Flotation fluid and gas are conveyed in flotation cell 1.
Embodiment 6
As a preferred scheme of embodiment 5, the comb 1-1 is divided to for two groups, two groups of comb horizontal cross or vertical Setting up and down, one group of comb is connected to convey flotation fluid with flotation fluid circulating pump 6, and another group of comb is connected to defeated with air pump Supply gas body.
Embodiment 7
As another preferred scheme of embodiment 5, it is improved on the basis of embodiment 5.As shown in figure 3, floating Select liquid and gas to be mixed outside flotation cell, make mixing evenly, react more abundant.
The flotation screening installation also includes a pressure-resistant seal tank 8, and the flotation fluid that the upper end of pressure-resistant seal tank 8 is set enters Mouth and air inlet, the lower end of pressure-resistant seal tank 8 is provided with mixing wastewater with air(Dissolved air water)Outlet, the output end of flotation fluid circulating pump 6 The flotation fluid import of the pressure-resistant seal tank 8 is connected, the air pump 7 is connected to air inlet, the pressure-resistant seal by appendix The lower end dissolved air water outlet of tank 8 is connected to comb 1-1 imports, and the air pump air pressure adjustment is described floating to 0.1MPa to 0.5MPa Select the output end of liquid circulating pump 6 to be also connected with a branch line to the upper end of the reciprocating sieve 3, fountain solution is set on branch line Control valve 11 and wetting nozzle for liquid 12, to be soaked in advance to plastic mixture.It is floating by soaking the ejection of nozzle for liquid 12 The plastic mixture for selecting liquid to send into plastic mixture conveyer belt 13 is put into reciprocating sieve 3 again after soaking.
Embodiment 8
The plastic mixture screening installation also includes density sorting device on the basis of embodiment 5, and density separation is set It is standby to be set in plastic mixture sorting flow as prime equipment, similar density but inhomogeneity that density sorting device is sub-elected Other plastic grain is sent to flotation screening installation, as shown in Figure 5.
Density sorting device includes density separation groove 14, agitating paddle 16, liquid feeding groove 17 and siphon pipe 22;
The side upper inside wall of density separation groove 14 carries the charging deck 15 of sieve aperture 20 provided with bottom surface, the side outer wall connection There is the liquid feeding groove 17, top-down charging line 18 is provided with the liquid feeding groove 17, the bottom of liquid feeding groove 17 is provided with liquid discharge Mouth 19, the liquid outlet 19 is communicated with the inner bottom part of density separation groove 14, it is ensured that density separation liquid is entered by bottom, and the side is close Spend and the agitating paddle 16 is provided with the stirring area inside sorting groove 14;
The opposite side upper inside wall of density separation groove 14 is provided with what is formed by two pieces of inwardly angled overfall baffle plates 24 The upper buoyant overfall 23 of flowing water weir-type, the inclined bottom surface of side density separation groove 14 is formed down lower jetsam collecting tank 21, described Provided with siphon pipe 22 for suctioning out lower jetsam in lower jetsam collecting tank 21.

Claims (9)

1. a kind of plastic mixture method for separating, plastic mixture is ground into 1~5mm of particle diameter particle, to plastic mixture Particle is sorted with floatation, it is characterised in that:
The step of floatation is:
A, preparation flotation fluid, add wetting agent and foaming agent in water, and humectant concentration is 0.01 ~ 5000ppm, foaming agent concentration For 0.01 ~ 50ppm;
B, from flotation trench bottom by the flotation fluid and gas of preparation together add flotation cell;
C, the flotation fluid for being configured plastic mixture particle step A are moistened;
D, will be soaked through step C after plastic mixture particle by feed vibrating screen panel from flotation cell top add flotation cell It is interior;
Jetsam, which is deposited on bottom land and concentrated, under E, plastic grain is expelled in deposition hopper, and upper buoyant is by scraper plate from flotation cell top Scrape in buoyant collecting tank;
F, the flotation fluid from flotation cell overflow suitable for reading are back to deposition hopper, while the flotation fluid infusion pump in deposition hopper Humectant concentration in flotation cell, flotation cell is returned to by step B and keeps constant;The step A is carried out in deposition hopper, described Scraper plate and reciprocating sieve alternation;The flotation fluid and gas mixed outside flotation cell after by flotation trench bottom set liquor charging Pipe is added in flotation cell, and its process is:First with the infusion pump extracted out from deposition hopper flotation fluid send into one it is closed In autoclave, the autoclave send porch to be provided with an air inlet in flotation fluid, and a source of the gas is connected to air inlet, source of the gas Air pressure adjustment to 0.1MPa to 0.5MPa, gas and flotation fluid are connected to flotation cell after being mixed in autoclave by delivery outlet The liquid pushing tube of bottom is added in flotation cell.
2. plastic mixture method for separating according to claim 1, it is characterised in that:The flotation fluid and gas by The snorkel and liquid pushing tube that flotation trench bottom is set respectively are separately added into flotation cell.
3. the plastic mixture method for separating according to any one in claim 1 ~ 2, it is characterised in that:The wetting agent For mixing one or more of in alkyl phenol polyglycol ether, methylcellulose, lauryl sodium sulfate, calcium lignosulfonate Thing, foaming agent is terpinol or methyl isobutyl carbinol.
4. the plastic mixture method for separating according to any one in claim 1 ~ 2, it is characterised in that:To the plastics Mixture particle is sorted with density-sorting methods first, and density-sorting methods are the Pre-sorting method of floatation, through density separation Plastic mixture after method sorting is sorted through floatation again;
The step of density-sorting methods is:
A, preparation density separation liquid, different density separation liquid are selected according to different densities plastics;
B, plastic mixture is well mixed with density separation liquid obtains plastic mixture suspension;
C, the plastic mixture suspension added in density separation groove, density separation liquid and carried out while being added in sorting groove Stirring, lower jetsam enters the collecting region of sorting cell body, and upper buoyant flows out from the overfall of flowing water weir-type;
The density-sorting methods carry out multistage densit sorting from high to low by density, and the lower jetsam is collected for target plastic, institute State after buoyant goes out from flowing water weir flow overfall and enter next stage density separation.
5. plastic mixture method for separating according to claim 4, it is characterised in that:Lived in density separation liquid comprising surface Property agent;The surfactant is calcium lignosulfonate, lauryl sodium sulfate, serial 7 ethers of NPE and first One or more of mixture in base cellulose.
6. it is the equipment for claim 1 methods described a kind of plastic mixture screening installation, including disintegrating apparatus and flotation Equipment, disintegrating apparatus is used to crush the charging of floatation equipment-plastic mixture, it is characterised in that:The floatation equipment includes Flotation cell(1), scraper plate(2), reciprocating sieve(3), flotation fluid backflash(4), upper buoyant collecting tank(5), flotation fluid circulating pump(6)With Air pump(7);The scraper plate(2)It is arranged on flotation cell(1)Upper notch, the reciprocating sieve(3)It is arranged on flotation cell(1)Upper notch Top, the upper buoyant collecting tank(5)Pass through a guiding gutter(10)With flotation cell(1)Upper notch connection, to accept The upper buoyant that scraper plate is scraped;
In the flotation cell(1)Inner bottom part is provided with and connects the comb constituted side by side by many pipe intervals(1-1), the comb(1- 1)On be uniform-distribution with nozzle(1-2);
The flotation cell(1)Bottom surface is turbination, and the vertex of a cone is provided with lower jetsam discharging opening(1-3), the lower jetsam discharging opening(1- 3)Lower section is provided with flotation fluid backflash(4), the flotation fluid backflash(4)Top is provided with screen cloth(4-1), screen cloth(4-1)For Collect lower jetsam;
The flotation fluid circulating pump(6)And air pump(7)Pass through comb(1-1)To flotation cell(1)Middle conveying flotation fluid and gas.
7. plastic mixture screening installation according to claim 6, it is characterised in that:The comb(1-1)It is divided into two groups, Two groups of comb horizontal cross are vertically set, one group of comb and flotation fluid circulating pump(6)It is connected to convey flotation fluid, separately One group of comb is connected to convey gas with air pump.
8. plastic mixture screening installation according to claim 6, it is characterised in that:The flotation screening installation also includes There is a pressure-resistant seal tank(8), pressure-resistant seal tank(8)Upper end sets flotation fluid import and air inlet, pressure-resistant seal tank(8)Lower end It is provided with mixing wastewater with air outlet, the flotation fluid circulating pump(6)Output end connects the pressure-resistant seal tank(8)Flotation fluid enter Mouthful, the air pump(7)Air inlet, the pressure-resistant seal tank are connected to by appendix(8)Lower end outlet be connected to comb(1- 1)Import, the air pump air pressure adjustment is to 0.1MPa to 0.5MPa, the flotation fluid circulating pump(6)Output end be also connected with one Branch line is to the reciprocating sieve(3)Upper end, fountain solution control valve is set on branch line(11)With wetting nozzle for liquid (12), to be soaked in advance to plastic mixture.
9. plastic mixture screening installation according to claim 6, it is characterised in that:The plastic mixture screening installation Also include density sorting device, density sorting device is set in plastic mixture sorting flow as prime equipment, density point The similar density but different classes of plastic grain that optional equipment is sub-elected are sent to flotation screening installation, the density sorting device Including:Density separation groove(14), agitating paddle(16), liquid feeding groove(17)And siphon pipe(22);The density separation groove(14)Side Upper inside wall carries sieve aperture provided with bottom surface(20)Charging deck(15), the side outer wall is connected with the liquid feeding groove(17), the liquid feeding Groove(17)It is interior to be provided with top-down charging line(18), the liquid feeding groove(17)Bottom is provided with liquid outlet(19), the liquid discharge Mouthful(19)With the density separation groove(14)Inner bottom part is communicated, the side density separation groove(14)Provided with described in internal sorting area Agitating paddle(16);
The density separation groove(14)Opposite side upper inside wall is provided with by two pieces of inwardly angled overfall baffle plates(24)Formed Upper buoyant overfall(23), the side density separation groove(14)Inclined bottom surface is formed down lower jetsam collecting tank(21), the sinking Expect collecting tank(21)It is interior to be provided with siphon pipe(22)For suctioning out lower jetsam.
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CN106426645B (en) * 2016-09-26 2018-08-14 常州大学 A kind of waste plastics flotation unit
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CN106881781B (en) * 2017-02-21 2019-11-26 长安大学 A method of the FLOTATION SEPARATION high density polyethylene (HDPE) from mixed plastic
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CN108593401B (en) * 2018-02-27 2021-07-27 浙江工业大学 Method for separating submicron-order micro-plastic in water environment or marine products
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