CN105699243A - Water and fertilizer integrated lysimeter measuring system adopting Internet of Things - Google Patents

Water and fertilizer integrated lysimeter measuring system adopting Internet of Things Download PDF

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Publication number
CN105699243A
CN105699243A CN201610141968.5A CN201610141968A CN105699243A CN 105699243 A CN105699243 A CN 105699243A CN 201610141968 A CN201610141968 A CN 201610141968A CN 105699243 A CN105699243 A CN 105699243A
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sensor
data
master cylinder
things
internet
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CN201610141968.5A
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CN105699243B (en
Inventor
柳平增
孟庆款
闫茂玲
范林强
张庆雷
李汝岭
王凯鹏
宋美龙
葛庆宝
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Shandong Agricultural University
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Shandong Agricultural University
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    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01NINVESTIGATING OR ANALYSING MATERIALS BY DETERMINING THEIR CHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
    • G01N5/00Analysing materials by weighing, e.g. weighing small particles separated from a gas or liquid
    • G01N5/04Analysing materials by weighing, e.g. weighing small particles separated from a gas or liquid by removing a component, e.g. by evaporation, and weighing the remainder

Abstract

The invention discloses a water and fertilizer integrated lysimeter measuring system adopting the Internet of Things. The water and fertilizer integrated lysimeter measuring system is characterized by comprising a mechanical composition part, an Internet of Things core module, a data transmission module, a data detection module and a remote host computer module. Remote acquisition of field data is realized; environmental information of different soil depths affecting crop growth is acquired through layered sensors, and the acquired data are accurate and reliable; the acquired data are stored in a database, and follow-up data analysis is facilitated; fertilizer consumption of crop root systems at different depths can be measured regularly, and water and fertilizer study is facilitated.

Description

Internet of Things water-fertilizer integral lysimeter measures system
Technical field
The invention belongs to modern agricultural technology and Internet of Things crossing domain, be the combination of Internet of Things information technology and modern agricultural technology, measure system particularly to a kind of Internet of Things water-fertilizer integral lysimeter。
Background technology
The Integration of Water into Fertilizer is a key factor of modern intensive Irrigation farming, especially in Chinese such a large agricultural country, it is the huge of Water Consumption in Agriculture and the contradictory requirements Developing Water-saving Agriculture of water resource deficiency on the one hand, measure the moisture evaporation of crop, research water consumption, in order to improve agriculturally producing level to water resource, to water-saving significant;It is that China is as chemical fertilizer consumption big country on the other hand, Land Units area dose is at the forefront in the world, excessively using and producing the deterioration of the ecological environment caused for chemical fertilizer, need to invent efficient fertilizer, in conjunction with above-mentioned 2 points, the research of water-fertilizer integral is for promoting China's agricultural and economic development significant。
Lysimeter is usually the important instrument of research crop water consumption rule。Lysimeter is embedded in natural soil, and its moisture is regulated and controled the Evapotranspiration Processes effectively simulating reality, in the change by weighing, so that it may obtain evapotranspiration。This method is maximally efficient and economic measurement method in field evapotranspiration is studied。In existing lysimeter equipment and method, the stability of system is bad, and the precision of test is not high, it is impossible to the well Law of Water Consumption of the plant that reflection is local;Current technology scheme seldom has lysimeter and water-fertilizer integral are studied and combine, so needing to study a kind of novel lysimeter system, integrate high-precision sensor, high-precision A/D switch technology and mechanics of communication, apply in lysimeter TT&C system, the measuring accuracy of raising system, make it reliable and stable work, and can conveniently study liquid manure Expenditure Levels, to meet current demand。
Summary of the invention
For the problems referred to above, the invention provides a kind of Internet of Things water-fertilizer integral lysimeter and measure system, this system is low for domestic existing precision, the problem of poor stability, on tradition lysimeter measuring method basis, having incorporated modern technology of Internet of things, put forth effort on a kind of novel high-precision electronic weighing type lysimeter of research, measuring accuracy, stability are improved, to meet the needs of user better, it is achieved that can remotely obtain field data;Utilizing laminate sensor to obtain the environmental information affecting the plant growth different soils degree of depth, the data of acquisition are accurately and reliably;The data of acquisition are stored in data base, facilitate the analysis of follow-up data;Can the fertilizer consumption of periodic measurement crop different depth root system, facilitate liquid manure to study。
This invention address that the problems referred to above be the technical scheme is that
A kind of Internet of Things water-fertilizer integral lysimeter measures system, including mechanical composition part, Internet of Things nucleus module, data transmission module, data detection module and long-range upper computer module;
Described mechanical composition part includes Master cylinder body, Master cylinder body upper end is provided with water valve, lower end is provided with cylinder pressure sensor, the sidewall of Master cylinder body is provided with from top to bottom the protruded tube that at least three connects with Master cylinder body along Master cylinder body, the lower end of protruded tube is provided with container, and the lower end of container is provided with container pressure sensor;The mounting frame for sensor of correspondence it is inserted with, with sensor on mounting frame for sensor in Master cylinder body;The number of mounting frame for sensor is corresponding with the number of protruded tube, and the degree of depth of the distance Master cylinder body of sensor stand is identical with the degree of depth of protruded tube distance Master cylinder body;
Master cylinder body inwall inwall is provided with the annulus of indent, the number of indent annulus is corresponding with telescoping tube number, the indent annulus that each telescoping tube is corresponding, being correspondingly provided with interior ring on each indent annulus, interior ring is elastomeric material, and has fracture, the outside of interior annulus is provided with the annular chamber of an evagination, the height of annular chamber is lower than interior ring, and the thickness of annular chamber is less than the thickness of indent annulus, and the outer wall of annular chamber is provided with a confession tap hole corresponding with protruded tube;
Cylinder pressure sensor primary responsibility measures the change of Master cylinder body weight;The liquid manure regularly accepting to be flowed out is responsible for by protruded tube by container, and container pressure sensor is responsible for measuring the weight that container holds;Mounting frame for sensor is responsible for the laying of each sensor of different depth;Mounting frame for sensor is provided with soil moisture detection sensor, soil rises by force detection sensor;
Described Internet of Things nucleus module includes central processing unit, is connected to power module, clock circuit, reset circuit, signaling conversion circuit and screen display unit with central processing unit;The instruction that Internet of Things nucleus module is responsible for host computer is sent here on the one hand resolves, data and the data message collected according to the agreement of agreement is gathered to host computer transmission according to command request, be responsible on the other hand by screen display unit complete with user mutual, ambient parameter information all can be displayed on screen, also can manually control screen and obtain ambient parameter information and the input crop liquid manure consumption at scene in real time;
Described data detection module includes data acquisition unit, the soil moisture detects sensor, soil rises by force detection sensor, cylinder body weight sensor;
Described data acquisition unit includes A/D change-over circuit and signal conditioning circuit, and sensor die analog quantity is converted into digital quantity by A/D change-over circuit primary responsibility;The filtering of signal conditioning circuit primary responsibility signal and conversion, be converted to TTL signal by RS485 signal, it is ensured that stablizing accurately of signal;
Described data transmission module includes GPRSDTU, the communication between primary responsibility Internet of Things nucleus module and upper computer module;
Described long-range upper computer module includes data and processes upper computer software, data base and data analysis display platform, and the storage of the transmission and data of being responsible for acquisition instructions shows;After data process upper computer software transmission acquisition instructions, data acquisition module carries out data acquisition under the control of Internet of Things nucleus module, and the data collected encapsulation is uploaded by Internet of Things nucleus module afterwards;Data process upper computer software and store after receiving the data to data base, and data analysis display platform reads data display in data base。
Preferably, A/D change-over circuit adopts system to adopt the A/D of 24, and range is 000000 ~ FFFFFF, inputs as between-1V ~+1V;Significance bit is 23, and range reduces half, and for C00000 ~ FFFFFF and 000000 ~ 3FFFFF, as input-1V, corresponding digital quantity is C00000, and as input+1V, corresponding digital quantity is 3FFFFF;Wherein A/D conversion formula is as follows:
Wherein change voltage for A/D, be op-amp output voltage, be signal ground, for low reference voltage;For reference voltage;Differential signal output voltage for sensor;N is amplification;
As Tx=0mV, corresponding conversion voltage is-1V, namely=-1v, namely=;When working as Tx=24mV, N=100, corresponding conversion voltage is+1V, namely=1v, namely=1.2v。
Preferably, described protruded tube is provided with three, and the mounting frame for sensor being provided with is provided with three。
The modeling of Internet of Things water-fertilizer integral lysimeter and measuring method:
Modeling:
Without the Master cylinder body of open-work bottom a, selection, bottom Master cylinder body outer wall, lower end is provided with a pressure transducer;
B, offering at least three through hole on the sidewall of Master cylinder body, three through holes are setting up and down, each through hole is connected to a corresponding protruded tube and makes the end of protruded tube downward
C, embed on the indent annulus of the inwall of Master cylinder body elastic in circle, and make annular chamber correspond in the groove of indent annulus;And the through hole by the tap hole correspondence Master cylinder body of interior circle;
D, in Master cylinder body, bury dress compost;
E, it is provided with a sensor stand in the corresponding position of protruded tube, and in sensor stand, is inserted with sensor;
F, being provided with a container in the lower end of protruded tube, the liquid flowed out in protruded tube accepted by container, and is provided with a container pressure sensor in container;
G, it is provided above a water valve at Master cylinder body;
Measure:
A, opening water valve, in primary tank, water filling is fertile;
The change of the cylinder pressure sensor record pressure of lower section in B, primary tank, thus the change according to pressure is converted to the quality that water filling is fertile;And the change of real time record pressure, and upload record by Internet of Things;
C, too much liquid manure are flowed out by protruded tube, container pressure sensor record influx, and upload record by Internet of Things;Draw infiltration time, infiltration capacity;
D, container pressure sensor not after the change, continue the change of record cylinder pressure sensor, can calculate outflow liquid manure steaming amount by changing;
A, the sensor passing through to arrange in sensor stand send signal, and transmit signal by Internet of Things。
Beneficial effects of the present invention shows:
(1) present invention can be effectively improved water-fertilizer integral Efficiency, facilitates periodic measurement crop water and fertilizer Expenditure Levels, it is possible to measures the liquid manure consumption of crop root different depth;
(2) present invention is relative to traditional lysimeter equipment, there is precision height, automation collection uploads data, the feature such as stable, utilizes the wireless network transmissions ability of GPRS module, it is possible to achieve remotely check the function of field data, data are stored into data base by remote server simultaneously, save manpower, decrease personal error, improve system accuracy, data store to server database simultaneously, facilitate follow-up data analysis;
(3) present invention has soil moisture content detection module, ground pressure detection module, soil moisture detection module, have detected multiple environmental factors affecting plant growth, after surveyed data are carried out finishing analysis, provide data support to the impact analyzing crop growing state or yield and growing environment。
Accompanying drawing illustrates:
Fig. 1 is that a kind of Internet of Things water-fertilizer integral lysimeter measures system mechanics composition frame chart;
Fig. 2 is that Internet of Things water-fertilizer integral lysimeter measures system principle diagram;;
Fig. 3 is interior circular ring structure schematic diagram;
Fig. 4 is the part sectioned view of interior annulus。
Detailed description of the invention
The following correlation technique content do not addressed all can adopt or use for reference prior art。
As it is shown in figure 1,1, cylinder pressure sensor;2, container pressure sensor;3, Master cylinder body;4, container;5,40cm protruded tubes;6,60cm protruded tubes;7,80cm protruded tube;8, water valve;9,40cm mounting frame for sensor;10,60cm sensor stand;11,80cm sensor stand。
A kind of Internet of Things water-fertilizer integral lysimeter measures system, including mechanical composition part, Internet of Things nucleus module, data transmission module, data detection module and long-range upper computer module。
Wherein:
Described mechanical composition part includes Master cylinder body 3, Master cylinder body upper end is provided with water valve 8, lower end is provided with cylinder pressure sensor 1, the sidewall of Master cylinder body 3 is provided with, along Master cylinder body, the protruded tube that at least three connects with Master cylinder body from top to bottom, the protruded tube of the present embodiment is provided with three: 40cm protruded tube 5,60cm protruded tube 6;80cm protruded tube 7;
The lower end of protruded tube is provided with container 4, and the lower end of container 4 is provided with container pressure sensor 2;Being inserted with the mounting frame for sensor of correspondence in Master cylinder body, the mounting frame for sensor of the present embodiment is provided with three: 40cm mounting frame for sensor 9;60cm sensor stand 10;80cm sensor stand 11。
With sensor on mounting frame for sensor;The number of mounting frame for sensor is corresponding with the number of protruded tube, and the degree of depth of the distance Master cylinder body of sensor stand is identical with the degree of depth of protruded tube distance Master cylinder body。
Master cylinder body inwall inwall is provided with the annulus of indent, the number of indent annulus is corresponding with telescoping tube number, the indent annulus that each telescoping tube is corresponding, being correspondingly provided with interior ring 12 on each indent annulus, interior ring 12 is elastomeric material, and has fracture, the outside of interior annulus is provided with the annular chamber of an evagination, the height of annular chamber is lower than interior ring, and the thickness of annular chamber is less than the thickness of indent annulus, and the outer wall of annular chamber is provided with a confession tap hole corresponding with protruded tube;
Cylinder pressure sensor primary responsibility measures the change of Master cylinder body weight;The liquid manure regularly accepting to be flowed out is responsible for by Xcm protruded tube by container, and container pressure sensor is responsible for measuring the weight that container holds;Xcm mounting frame for sensor is responsible for the laying of each sensor of different depth。
During use, Master cylinder body weight change is measured transmission in real time by data detection module;System at regular intervals reminds user to open the liquid manure that water valve timing receipt Xcm protruded tube flows out, and user obtains gravimetric value in container by interactive screen;User can measure the content of fertilizer in container and, to calculate the absorbtivity of crop root different depth fertilizer, then pass through interactive screen and be input in system。
As in figure 2 it is shown, a kind of Internet of Things water-fertilizer integral lysimeter measures system, including Internet of Things nucleus module, data transmission module, data detection module and long-range upper computer module。
Described Internet of Things nucleus module includes central processing unit, the power module being connected with central processing unit, clock circuit, reset circuit, signaling conversion circuit and screen display unit。The instruction that Internet of Things nucleus module is responsible for host computer is sent here on the one hand resolves, data and the data message collected according to the agreement of agreement is gathered to host computer transmission according to command request, be responsible on the other hand by screen display unit complete with user mutual, ambient parameter information all can be displayed on screen, also can manually control screen and obtain the ambient parameter information at scene in real time;Central processing unit plate adopts processor MSP430F5438A, includes the peripheral modules such as flash memory, clock circuit, timer module circuit。Central processing unit is connected with data transmission module, when signal transmission module receives the command signal that long-range host computer is sent, this command signal is respectively transmitted to central processing unit by signal conversion module, and central processing unit responds according to the particular content of order。Screen display unit employing Jinpeng C series color screen, carries out information by interruption communication modes and central processing unit mutual, it is achieved the soil moisture of display collection in real time, soil moisture, ground pressure。This unit is connected with central microprocessor, and this type color screen has simple to operate, powerful, and transmission data are accurate, the advantages such as speed is fast。
Data detection module as shown in Figure 3 includes data acquisition unit, the soil moisture detects sensor, soil rises by force detection sensor, cylinder body weight sensor。Described data acquisition unit includes A/D change-over circuit and signal conditioning circuit, and sensor die analog quantity is converted into digital quantity by A/D change-over circuit primary responsibility;Signal conditioning circuit as shown in Figure 4, the filtering of primary responsibility signal and conversion, RS485 signal is converted to TTL signal, it is ensured that signal stable accurately;
For improving system acquisition precision, A/D change-over circuit adopts FS511 module, system selects 12V power supply to sensor power, during due to sensor full scale, signal is output as 2mV/V, then sensor output signal range is 0~24mV, and this reference voltage than A/D is little a lot, in order to improve conversion accuracy, by operational amplifier, signal should be amplified so that it is the reference voltage of voltage and A/D is close to (Vref=VRH-VRL)。System adopts the A/D of 24 (AD [23:0]), and theoretical range is 000000 ~ FFFFFF, inputs as between-1V ~+1V。Owing to the 23rd is sign bit, so significance bit is 23, range reduces half, and for C00000 ~ FFFFFF and 000000 ~ 3FFFFF, as input-1V, corresponding digital quantity is C00000, and as input+1V, corresponding digital quantity is 3FFFFF。Wherein A/D conversion formula is as follows:
Wherein change voltage for A/D, be op-amp output voltage, be signal ground, for low reference voltage;For reference voltage;Differential signal output voltage for sensor;N is amplification。
As Tx=0mV, corresponding conversion voltage is-1V, namely=-1v, namely=。When working as Tx=24mV, N=100, corresponding conversion voltage is+1V, namely=1v, namely=1.2v, therefore needs the reference voltage of FS511 is set to 1.2V, fully uses the range of A/D, high accuracy could change, improves the certainty of measurement of system。
Long-range upper computer module includes data and processes upper computer software, data base and data analysis display platform, and the storage of the transmission and data of being responsible for acquisition instructions shows。After data process upper computer software transmission acquisition instructions, data acquisition module carries out data acquisition under the control of Internet of Things nucleus module, and the data collected encapsulation is uploaded by Internet of Things nucleus module afterwards;Data process upper computer software and store after receiving the data to data base, and data analysis display platform reads data display in data base。
Embodiment described above is only that the preferred embodiment of the present invention is described, and not the spirit and scope of the present invention is defined。Under the premise without departing from design concept of the present invention; various modification that technical scheme is made by this area ordinary person and improvement; protection scope of the present invention all should be dropped into, the technology contents that the present invention is claimed, all record in detail in the claims。

Claims (4)

1. an Internet of Things water-fertilizer integral lysimeter measures system, it is characterised in that: include mechanical composition part, Internet of Things nucleus module, data transmission module, data detection module and long-range upper computer module;
Described mechanical composition part includes Master cylinder body, Master cylinder body upper end is provided with water valve, lower end is provided with cylinder pressure sensor, the sidewall of Master cylinder body is provided with from top to bottom the protruded tube that at least three connects with Master cylinder body along Master cylinder body, the lower end of protruded tube is provided with container, and the lower end of container is provided with container pressure sensor;The mounting frame for sensor of correspondence it is inserted with, with sensor on mounting frame for sensor in Master cylinder body;The number of mounting frame for sensor is corresponding with the number of protruded tube, and the degree of depth of the distance Master cylinder body of sensor stand is identical with the degree of depth of protruded tube distance Master cylinder body;
Master cylinder body inwall inwall is provided with the annulus of indent, the number of indent annulus is corresponding with telescoping tube number, the indent annulus that each telescoping tube is corresponding, being correspondingly provided with interior ring on each indent annulus, interior ring is elastomeric material, and has fracture, the outside of interior annulus is provided with the annular chamber of an evagination, the height of annular chamber is lower than interior ring, and the thickness of annular chamber is less than the thickness of indent annulus, and the outer wall of annular chamber is provided with a confession tap hole corresponding with protruded tube;
Cylinder pressure sensor primary responsibility measures the change of Master cylinder body weight;The liquid manure regularly accepting to be flowed out is responsible for by protruded tube by container, and container pressure sensor is responsible for measuring the weight that container holds;Mounting frame for sensor is responsible for the laying of each sensor of different depth;Mounting frame for sensor is provided with soil moisture detection sensor, soil rises by force detection sensor;
Described Internet of Things nucleus module includes central processing unit, is connected to power module, clock circuit, reset circuit, signaling conversion circuit and screen display unit with central processing unit;The instruction that Internet of Things nucleus module is responsible for host computer is sent here on the one hand resolves, data and the data message collected according to the agreement of agreement is gathered to host computer transmission according to command request, be responsible on the other hand by screen display unit complete with user mutual, ambient parameter information all can be displayed on screen, also can manually control screen and obtain ambient parameter information and the input crop liquid manure consumption at scene in real time;
Described data detection module includes data acquisition unit, the soil moisture detects sensor, soil rises by force detection sensor, cylinder body weight sensor;
Described data acquisition unit includes A/D change-over circuit and signal conditioning circuit, and sensor die analog quantity is converted into digital quantity by A/D change-over circuit primary responsibility;The filtering of signal conditioning circuit primary responsibility signal and conversion, be converted to TTL signal by RS485 signal, it is ensured that stablizing accurately of signal;
Described data transmission module includes GPRSDTU, the communication between primary responsibility Internet of Things nucleus module and upper computer module;
Described long-range upper computer module includes data and processes upper computer software, data base and data analysis display platform, and the storage of the transmission and data of being responsible for acquisition instructions shows;After data process upper computer software transmission acquisition instructions, data acquisition module carries out data acquisition under the control of Internet of Things nucleus module, and the data collected encapsulation is uploaded by Internet of Things nucleus module afterwards;Data process upper computer software and store after receiving the data to data base, and data analysis display platform reads data display in data base。
2. Internet of Things water-fertilizer integral lysimeter according to claim 1 measures system, it is characterised in that:
A/D change-over circuit adopts system to adopt the A/D of 24, and range is 000000 ~ FFFFFF, inputs as between-1V ~+1V;Significance bit is 23, and range reduces half, and for C00000 ~ FFFFFF and 000000 ~ 3FFFFF, as input-1V, corresponding digital quantity is C00000, and as input+1V, corresponding digital quantity is 3FFFFF;Wherein A/D conversion formula is as follows:
Wherein change voltage for A/D, be op-amp output voltage, be signal ground, for low reference voltage;For reference voltage;Differential signal output voltage for sensor;N is amplification;
As Tx=0mV, corresponding conversion voltage is-1V, namely=-1v, namely=;When working as Tx=24mV, N=100, corresponding conversion voltage is+1V, namely=1v, namely=1.2v。
3. Internet of Things water-fertilizer integral lysimeter according to claim 1 measures system, it is characterised in that: described protruded tube is provided with three, and the mounting frame for sensor being provided with is provided with three。
4. the modeling of Internet of Things water-fertilizer integral lysimeter and measuring method, it is characterised in that:
Modeling:
Selecting bottom without the Master cylinder body of open-work, bottom Master cylinder body outer wall, lower end is provided with a pressure transducer;
Offering at least three through hole on the sidewall of Master cylinder body, three through holes are setting up and down, each through hole is connected to a corresponding protruded tube and makes the end of protruded tube downward
The indent annulus of the inwall of Master cylinder body embeds circle in elasticity, and makes annular chamber correspond in the groove of indent annulus;And the through hole by the tap hole correspondence Master cylinder body of interior circle;
Dress compost is buried in Master cylinder body;
It is provided with a sensor stand in the corresponding position of protruded tube, and in sensor stand, is inserted with sensor;
Be provided with a container in the lower end of protruded tube, the liquid flowed out in protruded tube accepted by container, and is provided with a container pressure sensor in container;
It is provided above a water valve at Master cylinder body;
Measure:
A, opening water valve, in primary tank, water filling is fertile;
The change of the cylinder pressure sensor record pressure of lower section in B, primary tank, thus the change according to pressure is converted to the quality that water filling is fertile;And the change of real time record pressure, and upload record by Internet of Things;
C, too much liquid manure are flowed out by protruded tube, container pressure sensor record influx, and upload record by Internet of Things;Draw infiltration time, infiltration capacity;
D, container pressure sensor not after the change, continue the change of record cylinder pressure sensor, can calculate outflow liquid manure steaming amount by changing;
E, the sensor passing through to arrange in sensor stand send signal, and transmit signal by Internet of Things。
CN201610141968.5A 2015-10-15 2016-03-14 Internet of Things water-fertilizer integral lysimeter measuring system Active CN105699243B (en)

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CN106325177A (en) * 2016-10-27 2017-01-11 甘肃省治沙研究所 Embedded monitor for constant compensation of lysimeter underground water
CN109406761A (en) * 2018-12-25 2019-03-01 西安清远测控技术有限公司 It is straight to claim formula soil lysimeter system

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Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN106325177A (en) * 2016-10-27 2017-01-11 甘肃省治沙研究所 Embedded monitor for constant compensation of lysimeter underground water
CN109406761A (en) * 2018-12-25 2019-03-01 西安清远测控技术有限公司 It is straight to claim formula soil lysimeter system

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