CN105679178B - A kind of high-precision double wheel axle, double vernier earth's axis precession demonstration and quantitative measurment experiment instrument - Google Patents

A kind of high-precision double wheel axle, double vernier earth's axis precession demonstration and quantitative measurment experiment instrument Download PDF

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Publication number
CN105679178B
CN105679178B CN201610208904.2A CN201610208904A CN105679178B CN 105679178 B CN105679178 B CN 105679178B CN 201610208904 A CN201610208904 A CN 201610208904A CN 105679178 B CN105679178 B CN 105679178B
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ruler
micro
precession
crossbeam
line shaft
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CN105679178A (en
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张锐波
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Zhejiang University City College ZUCC
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Zhejiang University City College ZUCC
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    • GPHYSICS
    • G09EDUCATION; CRYPTOGRAPHY; DISPLAY; ADVERTISING; SEALS
    • G09BEDUCATIONAL OR DEMONSTRATION APPLIANCES; APPLIANCES FOR TEACHING, OR COMMUNICATING WITH, THE BLIND, DEAF OR MUTE; MODELS; PLANETARIA; GLOBES; MAPS; DIAGRAMS
    • G09B27/00Planetaria; Globes
    • G09B27/08Globes
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01BMEASURING LENGTH, THICKNESS OR SIMILAR LINEAR DIMENSIONS; MEASURING ANGLES; MEASURING AREAS; MEASURING IRREGULARITIES OF SURFACES OR CONTOURS
    • G01B5/00Measuring arrangements characterised by the use of mechanical means
    • G01B5/24Measuring arrangements characterised by the use of mechanical means for measuring angles or tapers; for testing the alignment of axes

Abstract

The present invention relates to a kind of high-precision double wheel axle, double vernier earth's axis precession demonstration and quantitative measurment experiment instruments, including pedestal, motor, crossbeam, turntable, counterweight, wheel shaft, cross beam support frame, precession rotation line shaft, right vernier scale vertical bar, left vernier scale vertical bar, main scale and main ruler disk and hollow support column, the motor is fixed on crossbeam right end, turntable is fixed on motor shaft, and counterweight is socketed in the sliding slot of crossbeam left end;Two axles outer rim is fastened in axle sleeve, is placed on admittedly in two axles inner edge in precession rotation line shaft, and cross beam support frame is fixed in precession rotation line shaft upper end;Right vernier scale vertical bar and left vernier scale vertical bar are connected to the left and right sides of precession rotation line shaft;Main scale is socketed in main ruler disk in the middle part of hollow support column, and precession rotates line shaft and is set to hollow support column upper end, and the crossbeam axle sleeve of crossbeam is in the rotation axis of cross beam support frame.The beneficial effects of the invention are as follows:Reasonable for structure, experiment effect is good.

Description

A kind of high-precision double wheel axle, double vernier earth's axis precession demonstration and quantitative measurment experiment instrument
Technical field
The invention patent relates to experiment instrument more particularly to a kind of high-precision double wheel axle, double vernier earth's axis precession demonstration and determine Measurement experiment instrument.
Background technology
" earth's axis precession principle demonstration and quantitative measurment experiment instrument " utility model of Patent No. ZL201220603296.2 Patent, although having carried out larger improvement to original earth's axis instrument, since shaft uses sphere type, crossbeam axis is to pass through with precession axis Precession is realized in spherical all activity, and there are precession instability problem, precession is ineffective.Patent No. ZL 2,014 2 0053009.4 " wheel shaft type earth's axis precession principle demonstration with quantitative measurment experiment instrument " utility model patent, although crossbeam axis with Precession axis separately overcomes the former defect, but since using single wheel axle, the instrument thus worked it out is tested, and there are two A defect:First, since shaft upper end quality is larger, when precession instrument precession to a certain position just stopping precession suddenly, usually can There is wheel shaft to be stuck phenomenon;Second, since micro- foot bar is fixed on precession instrument crossbeam, and crossbeam with respect to shaft be it is movable, Start precession in electrical power in this way or power-off terminates precession, due to effect of inertia, jitter phenomenon, micro- ruler often occurs in crossbeam Often there is larger swing in fixed link, and micro- ruler can be varied widely with main scale relative position, is allowed to measured crossbeam angle of precession Large error can occur for degree, can not accurately demonstrate the precise angle with quantitative measurment crossbeam (representing the earth's axis) precession.
Invention content
It is an object of the invention to overcome the shortage of prior art, a kind of reasonable for structure, good high-precision of experiment effect is provided Double wheel axle, double vernier earth's axis precession demonstration and quantitative measurment experiment instrument.
To achieve the above object, present invention employs following technical schemes:
This high-precision double wheel axle, double vernier earth's axis precession demonstration and quantitative measurment experiment instrument, including pedestal, motor, cross Beam, turntable, counterweight, wheel shaft, cross beam support frame, precession rotation line shaft, right vernier scale vertical bar, left vernier scale vertical bar, master Ruler and main ruler disk and hollow support column, the motor are fixed on crossbeam right end, and turntable is fixed on motor shaft, and counterweight is socketed on In the sliding slot of crossbeam left end;Two axles outer rim is fastened in axle sleeve, is placed on admittedly in two axles inner edge in precession rotation line shaft, Precession rotation line shaft upper end is fixed with cross beam support frame;Right vernier scale vertical bar and left vernier scale vertical bar are connected to precession Rotate the left and right sides of line shaft;Main scale is socketed in main ruler disk in the middle part of hollow support column, and precession rotates line shaft and is set to hollow support Column upper end, the crossbeam axle sleeve of crossbeam is in the rotation axis of cross beam support frame.
As preferred:The right vernier scale vertical bar includes right micro- ruler lateral adjustments bar, the vertical adjusting rod of the micro- ruler in the right side and the right side Micro- ruler;The left vernier scale vertical bar includes left micro- ruler lateral adjustments bar, left micro- vertical adjusting rod of ruler and left micro- ruler;Right micro- ruler is horizontal It is screwed onto on the right side of precession rotation line shaft in screw hole to the screw head of adjusting rod, the screw head of right micro- vertical adjusting rod of ruler is screwed onto right micro- ruler On the right nut of right micro- vertical adjusting rod of ruler of lateral adjustments bar, the screw head of left micro- ruler lateral adjustments bar is screwed onto precession rotation line shaft In the screw hole of left side, the screw head of left micro- vertical adjusting rod of ruler is screwed onto the left spiral shell of left micro- vertical adjusting rod of ruler of left micro- ruler lateral adjustments bar On cap.
The beneficial effects of the invention are as follows:
(1) it can be not only used as earth's axis precession instrument, but also can be used as free gyroscope;
(2) vernier scale is conducive to accurately measure motor turnning circle and precession angle loaded on precession rolling bearing Relationship, overcome and vernier scale be fixed on crossbeam, motor start rotation with terminate rotation moment vernier scale large-angle swinging It moves and causes to measure the extremely inaccurate of precession angle, correct for the falsehood for causing experimental result;
(3) it uses double vernier ruler system and measures precession angle, overcome and do not weighed with precession axis due to main scale geometric center Close and caused by larger systematic error;
(4) left and right vernier scale uses lateral with vertical micro-positioning regulators, realize the micro- ruler arc in left and right, face always in main scale Arc, face coincide and main scale is maintained at approximately the same plane with micro- ruler face.
(5) it uses cored screw cross beam support frame is fixed on precession axis, be convenient to crossbeam and double vernier ruler tune Vertical direction is saved into, is conducive to adjust the precession crossbeam elevation angle.
Description of the drawings
Fig. 1 is overall structure diagram;
Fig. 2 is overall structure diagram when crossbeam tilts;
Fig. 3 is crossbeam schematic diagram;
Fig. 4 is precession rotation line shaft double wheel axle and axle structure illustration;
Fig. 5 is micro- ruler levelling lever schematic diagram;
Fig. 6 is the vertical adjusting rod schematic diagram of micro- ruler;
Fig. 7 is double vernier, two-wheel axle sleeve and cross beam frame sub-assembly schematic diagram;
Fig. 8 is motor turntable schematic diagram;
Fig. 9 is main scale and main ruler disk schematic diagram;
Figure 10 is micro- ruler precision principle schematic;
Figure 11 is that double vernier corrects not coaxial schematic diagram.
Reference sign:1, hollow crossbeam (representing the earth's axis), 1-1, crossbeam rotation axis, 1-2, counterweight, 1-3, motor, 1-4 photoelectric doors, 1-5, motor turntable (representing the earth), 1-50, be in the light bar, 1-6, hollow crossbeam transfer wire outlet opening, and 2, horizontal Beam supporting rack, 2-1, crossbeam rolling bearing, 2-2, cross beam support frame fixation hollow screw, 2-3, precession rotate line shaft, 2-4, on Wheel shaft, 2-5, lower wheel shaft, 2-6, axle sleeve fixed screw, 3, right vernier scale vertical bar, 3-0, two-wheel axle sleeve, 3-1, right micro- ruler are horizontal To adjusting rod, 3-2, right micro- vertical adjusting rod of ruler, 3-3, right micro- ruler, 4, left vernier scale vertical bar, 4-1, left micro- ruler lateral adjustments Bar, 4-2, left micro- vertical adjusting rod of ruler, 4-3, left micro- ruler, 5, main scale and main ruler disk, 6, wire transmission channel, 7, hollow support Bar, 9, electric cabinet, 9-1, indicator light, 9-2, precession time show that fluorescent screen, 9-3, the number that is in the light show fluorescent screen, 9-4, time Display switch, 9-5, be in the light number display switch, 9-6, power switch, and 10, instrument base.
Specific implementation mode
The present invention is described further with reference to embodiment.The explanation of following embodiments is merely used to help understand this Invention.It should be pointed out that for those skilled in the art, without departing from the principle of the present invention, also Can be with several improvements and modifications are made to the present invention, these improvement and modification also fall into the protection domain of the claims in the present invention It is interior.
The connection structure of the present embodiment:Motor 1-3 is fixed on crossbeam 1 (representing the earth's axis) right end, turntable 1-5 (represents ground Ball equator) it is fixed on motor 1-3 axis, counterweight 1-2 is socketed in the sliding slot of 1 left end of crossbeam, as shown in Figure 3;By two axles 2-4,2-5 outer rim cutting ferrule are connected in two-wheel axle sleeve 3-0, and precession is rotated in line shaft 2-3 and is placed on two axles 2-4,2-5 inner edge admittedly It is interior, cross beam support frame 2 is fixed on the upper ends precession rotation line shaft 2-3 with cored screw 2-2, as shown in Figure 4;Right micro- ruler is lateral Adjusting rod 3-1 screw head 3-10 spiral shells are fixed on the right side of precession rotation line shaft 2-3 in screw hole, by the spiral shell of right micro- vertical adjusting rod 3-2 of ruler Head 3-4 is screwed onto on the micro- right nut 3-12 of the vertical adjusting rod of ruler in the right side of right micro- ruler lateral adjustments bar 3-1, by left micro- ruler lateral adjustments Bar 4-1 screw head 4-10 spiral shells are fixed on the left of precession rotation line shaft 2-3 in screw hole, by left micro- vertical adjusting rod 4-2 screw heads 4-4 of ruler It is screwed onto on the micro- vertical adjusting rod left-handed screw nut 4-12 of ruler in a left side of left micro- ruler lateral adjustments bar 4-1, as shown in Fig. 5,6,7;Main scale It is screwed onto hollow 7 appropriate location of total support column for 5 sets with main ruler disk, as shown in Fig. 9,1,2;Double vernier, double wheel axle and cross beam frame Sub-assembly set (as shown in Figure 7) is fixed in 7 upper end of hollow support column, and the crossbeam axis 1-1 of crossbeam 1 (as shown in Figure 3) is sleeved on cross On the rotation axis 2-1 of beam supporting rack 2, screw tightening is fixed, motor supply lines, photoelectric door transmission line are connected and through hollow Crossbeam wire outlet 1-6 is drawn, and control is led to through the transmission line 6 in spindle housing fixation hollow screw 2-2, hollow total support column 7 Case 9, as shown in Figure 1, 2.
As shown in Figure 10.30 lattice on vernier scale are aligned with 29 lattice on main scale, are equivalent to 0.5 ° of (30 ') mean allocation It is 1 ' per lattice into 30 lattice of vernier scale, therefore on vernier scale, i.e., precision is 1 '.
Using double vernier rectifying eccentricity rate principle
Since instrument calibration disk main scale center geometric center and precession rotation line shaft are not necessarily completely superposed and (there is bias Rate), therefore crossbeam, during precession, from single micro- ruler, always there are error (i.e. instrument errors) for reading, are set for the precession instrument It counts and is symmetrically installed two micro- rulers, so that it may to correct due to instrument error caused by eccentricity.If O is main scale and main ruler disk geometry Center, O1Rotate total axis center for precession, the two not necessarily overlaps, according to left and right vernier scale, from left and right vernier scale read into Dynamic initial reading is respectively θA left side 1、θThe right side 1, it is respectively θ that precession, which terminates the micro- ruler final reading in left and right,A left side 2、θThe right side 2, then crossbeam precession is accurate Angle is
It proves:As shown in figure 11, if it is O that the geometric center of main scale disk rotates center of circle when total axis center overlaps with precession, When misaligned, it is O that precession, which rotates total axis center,1, it is respectively AC and CD to cross O and do two diameters, crosses O1It is EF//AB and JH//CD, it can To find out that as long as two centers overlap, the reading AC arc length or BD arc length that any one vernier scale is read out all are accurate, if in two The heart is misaligned, reads as EJ arc length or HF arc length, two arc length are inaccurate, but EA arc length=FB arc length;
JC arc length=HD arc length, has:
AC arc length=BD arc length=(AJ+JC) arc length=(DF+FB) arc length=(AJ+HD) arc length=(DF+EA) arc length,
Therefore, 1 formula is set up.I.e. instrument calibration disk main scale center geometric center is not necessarily completely superposed with precession rotation line shaft When, it is read using double vernier ruler (micro- ruler), and calculated using 1 formula, so that it may accurately to measure precession angle.
Experimental procedure and experimental principle
1 connects precession instrument according to the connection method of precession instrument, transmission line is connected, as shown in Figure 1;
2 hammer 1-2 into shape relative to axis 1-1 spacing along 1 direction adjustment of crossbeam, and it is slightly inclined to be allowed to the ends motor 1-3 turntable 1-5 Weight, as shown in Figure 2;
3 adjust the appropriate height of main ruler disks 5, then by adjust left and right micro- ruler (4-3,3-3) lateral adjustments bar (4-1,3-1) with Vertical adjusting rod (4-2,3-2), the micro- ruler and main scale 5 for being allowed to the micro- ruler in left and right (4-3,3-3) are generally aligned in the same plane, and the micro- ruler in left and right (4-3,3-3) circular arc and 5 Inner arc of main scale are coincide;
4 are pushed down with hand by mono- end floor beams 1 of counterweight 1-2, are allowed to crossbeam 1 (like the axis of rotation of the earth) relative to vertical side It is yellow red angle to (like yellow axis), i.e. motor 1-3 runners plane (like earth equatorial plane) is with respect to the horizontal plane (suitable In ecliptic plan) it is yellow red angle, at this point, opening electric cabinet 9 switch 9-6, motor 1-3 starts to rotate, reading left and right vernier scale (4-4,3-3) corresponding initial reading (being accurate to 1 ') is respectivelyWithWhile decontroling counterweight 1-1 end hands, electricity is pressed Control 9 precession timing button 9-4 of case and record motor turnning circle are in the light number button 9-5;
At the end of 5 experiments, timing button 9-4 and record motor turnning circle (be in the light number) button 9-5 are pressed, is read simultaneously Going out the corresponding scale of 1 precession of crossbeam or so vernier scale (4-4,3-3) is respectivelyWithAnd readout time shows fluorescent screen 9-4 The time Δ t of upper display and the number that is in the light show the number of turns n shown on fluorescent screen 9-5;
(6) data processing:The angle of earth's axis precession(to be allocated as list Position).According to the continuous precession rule of the earth's axis, 360 ° of calculating, plane of rotor disc (suitable terrestrial equator) rotation are enclosed by earth's axis precession one One circle is one day, and a sidereal year is (day) on the 365.2422nd, then plane of rotor disc (suitable terrestrial equator) rotation n circles institute is comparable Fixed star year is n/365.2422.If one week 360 ° of required year of crossbeam (being equivalent to the earth's axis) precession are x, then
It can be calculated that one week required fixed star year of crossbeam (being equivalent to the earth's axis) precession is
Astronomer has tested out, and earth's axis precession needs 26000 in one week, in order to verify the correctness of the conclusion, I Can be by the result of calculation of (3) formula, by comparison.
This patent obtains the annual teachers ' scientific research fund assistance in City College of Zhejiang University 2016, number:J-16004.

Claims (1)

1. a kind of high-precision double wheel axle, double vernier earth's axis precession demonstration and quantitative measurment experiment instrument, it is characterised in that:The bottom of including Seat, motor, crossbeam, turntable, counterweight, wheel shaft, cross beam support frame, precession rotation line shaft, right vernier scale vertical bar, left vernier scale Vertical bar, main scale and main ruler disk and hollow support column, the motor are fixed on crossbeam right end, and turntable is fixed on motor shaft, put down Weighing apparatus hammer is socketed in the sliding slot of crossbeam left end;Two axles outer rim is fastened in axle sleeve, and two-wheeled is placed on admittedly in precession rotation line shaft In axis inner edge, cross beam support frame is fixed in precession rotation line shaft upper end;Right vernier scale vertical bar and left vernier scale vertical bar point It is not connected to the left and right sides of precession rotation line shaft;Main scale is socketed in main ruler disk in the middle part of hollow support column, and precession rotates line shaft Set on hollow support column upper end, the crossbeam axle sleeve of crossbeam is in the rotation axis of cross beam support frame;The right vernier scale vertical bar packet Include right micro- ruler lateral adjustments bar, right micro- vertical adjusting rod of ruler and right micro- ruler;The left vernier scale vertical bar includes that left micro- ruler is lateral Adjusting rod, left micro- vertical adjusting rod of ruler and left micro- ruler;The screw head of right micro- ruler lateral adjustments bar is screwed onto on the right side of precession rotation line shaft In screw hole, the screw head of right micro- vertical adjusting rod of ruler is screwed onto the right nut of right micro- vertical adjusting rod of ruler of right micro- ruler lateral adjustments bar On, the screw head of left micro- ruler lateral adjustments bar is screwed onto on the left of precession rotation line shaft in screw hole, the screw head of left micro- vertical adjusting rod of ruler It is screwed onto on the micro- vertical adjusting rod left-handed screw nut of ruler in a left side of left micro- ruler lateral adjustments bar.
CN201610208904.2A 2016-04-05 2016-04-05 A kind of high-precision double wheel axle, double vernier earth's axis precession demonstration and quantitative measurment experiment instrument Active CN105679178B (en)

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CN106097879B (en) * 2016-08-18 2018-10-02 浙江大学城市学院 A kind of high-precision double wheel axle double vernier earth's axis precession experiment instrument of conduction brush transmission wire type
CN108317940B (en) * 2018-02-13 2020-07-03 中核(天津)科技发展有限公司 Device and method for detecting side lug angle of cylindrical workpiece
CN112411738B (en) * 2020-10-21 2021-12-24 浙大城市学院 Prefabricated balcony laminated slab and construction method thereof

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CN205845386U (en) * 2016-04-05 2016-12-28 浙江大学城市学院 Double wheel axle, double vernier earth's axis precession demonstration and quantitative measurement experiment instrument in high precision

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