CN105675466A - Device for online monitoring atmospheric relative humidity and particulate matter extinction - Google Patents

Device for online monitoring atmospheric relative humidity and particulate matter extinction Download PDF

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Publication number
CN105675466A
CN105675466A CN201610223990.4A CN201610223990A CN105675466A CN 105675466 A CN105675466 A CN 105675466A CN 201610223990 A CN201610223990 A CN 201610223990A CN 105675466 A CN105675466 A CN 105675466A
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China
Prior art keywords
laser
relative humidity
particulate matter
wavelength
delustring
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CN201610223990.4A
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CN105675466B (en
Inventor
庞树峰
张云
史晓敏
邵旭
张韫宏
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Beijing Institute of Technology BIT
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Beijing Institute of Technology BIT
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    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01NINVESTIGATING OR ANALYSING MATERIALS BY DETERMINING THEIR CHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
    • G01N15/00Investigating characteristics of particles; Investigating permeability, pore-volume, or surface-area of porous materials
    • G01N15/06Investigating concentration of particle suspensions
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01DMEASURING NOT SPECIALLY ADAPTED FOR A SPECIFIC VARIABLE; ARRANGEMENTS FOR MEASURING TWO OR MORE VARIABLES NOT COVERED IN A SINGLE OTHER SUBCLASS; TARIFF METERING APPARATUS; MEASURING OR TESTING NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • G01D21/00Measuring or testing not otherwise provided for
    • G01D21/02Measuring two or more variables by means not covered by a single other subclass

Abstract

The invention provides a device for online monitoring atmospheric relative humidity and particulate matter extinction.The device comprises a laser, a PMT detector, a temperature meter and a computer; the laser is used for emitting narrow-band pulse lasers, and the wavelength of the emitted laser waves includes the wavelength of water vapor characteristic absorption; the PMT detector receives a laser beam which is sent out by the laser and enters the PMT detector after passing through a set distance of the atmosphere, generates spectral data and reads energy S<1> corresponding to the wavelength of water vapor characteristic absorption and energy S<2> corresponding to other wavelengths without water vapor characteristic absorption from the spectral data; the temperature meter is used for detecting atmospheric temperature T; the computer is used for computing the particulate matter extinction ratio Q and the atmosphere relative humidity RH; Q=(S<0>-S<2>)/S<0>, RH=Sw.R.T/kP<0>, and Sw=S<2>-S<1>, wherein S<0> represents a laser initial energy signal, the P<0> represents saturated atmospheric pressure, and R/k is a constant.The device can measure the atmospheric humidity and a concentration change trend of particulate matter in real time.

Description

The on-Line Monitor Device of the collaborative particulate matter delustring of a kind of relative humidity of atomsphere
Technical field
The invention belongs to atmosphere environment supervision technical field, it relates to a kind of means of detection for atmosphere environment supervision, it is specifically related to the on-Line Monitor Device of the collaborative particulate matter delustring of a kind of relative humidity of atomsphere.
Background technology
Atmospheric pollution has become global " a public safety problem ". Fine particle (PM2.5) in air becomes main source of pollution. Weather bureau of China monitoring result shows, the concentration of PM2.5 becomes positive correlation with relative humidity of atomsphere. Particularly under high humidity conditions, PM2.5 occurs explosive type to increase, and research finds that the organic composition wherein contained significantly increases. Owing to the temporal resolution of the relative humidity monitor existed at present is lower, and the synchronous monitoring of relative humidity and particulate matter information cannot be realized, therefore how to understand humidity condition and the dependency of particulate matter formation, growth and composition from microcosmic angle, it is the bottleneck problem of current particulate matter research. Utilizing scanning wavelength infrared laser radiation air, owing to the water vapour occurrence characteristics in air absorbs, fine particle generation scattering simultaneously, these two kinds of frosting phenomenons can be observed by the infrared spectra of detection by radiation air. Owing to infrared laser power is strong, wavelength sweep rate is fast, therefore relative humidity of atomsphere and the change of corresponding particulate matter light absorption ratio can be monitored under very high temporal resolution accurately and real-time, in conjunction with other particulate matter information and data model, it is possible to deeply understand relative humidity and particulate matter and formed, increase and the connecting each other of composition.
Summary of the invention
It is an object of the invention to provide the on-Line Monitor Device of the collaborative particulate matter delustring of a kind of relative humidity of atomsphere, this device can measure the humidity of air in air and the change in concentration trend of particulate matter in real time.
The technical scheme realizing the present invention is as follows:
An on-Line Monitor Device for the collaborative particulate matter delustring of relative humidity of atomsphere, comprise laser apparatus, PMT detector, temperature take into account computer;
Laser apparatus, for launching arrowband pulse laser, and the wavelength of the laser light wave launched comprises the wavelength of water vapour characteristic absorbance;
PMT detector, receives that laser apparatus sends and enters the laser light beam of PMT detector after the air of setpoint distance, generate spectroscopic data, and the energy S that the wavelength reading water vapour characteristic absorbance from described spectroscopic data is corresponding1With by energy S corresponding for other anhydrous steam characteristic absorption wavelength2;
Thermometer, for detecting the temperature T of air;
Computer, for the delustring rate Q and relative humidity of atomsphere RH of count particles thing;
Q=(S0-S2)/S0
RH=Sw·R·T/kP0
Sw=S2-S1
Wherein, S0For laser zero energy signal, P0For the saturated air pressure of air, R/k is constant.
Further, the present invention also comprises optical slot, and described optical slot is connected with PMT detector, and laser light beam is entered in PMT detector by optical slot.
Further, constant R/k of the present invention is that the process determined is as follows:
Adopt dew point hygrometer to measure atmospheric moisture RH, utilize described monitoring device to measure SwAnd T, then according to RH=Sw·R·T/kP0Calculate constant R/k.
Useful effect
The present invention is compared with the existing dew point hygrometer measured for atmospheric moisture, and owing to the work of dew point hygrometer is comparatively slow, it just can record one group of data in a long time, and on-Line Monitor Device of the present invention can realize the real-time measurement to atmospheric moisture and delustring rate.
Accompanying drawing explanation
Fig. 1 is the structure composition schematic diagram of the present invention.
Embodiment
Below in conjunction with accompanying drawing and specific examples, the present invention is described in detail.
As shown in Figure 1, embodiment 1: the on-Line Monitor Device of the collaborative particulate matter delustring of a kind of relative humidity of atomsphere, comprise laser apparatus, PMT detector, temperature take into account computer;
Laser apparatus, for launching arrowband pulse laser, and the wavelength of the laser light wave launched comprises the wavelength of water vapour characteristic absorbance;
PMT detector, receives that laser apparatus sends and enters the laser light beam of PMT detector after the air of setpoint distance, generate spectroscopic data, and the energy S that the wavelength reading water vapour characteristic absorbance from described spectroscopic data is corresponding1With by energy S corresponding for other anhydrous steam characteristic absorption wavelength2;
Thermometer, for detecting the temperature T of air;
Computer, for the delustring rate Q and relative humidity of atomsphere RH of count particles thing;
It is S by the zero energy signal sets of laser0, it is S by detector energy settings corresponding for the wavelength of water vapour characteristic absorbance1, it is S by detector energy settings corresponding for other anhydrous steam characteristic absorption wavelength2
With laser zero energy signal S0Compare, the power loss S that the wavelength that anhydrous steam absorbs detects0-S2Come from particulate matter delustring S when laser is propagated in an atmospherep,
Sp=S0-S2(1)
So obtaining, the delustring rate of particulate matter is
Q=(S0-S2)/S0(2)
Energy S1With the energy S after particulate matter delustring2Difference be water vapor absorption signal Sw,
Sw=S2-S1(3)
According to langbobier law
A=ε bc (4)
Wherein, A is the total energy absorbed, and ε is the absorbancy of material under unit length unit concentration, and b is radiation air distance, and c is that material concentration is it will be seen that when ε and b is constant, A and c is directly proportional. Namely steam signal S is shown as in a devicewIt is directly proportional to water vapor concentration c, that is:
Sw=kc (5)
Wherein, k is scale-up factor;
In the atmospheric environment of actual earth's surface, under a normal atmosphere, when temperature is not less than zero degree, water vapour can be counted as being perfect gas. Meet the Ideal-Gas Equation:
Vm=RT/P (6)
Wherein, VmThe volume of representation unit mol water vapour, R represents ideal gas constant, and T represents Kelvin temperature, and P represents the pressure of water vapour.
Water vapor concentration can be expressed as:
C=1/Vm=P/RT (7)
Formula (7) is substituted in formula (5) and obtains:
Sw=kc=k P/RT
P=Sw·R·T/k(8)
Owing to relative humidity can represent it is:
RH=P/P0× 100% (9)
Wherein, P0For the saturated vapor pressure of water vapour corresponding to T temperature;
After (8) formula is substituted into (9), relative humidity is expressed and is:
RH=Sw·R·T/kP0× 100% (10)
Wherein, RH measures relative humidity of atomsphere, SwWith the measuring vol that T is native system mensuration, R/k is constant, the saturated air pressure P of air0Corresponding with free air temperature T-phase, therefore thermometer obtains T, so that it may know the saturated air pressure P of air to look into0
Before native system uses, utilize dew point hygrometer to record RH, utilize native system to record S simultaneouslyw, T, finds corresponding P0, substitute in formula (10), obtain the value of constant R/k.
In system uses, it is only necessary to measure SwAnd T, find corresponding P0, substitute into the value of constant R/k, formula (10) just can be utilized to calculate relative humidity.
The present invention also comprises optical slot, and described optical slot is connected with PMT detector, and laser light beam enters in PMT detector by optical slot, by regulating optical slot width, it is possible to avoid stray light to enter in detector.
In the present embodiment, laser apparatus can better selection scanning speed be that 100Hz (can reach 20kHz the soonest, in order to the stability of data, intend adopting 100Hz), it is possible to the temporal resolution changing spectrum is 0.01 second (reaching as high as 0.00005 second, intend adopting 0.01 second).
Embodiment 2:
An on-Line Monitor Device for the collaborative particulate matter delustring of relative humidity of atomsphere, it comprises: infrared laser, PMT detector, thermometer, computer and optical slot.
Laser apparatus is intended adopting aqueous vapor detection Distributed Feedback Laser module, and spectral line width is 2MHz, and corresponding to the live width of about 0.000012nm, Output optical power is 10mW, power stability 0.05dB, and physical dimension 100 × 80 × 24mm, is convenient for carrying. Length scanning sets from 1392nm to 1393nm, and full wavelength scanner, wherein 1392.5nm is water vapour characteristic absorption wavelength (obtaining from HITRAN database). Length scanning frequency can regulate according to required spectral resolution, the highest can reach 20kHz, is also exactly every second 20000 spectrum.
The laser optical path that laser apparatus sends, through one section of atmospheric environment, enters the optical slot being connected with detector. Optical path length before entering optical slot can regulate according to the power of detector signal. Before laser enters detector, it is necessary to through one section of slit, object is to avoid stray light to enter detector, interference detection results.
To the temperature of atmospheric environment, adopt digital temperature meter to measure, the temperature data collected is transferred to computer according to time series.
After laser passes slit, enter and amplify at a high speed photodetector (intending adopting LSM-DET-SHS-X series detector). Record the detector Energy value that each wavelength is corresponding. Wavelength often scans one time, obtains one group of data, corresponding to a time point. Wherein, spectral resolution is determined by data acquiring frequency, in order to obtain high-quality water vapor absorption peak spectrum line, intends adopting spectral resolution 0.001nm, is also exactly gather 1000 data points within the scope of 1nm. Data set temporal resolution rate is determined by laser wavelength scanning frequency, in order to alleviate data Storage and Processing pressure, intends adopting 100Hz scanning speed, is also exactly 100 groups of data points p.s..
In each group of data, it is S by the zero energy signal sets of laser0, the detector energy settings that the wavelength (1392.5nm) of water vapour characteristic absorbance is corresponding is S1, it is S by detector energy settings corresponding for other anhydrous steam characteristic absorption wavelength2
By comparing S0And S2The delustring rate obtaining particulate matter is: Q=(S0-S2)/S0
By comparing S1And S2Obtain the delustring energy of water vapour: Sw=S2-S1
Derivation according to Summary, relative humidity is expressed formula and is: RH=Sw·R·T/kP0× 100%.
Wherein, RH is the relative humidity of atomsphere of monitoring, SwBeing known measuring vol with T, R/k is constant, P0Can be obtained by T, also belong to known quantity.
Before native system uses, utilize dew point hygrometer and native system to record RH, S simultaneouslyw, T, and find corresponding P0, substitute in relative humidity expression formula, obtain the value of constant R/k.
In system uses, it is only necessary to measure SwAnd T, find corresponding P0, substitute into the value of constant R/k, relative humidity just can be utilized to express formula and calculate relative humidity.
Delustring rate and relative humidity is calculated, corresponding to a time point according to each group of data.
Take time point as X-coordinate, delustring rate and relative humidity are ordinate zou mapping, obtain relative humidity change curve and delustring rate change curve in time in time, the dependence analyzed between two curves can obtain the dependence of delustring rate for relative humidity, for the relation between understanding macrobead thing Extinction Characteristic and relative humidity provides important parameter.
All data detected, preferably, on example 1 basis, are input to computer according to time series by embodiment 3, and by the expression formula between each data, reduction formula is written as program, and input is measuring vol: S0,S1,S2, and T, after sequential operation, on computer screen, directly draw out real-time relative humidity-time curve and delustring rate-time curve. Adopt the laser apparatus of higher repetitive frequency, obtain the data of high time resolution, the particulate matter delustring rate change be convenient to the pulsation of Real-Time Monitoring relative humidity and cause.
In sum, these are only the better embodiment of the present invention, it is not intended to limit protection scope of the present invention. Within the spirit and principles in the present invention all, any amendment of doing, equivalent replacement, improvement etc., all should be included within protection scope of the present invention.

Claims (4)

1. the on-Line Monitor Device of the collaborative particulate matter delustring of a relative humidity of atomsphere, it is characterised in that, comprise laser apparatus, PMT detector, temperature take into account computer;
Laser apparatus, for launching arrowband pulse laser, and the wavelength of the laser light wave launched comprises the wavelength of water vapour characteristic absorbance;
PMT detector, receives that laser apparatus sends and enters the laser light beam of PMT detector after the air of setpoint distance, generate spectroscopic data, and the energy S that the wavelength reading water vapour characteristic absorbance from described spectroscopic data is corresponding1With by energy S corresponding for other anhydrous steam characteristic absorption wavelength2;
Thermometer, for detecting the temperature T of air;
Computer, for the delustring rate Q and relative humidity of atomsphere RH of count particles thing;
Q=(S0-S2)/S0
RH=Sw·R·T/kP0
Sw=S2-S1
Wherein, S0For laser zero energy signal, P0For the saturated air pressure of air, R/k is constant.
2. the on-Line Monitor Device of the collaborative particulate matter delustring of relative humidity of atomsphere according to claim 1, it is characterised in that, also comprise optical slot, described optical slot is connected with PMT detector, and laser light beam is entered in PMT detector by optical slot.
3. the on-Line Monitor Device of the collaborative particulate matter delustring of relative humidity of atomsphere according to claim 1, it is characterised in that, described constant R/k is that the process determined is as follows:
Adopt dew point hygrometer to measure atmospheric moisture RH, utilize described monitoring device to measure SwAnd T, then according to RH=Sw·R·T/kP0Calculate constant R/k.
4. the on-Line Monitor Device of the collaborative particulate matter delustring of relative humidity of atomsphere according to claim 1, it is characterised in that, described laser apparatus is infrared laser, and its scanning speed is 100Hz, and the temporal resolution changing spectrum is 0.01 second.
CN201610223990.4A 2016-04-12 2016-04-12 A kind of on-Line Monitor Device of relative humidity of atomsphere collaboration particulate matter delustring Expired - Fee Related CN105675466B (en)

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Cited By (2)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN109632716A (en) * 2018-12-25 2019-04-16 北京大学 A kind of Sand Dust Aerosol turbulent flux measuring system and its measurement method
CN111220511A (en) * 2020-01-21 2020-06-02 中国科学院大气物理研究所 Dust haze extinction monitoring method based on universal moisture absorption growth scheme

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Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
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CN104865207A (en) * 2015-05-05 2015-08-26 上海大学 Optical cavity ring-down spectrograph based haze detection system

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Cited By (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN109632716A (en) * 2018-12-25 2019-04-16 北京大学 A kind of Sand Dust Aerosol turbulent flux measuring system and its measurement method
CN111220511A (en) * 2020-01-21 2020-06-02 中国科学院大气物理研究所 Dust haze extinction monitoring method based on universal moisture absorption growth scheme
CN111220511B (en) * 2020-01-21 2020-10-27 中国科学院大气物理研究所 Dust haze extinction monitoring method based on universal moisture absorption growth scheme

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