CN105665702A - Mold plasma 3D printing device and 3D printing method - Google Patents

Mold plasma 3D printing device and 3D printing method Download PDF

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Publication number
CN105665702A
CN105665702A CN201610120586.4A CN201610120586A CN105665702A CN 105665702 A CN105665702 A CN 105665702A CN 201610120586 A CN201610120586 A CN 201610120586A CN 105665702 A CN105665702 A CN 105665702A
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China
Prior art keywords
printing
plasma
powder
distance
layer
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CN201610120586.4A
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Chinese (zh)
Inventor
华云峰
程国君
郝勇
魏志宇
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Sinoadditive Manufacturing Equipment Co Ltd
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Sinoadditive Manufacturing Equipment Co Ltd
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Priority to CN201610120586.4A priority Critical patent/CN105665702A/en
Publication of CN105665702A publication Critical patent/CN105665702A/en
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    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B22CASTING; POWDER METALLURGY
    • B22FWORKING METALLIC POWDER; MANUFACTURE OF ARTICLES FROM METALLIC POWDER; MAKING METALLIC POWDER
    • B22F12/00Apparatus or devices specially adapted for additive manufacturing; Auxiliary means for additive manufacturing; Combinations of additive manufacturing apparatus or devices with other processing apparatus or devices
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B22CASTING; POWDER METALLURGY
    • B22FWORKING METALLIC POWDER; MANUFACTURE OF ARTICLES FROM METALLIC POWDER; MAKING METALLIC POWDER
    • B22F10/00Additive manufacturing of workpieces or articles from metallic powder
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B22CASTING; POWDER METALLURGY
    • B22FWORKING METALLIC POWDER; MANUFACTURE OF ARTICLES FROM METALLIC POWDER; MAKING METALLIC POWDER
    • B22F10/00Additive manufacturing of workpieces or articles from metallic powder
    • B22F10/10Formation of a green body
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B22CASTING; POWDER METALLURGY
    • B22FWORKING METALLIC POWDER; MANUFACTURE OF ARTICLES FROM METALLIC POWDER; MAKING METALLIC POWDER
    • B22F10/00Additive manufacturing of workpieces or articles from metallic powder
    • B22F10/20Direct sintering or melting
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B33ADDITIVE MANUFACTURING TECHNOLOGY
    • B33YADDITIVE MANUFACTURING, i.e. MANUFACTURING OF THREE-DIMENSIONAL [3-D] OBJECTS BY ADDITIVE DEPOSITION, ADDITIVE AGGLOMERATION OR ADDITIVE LAYERING, e.g. BY 3-D PRINTING, STEREOLITHOGRAPHY OR SELECTIVE LASER SINTERING
    • B33Y10/00Processes of additive manufacturing
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B33ADDITIVE MANUFACTURING TECHNOLOGY
    • B33YADDITIVE MANUFACTURING, i.e. MANUFACTURING OF THREE-DIMENSIONAL [3-D] OBJECTS BY ADDITIVE DEPOSITION, ADDITIVE AGGLOMERATION OR ADDITIVE LAYERING, e.g. BY 3-D PRINTING, STEREOLITHOGRAPHY OR SELECTIVE LASER SINTERING
    • B33Y30/00Apparatus for additive manufacturing; Details thereof or accessories therefor
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02PCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES IN THE PRODUCTION OR PROCESSING OF GOODS
    • Y02P10/00Technologies related to metal processing
    • Y02P10/25Process efficiency

Abstract

The invention discloses a mold plasma 3D printing device and 3D printing method. The device is composed of a monitor system, a plasma beam machining system, a horizontal printing table for containing a mold to be formed and a temporary fixed piece. The plasma beam machining system is composed of a plasma generator, an air supply device, a powder feeding device and a printing position adjustment device. The printing position adjustment device comprises a horizontal movement device and a printing distance adjustment device. The monitor system comprises a horizontal movement controller, a temperature detection unit, a distance detection unit and a printing distance adjustment controller, and a temperature adjustment and control device is formed by the temperature detection unit and the printing distance adjustment controller. The method comprises the steps that firstly, a three-dimensional model is obtained, and layering slicing treatment is carried out; secondly, a scanning path is filled; thirdly, a printing path is obtained; and fourthly, printing is carried out layer by layer from bottom to top. The device is reasonable in design, easy and convenient to operate, high in efficiency and good in use effect, the forming process is directly carried out in the atmospheric environment, and a formed mold is good in quality.

Description

A kind of mould plasma 3D printing device and 3D Method of printing
Technical field
The invention belongs to rapid shaping technique field, especially relate to a kind of mould plasma 3D printing and establishStandby and 3D Method of printing.
Background technology
Mould refers in industrial production in order to injection moulding, blowing, extrudes, die casting or forging forming, smelting,The methods such as punching press obtain various moulds and the instrument of required product. In brief, mould is for mouldingThe instrument of product. Mould is the important tool in formed product processing, expense account for 10% of product cost~30%. The forming surface of mould refers to that forming surface is straight in order to the moulded products surface of (also claiming product)Connect the surface contacting with institute moulded products. Wherein, the forming surface of die cavity refers in order to outside moulded productsSurface, the forming surface of core is the inner surface in order to moulded products. Mould surface add working mediumAmount, machining accuracy and serviceability are all had relatively high expectations, directly determine institute's moulded products crudy andMachining accuracy, in machining, mould surface need be through multiple works such as machined, cleaning, polishingsOrder just can machine. In mould use procedure, need effectively protect forming surface, once mouldingThere is the defects such as breakage, cracking, wearing and tearing in face, directly affects the molding effect of mould, even causesMould is scrapped.
At present, the main manufacture methods of mould have casting, powder metallurgy, modularization group and etc. As 2014Chinese invention patent " the microalloying casting that on November 5, in, disclosed publication number was CN104131215AIron glass mold and manufacture method thereof " in, a kind of casting of microalloying cast iron glass mold is disclosedPreparation method. China's invention that on August 27th, 2014, disclosed publication number was CN104004966A speciallyThe casting preparation method that discloses a kind of diel in profit application documents, this casting method is prepared mouldTool, has relatively high expectations to cast material, casting cycle and sand mold, follow-up also will heat-treating and multiple tracksInferior processing, mould and performance designability thereof are poor, and manufacturing process is loaded down with trivial details. On March 12nd, 2014Disclosed publication number is that the Chinese invention patent of CN103627940A is " for the powder of hotwork extrusion dieThe metallurgical molybdenum base material in end and die forming method " in, a kind of molybdenum base material powder metallurgy preparation is disclosedThe method of hotwork extrusion die. On September 24th, 2014, disclosed publication number was CN104057271AChinese invention patent application file in a kind of powder metallurgy preparation of carbide alloy tool and mould is disclosedMethod, due to all corresponding secondary moulds of every mould product, the constriction coefficient of different-alloy powder is notWith, need the design every secondary mould corresponding with it, cause mould production cost high; The making of mouldTime is long, and preparation efficiency is low; When powder is filled, under frictional force effect, corner is filled inhomogeneous,Cause intensity inhomogeneous, affect the service life of mould product. On October 24th, 2012 disclosed public affairsThe number of opening is Chinese invention patent " a kind of high strength steel plate hot stamping die manufacturer of CN102744328AMethod " in, a kind of modularization group and preparation method of high strength steel plate hot stamping die are disclosed. 2008Patent of invention " ingot casting mould and system that, on August 13,, disclosed publication number was CN101242923AThe method of modeling casting mould and casting method " in a kind of modularization group and side of ingot casting mould are disclosedMethod, when this modularization group and method are prepared mould, requires machining accuracy and the fit dimension essence of each moduleSpend very highly, constant intensity, required precision to each module are also very high, cause being prepared into of mouldThis is very high. In addition, while adopting above-mentioned existing mould manufacturing method to carry out mould manufacture, all need costA large amount of manpower and materials are carried out forming surface processing, and forming surface need be multiple through machined, cleaning, polishing etc.Operation, process complexity, and have that working (machining) efficiency is low, crudy can not effectively be ensuredEtc. defect.
By analysis, when Mould Machining, only the crudy of forming surface and requirement on machining accuracy are high, as incited somebody to actionMould is divided into die matrix (also claiming die ontology) and is laid in the forming surface working lining on die matrixTwo parts, because the crudy requirement of die matrix is lower, and the crudy of forming surface working liningHigh with requirement on machining accuracy, thereby only need be to the processing that becomes more meticulous of forming surface working lining, like thisCan significantly simplify the manufacture process of mould, effectively reduce the difficulty of processing of mould, and can ensure mouldCrudy and result of use.
In addition, nowadays the die matrix of manufacturing mould and forming surface working lining generally all adopt of the same raceProcessing method is processed, and die matrix and forming surface working lining generally all adopt same material to addWork. But there is a great difference, mould in the user demand of die matrix and forming surface working lining in fact,Matrix mainly meets strength and stiffness needs (meeting support demand), and forming surface working lining meetsWear-resistant temperature-resistant requirement, the measure of precision of mould is only relevant with forming surface working lining with service life. Thereby,Die matrix and forming surface working lining are adopted to same material, make mold materials cost higher.
At present, metal parts rapid shaping technique is mainly precinct laser fusion rapid molding skill both at home and abroadArt (Selectivelasermelting, SLM). The base of precinct laser fusion rapid molding equipmentThis operation principle is: first utilize on computers the 3D sculpting softwares such as Pro/e, UG, CATIA to establishCount out the three-dimensional entity model (being three-dimensional stereo model) of part, then by Slice Software to this threeDimension model carries out hierarchy slicing, obtains the outline data in each cross section, is generated and is filled scanning by outline dataPath, the certain thickness powder that tiles in working cylinder, according to the control of computer, laser beam passes throughThe mode of vibration mirror scanning optionally melts preset according to the slicing treatment result of three-dimensional parts figurePowder bed; Subsequently, working cylinder decline certain distance also spreads powder again, and laser beam is under the drive of galvanometerAgain complete the manufacture of one deck under parts according to the 3-D graphic of parts; So repeat to spread powder, sweepRetouch with working cylinder under degradation operation, thereby realize the manufacture of three-dimensional parts. Nowadays, precinct laserMainly there is following three aspects: problem in fusion rapid molding technology: the first, precinct laser fusion is rapid-result soonType Technology Need protective atmosphere or vacuum environment, to avoid the oxidation of metal parts in forming process. ThisMake precinct laser fusion rapid molding device structure complexity, forming part size is restricted, energy sourceOptical Maser System price is high, and former is expensive; The second, precinct laser fusion rapid molding skillArt need to spread the moulding cylinder system of powder. This makes precinct laser fusion rapid molding device structure complexity, noBut forming part size is restricted, and shaping efficiency is lower; Three, in order to ensure part mechanicsPerformance, the globular metallic powder of precinct laser fusion rapid molding Technology Need good fluidity. This makes choosingDistrict's laser fusion rapid molding equipment operating cost is very high.
In addition, in metal parts rapid shaping technique, also has electron beam rapid shaping technique. But at present,Mainly there is following three aspects: problem in constituency electron beam rapid shaping technique: the first, electron beam is rapid-result soonType Technology Need vacuum environment, with forming energy source electron beam with avoid metal parts in forming processOxidation. This makes electron beam rapid forming equipment complex structure, and forming part size is restricted, mouldingEquipment price costliness; The second, electron beam rapid shaping technique need to spread powder system or moulding material confessionThe system of giving. This makes electron beam rapid forming equipment complex structure, and not only forming part size is restricted,And shaping efficiency is lower; Three, in order to ensure part mechanical property, electron beam rapid shaping techniqueNeed the globular metallic powder of good fluidity. This makes precinct laser fusion rapid molding equipment operating costVery high.
Summary of the invention
Technical problem to be solved by this invention is, for above-mentioned deficiency of the prior art, to provide oneKind of mould plasma 3D printing device, its simple in structure, reasonable in design and use easy and simple to handle, becomeType efficiency is high, result of use good, and without airtight forming room, forming process is directly entered under atmospheric environmentOK, institute's mould quality is good.
For solving the problems of the technologies described above, the technical solution used in the present invention is: a kind of mould plasma 3DPrinting device, is characterized in that: by monitoring system, plasma beam system of processing, confession mould to be formedTool place horizontal stamp pad and the die matrix of described mould to be formed is carried out to temporary fixed facingTime fixture composition; Described mould to be formed comprises die matrix and is laid in the moulding on die matrixFace working lining; Described temporary fixing piece is laid on horizontal stamp pad;
Described plasma beam system of processing by be provided with shower nozzle and for generation of beam-plasma etc. fromDaughter generator, for described plasma generator the feeder of working gas is provided, for continuouslyIn the described beam-plasma producing to described plasma generator, send into the dust feeder of printed materialWith the print position adjusting device composition that print position is adjusted, described plasma generator andDescribed dust feeder is all positioned at horizontal stamp pad top, and described dust feeder is positioned at described plasma and sends outRaw device one side; Described feeder is by the air inlet of opening on air supply pipe and described plasma generatorMouth connects; The powder feeding mouth of described dust feeder is positioned at the outlet below of described shower nozzle and its and is positioned at described etc.On the central axis of ion beam; Described print position adjusting device comprises that the described plasma of drive occursDevice is synchronizeed with described dust feeder described in the horizontally moving device and drive moving on horizontal planePlasma generator, described dust feeder are also tackled institute mutually with described horizontally moving device synchronizing movingState the printing distance adjusting means that the distance between outlet and the horizontal stamp pad of shower nozzle regulates, instituteState plasma generator and described dust feeder is installed on described horizontally moving device, and described inHorizontally moving device is arranged in described printing distance adjusting means;
Described monitoring system comprise described horizontally moving device is controlled move horizontally controller,Working position place temperature to described plasma beam system of processing on described mould to be formed is carried outDistance between the temperature detecting unit detecting in real time, outlet and the horizontal stamp pad to described shower nozzle is enteredThe distance detecting unit that row detects in real time and the printing that described printing distance adjusting means is controlledDistance adjustment controller, described in move horizontally controller and be connected with described horizontally moving device, described beatingPrint distance adjustment controller and be connected with described printing distance adjusting means, described temperature detecting unit and distanceAll be connected with printing distance adjustment controller from detecting unit; Described temperature detecting unit and printing distanceAdjustment control composition temperature control device.
Above-mentioned a kind of mould plasma 3D printing device, is characterized in that: described monitoring system also comprisesThe plasma generator controller that described plasma generator is controlled, the gas flow to air supply pipeAmount is carried out the detection of gas flow rate unit detecting in real time and the flow control valve of installing on air supply pipe is enteredThe gas flow controller that row is controlled, described plasma generator controller and described plasma generatorConnect, described detection of gas flow rate unit is connected with gas flow controller.
Above-mentioned a kind of mould plasma 3D printing device, is characterized in that: described plasma generatorComprise plasma gun, described shower nozzle is the anode nozzle of plasma gun front end; Described plasma gun comprisesHave described air inlet rifle body, be positioned at the anode nozzle in rifle body dead ahead and be plugged in the moon of rifle bodyThe utmost point, described anode nozzle is positioned at negative electrode front side, and described arc chamber is positioned at negative electrode front side and it is positioned at anodeThe posterior medial of nozzle, the anterior inner side of described anode nozzle is spout; Described anode nozzle, negative electrodeAll be coaxial laying with rifle body with arc chamber; Described air inlet is positioned at rifle body rear side, described spout and rifleBody be coaxial laying or and rifle body central axis between angle be 30 °~45 °.
Above-mentioned a kind of mould plasma 3D printing device, is characterized in that: described dust feeder comprises and sendingPowder device and powder-feeding mouth, the meal outlet that the powder feeding mouth of described dust feeder is powder-feeding mouth; Described powder feeder bagDraw together and have the shell of charging aperture and powder feeding outlet and be arranged on the powder feeding wheel in described shell, described powder feedingWheel is driven by drive motors; Described powder feeding outlet is connected with the powder inlet of powder-feeding mouth.
Above-mentioned a kind of mould plasma 3D printing device, is characterized in that: described monitoring system also comprisesThe powder feeding flow of described dust feeder is carried out to the powder mass flow detecting unit that detects in real time and to drivingThe powder feeding flow controller that motor is controlled, described powder mass flow detecting unit and powder feeding flow-controlDevice connects.
Above-mentioned a kind of mould plasma 3D printing device, is characterized in that: described plasma generatorAngle between central axis and the vertical plane of the beam-plasma producing is not more than 45 °; Described printing distanceBe described shower nozzle is adjusted up and down along the central axis of described beam-plasma upper from adjusting deviceLower adjusting device, described is from described spray to the central axis along described beam-plasma apart from detecting unitThe distance exporting between horizontal stamp pad of head is carried out the distance detection device detecting in real time;
Described horizontal stamp pad is moving of being arranged on stamp pad position regulator and can moving up and downMoving platform;
Described monitoring system also comprises the position tune that described stamp pad position regulator is controlledWhole controller, described position is adjusted controller and is connected with described stamp pad position regulator.
Meanwhile, the present invention also disclose a kind of method step simple, reasonable in design and realize convenient, useEffective mould plasma 3D Method of printing, is characterized in that: the method comprises the following steps:
Step 1, three-dimensional stereo model obtain and hierarchy slicing processing: adopt data processing equipment and tuneObtain the three-dimensional stereo model of forming surface working lining with image processing module, then call hierarchy slicing moduleThe three-dimensional stereo model of forming surface working lining is carried out to hierarchy slicing, and obtain multiple layering sectional viewsPicture;
Multiple described layering cross-sectional images are that the three-dimensional stereo model of forming surface working lining is carried out to layeringAfter section, obtain the image of multiple points of layer cross sections, multiple described point layer cross sections are evenly laid from the bottom to top;
Step 2, scanning pattern are filled: adopt data processing equipment and call described image processing module,Multiple described layering cross-sectional images in step 1 are processed respectively, and completed multiple described layerings and cutThe scanning pattern filling process of face, obtains multiple described scanning patterns that divide layer cross sections;
Step 3, printing path obtain: described data processing equipment is multiple according to what obtain in step 2The scanning pattern of described point of layer cross section, obtains multiple described printing paths that divide layer cross sections; Described in eachDivide the printing path of layer cross section all identical with the scanning pattern of this point of layer cross section;
Step 4, successively print from the bottom to top: first by the described mould to be formed of machine-shaping in advanceDie matrix is positioned on horizontal stamp pad, and by described temporary fixing piece, die matrix is facedIn time, is fixed; Again according to the printing path of the multiple described point layer cross sections that obtain in step 3, at mould baseOn body, successively forming surface working lining is printed from the bottom to top, obtain by multiple shape layers from the bottom to topThe stacking forming surface working lining forming; Point layer cross section described in the quantity of described shape layer and step 1Quantity is identical, the installation position of multiple described shape layers respectively with the laying positions of multiple described point of layer cross sectionsPut one by one corresponding and its bed thickness is all identical, the bed thickness of described shape layer with described in adjacent two, divide layer cross sectionBetween distance identical, in step 3 the printing path of multiple described point of layer cross sections be respectively multiple described inThe printing path of shape layer; When forming surface working lining is printed, process is as follows:
Step 401, bottom are printed: described in move horizontally controller according to working as of obtaining in step 3The printing path of front institute printing shaping layer, controls and drives described etc. described horizontally moving deviceGas ions generator is synchronizeed and is moved on horizontal plane with described dust feeder; Described plasma is sent outRaw device is synchronizeed with described dust feeder on horizontal plane in moving process, and described plasma beam processing isUnite the interior plasma beam continuous spraying with fused solution stream to die matrix; Treat that fused solution stream all solidifiesAfter, complete the print procedure of current institute printing shaping layer;
In this step, current institute printing shaping layer is the moulding that is positioned at bottommost in multiple described shape layersLayer;
Step 402, last layer are printed, and comprise the following steps:
Step 4021, printing distance adjustment: horizontal stamp pad in the vertical direction is carried out once downwardMobile and to move down height identical with the bed thickness of described shape layer, or by printing distance adjustment controlDescribed in device control processed, print distance adjusting means and drive described plasma generator in the vertical directionThe height that once moves up and move up is identical with the bed thickness of described shape layer;
Step 4022, print and synchronous temperature control: described in move horizontally controller according to obtaining in step 3The printing path of the current institute printing shaping layer of getting, controls and drives described horizontally moving deviceDescribed plasma generator is synchronizeed and is moved on horizontal plane with described dust feeder; Described grade fromDaughter generator is synchronizeed with described dust feeder on horizontal plane in moving process, described plasma beamSystem of processing is by the extremely current printed next one of the interior plasma beam continuous spraying with fused solution streamOn the upper surface of described shape layer; After fused solution stream all solidifies, complete current institute printing shaping layerPrint procedure;
In this step, described plasma generator is synchronizeed and is moved on horizontal plane with described dust feederIn process, the upper surface by temperature detecting unit to the current printed described shape layer of the next oneTemperature detect in real time and by institute's detected temperatures information synchronous driving to printing distance adjustment controller,Simultaneously by apart from detecting unit the distance between the outlet to described shower nozzle and horizontal stamp pad carry outDetect in real time and by detected range information synchronous driving to printing distance adjustment controller; Described beatingPrint temperature information that distance adjustment controller detects according to temperature detecting unit and by described in controllingThe distance of printing between outlet and the horizontal stamp pad of distance adjusting means to described shower nozzle regulates,Make the upper surface temperature of the current printed described shape layer of the next one not higher than forming surface working lining0.6 times of material fusing point;
Plasma generator described in step 401 and step 4022 is synchronizeed with described dust feederOn horizontal plane, in moving process, described dust feeder is sent printed material continuously, simultaneously by described etc.The beam-plasma that ion beam current system of processing produces melts sent printed material, and makes instituteSend molten melt drop that printed material fusing forms continuously and form liquid stream; Described in described liquid flow point is distributed inIn beam-plasma, the plasma beam with fused solution stream in formation;
Step 403, repeating step 402 repeatedly, until complete all shape layers of forming surface working liningPrint procedure.
Above-mentioned method of mould being carried out to plasma 3D printing, is characterized in that: in step 4 by down toOn successively print before, data processing equipment described in step 1 is first according to the material fusing point of setting up in advanceAnd print range data storehouse, and in conjunction with the forming surface working lining that pre-enters by parameter input unitMaterial Name, prints distance to the basis of forming surface working lining and determines; Described parameter input unitJoin with described data processing equipment;
In described material fusing point and printing range data storehouse, store the material fusing point of various material and beatPrint range information, the material fusing point of every kind of described material and print range information and include this kind of materialDistance is printed on title, fusing point and basis; It is 5mm~1000mm that distance is printed on described basis, and materialFusing point is higher, and it is nearer that distance is printed on basis;
Before carrying out bottom printing in step 401, described printing distance adjustment controller is according to distance inspectionThe range information that measurement unit detects and by control described printing distance adjusting means by described shower nozzleOutlet and horizontal stamp pad between distance adjustment be that distance is printed on described basis; The end in step 401In layer print procedure, the distance between the outlet of described shower nozzle and horizontal stamp pad is that print on described basisDistance;
In step 4022, print and synchronous temperature control before, described printing distance adjustment controller rootAccording to the range information detecting apart from detecting unit and in conjunction with horizontal stamp pad move down number of times withMove down height at every turn, and by controlling described printing distance adjusting means by the outlet of described shower nozzleAnd the distance adjustment between the upper surface of the current printed described shape layer of the next one is described basePlinth is printed distance; Distance between outlet to described shower nozzle in step 4022 and horizontal stamp pad is enteredWhen row regulates, the temperature information that described printing distance adjustment controller detects according to temperature detecting unitAnd outlet and the horizontal stamp pad of the range information that detects of Binding distance detecting unit to described shower nozzleBetween distance regulate, make the upper surface temperature of the current printed described shape layer of the next oneBe controlled between 0.1 times~0.6 times of material fusing point of forming surface working lining; And, to described sprayWhen distance between outlet and the horizontal stamp pad of head regulates, the amplitude of accommodation is 5mm~60mm,And material fusing point is higher, and the amplitude of accommodation is less.
Above-mentioned method of mould being carried out to plasma 3D printing, is characterized in that: described dust feeder bagDraw together powder feeder and powder-feeding mouth, the meal outlet that the powder feeding mouth of described dust feeder is powder-feeding mouth; Described powder feedingDevice comprises and has the shell of charging aperture and powder feeding outlet and be arranged on the powder feeding wheel in described shell, described inPowder feeding wheel is driven by drive motors; Described powder feeding outlet is connected with the powder inlet of powder-feeding mouth;
Described monitoring system also comprises that the plasma that described plasma generator is controlled occursController, the detection of gas flow rate unit that the gas flow of air supply pipe is carried out detecting in real time, to air feedGas flow controller, sending described dust feeder that the flow control valve of installing on pipe is controlledPowder flow carries out the powder mass flow detecting unit detecting in real time and the powder feeding that drive motors is controlledFlow controller, described powder mass flow detecting unit is connected with powder feeding flow controller; Described plasmaGenerator controller is connected with described plasma generator, described detection of gas flow rate unit and gas flowAmount controller connects, and is describedly connected with gas flow controller apart from detecting unit;
Before successively printing from the bottom to top in step 4, the first basis of data processing equipment described in step 1In advance set up gas and powder mass flow database, and in conjunction with predefined described shape layer layerThick, the basic gas flow to air supply pipe and the powder feeding flow of described dust feeder are determined;
It is required that described gas and powder mass flow databases contain the shape layer of multiple different bed thicknessPowder feeding flow and basic gas flow; Described basic gas flow is 50ml/min~15000ml/min,And the powder feeding flow of described dust feeder is larger, described basic gas flow is larger;
Plasma generator described in step 401 and step 4022 is synchronizeed with described dust feederOn horizontal plane in moving process, the powder feeding flow of described powder mass flow detecting unit to described dust feederDetect in real time and by detected information synchronous driving to powder feeding flow controller, described powder feeding flowController is according to the powder feeding flow of predetermined described dust feeder combining powder flow detection listInstitute of unit detection information is controlled drive motors, makes the powder feeding flow of described dust feeder all with in advanceDefinite powder feeding flow is identical;
Before carrying out bottom printing in step 401, described gas flow controller is examined according to gas flowMeasurement unit institute detection information and by control flow control valve the gas flow of air supply pipe is adjusted into instituteState basic gas flow; In step 401, in bottom print procedure, the gas flow of described air supply pipe isDescribed basic gas flow;
In step 4022, print and synchronous temperature control process in, described gas flow controller basisDetection of gas flow rate unit institute detection information Binding distance range information that detecting unit detects, and logicalCross and control flow control valve the gas flow of air supply pipe is increased and decreased to adjustment; And, described shower nozzleDistance between outlet and horizontal stamp pad is larger, and the gas flow of described air supply pipe is larger.
Above-mentioned method of mould being carried out to plasma 3D printing, is characterized in that: step 401 and stepPlasma generator described in 4022 is synchronizeed with described dust feeder on horizontal plane in moving process,The powder feeding flow of described dust feeder is 2g/min~200g/min;
Before successively printing from the inside to the outside in step 4, by powder feeding mouth and the marker of described dust feederMake distance between face and be adjusted into predefined powder feeding height, described powder feeding be highly 5mm~1000mm, described print job face is the residing plane in current institute's printing shaping layer top; In step 4Successively in print procedure, the powder feeding open height of described dust feeder is constant from the inside to the outside.
The present invention compared with prior art has the following advantages:
1, simple in structure, the reasonable in design and input cost of the mould plasma 3D printing device that adoptsIt is convenient that lower, processing and fabricating and installing is laid.
2, the mould plasma 3D printing device adopting is without airtight forming room, and do not need to protectProtect atmosphere or vacuum environment, Workpiece shaping process is directly carried out under atmospheric environment. Thereby structure is non-Normal simple, and forming part size is unrestricted, and equipment price is lower.
3, the printed material of mould plasma 3D printing device (being powder) supply with energy source etc. fromSon intrafascicular (the drop plasma beam of material), does not need the moulding cylinder system that spreads powder not need to spread powderSystem, only needs a dust feeder, and structure is significantly simplified.
4, the mould plasma 3D printing device adopting uses easy and simple to handle, intelligent degree and one-tenthType efficiency is high, result of use good, and institute's mould quality is good. The monitoring system adopting comprises waterWhat flat mobile device was controlled moves horizontally controller, Working position place temperature is detected in real timeTemperature detecting unit, outlet and die matrix to shower nozzle between distance carry out the distance detecting in real timeThe printing distance adjustment controller of controlling from detecting unit with to printing distance adjusting means, printsDistance adjustment controller with print distance adjusting means and be connected, temperature detecting unit and apart from detecting unitAll be connected with printing distance adjustment controller; Temperature detecting unit and printing distance adjustment controller compositionTemperature control device.
In actual use procedure, the printing distance adjustment controller in temperature control device is examined according to temperatureMeasurement unit institute detection information is controlled printing distance adjusting means, and making to print distance can self adaptationRegulate, can prevent from like this causing the shape layer of having printed to occur again fusing because printing hypotelorismProblem, and also can prevent that the formed precision that causes of hypertelorism is lower, molten melt drop exists because printingBe sprayed onto the problems such as a printable layer outer surface solidifies before, make forming process be easy to control,And it is convenient to realize, and can effectively prevent that the surface of mould surface working lining is oxidized simultaneously, thereby nothingAirtight vacuum environment need be set. In addition, the monitoring system adopting also comprises gas flow self adaptationRegulate and powder mass flow self adaptation regulatory function, intelligent degree is high.
5, the energy source that mould plasma 3D printing device adopts is beam-plasma, beam-plasma powerCan reach tens of kilowatts, can molten ceramic material, realize metal, cermet and ceramic part etc. fromSon casting rapid shaping. Produce plasma generator (specifically plasma gun) structure of beam-plasmaSimply, operation expense is low, and plasma casting rapid forming equipment cost is low.
6, the drop of mould plasma 3D printing device institute printed material is in plasma beam, wait fromSub-Shu Benshen has protective effect, adds the effect of working gas, can effectively prevent printed materialOxidation, this equipment do not need protection atmosphere or vacuum environment are directly used under atmospheric environment, haveThe advantages such as device structure is simple, operating cost is low, forming part size is unrestricted.
7, the dust feeder of mould plasma 3D printing device adopts direct current generator to drive the rotation of powder wheel alsoAssist powder delivered in beam-plasma by working gas, can use powder or prilling powder,Do not need spherical powder. This equipment printed material cost is low.
8, when mould plasma 3D printing device is printed, materials behavior becomes solid-state by settable liquid, techniqueProcess simplification, has reduced technology difficulty and cost that 3D prints. Meanwhile, working gas (wait fromSon bundle includes unionized working gas) effect under, the powder that dust feeder is sent is at beam-plasmaInterior acceleration, heat and be fused into molten condition and form small drop, the molten melt drop after fusing is continuousAnd form liquid stream and spray in the lump with beam-plasma, the plasma beam with fused solution stream in formation; ByAfter the fused solution stream that the powder of sending continuously in dust feeder forms after fusing sprays with beam-plasma,Microstream with printed material fused solution stream in formation, rapid shaping is manufactured in the cladding that forms casting type,The circular shrinkage phenomenon having produced while having avoided the moulding of molten drop cooled and solidified, part mechanical property is high, surfaceSmooth, reduce the technology difficulty of rapid shaping.
9, the mould plasma 3D Method of printing step that adopts simple, reasonable in design and realize convenient,Result of use is good, is improved powder is directly sent in beam-plasma and made by plasma gun structurePowder smelting, the drop plasma beam of formation institute printed material. Beam-plasma has protective effect,The atmosphere that do not need protection or vacuum environment directly print under atmospheric environment. And, print materialMaterial is supplied with in energy source beam-plasma (the drop plasma beam of material), does not need to spread the one-tenth of powderType cylinder system. When printing, materials behavior becomes solid-state by settable liquid, and technical process is simplified, and has reducedTechnology difficulty and cost that 3D prints, and printing part is no longer subject to size restrictions. Can by foregoingKnow, the present invention improves in essence to traditional plasma surfacing method, existing plasma surfacingMethod is generally provided with plasma arc voltage Height-adjusting device, and the distance of plasma gun and surface of the work is not more than15mm, the scope of application is limited. And in the present invention, print distance to regulate in can be on a large scale, suitableAnswer unlike material to print demand, and can effectively ensure workpiece (being mould surface working lining) mouldingQuality.
Adopt mould plasma 3D printing device of the present invention and corresponding Method of printing, can haveEffect solves above-mentioned the asking of precinct laser fusion rapid molding technology and the existence of electron beam rapid shaping techniqueTopic, and for mould provides a kind of brand-new manufacture method, can effectively solve existing mold preparation sideThe various problems that method exists, the forming surface of machine-shaping once on the die matrix of machine-shaping in advanceWorking lining, has that shaping efficiency is high, Forming Quality good, is connected between die matrix and forming surface working liningThe advantages such as intensity is high, institute's forming mold quality is good.
10, the forming surface working layer of mould melts and forms drop, beam-plasma in beam-plasmaThere is protection and purification effect, avoided the pollution in material smelting and casting cycle, forming surface workLayer stable performance.
11, mould structure designability is strong, and technological process is short, and material is even, has reduced mould manufactureTechnology difficulty and cost, improved the performance of mould. By die matrix and forming surface working lining differenceProcess, wherein, the crudy of die matrix requires lower, adopts conventional simplification techniqueCan complete; And the crudy of forming surface working lining and requirement on machining accuracy are high, thereby adopt the present inventionTo the processing that becomes more meticulous of forming surface working lining, can significantly simplify like this manufacture process of mould, effectivelyReduce the difficulty of processing of mould, and can ensure crudy and the result of use of mould.
12, die matrix and forming surface working lining are adopted to different materials, wherein die matrix adopts normalWith the material of metal, alloy etc. cheaply process; And forming surface working lining adopts cost highMaterial, can effectively reduce the material cost of mould like this. Die matrix meets strength and stiffness needs,Forming surface working lining meets wear-resistant temperature-resistant requirement, not only can significantly reduce costs, and can be remarkableImprove mould and manufacture efficiency and capability of fast response.
13, in mould surface working layer layering print procedure, droplet solidification speed is fast, mouldingFace working layer crystal grain is tiny, also can not cause element segregation, the forming surface working lining of institute's mouldingPerformance is good; And beam-plasma has protection and purification effect, mould is printed can be at large compression ringUnder border, carry out, easy to operate; While adopting the present invention to be printed as profile working lining, last layer forming surface workDo in layer material print procedure, plasma beam can carry out synchronous heat place to lower one deck printed materialReason, forming surface working lining thermal stress is little, there will not be micro-crack or cracking, and yield rate can reach hundred/ hundred; While adopting print die forming surface working lining of the present invention, technical process is simple, technological processShort, equipment cost is low, can effectively reduce technology difficulty and cost. And, mould disclosed in this inventionTool plasma 3D printing device can directly use under atmospheric environment, can be by forming surface work when mouldingLayer material is fused into liquid stream, realizes continuous micro-casting rapid shaping, and technical process is simplified, and has reduced existingThere are technology difficulty and the cost of mould manufacture, improved the performance of mould.
Below by drawings and Examples, technical scheme of the present invention is described in further detail.
Brief description of the drawings
Fig. 1 is the structural representation of mould plasma 3D printing device of the present invention.
Fig. 2 is the structural representation of the embodiment of the present invention 1 ionic medium rifle.
Fig. 3 is the schematic block circuit diagram of monitoring system of the present invention.
Fig. 4 is the structural representation of air inlet ring of the present invention.
Fig. 5 is the structural representation of air inlet ring body of the present invention.
Fig. 6 is the FB(flow block) of mould plasma 3D Method of printing of the present invention.
Fig. 7 is the structural representation of the embodiment of the present invention 2 ionic medium rifles.
Description of reference numerals:
1-feeder; 2-powder feeder; 3-1-die matrix;
3-2-forming surface working lining; 4-horizontal stamp pad; 5-air supply pipe;
6-powder-feeding mouth; 7-plasma generator controller;
8-apart from detecting unit; 9-temperature detecting unit;
10-printing distance adjustment controller; 11-detection of gas flow rate unit;
12-gas flow controller; 13-plasma gun; 13-1-rifle body;
13-2-anode nozzle; 13-3-negative electrode; 13-4-arc chamber;
13-5-spout; 13-6-insulating barrier; 14-drive motors;
Controller is adjusted in 15-position; 16-three axis numerically controlled machine; 17-upper and lower adjusting device;
18-powder mass flow detecting unit; 19-flow control valve; 20-powder feeding flow controller;
21-air inlet ring; 21-1-air inlet ring body; 21-2-annular sealing cover;
21-3-annular air inlet duct; 21-4-outside air admission hole; 21-5-inner side air admission hole;
23-PC; 24-move horizontally controller;
25-three-dimensional regulation support; 25-1-X-axis travel mechanism;
25-2-y-axis shift actuation mechanism.
Detailed description of the invention
Embodiment 1
A kind of mould plasma 3D printing device as shown in Figure 1, by monitoring system, plasma beamSystem of processing, the horizontal stamp pad 4 of placing for mould to be formed and the mould to described mould to be formedMatrix 3-1 carries out temporary fixed temporary fixing piece composition; Described mould to be formed comprises die matrix3-1 and be laid in the forming surface working lining 3-2 on die matrix 3-1; Described temporary fixing piece is laidOn horizontal stamp pad 4.
Described plasma beam system of processing by be provided with shower nozzle and for generation of beam-plasma etc. fromDaughter generator, for described plasma generator provide the feeder 1 of working gas, for connectContinue the powder feeding dress of sending into printed material in the described beam-plasma producing to described plasma generatorThe print position adjusting device composition of putting and print position is adjusted, described plasma generatorAll be positioned at horizontal stamp pad 4 tops with described dust feeder, described dust feeder is positioned at described plasmaBody generator one side. Described feeder 1 is by institute on air supply pipe 5 and described plasma generatorThe air inlet of opening connects. The powder feeding mouth of described dust feeder is positioned at outlet below and its position of described shower nozzleOn the central axis of described beam-plasma; Described print position adjusting device comprise drive described grade fromDaughter generator synchronize with described dust feeder the horizontally moving device that moves on horizontal plane andDrive described plasma generator, described dust feeder and described horizontally moving device synchronizing moving alsoTackle mutually printing that the distance between outlet and the horizontal stamp pad 4 of described shower nozzle regulates apart from tuneRegulating device, described plasma generator and described dust feeder are installed in described horizontally moving deviceUpper, and described horizontally moving device is arranged in described printing distance adjusting means. Described printed materialFor dusty material (being powder), and, the moulding that described printed material is described mould to be formedThe material that face working lining 3-2 is used. Herein, described plasma beam system of processing is for to treat into describedOn the die matrix 3-1 of mould, be processed into the system of processing of profile working lining 3-2.
As shown in Figure 3, described monitoring system comprises the level that described horizontally moving device is controlledMobile controller 24, machining position to described plasma beam system of processing on described mould to be formedThe place's of putting temperature is carried out the temperature detecting unit 9 detecting in real time, outlet and the level to described shower nozzle printedDistance between platform 4 is carried out the distance detecting unit 8 detecting in real time and described printing distance adjustment is filledPut the printing distance adjustment controller 10 of controlling, described in move horizontally controller 24 and described waterFlat mobile device connects, described printing distance adjustment controller 10 and described printing distance adjusting meansConnect, described temperature detecting unit 9 and apart from detecting unit 8 all with printing distance adjustment controller 10Connect; Described temperature detecting unit 9 forms temperature control device with printing distance adjustment controller 10.
In the present embodiment, described temporary fixing piece is clamping device (not shown in figure 1). Actual makingUsed time, described temporary fixing piece also can adopt other temporary fixed mechanisms such as jig.
In the present embodiment, described temperature detecting unit 9 is that described plasma beam system of processing is being becomePrint position place (being Working position place) temperature on profile working lining 3-2 is carried out the red of detection in real timeOuter temperature sensor. Described is laser range sensor apart from detecting unit 8.
Actual laying while installation, described temperature detecting unit 9 is positioned at die matrix 3-1 top. This realityExecute in example, described temperature detecting unit 9 be positioned at die matrix 3-1 directly over. Thereby, by temperatureDegree detecting unit 9 detects in real time to the temperature of forming surface working lining 3-2 upper surface.
In the present embodiment, described horizontally moving device comprise drive described plasma generator with described inThe 25-1 of X-axis travel mechanism that dust feeder synchronously moves horizontally in X-direction and drive instituteState plasma generator and synchronize the Y-axis moving horizontally with described dust feeder in Y directionThe 25-2 of travel mechanism, thereby described horizontally moving device is X-Y shaft moving device.
And described plasma generator and described dust feeder are installed in y-axis shift actuation mechanism25-2 is upper, and it is upper that described y-axis shift actuation mechanism 25-2 is arranged on the 25-1 of X-axis travel mechanism, described XThe 25-1 of axle travel mechanism is arranged in described printing distance adjusting means. In actual use procedure, logicalCrossing y-axis shift actuation mechanism 25-2 drives described plasma generator to synchronize at Y with described dust feederOn direction of principal axis, move horizontally, by the 25-1 of X-axis travel mechanism drive y-axis shift actuation mechanism 25-2,Described plasma generator is synchronizeed and is moved horizontally in X-direction with described dust feeder, andAnd drive described horizontally moving device, described plasma to occur by described printing distance adjusting meansDevice is synchronizeed and is moved on the central axis of described beam-plasma with described dust feeder.
In the present embodiment, described y-axis shift actuation mechanism 25-2, the 25-1 of X-axis travel mechanism and described beatingPrint distance adjusting means composition and drive described plasma generator (specifically plasma gun 13) and instituteState the manipulator that dust feeder synchronously carries out three-dimensional motion.
In the present embodiment, described monitoring system also comprises to be controlled described plasma generatorPlasma generator controller 7, the gas flow that the gas flow of air supply pipe 5 is carried out detecting are in real time examinedMeasurement unit 11 and the gas flow control that the flow control valve 25 of installing on air supply pipe 5 is controlledDevice 12, described plasma generator controller 7 is connected with described plasma generator, described gas flowAmount detection unit 11 is connected with gas flow controller 12.
In the present embodiment, as shown in Figure 2, described plasma generator comprises plasma gun 13, instituteStating shower nozzle is the anode nozzle 13-2 of plasma gun 13 front ends; Described plasma gun 13 comprises and has instituteState air inlet rifle body 13-1, be positioned at the anode nozzle 13-2 in rifle body 13-1 dead ahead and be plugged in rifleNegative electrode 13-3 in body 13-1, described anode nozzle 13-2 is positioned at negative electrode 13-3 front side, described in putElectricity chamber 13-4 is positioned at negative electrode 13-3 front side and its and is positioned at the posterior medial of anode nozzle 13-2, described inThe anterior inner side of anode nozzle 13-2 is spout 13-5.
In the present embodiment, described anode nozzle 13-2, negative electrode 13-3 and arc chamber 13-4 all with rifle body13-1 is coaxial laying; Described powder stream circulation passage 14 is to tilt to lay and its front end with rifle body 13-1Stretch in spout 13-5, described powder stream circulation passage 14 is laid in for orthoscopic passage and it compriseRear wing passage in rifle body 13-1 and be laid in the front wing passage in anode nozzle 13-2.
And described air inlet is positioned at rifle body 13-1 rear side, described spout 13-5 and rifle body 13-1Be coaxial laying or be coaxial laying with powder stream circulation passage 14.
In the present embodiment, between described anode nozzle 13-2 and rifle body 13-1, be provided with insulating barrier 13-6.
In the present embodiment, as shown in Figure 2, described spout 13-5 and rifle body 13-1 are coaxial laying.
In the present embodiment, described air supply pipe 5 is by air inlet ring 21 and described plasma generatorThe air inlet of opening connects. And, by air inlet ring 21 in described plasma generator evenlyAir feed.
As shown in Figure 4, Figure 5, described air inlet ring 21 comprises air inlet ring body 21-1 for annular and itWith the annular sealing cover 21-2 mounting cover on air inlet ring body 21-1, described air inlet ring body 21-1For having an annular air inlet duct 21-3 on annular and its madial wall, described air inlet ring body 21-1On have an outside air admission hole 21-4 who joins with air supply pipe 5 and its inner side and have multiple inner sides and enterPore 21-5, multiple described inner side air admission hole 21-5 along the circumferential direction evenly lay and it is all positioned at ringShape air inlet duct 21-3 inner side, described outside air admission hole 21-4 is positioned at annular air inlet duct 21-3 outside,Described outside air admission hole 21-4 and multiple described inner side air admission hole 21-5 all with annular air inlet duct 21-3Inside communicates.
And, on described rifle body 13-1, along the circumferential direction have and multiplely enter with multiple described inner sides respectivelyThe rifle body air admission hole that pore 21-5 communicates.
When actual use, described powder stream circulation passage 14 also can be logical with the air inlet of described working gasRoad adopts same passage.
In the present embodiment, the meal outlet of described powder stream circulation passage 14 be positioned at arc chamber 13-4 front side andIt is positioned at the inside rear side of spout 13-5.
In plasma gun 13 use procedures as shown in Figure 2, produce in described arc chamber 13-4 wait fromDaughter, the plasma producing forms beam-plasma and sprays through spout 13-5; Meanwhile,Described powder is tilted to and is entered spout 13-5 by powder stream circulation passage 14, and at described work gasUnder the effect of body, described powder enters in described beam-plasma, and in described beam-plasma, accelerates, addsHeat is also fused into molten condition and forms small drop, and this drop sprays in the lump with beam-plasma, formsThe inside plasma beam with molten melt drop; The molten melt drop that powder forms after fusing sprays with beam-plasmaAfter going out, form by the microstream of molten melt drop that is evenly distributed with printed material. Thereby, described printingMaterial is powder, to the shape of powder without particular/special requirement.
In the present embodiment, described working gas is inert gas or H2Gas.
Wherein, inert gas is Ar gas, He gas and N2Gas.
In the present embodiment, described horizontal stamp pad 4 is for being arranged on stamp pad position regulator and energyThe mobile platform moving up and down.
Described monitoring system also comprises the position tune that described stamp pad position regulator is controlledWhole controller 15, described position is adjusted controller 15 and is connected with described stamp pad position regulator.
In the present embodiment, described stamp pad position regulator is three axis numerically controlled machine 16.
And it is the controller of three axis numerically controlled machine 16 that controller 15 is adjusted in described position.
When actual use, described stamp pad position regulator also can adopt other can complete X, YThe vertical movement moving up and down with device or the energy in the vertical direction of three direction motions of Z axis fillsPut.
In actual use procedure, described horizontal stamp pad 4 also can adopt position fixed fixingPlatform.
In actual use procedure, the central axis of the beam-plasma that described plasma generator produces withAngle between vertical plane is not more than 45 °; Described printing distance adjusting means is along described beam-plasmaCentral axis adjusting device up and down 17 that described shower nozzle is adjusted up and down, described distance detects singleUnit 8 for to the central axis along described beam-plasma from the horizontal stamp pad of exporting to of described shower nozzle 4 itBetween distance carry out the distance detection device detecting in real time.
In the present embodiment, described upper and lower adjusting device 17 is Z-direction adjusting device.
And described upper and lower adjusting device 17 is telescopic hydraulic cylinder.
In the present embodiment, the central axis of the beam-plasma that described plasma generator produces is verticalTo laying. When actual use, can be according to specific needs, described plasma generator is produced etc.Angle between central axis and the vertical plane of ion beam adjusts accordingly.
In the present embodiment, described dust feeder comprises powder feeder 2 and powder-feeding mouth 6, described dust feederPowder feeding mouth be the meal outlet of powder-feeding mouth 6; Described powder feeder 2 comprises and has charging aperture and powder feeding outletShell and be arranged on the powder feeding wheel in described shell, described powder feeding wheel is driven by drive motors 14Moving; Described powder feeding outlet is connected with the powder inlet of powder-feeding mouth 6. Described powder is 3 of workpiece to be printedWith the powder of material (being printed material), to the shape of powder without particular/special requirement.
In the present embodiment, described drive motors 14 is direct current generator. In actual use procedure, pass throughChange the rotating speed of described direct current generator, the powder feeding flow of described dust feeder is carried out to easy, fast velocity modulationWhole.
When actual installation, it is upper that described powder feeder 2 is arranged on y-axis shift actuation mechanism 25-2, described powder feedingMouth 6 is arranged on powder feeder 2.
In the present embodiment, described y-axis shift actuation mechanism 25-2, the 25-1 of X-axis travel mechanism and described beatingPrint distance adjusting means composition three-dimensional regulation support 25. When actual use, by three-dimensional regulation support25 powder feeding direction and plasma guns to described dust feeder in X-axis, Y-axis and Z-direction respectively13 position regulates.
In the present embodiment, as shown in Figure 3, described monitoring system also comprises sending described dust feederPowder flow carries out the powder mass flow detecting unit 18 that detects in real time and drive motors 14 is controlledPowder feeding flow controller 20, described powder mass flow detecting unit 18 is connected with powder feeding flow controller 20.Wherein, described powder mass flow detecting unit 18 is laid in powder-feeding mouth 6.
When actual use, described monitoring system also comprises respectively horizontal stamp pad 4 in X-axis, Y-axisCarry out with the displacement in Z-direction the first displacement detecting unit, the second displacement detecting unit that detect in real timeWith triple motion detecting unit, described the first displacement detecting unit, the second displacement detecting unit and the 3rdMoving detecting unit is all connected with position adjustment controller 15.
In the present embodiment, described monitoring system also comprises respectively y-axis shift actuation mechanism 25-2 in Y-axisHorizontal displacement in direction, the horizontal displacement to the 25-1 of X-axis travel mechanism in X-direction and rightThe 4th displacement detecting list detecting is in real time carried out in the horizontal displacement of upper and lower adjusting device 17 in Z-directionUnit, the 5th displacement detecting unit and the 6th displacement detecting unit, described the 4th displacement detecting unit and the 5thDisplacement detecting unit all with move horizontally controller 24 and be connected, described the 6th displacement detecting unit and printingDistance adjustment controller 10 connects.
In the present embodiment, adjust described plasma generator controller 7, gas flow controller 12, positionWhole controller 15, print distance adjustment controller 10 and powder feeding flow controller 20 all with described dataTreatment facility joins, and described data processing equipment is PC 23. Described feeder 1 is by PC23 carry out on off control.
A kind of mould plasma 3D Method of printing as shown in Figure 6, comprises the following steps:
Step 1, three-dimensional stereo model obtain and hierarchy slicing processing: adopt data processing equipment and tuneObtain the three-dimensional stereo model of forming surface working lining 3-2 with image processing module, then call hierarchy slicingModule is carried out hierarchy slicing to the three-dimensional stereo model of forming surface working lining 3-2, and obtains multiple layeringsCross-sectional image;
Multiple described layering cross-sectional images are that the three-dimensional stereo model of forming surface working lining 3-2 is dividedLayer obtains the image of multiple points of layer cross sections after cutting into slices, multiple described point layer cross sections even cloth from the bottom to topIf;
Step 2, scanning pattern are filled: adopt data processing equipment and call described image processing module,Multiple described layering cross-sectional images in step 1 are processed respectively, and completed multiple described layerings and cutThe scanning pattern filling process of face, obtains multiple described scanning patterns that divide layer cross sections;
Step 3, printing path obtain: described data processing equipment is multiple according to what obtain in step 2The scanning pattern of described point of layer cross section, obtains multiple described printing paths that divide layer cross sections; Described in eachDivide the printing path of layer cross section all identical with the scanning pattern of this point of layer cross section;
Step 4, successively print from the bottom to top: first by the described mould to be formed of machine-shaping in advanceDie matrix 3-1 is positioned on horizontal stamp pad 4, and by described temporary fixing piece to die matrix3-1 carries out temporary fixed; Again according to the printing path of multiple described point of layer cross sections that obtain in step 3,On die matrix 3-1, successively forming surface working lining 3-2 is printed from the bottom to top, obtain by manyIndividual shape layer is the stacking forming surface working lining 3-2 forming from the bottom to top; The quantity of described shape layer and stepDescribed in rapid one, the quantity of point layer cross section is identical, and the installation position of multiple described shape layers is respectively with multipleThe installation position of described point of layer cross section is corresponding and its bed thickness is all identical one by one, the bed thickness of described shape layer withDistance described in adjacent two between point layer cross section is identical, and in step 3, multiple described point layer cross sections beatsPrint the printing path that path is respectively multiple described shape layers; To forming surface working lining, 3-2 printsTime, process is as follows:
Step 401, bottom print: described in move horizontally controller 24 according to obtaining in step 3The printing path of current institute printing shaping layer, to described horizontally moving device control and drive described inPlasma generator is synchronizeed and is moved on horizontal plane with described dust feeder; Described plasmaGenerator is synchronizeed with described dust feeder on horizontal plane in moving process, described plasma beam processingSystem by the interior plasma beam continuous spraying with fused solution stream to die matrix 3-1; Treat fused solution stream(specifically flowing to the fused solution stream on die matrix 3-1) completes current being printed as after all solidifyingThe print procedure of type layer;
In this step, current institute printing shaping layer is the moulding that is positioned at bottommost in multiple described shape layersLayer;
Step 402, last layer are printed, and comprise the following steps:
Step 4021, print distance adjustment: by horizontal stamp pad 4 in the vertical directions carry out once toLower movement and move down height identical with the bed thickness of described shape layer, or by print distance adjustmentController 10 is controlled described printing distance adjusting means and is driven described plasma generator vertical sideThe height that upwards once moves up and move up is identical with the bed thickness of described shape layer;
Step 4022, print and synchronous temperature control: described in move horizontally controller 24 according in step 3The printing path of the current institute printing shaping layer obtaining, controls also described horizontally moving deviceDrive described plasma generator to synchronize and move on horizontal plane with described dust feeder; DescribedPlasma generator is synchronizeed with described dust feeder on horizontal plane in moving process, described plasmaLine system of processing by the interior plasma beam continuous spraying with fused solution stream to current printed underOn the upper surface of a described shape layer; Treat fused solution stream (specifically flow to current printed underFused solution on the upper surface of described shape layer stream) all solidify after, complete current institute printing shapingThe print procedure of layer;
In this step, described plasma generator is synchronizeed and is moved on horizontal plane with described dust feederIn process, the upper table by temperature detecting unit 9 to the current printed described shape layer of the next oneSurface temperature detect in real time and by institute's detected temperatures information synchronous driving to printing distance adjustment controlDevice 10, simultaneously by apart from detecting unit 8 between the outlet to described shower nozzle and horizontal stamp pad 4Distance in real time detect and by detected range information synchronous driving to printing distance adjustment controlDevice 10; The temperature letter that described printing distance adjustment controller 10 detects according to temperature detecting unit 9Breath and by control the outlet of described printing distance adjusting means to described shower nozzle and horizontal stamp pad 4 itBetween distance regulate, make the upper surface temperature of the current printed described shape layer of the next one notHigher than 0.6 times of the material fusing point of forming surface working lining 3-2;
Plasma generator described in step 401 and step 4022 is synchronizeed with described dust feederOn horizontal plane, in moving process, described dust feeder is sent printed material continuously, simultaneously by described etc.The beam-plasma that ion beam current system of processing produces melts sent printed material, and makes instituteSend molten melt drop that printed material fusing forms continuously and form liquid stream; Described in described liquid flow point is distributed inIn beam-plasma, the plasma beam with fused solution stream in formation; Described printed material is Powdered materialMaterial (being powder);
Step 403, repeating step 402 repeatedly, until complete all moulding of forming surface working lining 3-2The print procedure of layer.
When the in the vertical direction of plasma generator described in step 4021 once moves up,Described dust feeder is synchronizeed and is moved with described plasma generator.
In actual use procedure, while printing distance adjustment in step 4021, by printing distanceAdjustment control 10 is controlled described printing distance adjusting means and is driven described plasma generator perpendicularNogata upwards once moves up, after described plasma generator moves into place, to described etc.The height of gas ions generator carries out record, and now the height of described plasma generator is current instituteHeight is printed on the basis of printing shaping layer; While carrying out lower one deck printing in step 402, treat step 4022In complete print and synchronous temperature control after, also need to beat described in controlling by printing distance adjustment controller 10Print distance adjusting means, drive described plasma generator in the vertical direction to move up and down,Until be current institute printing shaping layer in step 4021 by the height adjustment of described plasma generatorBasis print height.
In the present embodiment, before successively printing from the bottom to top in step 4, by described temporary fixing pieceDie matrix 3-1 is carried out when temporary fixed, need will on die matrix 3-1, needing to be processed into profile workThe machining area of layer 3-2 upward.
In the present embodiment, the bed thickness of described forming surface working lining 3-2 is 0.01mm~30mm.
Actual man-hour, the material (being described printed material) that described forming surface working lining 3-2 is used of addingFor the composite of aluminium alloy, copper alloy, cast iron, steel, titanium alloy, carbide alloy or enhancing, instituteThe composite of stating enhancing is aluminum matrix composite, the copper base composite wood that particle strengthens or whisker strengthensMaterial, iron base composite material, base steel composite material or titanium matrix composite.
Thereby described forming surface working lining 3-2 material (being described printed material) used closes for aluminiumGold, copper alloy, cast iron, steel, titanium alloy or carbide alloy. And, described forming surface working lining 3-2Material used can be also the aluminum-base composite of particle enhancing or whisker enhancing (being whisker dispersion-strengtherning)Material, Cu-base composites, iron base composite material, base steel composite material or titanium matrix composite.
In actual process, can be according to specific needs, the bed thickness to forming surface working lining 3-2 and instituteWith material adjust accordingly.
The material of described die matrix 3-1 is conventional lower cost materials, as elemental metals (exampleAs iron), alloy etc. Described die matrix 3-1 only needs the strength and stiffness need to.
In actual use procedure, described dust feeder is synchronous powder feeding system device, and described dust feeder is sentPowder under the effect of described working gas (beam-plasma includes unionized working gas), send intoIn described plasma generator, and the powder of sending in described beam-plasma accelerates, heats and meltFor fused solution stream. And at described working gas, (beam-plasma includes unionized described fused solution streamWorking gas) effect under move along the central axis of described beam-plasma. Thereby, actual useIn process, by changing the flow of described working gas, also can be to sending into the powder sending quantity in beam-plasmaAdjust accordingly.
The system of processing of plasma beam described in step 401 connects the interior plasma beam with fused solution streamContinue while being sprayed onto on die matrix 3-1, it is (concrete that the fused solution stream of interior band synchronously flow to die matrix 3-1The outer surface of die matrix 3-1) on. The system of processing of plasma beam described in step 4022 willInside the plasma beam continuous spraying with fused solution stream is to the described shape layer of the current printed next oneUpper surface on time, the fused solution stream of interior band synchronously flow to the described moulding of the current printed next oneOn the upper surface of layer.
In the present embodiment, before successively printing from the bottom to top in step 4, the place of data described in step 1Reason equipment is first according to the material fusing point of setting up in advance and printing range data storehouse, and combination is defeated by parameterEnter the Material Name of the forming surface working lining 3-2 that unit pre-enters, to forming surface working lining 3-2'sBasis is printed distance and is determined; Described parameter input unit and described data processing equipment join;
In described material fusing point and printing range data storehouse, store the material fusing point of various material and beatPrint range information, the material fusing point of every kind of described material and print range information and include this kind of materialDistance is printed on title, fusing point and basis; It is 5mm~1000mm that distance is printed on described basis, and materialFusing point is higher, and it is nearer that distance is printed on basis;
Before carrying out bottom printing in step 401, described printing distance adjustment controller 10 is according to distanceThe range information detecting from detecting unit 8 and by control described printing distance adjusting means will described inDistance adjustment between the outlet of shower nozzle and horizontal stamp pad 4 is that distance is printed on described basis; StepIn 401, in bottom print procedure, the distance between the outlet of described shower nozzle and horizontal stamp pad 4 is instituteState basis and print distance;
In step 4022, print and synchronous temperature control before, described printing distance adjustment controller 10According to the range information detecting apart from detecting unit 8 inferior in conjunction with moving down of horizontal stamp pad 4Number with move down height at every turn, and by controlling described printing distance adjusting means by described shower nozzleDistance adjustment between outlet and the upper surface of the current printed described shape layer of the next one is instituteState basis and print distance; Between outlet to described shower nozzle in step 4022 and horizontal stamp pad 4When distance regulates, described printing distance adjustment controller 10 is examined according to temperature detecting unit 9The outlet of the range information that the temperature information of surveying Binding distance detecting unit 8 detect to described shower nozzleAnd the distance between horizontal stamp pad 4 regulates, make the described moulding of the current printed next oneThe upper surface temperature of layer be controlled at 0.1 times~0.6 times of material fusing point of forming surface working lining 3-2 itBetween; And, when the distance between the outlet to described shower nozzle and horizontal stamp pad 4 regulates, adjustJoint amplitude is 5mm~60mm, and material fusing point is higher, and the amplitude of accommodation is less.
In the present embodiment, before successively printing from the bottom to top in step 4, the place of data described in step 1Reason equipment is first according to gas and the powder mass flow database set up in advance, and in conjunction with described in predefinedThe bed thickness of shape layer, the basic gas flow to air supply pipe 5 and the powder feeding flow of described dust feeder enterRow is determined;
It is required that described gas and powder mass flow databases contain the shape layer of multiple different bed thicknessPowder feeding flow and basic gas flow; Described basic gas flow is 50ml/min~15000ml/min,And the powder feeding flow of described dust feeder is larger, described basic gas flow is larger;
Plasma generator described in step 401 and step 4022 is synchronizeed with described dust feederOn horizontal plane in moving process, the powder feeding of described powder mass flow detecting unit 18 to described dust feederFlow detect in real time and by detected information synchronous driving to powder feeding flow controller 20, described in givePowder flow controller 20 is according to the powder feeding flow of predetermined described dust feeder combining powder stream18 detection information of amount detection unit are controlled drive motors 14, make sending of described dust feederPowder flow is all identical with predetermined powder feeding flow;
Before carrying out bottom printing in step 401, described gas flow controller 12 is according to gas flow11 detection information of amount detection unit and by control flow control valve 19 by the gas flow of air supply pipe 5Amount is adjusted into described basic gas flow; In step 401 in bottom print procedure, described air supply pipe 5Gas flow be described basic gas flow;
In step 4022, print and synchronous temperature control process in, 12 of described gas flow controllersDetect distance letter according to 11 of detection of gas flow rate unit detection information Binding distance detecting unit 8Breath, and by controlling flow control valve 19, the gas flow of air supply pipe 5 is increased and decreased to adjustment; AndAnd the distance between the outlet of described shower nozzle and horizontal stamp pad 4 is larger, the gas of described air supply pipe 5Body flow is larger.
In the present embodiment, while obtaining the three-dimensional stereo model of forming surface working lining 3-2, utilize pro/e,The three-dimensional stereo model that the three-dimensional graphics software such as UG, CATIA is designed forming surface working lining 3-2 (Three-dimensional entity model), or utilize reverse engineering to solve the 3 D stereo of forming surface working lining 3-2Model; By described hierarchy slicing module, this three-dimensional stereo model is carried out to hierarchy slicing again, and obtainThe outline data in each cross section, is generated and is filled scanning pattern, the described plasma of corresponding acquisition by outline dataThe printing path (being the printing path of each point of layer cross section) of line system of processing. Thereby, step 1 andThe method adopting in step 2, with the moulding of conventional laser selective melting or electron beam selective melting mouldingThe method adopting is identical. Afterwards, on horizontal plane, carry out X and Y-axis according to obtained printing pathIn direction motion process, described plasma beam system of processing is by the interior plasma beam with fused solution streamThe upper surface of continuous spraying or the current printed next one described shape layer upper to die matrix 3-1On; After sprayed molten melt drop all solidifies, complete the print procedure of a shape layer; Then,Three axis numerically controlled machine 16 declines in Z-direction, successively prints, thereby completes beating of 3 d partSeal process.
In the present embodiment, the module of hierarchy slicing described in step 1 is hierarchy slicing software. Described layeringSlice Software be 3D print adopt conventional hierarchy slicing software, as Cura, Xbuilder,Makerbot etc.
In the present embodiment, plasma generator described in step 401 and step 4022 with described in givePowder device synchronously on horizontal plane in moving process, the powder feeding flow of described dust feeder be 2g/min~200g/min;
Before successively printing from the inside to the outside in step 4, by powder feeding mouth and the marker of described dust feederMake distance between face and be adjusted into predefined powder feeding height, described powder feeding be highly 5mm~1000mm, described print job face is the residing plane in current institute's printing shaping layer top; In step 4Successively in print procedure, the powder feeding open height of described dust feeder is constant from the inside to the outside. Described powder feeding dressDistance between the powder feeding mouth of putting and described print job face is powder feeding height.
Distance between powder feeding mouth and the horizontal support mechanism 16 of dust feeder described in step 401 isPowder feeding height, the powder feeding mouth of dust feeder described in step 4022 and the current printed next oneDistance between described shape layer upper surface is powder feeding height.
Because horizontal stamp pad 4 is for being arranged on the mobile platform on stamp pad position regulator, therebyThe printing path of the each described point layer cross section obtaining in step 3 also can be three-axis numerical control machineThe machining path of bed 16, now described plasma beam system of processing is not moved on horizontal plane,But be moved, thereby complete the printing of each shape layer on horizontal stamp pad 4 is aspect horizontalJourney.
Actually add man-hour, described die matrix 3-1 machine-shaping in advance, and die matrix 3-1 energyAdopt conventional machining method to process, as casting etc.; Also can adopt conventional 3D printing sideMethod is carried out moulding to die matrix 3-1. In addition, also can adopt mould plasma of the present invention3D printing device carries out moulding to die matrix 3-1, and process is as follows:
Steps A, three-dimensional stereo model obtain and hierarchy slicing processing: adopt data processing equipment and tuneObtain the three-dimensional stereo model of die matrix 3-1 with image processing module, then call hierarchy slicing moduleThe three-dimensional stereo model of die matrix 3-1 is carried out to hierarchy slicing, and obtain multiple layering cross-sectional images;
Multiple described layering cross-sectional images are the three-dimensional stereo model of die matrix 3-1 to be carried out to layering cutAfter sheet, obtain the image of multiple points of layer cross sections, multiple described point layer cross sections are along die matrix 3-1 centerAxis is evenly laid from the bottom to top;
Step B, scanning pattern are filled: adopt data processing equipment and call described image processing module,Multiple described layering cross-sectional images in steps A are processed respectively, and completed multiple described layerings and cutThe scanning pattern filling process of face, obtains multiple described scanning patterns that divide layer cross sections;
Step C, printing path obtain: described data processing equipment is multiple according to what obtain in step BThe scanning pattern of described point of layer cross section, obtains multiple described printing paths that divide layer cross sections; Described in eachDivide the printing path of layer cross section all identical with the scanning pattern of this point of layer cross section;
Step D, successively printing from the bottom to top: according to the multiple described point layer cross section obtaining in step CPrinting path, successively die matrix 3-1 is printed from the bottom to top, obtain by multiple shape layersThe stacking die matrix 3-1 forming from the bottom to top; Described in the quantity of described shape layer and steps A, divideThe quantity of layer cross section is identical, the installation position of multiple described shape layers respectively with multiple described point of layer cross sectionsInstallation position corresponding and its bed thickness is all identical one by one, described in the bed thickness of described shape layer and adjacent twoDivide the distance between layer cross section identical, in step C, the printing paths of multiple described point layer cross sections are respectivelyThe printing path of multiple described shape layers in die matrix 3-1; Multiple described one-tenth in die matrix 3-1The Method of printing of type layer is all identical; When die matrix 3-1 is printed, process is as follows:
Step D1, bottom print: described in move horizontally controller 24 according to obtaining in step CThe printing path of current institute printing shaping layer, to described horizontally moving device control and drive described inPlasma generator is synchronizeed and is moved on horizontal plane with described dust feeder; Described plasmaGenerator is synchronizeed with described dust feeder on horizontal plane in moving process, described plasma beam processingSystem by the interior plasma beam continuous spraying with molten melt drop to horizontal support mechanism 16; Treat sprayAfter molten melt drop all solidifies, complete the print procedure of current institute printing shaping layer in die matrix 3-1;
In this step, current institute printing shaping layer is the multiple described shape layer meta of die matrix 3-1In the shape layer of bottommost;
Step D2, last layer are printed, and comprise the following steps:
Step D21, print distance adjustment: by horizontal stamp pad 4 in the vertical directions carry out once toLower movement and move down height identical with the bed thickness of described shape layer, or by print distance adjustmentController 10 is controlled described printing distance adjusting means and is driven described plasma generator vertical sideThe height that upwards once moves up and move up is identical with the bed thickness of described shape layer;
Step D22, printing and synchronous temperature control: described in move horizontally controller 24 according to institute in step CThe printing path of the current institute printing shaping layer obtaining, controls and is with described horizontally moving deviceMoving described plasma generator is synchronizeed and is moved on horizontal plane with described dust feeder; Described etc.Gas ions generator is synchronizeed with described dust feeder on horizontal plane in moving process, described beam-plasmaStream system of processing by the interior plasma beam continuous spraying with molten melt drop to current printed nextOn the upper surface of individual described shape layer; After sprayed molten melt drop all solidifies, complete current being printed asThe print procedure of type layer;
In this step, in described plasma generator moving process, right by temperature detecting unit 9In die matrix 3-1, the upper surface temperature of the current printed described shape layer of the next one is carried out in real timeDetect and by institute's detected temperatures information synchronous driving to printing distance adjustment controller 10, pass through distance simultaneouslyDistance between outlet from detecting unit 8 to described shower nozzle and horizontal support mechanism 16 is carried out in real timeDetect and by detected range information synchronous driving to printing distance adjustment controller 10; Described printingThe temperature information that distance adjustment controller 10 detects according to temperature detecting unit 9 and by control instituteStating the distance of printing between outlet and the horizontal support mechanism 16 of distance adjusting means to described shower nozzle entersRow regulates, and makes the upper surface temperature of the current printed described shape layer of the next one not higher than mould base0.6 times of the material fusing point of body 3-1;
Described in step D1 and step D22, plasma generator is synchronizeed at water with described dust feederIn plane, in moving process, described dust feeder is sent printed material continuously, simultaneously by described grade fromThe beam-plasma that sub-line system of processing produces melts sent printed material, and make giveGo out molten melt drop that printed material fusing forms continuously and form liquid stream; It is described etc. that described liquid flow point is distributed inIn ion beam, the plasma beam with fused solution stream in formation; Herein, described printed material is mouldThe material that matrix 3-1 is used;
Step D3, repeating step D2 repeatedly, until complete all shape layers in die matrix 3-1Print procedure, the die matrix 3-1 of acquisition machine-shaping.
The system of processing of plasma beam described in step D1 connects the interior plasma beam with fused solution streamContinue while being sprayed onto on horizontal stamp pad 4, the fused solution stream of interior band synchronously flow on horizontal stamp pad 4. StepPlasma beam system of processing described in rapid D22 by the interior plasma beam continuous spraying with fused solution stream extremelyOn the upper surface of the current printed described shape layer of the next one time, the synchronous stream of fused solution stream of interior bandTo the upper surface of the current printed described shape layer of the next one.
In the present embodiment, before successively printing from the bottom to top in step D, the place of data described in steps AReason equipment is first according to the material fusing point of setting up in advance and printing range data storehouse, and combination is defeated by parameterEnter the Material Name of the die matrix 3-1 that unit pre-enters, the basis of die matrix 3-1 is printedDistance is determined; Described parameter input unit and described data processing equipment join;
Before carrying out bottom printing in step D1, described printing distance adjustment controller 10 is by controllingDescribed printing distance adjusting means is by the distance adjustment between the outlet of described shower nozzle and horizontal stamp pad 4For printing distance in described basis; In step D1 in bottom print procedure, the outlet of described shower nozzle and waterDistance between flat stamp pad 4 is that distance is printed on described basis;
In step D22, print and synchronous temperature control before, described printing distance adjustment controller 10By controlling described printing distance adjusting means by current in the outlet of described shower nozzle and die matrix 3-1Distance adjustment between the upper surface of the printed described shape layer of the next one is that print on described basisDistance; Distance between outlet to described shower nozzle in step D22 and horizontal stamp pad 4 regulatesTime, also need by temperature-detecting device described in the current printed next one in die matrix 3-1The upper surface temperature of shape layer detects in real time, and described printing distance adjustment controller 10 is according to instituteState between the outlet and horizontal stamp pad 4 to described shower nozzle of temperature information that temperature-detecting device detectsDistance regulate, make the current printed described shape layer of the next one in die matrix 3-1Upper surface temperature is controlled between 0.1 times~0.6 times of material fusing point of die matrix 3-1; And,When distance between outlet to described shower nozzle and horizontal stamp pad 4 regulates, the amplitude of accommodation is5mm~60mm, and the material fusing point of die matrix 3-1 is higher, and the amplitude of accommodation is less.
In the present embodiment, before successively printing from the bottom to top in step D, the place of data described in steps AReason equipment is first according to gas and the powder mass flow database set up in advance, and in conjunction with described in predefinedThe bed thickness of shape layer, the basic gas flow to air supply pipe 5 and the powder feeding flow of described dust feeder enterRow is determined;
It is required that described gas and powder mass flow databases contain the shape layer of multiple different bed thicknessPowder feeding flow and basic gas flow; Described basic gas flow is 50ml/min~15000ml/min,And the powder feeding flow of described dust feeder is larger, described basic gas flow is larger;
Described in step D1 and step D22, plasma generator is synchronizeed at water with described dust feederIn plane, in moving process, described powder mass flow detecting unit 18 flows the powder feeding of described dust feederAmount detect in real time and by detected information synchronous driving to powder feeding flow controller 20, described powder feedingFlow controller 20 is according to the powder feeding flow of predetermined described dust feeder combining powder flow18 detection information of detecting unit are controlled drive motors 14, make the powder feeding of described dust feederFlow is all identical with predetermined powder feeding flow;
Before carrying out bottom printing in step D1, described gas flow controller 12 is according to gas flow11 detection information of detecting unit and by control flow control valve 19 by the gas flow of air supply pipe 5Be adjusted into described basic gas flow; In step D1 in bottom print procedure, described air supply pipe 5Gas flow is described basic gas flow;
In step D22, print and synchronous temperature control process in, 12 of described gas flow controllersDetect distance letter according to 11 of detection of gas flow rate unit detection information Binding distance detecting unit 8Breath, and by controlling flow control valve 19, the gas flow of air supply pipe 5 is increased and decreased to adjustment; AndAnd the distance between the outlet of described shower nozzle and horizontal stamp pad 4 is larger, the gas of described air supply pipe 5Body flow is larger.
In the present embodiment, mould plasma 3D printing device of the present invention also comprises treats mouldingMould carries out mach machining set-up, and described machining tool is setting in horizontal stamp pad 4 tops.
When actual installation, described machining set-up is arranged in three axle travel mechanisms, described three axlesTravel mechanism is the movement that can drive machining set-up to move in X-axis, Y-axis and Z-directionMechanism, as three axle mobile platforms, three-dimensional mechanical hand, three axles regulate support, gimbal etc. This enforcementIn example, described three axle travel mechanisms are positioned at horizontal stamp pad 4 tops.
In the present embodiment, described three axle travel mechanisms are that three axles regulate support, and described three axles regulate supportComprise base, be arranged on Z axis regulating arm on described base, be arranged on described Z axis regulating armX-axis regulating arm and be arranged on the Y-axis regulating arm on described X-axis regulating arm, described Y-axis regulating arm peaceA vertical mounting rod is housed, and described machining set-up is arranged on described vertical mounting rod.
In the present embodiment, described machining set-up is connected with data processing equipment, described three axle moving machinesStructure 29 is controlled by described data processing equipment and it is connected with data processing equipment.
In the present embodiment, described machining set-up comprises polishing utensil and removal tool, described removal workTool is drilling tool or cutting tool.
When actual installation, described polishing utensil and removal tool can be installed in a Multifunctional knife rackOn dish.
In the present embodiment, in step 4, complete after printing, obtain printing shaping mould; Afterwards, adoptMachining set-up carries out fine finishining to described reparation rear mold.
While adopting machining set-up to carry out fine finishining to described printing shaping mould, specifically to described printingThe size of mould is carried out fine finishining or the outer surface of described printing shaping mould is polished, logicalCross and the size of described printing shaping mould is carried out to fine finishining make its size can meet the chi of mould finished productVery little requirement, makes its surface roughness expire by the outer surface of described printing shaping mould is polishedThe requirement of foot mould finished product, thus described printing shaping mould can be directly applied in production.
In the present embodiment, while adopting machining set-up to carry out fine finishining to described printing shaping mould, adoptOnly the outer surface of described printing shaping mould is polished with machining set-up, make its surface roughnessCan meet the requirement of mould finished product.
Embodiment 2
In the present embodiment, as shown in Figure 7, the mould plasma 3D printing device and the enforcement that adoptExample 1 is different: the angle between described spout 13-5 and rifle body 13-1 central axis be 30 °~45°。
Like this, after the direction of described beam-plasma being changed by spout 13-5, can effectively subtractThe thermic load that few plasma jet antianode nozzle 13-2 produces is impacted, and has improved anode ablation situation.
In the present embodiment, remainder structure, the connection of the mould plasma 3D printing device that adoptsRelation and operation principle are all identical with embodiment 1.
In the present embodiment, the mould plasma 3D Method of printing adopting is identical with embodiment 1.
The above, be only preferred embodiment of the present invention, not the present invention imposed any restrictions, everyAny simple modification, change and the equivalent structure above embodiment done according to the technology of the present invention essenceChange, all still belong in the protection domain of technical solution of the present invention.

Claims (10)

1. a mould plasma 3D printing device, is characterized in that: by monitoring system, plasmaLine system of processing, the horizontal stamp pad (4) of placing for mould to be formed and to described mould to be formedThe die matrix (3-1) of tool carries out temporary fixed temporary fixing piece composition; Described mould to be formedComprise die matrix (3-1) and be laid in the forming surface working lining (3-2) on die matrix (3-1);Described temporary fixing piece is laid on horizontal stamp pad (4);
Described plasma beam system of processing by be provided with shower nozzle and for generation of beam-plasma etc. fromDaughter generator, for described plasma generator provide working gas feeder (1), useIn the described beam-plasma producing to described plasma generator continuously, send into sending of printed materialPowder device and the print position adjusting device composition that print position is adjusted, described plasma is sent outRaw device and described dust feeder are all positioned at horizontal stamp pad (4) top, and described dust feeder is positioned at instituteState plasma generator one side; Described feeder (1) by air supply pipe (5) and described grade fromThe air inlet of opening on daughter generator connects; The powder feeding mouth of described dust feeder is positioned at described shower nozzleOutlet below and its are positioned on the central axis of described beam-plasma; Described print position adjusting device bagDraw together and drive described plasma generator to synchronize with described dust feeder to move on horizontal planeHorizontally moving device and drive described plasma generator, described dust feeder with described in move horizontallyDevice synchronizing moving the distance of tackling mutually between outlet and the horizontal stamp pad (4) of described shower nozzle are enteredThe printing distance adjusting means that row regulates, described plasma generator and described dust feeder are all installedOn described horizontally moving device, and described horizontally moving device is arranged on described printing distance adjustment dressBe set up;
Described monitoring system comprises the controller that moves horizontally that described horizontally moving device is controlled(24), the Working position place temperature on described mould to be formed to described plasma beam system of processingDegree carries out the temperature detecting unit (9) detecting in real time, outlet and the horizontal stamp pad to described shower nozzle(4) distance between is carried out the distance detecting unit (8) detecting in real time and described printing distance is adjustedThe printing distance adjustment controller (10) that regulating device is controlled, described in move horizontally controller (24)Be connected described printing distance adjustment controller (10) and described printing distance with described horizontally moving deviceFrom adjusting device connect, described temperature detecting unit (9) and apart from detecting unit (8) all with printingDistance adjustment controller (10) connects; Described temperature detecting unit (9) and the control of printing distance adjustmentDevice processed (10) composition temperature control device.
2. according to a kind of mould plasma 3D printing device claimed in claim 1, it is characterized in that:Described monitoring system also comprises that the plasma that described plasma generator is controlled controlsDevice (7), the detection of gas flow rate unit (11) that the gas flow of air supply pipe (5) is carried out to real-time detectionWith the gas flow controller that the upper flow control valve (19) of installing of air supply pipe (5) is controlled(12), described plasma generator controller (7) is connected with described plasma generator, described inDetection of gas flow rate unit (11) is connected with gas flow controller (12).
3. according to a kind of mould plasma 3D printing device described in claim 1 or 2, its featureBe: described plasma generator comprises plasma gun (13), described shower nozzle is plasma gun (13)The anode nozzle (13-2) of front end; Described plasma gun (13) comprises the rifle that has described air inletBody (13-1), be positioned at the anode nozzle (13-2) in rifle body (13-1) dead ahead and be plugged in rifle body(13-1) negative electrode (13-3) in, it is front that described anode nozzle (13-2) is positioned at negative electrode (13-3)Side, described arc chamber (13-4) is positioned at negative electrode (13-3) front side and it is positioned at anode nozzle (13-2)Posterior medial, the anterior inner side of described anode nozzle (13-2) is spout (13-5); Described sunUtmost point nozzle (13-2), negative electrode (13-3) and arc chamber (13-4) are all same with rifle body (13-1)Axle is laid; Described air inlet is positioned at rifle body (13-1) rear side, described spout (13-5) and rifle body (13-1)Be coaxial laying or and rifle body (13-1) central axis between angle be 30 °~45 °.
4. according to a kind of mould plasma 3D printing device described in claim 1 or 2, its featureBe: described dust feeder comprises powder feeder (2) and powder-feeding mouth (6) the sending of described dust feederPowder mouth is the meal outlet of powder-feeding mouth (6); Described powder feeder (2) comprises and has charging aperture and powder feeding goes outMouthful shell and be arranged on the powder feeding wheel in described shell, described powder feeding wheel is entered by drive motors (14)Row drives; Described powder feeding outlet is connected with the powder inlet of powder-feeding mouth (6).
5. according to a kind of mould plasma 3D printing device claimed in claim 4, it is characterized in that:Described monitoring system also comprises carries out to the powder feeding flow of described dust feeder the powder stream detecting in real timeAmount detection unit (18) and the powder feeding flow controller (20) that drive motors (14) is controlled,Described powder mass flow detecting unit (18) is connected with powder feeding flow controller (20).
6. according to a kind of mould plasma 3D printing device described in claim 1 or 2, its featureBe: the folder between central axis and the vertical plane of the beam-plasma that described plasma generator producesAngle is not more than 45 °; Described printing distance adjusting means is for the central axis along described beam-plasma is to instituteState the adjusting device up and down (17) that shower nozzle is adjusted up and down, describedly apart from detecting unit (8) beTo the central axis along described beam-plasma between the horizontal stamp pad of exporting to of described shower nozzle (4)Distance carry out the distance detection device detecting in real time;
Described horizontal stamp pad (4) is for being arranged on stamp pad position regulator and can moving up and downMobile platform;
Described monitoring system also comprises the position tune that described stamp pad position regulator is controlledWhole controller (15), controller (15) and described stamp pad position regulator are adjusted in described positionConnect.
7. one kind is utilized 3D printing device as claimed in claim 1 to carry out plasma 3D printing to mouldMethod, it is characterized in that: the method comprises the following steps:
Step 1, three-dimensional stereo model obtain and hierarchy slicing processing: adopt data processing equipment and tuneObtain the three-dimensional stereo model of forming surface working lining (3-2) with image processing module, then call layeringSection module is carried out hierarchy slicing to the three-dimensional stereo model of forming surface working lining (3-2), and obtainsMultiple layering cross-sectional images;
Multiple described layering cross-sectional images are for to enter the three-dimensional stereo model of forming surface working lining (3-2)After row hierarchy slicing, obtain the image of multiple points of layer cross sections, multiple described point layer cross sections are even from the bottom to topLay;
Step 2, scanning pattern are filled: adopt data processing equipment and call described image processing module,Multiple described layering cross-sectional images in step 1 are processed respectively, and completed multiple described layerings and cutThe scanning pattern filling process of face, obtains multiple described scanning patterns that divide layer cross sections;
Step 3, printing path obtain: described data processing equipment is multiple according to what obtain in step 2The scanning pattern of described point of layer cross section, obtains multiple described printing paths that divide layer cross sections; Described in eachDivide the printing path of layer cross section all identical with the scanning pattern of this point of layer cross section;
Step 4, successively print from the bottom to top: first by the described mould to be formed of machine-shaping in advanceIt is upper that die matrix (3-1) is positioned over horizontal stamp pad (4), and by described temporary fixing piece to mouldTool matrix (3-1) carries out temporary fixed; Again according to the multiple described point layer cross section obtaining in step 3Printing path, on die matrix (3-1) from the bottom to top successively to forming surface working lining (3-2)Print, obtain by multiple shape layers stacking forming surface working lining (3-2) forming from the bottom to top;The quantity of described shape layer is identical with the quantity of described in step 1 point of layer cross section, multiple described shape layersInstallation position respectively with installation position corresponding and its bed thickness homogeneous phases one by one of multiple described point of layer cross sectionsWith, the bed thickness of described shape layer with described in adjacent two, divide the distance between layer cross section identical, step 3In the printing path of multiple described point of layer cross sections be respectively the printing paths of multiple described shape layers; To becomingWhen profile working lining (3-2) prints, process is as follows:
Step 401, bottom are printed: described in move horizontally controller (24) according to obtaining in step 3The printing path of the current institute printing shaping layer of getting, controls and drives described horizontally moving deviceDescribed plasma generator is synchronizeed and is moved on horizontal plane with described dust feeder; Described grade fromDaughter generator is synchronizeed with described dust feeder on horizontal plane in moving process, described plasma beamSystem of processing by the interior plasma beam continuous spraying with fused solution stream to die matrix (3-1); TreatAfter fused solution stream all solidifies, complete the print procedure of current institute printing shaping layer;
In this step, current institute printing shaping layer is the moulding that is positioned at bottommost in multiple described shape layersLayer;
Step 402, last layer are printed, and comprise the following steps:
Step 4021, printing distance adjustment: horizontal stamp pad (4) in the vertical direction is carried out to oneInferior move down and move down height identical with the bed thickness of described shape layer, or by print distanceAdjustment control (10) is controlled described printing distance adjusting means and is driven described plasma generator to existThe height that once moves up on vertical direction and move up is identical with the bed thickness of described shape layer;
Step 4022, print and synchronous temperature control: described in move horizontally controller (24) according to step 3The printing path of middle obtained current institute printing shaping layer, controls described horizontally moving deviceAnd drive described plasma generator to synchronize and move on horizontal plane with described dust feeder; InstituteState plasma generator and synchronize with described dust feeder on horizontal plane in moving process, described grade fromSub-line system of processing is by extremely current printed the interior plasma beam continuous spraying with fused solution streamOn the upper surface of next described shape layer; After fused solution stream all solidifies, complete current being printed asThe print procedure of type layer;
In this step, described plasma generator is synchronizeed and is moved on horizontal plane with described dust feederIn process, by temperature detecting unit (9) to the current printed described shape layer of the next oneUpper surface temperature detect in real time and by institute's detected temperatures information synchronous driving to printing distance adjustmentController (10), simultaneously by apart from detecting unit (8) outlet and the level to described shower nozzle beatDistance between ink pad (4) detects in real time and detected range information synchronous driving is extremely beatenPrint distance adjustment controller (10); Described printing distance adjustment controller (10) is according to temperature detectionThe temperature information that unit (9) detects and by control described printing distance adjusting means to described sprayDistance between outlet and the horizontal stamp pad (4) of head regulates, make current printed underThe upper surface temperature of a described shape layer is not higher than the material fusing point of forming surface working lining (3-2)0.6 times;
Plasma generator described in step 401 and step 4022 is synchronizeed with described dust feederOn horizontal plane, in moving process, described dust feeder is sent printed material continuously, simultaneously by described etc.The beam-plasma that ion beam current system of processing produces melts sent printed material, and makes instituteSend molten melt drop that printed material fusing forms continuously and form liquid stream; Described in described liquid flow point is distributed inIn beam-plasma, the plasma beam with fused solution stream in formation;
Step 403, repeating step 402 repeatedly, until complete all one-tenth of forming surface working lining (3-2)The print procedure of type layer.
8. according to method of mould being carried out to plasma 3D printing claimed in claim 7, its featureBe: before successively printing from the bottom to top in step 4, the first root of data processing equipment described in step 1According to the material fusing point of setting up in advance and printing range data storehouse, and in conjunction with by parameter input unit in advanceThe Material Name of the forming surface working lining (3-2) of input, to the basis of forming surface working lining (3-2)Printing distance determines; Described parameter input unit and described data processing equipment join;
In described material fusing point and printing range data storehouse, store the material fusing point of various material and beatPrint range information, the material fusing point of every kind of described material and print range information and include this kind of materialDistance is printed on title, fusing point and basis; It is 5mm~1000mm that distance is printed on described basis, and materialFusing point is higher, and it is nearer that distance is printed on basis;
Before carrying out bottom printing in step 401, described printing distance adjustment controller (10) basisThe range information detecting apart from detecting unit (8) and by control described printing distance adjusting meansBe that distance is printed on described basis by the distance adjustment between the outlet of described shower nozzle and horizontal stamp pad (4)From; In step 401 in bottom print procedure, the outlet of described shower nozzle and horizontal stamp pad (4) itBetween distance be that distance is printed on described basis;
In step 4022, print and synchronous temperature control before, described printing distance adjustment controller (10)According to the range information detecting apart from detecting unit (8) and in conjunction with horizontal stamp pad (4) downwardsMobile number of times with move down height at every turn, and by control described printing distance adjusting means will described inDistance between the upper surface of the outlet of shower nozzle and the current printed described shape layer of the next one is adjustedJoint is for printing distance in described basis; Outlet to described shower nozzle in step 4022 and horizontal stamp pad (4)Between distance while regulating, described printing distance adjustment controller (10) is according to temperature detection listThe range information pair that the temperature information that unit (9) is detected Binding distance detecting unit (8) detectDistance between the outlet of described shower nozzle and horizontal stamp pad (4) regulates, and makes currently to printThe upper surface temperature of the good described shape layer of the next one is controlled at the material of forming surface working lining (3-2)Between 0.1 times~0.6 times of fusing point; And, the outlet to described shower nozzle and horizontal stamp pad (4)Between distance while regulating, the amplitude of accommodation is 5mm~60mm, and material fusing point is higher, regulatesAmplitude is less.
9. according to the method that mould is carried out to plasma 3D printing described in claim 7 or 8, itsBe characterised in that: described dust feeder comprises powder feeder (2) and powder-feeding mouth (6), described dust feederPowder feeding mouth be the meal outlet of powder-feeding mouth (6); Described powder feeder (2) comprise have charging aperture with giveThe shell of powder outlet and be arranged on the powder feeding wheel in described shell, described powder feeding wheel is by drive motors (14)Drive; Described powder feeding outlet is connected with the powder inlet of powder-feeding mouth (6);
Described monitoring system also comprises that the plasma that described plasma generator is controlled occursController (7), the detection of gas flow rate list that the gas flow of air supply pipe (5) is carried out to real-time detectionUnit (11), the gas flow that the upper flow control valve (19) of installing of air supply pipe (5) is controlledAmount controller (12), the powder mass flow that the powder feeding flow of described dust feeder is carried out detecting are in real time examinedMeasurement unit (18) and the powder feeding flow controller (20) that drive motors (14) is controlled, instituteStating powder mass flow detecting unit (18) is connected with powder feeding flow controller (20); Described plasma is sent outRaw controller (7) is connected with described plasma generator, described detection of gas flow rate unit (11)Be connected with gas flow controller (12), described apart from detecting unit (8) and gas flow controlDevice (12) connects;
Before successively printing from the bottom to top in step 4, the first basis of data processing equipment described in step 1In advance set up gas and powder mass flow database, and in conjunction with predefined described shape layer layerThick, the basic gas flow to air supply pipe (5) and the powder feeding flow of described dust feeder are determined;
It is required that described gas and powder mass flow databases contain the shape layer of multiple different bed thicknessPowder feeding flow and basic gas flow; Described basic gas flow is 50ml/min~15000ml/min,And the powder feeding flow of described dust feeder is larger, described basic gas flow is larger;
Plasma generator described in step 401 and step 4022 is synchronizeed with described dust feederOn horizontal plane in moving process, described powder mass flow detecting unit (18) sending described dust feederPowder flow detect in real time and by detected information synchronous driving to powder feeding flow controller (20),Described powder feeding flow controller (20) is according to the powder feeding flow of predetermined described dust feeder knotClose powder mass flow detecting unit (18) institute detection information drive motors (14) is controlled, make instituteThe powder feeding flow of stating dust feeder is all identical with predetermined powder feeding flow;
Before carrying out bottom printing in step 401, described gas flow controller (12) is according to gasFlow detection unit (11) institute's detection information and by control flow control valve (19) by air supply pipe (5)Gas flow be adjusted into described basic gas flow; In step 401 in bottom print procedure, described inThe gas flow of air supply pipe (5) is described basic gas flow;
In step 4022, print and synchronous temperature control process in, described gas flow controller (12)Examine according to detection of gas flow rate unit (11) institute's detection information Binding distance detecting unit (8)Survey range information, and by controlling flow control valve (19), the gas flow of air supply pipe (5) is enteredRow increase and decrease is adjusted; And the distance between the outlet of described shower nozzle and horizontal stamp pad (4) is larger,The gas flow of described air supply pipe (5) is larger.
10. according to the method that mould is carried out to plasma 3D printing described in claim 7 or 8, itsBe characterised in that: plasma generator described in step 401 and step 4022 and described dust feederSynchronously on horizontal plane in moving process, the powder feeding flow of described dust feeder be 2g/min~200g/min;
Before successively printing from the inside to the outside in step 4, by powder feeding mouth and the marker of described dust feederMake distance between face and be adjusted into predefined powder feeding height, described powder feeding be highly 5mm~1000mm, described print job face is the residing plane in current institute's printing shaping layer top; In step 4Successively in print procedure, the powder feeding open height of described dust feeder is constant from the inside to the outside.
CN201610120586.4A 2016-03-03 2016-03-03 Mold plasma 3D printing device and 3D printing method Pending CN105665702A (en)

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