CN105624461B - Preparation method of Cu-Fe composite material - Google Patents

Preparation method of Cu-Fe composite material Download PDF

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Publication number
CN105624461B
CN105624461B CN201610196982.5A CN201610196982A CN105624461B CN 105624461 B CN105624461 B CN 105624461B CN 201610196982 A CN201610196982 A CN 201610196982A CN 105624461 B CN105624461 B CN 105624461B
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alloys
composite material
preparation
magnetic fields
transfor mation
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CN105624461A (en
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左小伟
安佰灵
王恩刚
张�林
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Northeastern University China
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    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C22METALLURGY; FERROUS OR NON-FERROUS ALLOYS; TREATMENT OF ALLOYS OR NON-FERROUS METALS
    • C22CALLOYS
    • C22C9/00Alloys based on copper
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C22METALLURGY; FERROUS OR NON-FERROUS ALLOYS; TREATMENT OF ALLOYS OR NON-FERROUS METALS
    • C22CALLOYS
    • C22C1/00Making alloys
    • C22C1/02Making alloys by melting
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C22METALLURGY; FERROUS OR NON-FERROUS ALLOYS; TREATMENT OF ALLOYS OR NON-FERROUS METALS
    • C22FCHANGING THE PHYSICAL STRUCTURE OF NON-FERROUS METALS AND NON-FERROUS ALLOYS
    • C22F1/00Changing the physical structure of non-ferrous metals or alloys by heat treatment or by hot or cold working
    • C22F1/08Changing the physical structure of non-ferrous metals or alloys by heat treatment or by hot or cold working of copper or alloys based thereon
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C22METALLURGY; FERROUS OR NON-FERROUS ALLOYS; TREATMENT OF ALLOYS OR NON-FERROUS METALS
    • C22FCHANGING THE PHYSICAL STRUCTURE OF NON-FERROUS METALS AND NON-FERROUS ALLOYS
    • C22F3/00Changing the physical structure of non-ferrous metals or alloys by special physical methods, e.g. treatment with neutrons

Abstract

The invention relates to a preparation method of a Cu-Fe composite material and belongs to the technical field of preparation of colored functional materials. The method comprises the following steps: 1. preparation of quickly-solidified Cu-Fe alloy; 2. homogenization treatment under the action of a magnetic field to obtain supersaturated Cu-Fe alloy; 3. forming and roughening of a Fe precipitated phase under the action of the magnetic field to obtain roughened Cu-Fe alloy; 4. martensite transformation under the actions of the magnetic field and low temperature to obtain the Cu-Fe alloy after martensite transformation; 5. complete martensite transformation at room temperature to obtain the Cu-Fe alloy after sufficient martensite transformation; and 6. adsorption growth of Fe under the action of the magnetic field to obtain the Cu-Fe composite material. According to the method disclosed by the invention, enrichment of Fe at a crystal boundary can be increased, and precipitation of Fe at the crystal boundary can be promoted; precipitation and roughing of gamma-Fe are accelerated; martensite transformation rate and ratio are promoted; and the electric conductivity of the prepared Cu-Fe alloy at same reduction rate is increased by 10-50% compared with the prior art.

Description

A kind of preparation method of Cu-Fe composite material
Technical field
The invention belongs to coloured functional technical field of material, more particularly to a kind of preparation side of Cu-Fe composite material Method.
Background technology
Copper alloy has good electrical and thermal conductivity, ductility and mechanical property, is electronic information, electric power, the energy, ship The key function material of the important industries such as oceangoing ship, space flight and machinery development.The Cu-Fe systems alloy that addition Fe is constituted is in reduces cost Electromagnetic property (Electro Magnetic Compatibility, Hard Magnetic and superparamagnetic etc.) is had concurrently simultaneously, in the high-strength field coil conductive material of long pulse, machine There is potential application foreground in the system such as people and space shuttle cable, electric contactor and electromagnetic shielding.But current business application Iron bronze (≤2.5wt%Fe) conductance only has 40%~65%IACS, and (IACS represents International Annealed Copper Standard, 100%IACS =1.7241 μ Ω cm), this restricts it and can be only applied in the low-cost electronic components such as lead frame and electric connector, very The difficult cost that performance addition Fe brings (such as high intensity magnet winding conducting wire material) in high-end high-strength highly-conductive materials application is excellent Gesture, and the root of its low conductivity be solid-solubilized in Cu matrixes Fe atomic impurities scattering can dramatically increase resistance (9.2 μ Ω Cm/1wt%Fe), and solid solution Fe atoms be generally difficult to from Cu matrixes separate out.Therefore, promote the precipitation of Fe, strengthen it and separate out by force Change and reduce impurity scattering that solid solution Fe atoms bring for improve the application prospect of this alloy system have it is important theoretical and Realistic meaning.
Because γ-Fe and Cu are all face-centred cubic structure, and both lattice misfits only have 1.25% at room temperature, to reduce shape Core resistance, can be separated out with the minimum coherence γ-Fe grain shapes of interface energy.Under external force effect, the γ-Fe meetings of critical dimension are reached It is transformed into α-Fe, and along with magnetic transformation (γ-Fe are paramagnetism, and α-Fe are ferromagnetism).Patent No. 2010105390636 Chinese invention patent in made annealing treatment using steady magnetic field and gradient magnetic, reduce solid solubility of the Fe in Cu under high temperature, have Fe reduces impurity scattering from the precipitation in Cu under effect promotion low temperature, reaches the purpose for increasing Cu-Fe composite material conductance, but Now the precipitation mode of Fe is relied primarily on spherical particle shape in the transgranular formation of Cu matrixes;Patent No. 2011102882012 Chinese invention patent in, a kind of method that utilization suction pouring prepares rapid solidification Cu-Fe alloys disclosed, and combines at timeliness Reason, by Fe from supersaturated solid solution disperse educt, but not using magnetic transformation effect, further strengthen Fe precipitation, Still the low problem for being difficult to separate out of low temperature diffusion coefficient can be run into;The Chinese invention patent of Application No. 2015105943730 is carried Go out one kind and improve Cu-Fe-C complex phase copper alloys with reference to deformation induced martensite transfor mation mode using low-temperature deformation, Low Temperature Heat Treatment The method of performance, but the electron scattering in matrix may be influenceed due to the addition of C, while also not added using magnetic transformation effect Strong martensite transfor mation.Based on this, the present invention propose using rapid solidification obtain crystal boundary enrichment Cu-Fe alloys, by magnetic field with Low temperature deformation effect accelerates martensite transfor mation, and high annealing increases the diffusion coefficient of Fe under combined magnetic field, maximizes and promotes Fe's Dissolvings of the Fe in Cu is separated out and reduced, the Cu-Fe alloys of high-strength high-conductivity are obtained.
The content of the invention
In view of the shortcomings of the prior art, the present invention proposes a kind of preparation method of Cu-Fe composite material, and the method is using fast Rapid hardening obtains supersaturated solid solution admittedly, promotes Fe in the precipitation of grain boundaries, coordinates magnetic field to accelerate martensite with low temperature deformation effect Transformation, the diffusion coefficient of Fe is increased by high annealing under combined magnetic field, reduces dissolvings of the Fe in Cu, obtains high conductivity high The Cu-Fe alloys of intensity, improve Cu-Fe alloy properties.
The preparation method of Cu-Fe composite material of the invention, comprises the following steps:
Step 1, the preparation of rapid solidification Cu-Fe alloys:
With cathode copper and technical pure Fe as raw material, Cu-Fe alloys are obtained using rapid solidification method after melting;
Homogenization Treatments under step 2, magnetic fields:
Cu-Fe alloys are placed in 0.1~35T magnetic fields, are heated to 950~1150 DEG C, be incubated 6~48h, then water quenching, Obtain uniform supersaturation Cu-Fe alloys;
Step 3, the formation of Fe precipitated phases and roughening under magnetic fields:
Supersaturated Cu-Fe alloys are placed in 0.1~35T magnetic fields, are heated to 500~700 DEG C, 5~96h is incubated, with stove Room temperature is cooled to, the Cu-Fe alloys being roughened;
Martensite transfor mation under step 4, magnetic field and cold service:
The Cu-Fe alloys that will be roughened, are placed in 5~100T magnetic fields, in temperature -100~-269 DEG C, are incubated 5~180min, Obtain the Cu-Fe alloys of martensite transfor mation;
Step 5, the complete martensite transfor mation of room temperature:
To the Cu-Fe alloys of martensite transfor mation, apply 10~99.999% deformation, obtain abundant martensite transfor mation Cu-Fe alloys;
Step 6, the Absorption Growth of Fe under magnetic fields:
The Cu-Fe alloys of abundant martensite transfor mation are placed in 0.1~35T magnetic fields, are heated to 600~750 DEG C, insulation 4 ~48h, cools to room temperature with the furnace, obtains Cu-Fe composite material.
In described step 1, the purity of cathode copper is more than 99.9%;Rapid solidification method is water cooled copper mould casting method or true Sky gets rid of band method;
In described step 5, the method for applying 10~99.999% deformation is drawing, rolling, Equal Channel Angular Pressing or height Pressure torsional deflection;
Obtained Cu-Fe composite material of the invention, by mass percentage, Fe is 4~10%, balance of Cu.
Cu-Fe composite material of the invention obtained, conductance be 65~82%IACS, tensile strength be 1050~ 1600MPa。
The preparation method of Cu-Fe composite material of the invention, compared with prior art, beneficial effect is:
(1) Cu-Fe alloys are prepared by quick setting method, the enrichment of grain boundaries Fe can be increased, promote Fe in crystal boundary The precipitation at place.
(2) apply magnetic field by Homogenization Treatments Cu-Fe alloys, can obtain uniform by increasing diffusion coefficient Supersaturated Cu-Fe alloys.
(3) apply magnetic field by separating out the formation of Fe and being roughened, the precipitation and roughening of γ-Fe can be accelerated.
(4) by changing in low-temperature martensite in apply magnetic field, martensite transfor mation speed and ratio can be promoted.
(5) by implementing the above content of the invention, the identical Fe contents Cu- of the Cu-Fe alloy ratios prior art preparation of preparation Conductance of the Fe alloys in identical draft improves 10~50%.
Brief description of the drawings
The transmission electron microscope picture of the Cu-Fe composite material that Fig. 1 embodiment of the present invention 1 is obtained;
The transmission electron microscope picture of the Cu-Fe composite material that Fig. 2 embodiment of the present invention 2 is obtained;
The transmission electron microscope picture of the Cu-Fe composite material that Fig. 3 embodiment of the present invention 3 is obtained.
Specific embodiment
In following examples, the purity of cathode copper is 99.9%.
Embodiment 1
The preparation method of Cu-Fe composite material, comprises the following steps:
Step 1, the preparation of rapid solidification Cu-Fe alloys:
In mass ratio, cathode copper and technical pure Fe=94: 6, carry out dispensing, after melting, using water cooled copper mould casting legal system Standby Cu-Fe alloys;
Homogenization Treatments under step 2, magnetic fields:
Cu-Fe alloys are placed in 12T magnetic fields, are heated to 1050 DEG C, be incubated 24h, then water quenching obtains uniformly mistake Saturation Cu-Fe alloys;
Step 3, the formation of Fe precipitated phases and roughening under magnetic fields:
Supersaturated Cu-Fe alloys are placed in 25T magnetic fields, are heated to 600 DEG C, be incubated 5h, cool to room temperature with the furnace, obtained To the Cu-Fe alloys of roughening;
Martensite transfor mation under step 4, magnetic field and cold service:
The Cu-Fe alloys that will be roughened, are placed in 100T magnetic fields, in -269 DEG C of temperature, are incubated 5min, obtain martensite transfor mation Cu-Fe alloys;
Step 5, the complete martensite transfor mation of room temperature:
To the Cu-Fe alloys of martensite transfor mation, drawing is carried out, apply 50% deformation, obtain abundant martensite transfor mation Cu-Fe alloys;
Step 6, the Absorption Growth of Fe under magnetic fields:
The Cu-Fe alloys of abundant martensite transfor mation are placed in 0.1T magnetic fields, are heated to 600 DEG C, be incubated 48h, it is cold with stove But to room temperature, Cu-Fe composite material is obtained.
Cu-Fe composite material obtained in the present embodiment, conductance is 75%IACS, tensile strength is 1260MPa.This implementation The transmission electron microscope picture of obtained Cu-Fe composite material, is shown in Fig. 1, and as seen from the figure, the particle of small and dispersed is exactly the analysis of Fe in figure Go out phase, average grain diameter is being 10nm, and these precipitated phases improve the intensity of material.
Embodiment 2
The preparation method of Cu-Fe composite material, comprises the following steps:
Step 1, the preparation of rapid solidification Cu-Fe alloys:
In mass ratio, cathode copper and technical pure Fe=90: 10, carry out dispensing, after melting, get rid of band method using vacuum and are obtained Cu-Fe alloys;
Homogenization Treatments under step 2, magnetic fields:
Cu-Fe alloys are placed in 0.1T magnetic fields, are heated to 1150 DEG C, be incubated 6h, then water quenching obtains uniformly mistake Saturation Cu-Fe alloys;
Step 3, the formation of Fe precipitated phases and roughening under magnetic fields:
Supersaturated Cu-Fe alloys are placed in 0.1T magnetic fields, are heated to 700 DEG C, be incubated 96h, cool to room temperature with the furnace, The Cu-Fe alloys being roughened;
Martensite transfor mation under step 4, magnetic field and cold service:
The Cu-Fe alloys that will be roughened, are placed in 20T magnetic fields, in -200 DEG C of temperature, are incubated 30min, obtain martensite transfor mation Cu-Fe alloys;
Step 5, the complete martensite transfor mation of room temperature:
To the Cu-Fe alloys of martensite transfor mation, rolled, applied 99.999% deformation, obtained abundant martensite and turn The Cu-Fe alloys of change;
Step 6, the Absorption Growth of Fe under magnetic fields:
The Cu-Fe alloys of abundant martensite transfor mation are placed in 10T magnetic fields, are heated to 750 DEG C, be incubated 4h, furnace cooling To room temperature, Cu-Fe composite material is obtained.
Cu-Fe composite material obtained in the present embodiment, conductance is 65%IACS, tensile strength is 1600MPa.This implementation The transmission electron microscope picture of obtained Cu-Fe composite material, is shown in Fig. 2, and as seen from the figure, the particle of small and dispersed is exactly the analysis of Fe in figure Go out phase, average grain diameter is being 10nm, and these precipitated phases improve the intensity of material.
Embodiment 3
The preparation method of Cu-Fe composite material, comprises the following steps:
Step 1, the preparation of rapid solidification Cu-Fe alloys:
In mass ratio, cathode copper and technical pure Fe=96: 4, carry out dispensing, after melting, get rid of band legal system using vacuum and obtain Cu- Fe alloys;
Homogenization Treatments under step 2, magnetic fields:
Cu-Fe alloys are placed in 5T magnetic fields, are heated to 950 DEG C, be incubated 48h, then water quenching is uniformly satiated With Cu-Fe alloys;
Step 3, the formation of Fe precipitated phases and roughening under magnetic fields:
Supersaturated Cu-Fe alloys are placed in 35T magnetic fields, are heated to 500 DEG C, be incubated 5h, cool to room temperature with the furnace, obtained To the Cu-Fe alloys of roughening;
Martensite transfor mation under step 4, magnetic field and cold service:
The Cu-Fe alloys that will be roughened, are placed in 5T magnetic fields, in -100 DEG C of temperature, are incubated 180min, obtain martensite transfor mation Cu-Fe alloys;
Step 5, the complete martensite transfor mation of room temperature:
To the Cu-Fe alloys of martensite transfor mation, by Equal Channel Angular Pressing, apply 10% deformation, obtain abundant martensite The Cu-Fe alloys of transformation;
Step 6, the Absorption Growth of Fe under magnetic fields:
The Cu-Fe alloys of abundant martensite transfor mation are placed in 35T magnetic fields, are heated to 650 DEG C, be incubated 40h, it is cold with stove But to room temperature, Cu-Fe composite material is obtained.
Cu-Fe composite material obtained in the present embodiment, conductance is 82%IACS, tensile strength is 1050MPa.This implementation The transmission electron microscope picture of obtained Cu-Fe composite material, is shown in Fig. 3, and as seen from the figure, the precipitation of Fe occur in grain boundaries, and this exactly compares The reason for identical Fe contents conductance prepared by prior art is improved is caused.
Embodiment 4
The preparation method of Cu-Fe composite material, comprises the following steps:
Step 1, the preparation of rapid solidification Cu-Fe alloys:
In mass ratio, cathode copper and technical pure Fe=95: 5, carry out dispensing, after melting, get rid of band legal system using vacuum and obtain Cu- Fe alloys;
Homogenization Treatments under step 2, magnetic fields:
Cu-Fe alloys are placed in 6T magnetic fields, are heated to 1000 DEG C, be incubated 24h, then water quenching is uniformly satiated With Cu-Fe alloys;
Step 3, the formation of Fe precipitated phases and roughening under magnetic fields:
Supersaturated Cu-Fe alloys are placed in 6T magnetic fields, are heated to 550 DEG C, be incubated 20h, cool to room temperature with the furnace, obtained To the Cu-Fe alloys of roughening;
Martensite transfor mation under step 4, magnetic field and cold service:
The Cu-Fe alloys that will be roughened, are placed in 10T magnetic fields, in -150 DEG C of temperature, are incubated 10min, obtain martensite transfor mation Cu-Fe alloys;
Step 5, the complete martensite transfor mation of room temperature:
To the Cu-Fe alloys of martensite transfor mation, deformed by high pressure torsion, apply 25% deformation, obtain abundant geneva The Cu-Fe alloys of body transformation;
Step 6, the Absorption Growth of Fe under magnetic fields:
The Cu-Fe alloys of abundant martensite transfor mation are placed in 12T magnetic fields, are heated to 650 DEG C, be incubated 12h, it is cold with stove But to room temperature, Cu-Fe composite material is obtained.
Cu-Fe composite material obtained in the present embodiment, conductance is 72%IACS, tensile strength is 1150MPa.
Embodiment 5
The preparation method of Cu-Fe composite material, comprises the following steps:
Step 1, the preparation of rapid solidification Cu-Fe alloys:
In mass ratio, cathode copper and technical pure Fe=92: 8, carry out dispensing, after melting, using water cooled copper mould casting legal system Obtain Cu-Fe alloys;
Homogenization Treatments under step 2, magnetic fields:
Cu-Fe alloys are placed in 20T magnetic fields, are heated to 1100 DEG C, be incubated 28h, then water quenching obtains uniformly mistake Saturation Cu-Fe alloys;
Step 3, the formation of Fe precipitated phases and roughening under magnetic fields:
Supersaturated Cu-Fe alloys are placed in 20T magnetic fields, are heated to 650 DEG C, be incubated 72h, cool to room temperature with the furnace, obtained To the Cu-Fe alloys of roughening;
Martensite transfor mation under step 4, magnetic field and cold service:
The Cu-Fe alloys that will be roughened, are placed in 15T magnetic fields, in -200 DEG C of temperature, are incubated 24min, obtain martensite transfor mation Cu-Fe alloys;
Step 5, the complete martensite transfor mation of room temperature:
To the Cu-Fe alloys of martensite transfor mation, drawing is carried out, apply 75% deformation, obtain abundant martensite transfor mation Cu-Fe alloys;
Step 6, the Absorption Growth of Fe under magnetic fields:
The Cu-Fe alloys of abundant martensite transfor mation are placed in 12T magnetic fields, are heated to 600 DEG C, be incubated 30h, it is cold with stove But to room temperature, Cu-Fe composite material is obtained.
Cu-Fe composite material obtained in the present embodiment, conductance is 70%IACS, tensile strength is 1350MPa.

Claims (5)

1. a kind of preparation method of Cu-Fe composite material, it is characterised in that comprise the following steps:
Step 1, the preparation of rapid solidification Cu-Fe alloys:
With cathode copper and technical pure Fe as raw material, Cu-Fe alloys are obtained using rapid solidification method after melting;
Homogenization Treatments under step 2, magnetic fields:
Cu-Fe alloys are placed in 0.1~35T magnetic fields, are heated to 950~1150 DEG C, be incubated 6~48h, then water quenching is obtained Uniform supersaturation Cu-Fe alloys;
Step 3, the formation of Fe precipitated phases and roughening under magnetic fields:
Supersaturated Cu-Fe alloys are placed in 0.1~35T magnetic fields, are heated to 500~700 DEG C, be incubated 5~96h, furnace cooling To room temperature, the Cu-Fe alloys being roughened;
Martensite transfor mation under step 4, magnetic field and cold service:
The Cu-Fe alloys that will be roughened, are placed in 5~100T magnetic fields, in temperature -100~-269 DEG C, are incubated 5~180min, obtain The Cu-Fe alloys of martensite transfor mation;
Step 5, the complete martensite transfor mation of room temperature:
To the Cu-Fe alloys of martensite transfor mation, apply 10~99.999% deformation, obtain the Cu-Fe of abundant martensite transfor mation Alloy;
Step 6, the Absorption Growth of Fe under magnetic fields:
The Cu-Fe alloys of abundant martensite transfor mation are placed in 0.1~35T magnetic fields, are heated to 600~750 DEG C, insulation 4~ 48h, cools to room temperature with the furnace, obtains Cu-Fe composite material.
2. the preparation method of Cu-Fe composite material according to claim 1, it is characterised in that in described step 1, electricity The purity for solving copper is more than 99.9%;Rapid solidification method is that water cooled copper mould casting method or vacuum get rid of band method.
3. the preparation method of Cu-Fe composite material according to claim 1, it is characterised in that in described step 5, apply Plus 10~method of 99.999% deformation is drawing, rolling, Equal Channel Angular Pressing or high pressure torsion deform.
4. the preparation method of Cu-Fe composite material according to claim 1, it is characterised in that described preparation method system The Cu-Fe composite material for obtaining, by mass percentage, Fe is 4~10%, balance of Cu.
5. the preparation method of Cu-Fe composite material according to claim 1, it is characterised in that described preparation method system The Cu-Fe composite material for obtaining, conductance is 65~82%IACS, tensile strength is 1050~1600MPa.
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Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN108160956B (en) * 2018-01-24 2020-01-10 东北大学 Method and device for controlling coarsening behavior of particles in liquid/solid two-phase system
CN109055801B (en) * 2018-07-31 2019-11-12 陕西斯瑞新材料股份有限公司 A kind of preparation method using vacuum consumable arc-melting CuFe alloy material
CN111549253B (en) * 2020-07-03 2021-06-18 江西省科学院应用物理研究所 Rare earth copper-iron alloy, preparation method and application

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CN101525731A (en) * 2009-04-22 2009-09-09 东南大学 Cu-Fe original-position compound copper base material and preparation method thereof
CN101775520A (en) * 2010-02-25 2010-07-14 江西省科学院应用物理研究所 Method for preparing high-performance Cu-Fe deformation in-situ composite material by magnetic field treatment
CN105088117A (en) * 2015-09-17 2015-11-25 北京科技大学 Treatment method for improving comprehensive performances of Cu-Fe-C complex phase copper alloy

Patent Citations (4)

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