CN105613239B - The preparation method and balcony horticultural gardening matrix of balcony horticultural gardening matrix - Google Patents

The preparation method and balcony horticultural gardening matrix of balcony horticultural gardening matrix Download PDF

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Publication number
CN105613239B
CN105613239B CN201610051757.2A CN201610051757A CN105613239B CN 105613239 B CN105613239 B CN 105613239B CN 201610051757 A CN201610051757 A CN 201610051757A CN 105613239 B CN105613239 B CN 105613239B
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matrix
wormcast
earthworm
balcony
horticultural gardening
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CN105613239A (en
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梁斌
李俊良
崔文静
董静
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Qingdao Agricultural University
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Qingdao Agricultural University
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G24/00Growth substrates; Culture media; Apparatus or methods therefor
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01KANIMAL HUSBANDRY; CARE OF BIRDS, FISHES, INSECTS; FISHING; REARING OR BREEDING ANIMALS, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; NEW BREEDS OF ANIMALS
    • A01K67/00Rearing or breeding animals, not otherwise provided for; New breeds of animals
    • A01K67/033Rearing or breeding invertebrates; New breeds of invertebrates
    • A01K67/0332Earthworms
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C05FERTILISERS; MANUFACTURE THEREOF
    • C05FORGANIC FERTILISERS NOT COVERED BY SUBCLASSES C05B, C05C, e.g. FERTILISERS FROM WASTE OR REFUSE
    • C05F3/00Fertilisers from human or animal excrements, e.g. manure
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C05FERTILISERS; MANUFACTURE THEREOF
    • C05GMIXTURES OF FERTILISERS COVERED INDIVIDUALLY BY DIFFERENT SUBCLASSES OF CLASS C05; MIXTURES OF ONE OR MORE FERTILISERS WITH MATERIALS NOT HAVING A SPECIFIC FERTILISING ACTIVITY, e.g. PESTICIDES, SOIL-CONDITIONERS, WETTING AGENTS; FERTILISERS CHARACTERISED BY THEIR FORM
    • C05G5/00Fertilisers characterised by their form
    • C05G5/40Fertilisers incorporated into a matrix
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02PCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES IN THE PRODUCTION OR PROCESSING OF GOODS
    • Y02P60/00Technologies relating to agriculture, livestock or agroalimentary industries
    • Y02P60/80Food processing, e.g. use of renewable energies or variable speed drives in handling, conveying or stacking
    • Y02P60/87Re-use of by-products of food processing for fodder production

Abstract

The present invention proposes a kind of preparation method and balcony horticultural gardening matrix of balcony horticultural gardening matrix, includes the following steps in preparation method:Corn or wheat stalk are cut to the segment stalk to form 1~3cm;Segment stalk and cow dung are mixed to form earthworm feedstuff;Earthworm feedstuff is accumulated to form a pile at shading;Earthworm is put in a suitable place to breed into pile, and water content is 65%~75% in maintaining item pile;Wormcast is collected after 40~60 days;Wormcast is dried and is sieved, matrix wormcast is formed;Matrix wormcast is put into formation balcony horticultural gardening matrix in the flowerpot for balcony horticultural gardening;The balcony horticultural gardening matrix of the present invention, including the wormcast that uses above-mentioned preparation method to prepare.The present invention improves the yield of crop in balcony gardening, and its light weight, reduces balcony and bears a heavy burden.

Description

The preparation method and balcony horticultural gardening matrix of balcony horticultural gardening matrix
Technical field
The invention belongs to matrix to cultivate field more particularly to a kind of preparation method of balcony horticultural gardening matrix.
Background technology
Balcony gardening appears in Europe, the United States, Deng developed countries earliest, the vegetable that nowadays some flourishing international city residents eat Dish has nearly 30% to be supplied by oneself balcony.China's relevant technical research of balcony gardening is gradually unfolded, but there is also very much Blank, such as Facilities serialized, variety development, maintenance, cultivation matrix selection related industry it is also not matched.
With market being growing for pollution-less agriculture and pollution-free food demand, cultivation matrix demand is increasingly Greatly, for wormcast organic fertilizer at the irreplaceable fertilizer of production pollution-less agriculture and pollution-free food, it is not biological organic fertilizer, bacterium The simple combination of fertilizer, amino acid fertilizer, humic acid fertilizer, but the characteristics of have both these fertilizer.Contain a large amount of micro- life in wormcast Object, more valuable is at least to contain two or more antagonistic microbe, after these beneficial microbes are manured into soil, can inhibit rapidly to have The breeding of evil bacterium, beneficial bacterium are able to breeding and expand, reduce the generation of soil-borne disease, so that crops is not easy sick.
From the perspective of waste utilization, cultivation matrix turf is commonly used, is the bioid by archaeophyte by complexity Learn, physical chemistry and geochemistry process transformation and generate.With the rise of cultivation technique without soil, the matrix demand in China Cumulative year after year, and turf category non-renewable resources, a large amount of exploitations cause the ecological environment problems such as destruction Of resources reduction of marsh area, are badly in need of Find a kind of effective substitute.
Invention content
To solve the above-mentioned problems, the present invention provides a kind of preparation method of balcony horticultural gardening matrix and balcony gardening Cultivation matrix, the invention improve the yield of crop in balcony gardening, and its light weight, reduce balcony and bear a heavy burden.
In order to achieve the above object, the technical solution adopted by the present invention is:
A kind of preparation method of balcony horticultural gardening matrix, includes the following steps:It cuts corn or wheat stalk to form 1 The segment stalk of~3cm;Segment stalk and cow dung are mixed to form earthworm feedstuff;It accumulates earthworm feedstuff to form item at shading Pile;Earthworm is put in a suitable place to breed into pile, and water content is 65%~75% in maintaining item pile;Wormcast is collected after 40~60 days;It receives Collect earthworm;Wormcast is dried and is sieved to form matrix wormcast by sieve;Matrix wormcast is put into for balcony garden Balcony horticultural gardening matrix is formed in the flowerpot of skill cultivation.
As advanced optimizing for the present invention, matrix wormcast is put into being formed in the flowerpot for balcony horticultural gardening In the step of balcony horticultural gardening matrix, further includes being put into the vermiculite equal with wormcast volume in flowerpot, make matrix earthworm The volume ratio of excrement and vermiculite is 1:1.
As advanced optimizing for the present invention, matrix wormcast is put into being formed in the flowerpot for balcony horticultural gardening In the step of balcony horticultural gardening matrix, further includes being put into the perlite equal with wormcast volume in flowerpot, make matrix earthworm The volume ratio of earthworm excrement and perlite is 1:1.
As advanced optimizing for the present invention, matrix wormcast is put into being formed in the flowerpot for balcony horticultural gardening Further include that the perlite and vermiculite equal with wormcast volume are put into flowerpot in the step of balcony horticultural gardening matrix, with Make matrix wormcast:Perlite:The volume ratio of vermiculite is 1:1:1.
In the step of being advanced optimized as of the invention, segment stalk and cow dung be mixed to form earthworm feedstuff, segment Stalk and the mixing quality of cow dung ratio are 1:1.
As advanced optimizing for the present invention, earthworm feedstuff is accumulated at shading in the step of forming pile, the item Pile is the wide 1.2m~1.5m in bottom surface, the arch of high 0.4~0.6m or trapezoidal pile, and 1.3m~1.5m is spaced between adjacent strip pile, For aisle and turn over.
In the step of collecting wormcast as advanced optimizing for the present invention, after 40~60 days, specially:By a pile surface layer 0~10cm translates into adjacent strip pile interval, and residue is shakeout, and from top to bottom per mono- layer of collection earthworm of 5cm in remaining pile Excrement.
As advanced optimizing for the present invention, wormcast is dried and is sieved in the step of forming matrix wormcast, by earthworm It is 15~20% that earthworm excrement, which is dried to the water content of wormcast, and the sieve pore of the sieve is 1.0cm.
The present invention also provides a kind of balcony horticultural gardening matrix, including the wormcast for using above-mentioned preparation method to prepare.
Further include vermiculite identical with wormcast volume as advanced optimizing for the present invention.
Compared with prior art, the advantages and positive effects of the present invention are:
1, matrix of the invention improves the yield of crop in balcony gardening, and its light weight, reduces balcony and bears a heavy burden;
2, matrix water absorbing and retaining properties of the invention are relatively strong high, are suitable for balcony horticultural gardening, irrigation times reduced, to subtract Few workload;
3, preparation method of the invention is simple and can fully collect wormcast;
4, wormcast is added in the present invention, improves the supply capacity of nitrogen in matrix, phosphorus, potassium.
Description of the drawings
Fig. 1 is the flow chart of balcony horticultural gardening Matrix formulation procedure in the present invention.
Specific implementation mode
In the following, the present invention is specifically described by illustrative embodiment.It should be appreciated, however, that not into one In the case of step narration, element, structure and features in an embodiment can also be advantageously incorporated into other embodiment In.
It is the flow chart of balcony horticultural gardening Matrix formulation procedure in the present invention referring to Fig. 1.As shown in Figure 1, the present invention The preparation method of balcony horticultural gardening matrix, includes the following steps:Corn or wheat stalk are cut to the segment to form 1~3cm Stalk, using segment stalk as raw material, fast decoupled of being more convenient for;Segment stalk and cow dung are mixed to form earthworm feedstuff;By earthworm Earthworm feed is accumulated to form a pile at shading, and pile is strip, and the earthworm breeding place of strip on the one hand can be more reasonably Using space, the realization earthworm of another aspect maximizing is put in a suitable place to breed;Earthworm is put in a suitable place to breed into pile, and water content in maintaining item pile It is 65%~75%, the water content with above range in maintaining item pile contributes to the quick breeding of earthworm, improves earthworm and lives Power;Wormcast is collected after 40~60 days, the wormcast collected at this time not only includes nutriment and enriches without decomposition, and earthworm is in life Grow after 40~60 days, the decomposition of pile be basically completed, such as overlong time, earthworm will due to a lack of food source and It damages, and the time is too short, then earthworm decomposes a pile incomplete;Collect earthworm;Wormcast is dried and by screen filtration shape At matrix wormcast;Matrix wormcast is put into formation balcony horticultural gardening matrix in the flowerpot for balcony horticultural gardening.
Among the above, water content will be kept to be 65%~75% in pile, the fertility of earthworm is stronger, for details, reference can be made to Table 1, table 1 are influence of the different water content for earthworm fertility when being cultivated for 15 with initial earthworm:
Different influences of the pile water content for earthworm reproductive number of table 1
Matrix wormcast is put into the step of forming balcony horticultural gardening matrix in the flowerpot for balcony horticultural gardening In, the first embodiment be further include that the vermiculite equal with wormcast volume is put into flowerpot, make matrix wormcast and vermiculite Volume ratio be 1:1, the matrix not only good water-retaining property of this kind proportioning, and also it can make the emergence rate higher of horticultural gardening crop.
In addition, being put into matrix wormcast to formation balcony horticultural gardening matrix in the flowerpot for balcony horticultural gardening In step, second of embodiment be further include that the perlite equal with wormcast volume is put into flowerpot, make matrix wormcast Volume ratio with perlite is 1:1.
Meanwhile matrix wormcast being put into formation balcony horticultural gardening matrix in the flowerpot for balcony horticultural gardening Further include the third embodiment in step, i.e., the perlite and vermiculite equal with wormcast volume is put into flowerpot, so that base Matter wormcast:Perlite:The volume ratio of vermiculite is 1:1:1.
Further by the refinement of above method step, specifically such as:Segment stalk and cow dung are mixed to form earthworm feedstuff In step, the mixing quality ratio of segment stalk and cow dung is 1:1, on the one hand enough food sources can be provided for follow-up earthworm, separately On the one hand, make wormcast matrix more loose, be conducive to the growth of crop;It is simultaneously 1 in proportioning:In the case of 1, the breeding energy of earthworm Power is stronger, for details, reference can be made to table 2, table 2 be with initial earthworm quantity be 15 on the basis of cultivated when, different ratio for The influence of earthworm fertility:
Influence under 2 different ratio of table to earthworm fertility
Earthworm feedstuff is accumulated at shading in the step of forming pile, described pile is the wide 1.2m~1.5m in bottom surface, high The arch of 0.4~0.6m or trapezoidal pile are spaced 1.3m~1.5m between adjacent strip pile, for aisle and turn over, arch or Trapezoidal pile simulates the living environment of earthworm under natural conditions, i.e., pricks the depth in soil under earthworm under natural conditions, in this way Be conducive to prevent earthworm toward underground drilling, to cause to put the loss of earthworm in a suitable place to breed.
In the step of collecting wormcast after 40~60 days, specially:A 0~10cm of pile surface layer is translated between adjacent strip pile Every place, residue is shakeout, and from top to bottom per mono- layer of collection wormcast of 5cm in remaining pile, the good of wormcast is collected in layering Be in, on the one hand wormcast can be collected abundant, on the other hand with successively collecting, lower layer is got under earthworm, it is effectively anti- Only earthworm is collected into wormcast.
Wormcast is dried and is sieved in the step of forming matrix wormcast, wormcast is dried to the water content of wormcast It is 15~20%, it is loose porous when the wormcast with this water content is as matrix, it effectively prevent hardened, is more advantageous to balcony The sieve pore of the emergence of garden crop, the sieve is 1.0cm, selects the wormcast of suitable size, can prevent excessive wormcast not It easily decomposes, the shortcomings of being not easy to absorb moisture.
In addition, additionally providing a kind of balcony horticultural gardening matrix in the present invention, including above-mentioned preparation method is used to prepare Wormcast.Further include vermiculite identical with wormcast volume in the matrix.
In order to illustrate the creativeness of the present invention, will be specifically described by taking cherry radish and crowndaisy chrysanthemum as an example below:
Such as table 3, matrix is prepared according to following proportionings, wherein the wormcast is the earthworm of gained in above-mentioned preparation method Excrement:
3 substrate composition situation of table
By the matrix of said ratio, cherry radish and crowndaisy chrysanthemum are cultivated, and obtain 4 mesostroma physicochemical property of table:
4 matrix basic physical and chemical of table
As can be known from Table 4, add the full nitrogen of its in the proportioning of wormcast, full phosphorus, rapid available phosphorus, available potassium content be above pair According to wormcast can provide more available mineral elements.Wherein with the most apparent of simple wormcast, full nitrogen is higher by 37.8%, full phosphorus is higher by 36.6%, and rapid available phosphorus is higher by 186.7%, and available potassium is higher by 162.8%.The pH value of wormcast depends on Raw material, for the pH value of cow dung usually between 6.0-7.0, the wormcast pH value formed by cow dung in this experiment is 7.34.Plant Growth needs suitable conductivity, tests 1.61 times, 1.50 times, 1.30 times, 2.85 times that substrate composition used is control.
In addition, as can be seen from Table 5, in different substrates proportioning, using wormcast:Vermiculite=1:1 emergence rate highest, with it It matches discrete phase and compares significant difference.Traditional seedling medium turf:Vermiculite=1:1 emergence rate is only second to wormcast:Vermiculite=1:1 Proportioning, wormcast:Vermiculite:Perlite=1:1:1 emergence rate is minimum, emergence rate highest minimum than emergence rate high 16%, Wormcast compared with the control:Vermiculite=1:1 emergence rate is higher by 7%.
The unearthed phenomenon of the band cap of seed can influence vane extension and photosynthesis influences plant growth in turn, and band cap is unearthed existing As sowing angle, depth of planting and the moisture by seed are influenced, in this table 5, seed sows angle, depth and moisture situation It is all identical, it covers seed belt cap in husky substrate composition and is unearthed phenomenon significantly lower than the situation for not covering sand.Wherein, wormcast:Vermiculite =1:The unearthed situation of band cap of 1 proportioning is minimum, hence it is evident that is less than other proportionings, wormcast:Vermiculite=1:1 band cap frequently of matching is unearthed Situation is highest to be higher by 19%.
5 different substrates of table match the influence of the emergence situation for cherry radish and crowndaisy chrysanthemum
In table 6, show that different substrates match the influence for cherry radish and the crowndaisy chrysanthemum index of quality.6 result table of table Bright, in different substrates proportioning, pol and Vc (vitamin C) difference for cherry radish and crowndaisy chrysanthemum is not notable.With regard to nitrate content For, the nitrate content for adding the proportioning of wormcast is higher than control group, high by 26.0% respectively in cherry radish, and 24.4%, 17.0%, 26.6%, it is higher by control group 12.1% in crowndaisy chrysanthemum respectively, 13.0%, 19.8%, 19.8%.Leaf vegetables in national standard Class is≤3000mg/kg, root vegetables≤2500mg/kg.
6 different substrates of table match the influence for cherry radish and crowndaisy chrysanthemum quality
Influence of the different substrates proportioning for the growth period Determination of Chlorophyll of cherry radish and crowndaisy chrysanthemum is shown in table 7.In the table Show in 20-40 days growth periods of crop, chlorophyll content is integrally in rising trend with the increase of breeding time.In single earthworm The cherry radish planted in the proportioning of earthworm excrement, in 20d, chlorophyll content is apparently higher than other proportionings, is higher by 14.1% respectively, 12.6%, 12.6%, 14.9%;Other are higher by when 30d respectively and matches 12.2%, 4.0%, 38.3%, 18.8%;When 40d, point It is not higher by other and matches 19.7%, 5.5%, 14.4%, 10.3%.Chlorophyll content difference is not in crowndaisy chrysanthemum, between different ratio Significantly.
7 different substrates of table match the influence for cherry radish and crowndaisy chrysanthemum chlorophyll
Table 8 is the influence for the Photosynthetic Index that different substrates are matched for cherry radish and crowndaisy chrysanthemum.Table 8 shows simple wormcast The radish of plantation and the A of crowndaisy chrysanthemum, Ci, E, gs are above other proportionings.Except wormcast:Vermiculite:Perlite=1:1:Except 1, addition The substrate composition Photosynthetic Index of wormcast is above control.
8 different substrates of table match the influence of the Photosynthetic Index for cherry radish and crowndaisy chrysanthemum
As known from the above, in different substrates proportioning, wormcast is used:Vermiculite=1:1 emergence rate highest, with other proportioning bases Matter compares significant difference.Use wormcast and vermiculite 1:1 proportioning, the content of organic matter is higher in matrix, in addition vermiculite itself for Seed, which is sprouted, has facilitation.With the raising of wormcast content, can make because of its higher salt content germination by Inhibit, and emergence rate is caused to reduce.
The addition of wormcast, it will be apparent that cherry radish and the yield of crowndaisy chrysanthemum are improved, because the humic acid in wormcast can promote Into the elongation of root, increase the quantity of lateral root, and H on maize root cells plasma membrane can be increased+The activity of-ATPase, as a result, cherry trailing plants Foretell and the growth of crowndaisy chrysanthemum root system is also that plant growth regulating substance and humic acid contained by wormcast are promoted, the growth of root system is just More nutrients are absorbed in plant, and then promote growth.
The above described is only a preferred embodiment of the present invention, being not that the invention has other forms of limitations, appoint What those skilled in the art changed or be modified as possibly also with the technology contents of the disclosure above equivalent variations etc. It imitates embodiment and is applied to other fields, but it is every without departing from technical solution of the present invention content, according to the technical essence of the invention To any simple modification, equivalent variations and remodeling made by above example, the protection domain of technical solution of the present invention is still fallen within.

Claims (8)

1. a kind of preparation method of balcony horticultural gardening matrix, it is characterised in that:Include the following steps:By corn or wheat stalk Cutting forms the segment stalk of 1~3cm;Segment stalk and cow dung are mixed to form earthworm feedstuff, segment stalk and cow dung it is mixed It is 1 to close volume ratio:1;Earthworm feedstuff to be accumulated to form a pile at shading, pile is the wide 1.2m~1.5m in bottom surface, high by 0.4~ The arch of 0.6m or trapezoidal pile are spaced 1.3m~1.5m between adjacent strip pile, for aisle and turn over;By earthworm put in a suitable place to breed to In pile, and water content is 65%~75% in maintaining item pile;Wormcast is collected after 40~60 days;Collect earthworm;By wormcast It dries and is sieved, be 15~20% by the water content that wormcast is dried to wormcast, form matrix wormcast;By matrix wormcast It is put into formation balcony horticultural gardening matrix in the flowerpot for balcony horticultural gardening.
2. the preparation method of balcony horticultural gardening matrix according to claim 1, it is characterised in that:Matrix wormcast is put Further include being mixed into flowerpot and earthworm in the step of entering to be formed balcony horticultural gardening matrix in the flowerpot for balcony horticultural gardening The equal vermiculite of earthworm excrement volume, it is 1 to make the volume ratio of matrix wormcast and vermiculite:1.
3. the preparation method of balcony horticultural gardening matrix according to claim 1, it is characterised in that:Matrix wormcast is put Further include being mixed into flowerpot and earthworm in the step of entering to be formed balcony horticultural gardening matrix in the flowerpot for balcony horticultural gardening The equal perlite of earthworm excrement volume, it is 1 to make the volume ratio of matrix wormcast and perlite:1.
4. the preparation method of balcony horticultural gardening matrix according to claim 1, it is characterised in that:Matrix wormcast is put Further include being mixed into flowerpot and earthworm in the step of entering to be formed balcony horticultural gardening matrix in the flowerpot for balcony horticultural gardening Earthworm excrement volume equal perlite and vermiculite, so that matrix wormcast:Perlite:The volume ratio of vermiculite is 1:1:1.
5. the preparation method of balcony horticultural gardening matrix according to claim 1, it is characterised in that:It is collected after 40~60 days In the step of wormcast, specially:A 0~10cm of pile surface layer is translated into adjacent strip pile interval, residue is shakeout, and remaining From top to bottom per mono- layer of collection wormcast of 5cm in pile.
6. the preparation method of balcony horticultural gardening matrix according to claim 1, it is characterised in that:Wormcast is dried simultaneously In the step of sieving forms matrix wormcast, the sieve pore of the sieve is 1.0cm.
7. a kind of balcony horticultural gardening matrix, it is characterised in that:Including using the earthworm that in claim 1 prepared by preparation method used Earthworm excrement.
8. balcony horticultural gardening matrix according to claim 7, it is characterised in that:It further include leech identical with wormcast volume Stone.
CN201610051757.2A 2016-01-26 2016-01-26 The preparation method and balcony horticultural gardening matrix of balcony horticultural gardening matrix Active CN105613239B (en)

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CN105165731A (en) * 2015-09-11 2015-12-23 安徽省农业科学院农产品加工研究所 Method for preparing high-quality wormcast

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CN104171698A (en) * 2014-08-07 2014-12-03 安徽省农科院农产品加工研究所 Leavening for cultivating earthworms and method for cultivating earthworms
CN104429709A (en) * 2014-12-01 2015-03-25 南京农业大学 Strawberry seedling substrate prepared from earthworm cast, and production method and application thereof
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