CN105610115B - Active lightening arresting method based on history thunder and lightning motion track statistical property - Google Patents

Active lightening arresting method based on history thunder and lightning motion track statistical property Download PDF

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CN105610115B
CN105610115B CN201510991317.0A CN201510991317A CN105610115B CN 105610115 B CN105610115 B CN 105610115B CN 201510991317 A CN201510991317 A CN 201510991317A CN 105610115 B CN105610115 B CN 105610115B
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lightning
thunder
motion track
target area
history
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CN105610115A (en
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陈浩
黄礼忠
李政洋
尹祖亮
高大兵
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陈凤
苏盛
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    • HELECTRICITY
    • H02GENERATION; CONVERSION OR DISTRIBUTION OF ELECTRIC POWER
    • H02GINSTALLATION OF ELECTRIC CABLES OR LINES, OR OF COMBINED OPTICAL AND ELECTRIC CABLES OR LINES
    • H02G13/00Installations of lightning conductors; Fastening thereof to supporting structure
    • H02G13/60Detecting; Measuring; Sensing; Testing; Simulating

Abstract

A kind of active lightening arresting method based on history thunder and lightning motion track statistical property, the method is:Behind selected lightning protection target area, all history lightning datas within the outer peripheral areas of target area are selected from lightning location system;By the date that thunder and lightning occurred per diem thunder and lightning number of times descending arrangement, choose front 20% or so Thunderstorm Day and be analyzed.Each Thunderstorm Day is resolved into into several time periods by certain hour, after calculating the thunder and lightning density center of each time period, you can draw the thunder and lightning density center motion track of each Thunderstorm Day;On this basis, the statistical property according to the history thunder and lightning motion track of front 20% Thunderstorm Day, determines the probability thunder and lightning motion track of target area.Accordingly, choose and concentrate more than 30% direction for moving towards identical thunder and lightning motion track to be maximum probability thunder and lightning course bearing, and suitable location erection independent lightning rod and lightning conducter are chosen within 20 kilometers of the upstream of target area maximum probability thunder and lightning course bearing, the lightning strike probability of target area can be significantly reduced.

Description

Active lightening arresting method based on history thunder and lightning motion track statistical property
Technical field
The present invention relates to the shocking preventing technology of marine wind electric field, more particularly to a kind of history thunder and lightning based on lightning location system The active lightening arresting method of motion track statistical property.
Background technology
At present, belong to passive lightning protection the lightning protection measures employed in power system anti-thunder technical field more.It is special for part Structures such as oil plant, oil depot etc. that unimportant, sensitive to thunder and lightning and region is concentrated, it is also possible to set up independent around plant area periphery Discharging rod and lightning conducter, with thundercloud charge of releasing in advance, protect the important structures safety of on-site.
A large amount of wind-driven generator operating experience show that lightning hazards are for the safe and reliable operation of wind-driven generator both at home and abroad Constitute prominent threat.The height of modern wind electromotor is usually more than 150m, and which exposes fan blade outside and bonnet is logical Often by made by composite, it is impossible to directly bear thunderbolt or conduct lightning current, easily cause to damage when being struck by lightning;Its It is secondary, when lightning current is released into ground by arrester Jing blower fans, electric arc burn bearing may be drawn, burn impression is during bearing rotary Highlight being exaggerated, threaten the safe operation of blower fan;Finally, the control system of wind-driven generator belongs to weak electricity system, it is easier to Damage in thunderbolt.For marine wind electric field, on the one hand, equipment damage and shutdown are such as caused after lightning strike accident, sea need to be regarded Condition being selected a good opportunity Maintenance and Repair of carry out by ship, repair and maintenance expense and shuts down the generated energy loss for causing and is far above land wind-powered electricity generation;Separately On the one hand, because physical features is flat and unit is towering, offshore wind generating is more susceptible to thunder and lightning invasion and attack.According to states such as Germany, Denmark Statistics show, in less (the thunder and lightning density only 0.2-0.5 times/year of kM of thunder and lightning2) West Europe area, every 100 Fans 4.6 are there are about every year meets with thunderbolt.And in China southeastern coastal areas, thunder and lightning density is often as high as 20 times/year of kM2, it is close to For 100 times of West Europe area, after carrying out Large scale construction marine wind electric field, thunderbolt may bring non-to the reliability service of wind energy turbine set The harm of Chang Yanchong.Although the lightning protection level of wind-driven generator is increased in recent years, offshore wind turbine blade and axle The lightning protection for the weak part such as holding still is difficult to meet actual requirement.
If as the important goals such as oil plant, oil depot, setting up independent lightning rod along marine wind electric field periphery and taking shelter from the thunder Line, it is possible to significantly reduce the thunderstruck probability of wind power generating set, but marine wind electric field often length and width reaches several kilometers, it is coastal Upper wind energy turbine set outer is built independent lightning rod, sets up lightning conducter, from from the perspective of economy and reliability, all infeasible.
In fact, being affected by factors such as geology landform, monsoon wind directions, the motion track of thunder and lightning often has certain rule Property.Such as the mountain region Valley of land, thundercloud tends to vary with valley and moves towards migration, and its thunder and lightning motion track also can be big Cause between valley.Coastal area, it is equally possible to have similar characteristics.Meteorological field is thought, when summer tropical cyclone Be moved to that the Taiwan Straits or Guangxi is domestic and when its peripheral rain band does not affect Pearl River Delta area yet, the down draft meeting of tropical cyclone So that Along Coast of South China area cloud amount is rare.Under prolonged sunshine, Guangdong hinterland afternoon function becomes extremely hot, surface temperature Rising may excite thunderstorm to produce.Due to the Background wind in the area atmosphere middle level at that time, to be generally north to northeaster therefore interior The thunderstorm that land produces can be moved southwards by northern, by north direction, sweep away whole Pearl River Delta area.
According to the statistics being distributed to thunder and lightning time domain, when being concentrated in only a few thunderstorm, heavy rain as the Enif of coastal area Section.By taking Hong Kong as an example, Hongkong amounts to and monitors thunder and lightning 1,200,000 times nearly ten years, wherein most 56 days of Thunderstorm Day, thunder and lightning Number of times reaches nearly 600,000 times, accounts for whole statistics days more than half.If the statistics rule of those thunder and lightning movement locus can be held Rule, you can determine the probability thunder and lightning motion track of the target areas such as marine wind electric field, and in the party upstream of thunder and lightning motion track To lightning conducter is set up, discharge and move the electric charge of thundercloud along thunder and lightning track by upstream, significantly reduce the thunderstruck probability of target zone, Realize active lightning protection.
The lightning location system for occurring in recent years have recorded the lightning data of magnanimity, include thunder and lightning in these lightning datas A large amount of full and accurate information such as stream amplitude, geographical coordinate and thunderbolt precise moments.Currently, mainly using these information carries out subregion Thunder and lightning density analysis, and the lightning parameter that collected according to thunder and lightning density assessment and the circuit obtained by three-dimension GIS scanning Line parameter circuit value selected by terrain parameter and power system transmission line, carries out the meter of trip-out rate according to the model set up Calculate, so as to the assessment of lightning protection grade is carried out to power transmission area.Then its zones of different is entered according to the height of lightning protection assessment grade The corresponding lightning protection of row.This reduces the blindness of lightning protection to a certain extent, strengthens specific aim, but substantial or right All power transmission areas have carried out full section protection, and only protective measure is different.The protection thought of common lightning protection device is Arrive in passive waiting thunder and lightning, directional guide thunder and lightning is released with flowing into.In fact, recording thunder and lightning number using lightning location system According to can recognize thunder and lightning traveling locus, and the statistical law using these thunder and lightning traveling locus carries out initiative lightning protection, in thundercloud Release before moving to target area thundercloud charge, reduce target area lightning strike probability.
The content of the invention
The technical problem to be solved is:Lightning protection for above-mentioned offshore wind turbine in prior art is difficult A kind of topic, there is provided active lightening arresting method based on history thunder and lightning motion track statistical property.The method is with existing lighting location system Based on the history lightning data of system record, the outer peripheral areas with lightning protection target area select the outer peripheral areas scope as scope Interior all history lightning datas are analyzed.Because thunder and lightning has a temporal highly non-uniform distribution characteristicss, minority thunder and lightning compared with The thunder and lightning number of times of many days may account for the more than half of whole history thunder and lightning record number of times, select front 20% thunder and lightning more day to launch Analysis, you can hold the probability statistical nature of thunder and lightning track.To determine the thunder and lightning motion track of more Thunderstorm Day, by what is selected Thunder and lightning more day resolved into multiple time periods by 5 to 10 minutes one by one, and the time period to avoid only few thunder and lightning there may be The impact that thunder and lightning density center randomness is projected, removes time period of the thunder and lightning number of times less than 5 times, calculates remaining each time period Thunder and lightning density center, to respectively obtain the thunder and lightning density center motion track of each more Thunderstorm Day.Finally, according to those more thunders The statistical nature of the thunder and lightning density center motion track of electric day, in choice set, more than 30% moves towards the shifting of identical thunder and lightning density center The direction of dynamic rail mark is maximum probability thunder and lightning density center motion track direction, and in the maximum probability thunder and lightning density of lightning protection target area Suitable location is selected within 20 kilometers of the upstream of center motion track, independent lightning rod is laid, is set up lightning conducter.
Because the statistical property of thunder and lightning motion track is determined by landform and climatic factor, significantly change will not occur, Using the thundercloud charge that said method will can be moved to lightning protection target area on maximum probability thunder and lightning density center motion track direction Release into ground, thundercloud is significantly reduced into the lightning strike probability behind lightning protection target area, realize that the active to lightning protection target area is prevented Thunder.
To solve above-mentioned technical problem, the technical solution adopted in the present invention is:It is a kind of to be based on history thunder and lightning motion track The active lightening arresting method of statistical property, the method step are as follows:
A. the point centered on lightning protection target area, by from the center by area from length and width to 3 to 10 times of each uniform expansion of surrounding Domain is used as outer peripheral areas;
B. according to the corresponding Jing of the outer peripheral areas, latitude, this is selected from the lightning data of lightning location system record outer The all history lightning datas in region are enclosed, to count date and natural law that thunder and lightning occurred, then those was occurred into thunder and lightning Date, per diem thunder and lightning number of times carried out descending arrangement, and the thunder and lightning more day of selection front 20% is used as analysis object;
C. with 5-10min as a time period, each Thunderstorm Day of the selection is decomposed into into several time periods, rejecting does not have thunder Time period of the time period and thunder and lightning number of times of electricity less than 5 times, calculate the thunder and lightning density center of remaining each time period;Foundation should A little thunder and lightning density centers, draw thunder and lightning density center motion track (the abbreviation thunder on those Thunderstorm Days same day using method of least square Electric moveable track);
D. according to above-mentioned thunder and lightning density center motion track, more than 30% will be concentrated to move towards the shifting of identical thunder and lightning density center The direction of dynamic rail mark is set to maximum probability thunder and lightning density center motion track direction, and in lightning protection target area maximum probability thunder and lightning density Within 20 kilometers of the updrift side of center motion track, choose correct position and set up independent lightning rod and lightning conducter, release in advance Thundercloud charge is moved to lightning protection target area along maximum probability thunder and lightning density center motion track, to reduce the thunder of lightning protection target area Hit probability.The calculating of the above-mentioned thunder and lightning density center for referring to, and it is close using the thunder and lightning of method of least square render history Thunderstorm Day Degree center motion track is all prior art.
Because the lightning protection such as marine wind electric field target area often only has several square kilometres, thunder narrow and small with respect to area for thundercloud Electric data are limited, it is understood that there may be the problem of obvious lightning center randomness.For reduce randomness affect, need to by its scope in case To surrounding uniform expansion to outer peripheral areas centered on thunder target area, all history lightning datas in outer peripheral areas are chosen, point Analysis obtains the history thunder and lightning motion track of lightning protection target area.According to the statistical property and rule of history thunder and lightning motion track, The upstream installing independent lightning rod of thundercloud movement and lightning conducter, with lightning current of releasing before thundercloud moves to lightning protection target area, Reducing lightning protection target area is protected structures to suffer lightning strike probability, realizes active lightning protection.
The lightning protection target areas such as statistical property of the inventive method according to history thunder and lightning motion track, identification marine wind electric field The probabilistic upstream position in thunder and lightning track, and independent lightning rod is set up at lower cost on the island of upstream position or seashore position And lightning conducter, thundercloud of releasing before thunder and lightning invasion and attack lightning protection target area, met with reducing wind power generating set in lightning protection target area The probability of thunderbolt.
Description of the drawings
Fig. 1 is the marine wind electric field (lightning protection target area) and the outer peripheral areas location drawing of the embodiment of the present invention.
Fig. 2 is the history thunder and lightning density center distribution of a certain Thunderstorm Day outer peripheral areas of the embodiment of the present invention and thunder and lightning moving rail Mark figure.
Fig. 3 is the history thunder and lightning density center trajectory diagram of 19 days most outer peripheral areas of thunder and lightning in the embodiment of the present invention.
Specific embodiment
Technical scheme is described further below by way of specific embodiment.
The present invention selectes lightning protection target area and its peripheral expansion region first, is recorded using existing lightning location system History lightning data, according to the statistical property of lightning protection target area thunder and lightning motion track, determines the maximum probability of lightning protection target area The upstream position of thunder and lightning motion track, to select the structures lightning protection for arranging lightning protection target area to provide effective reference frame.
Specifically, it is as follows the step of active lightening arresting method based on history thunder and lightning motion track statistical property of the invention:
A. in order to accurately obtain the thundercloud movement law of lightning protection target area thunder and lightning motion track upstream, so as to move in thundercloud Release before moving lightning protection target area thundercloud charge, lightning data acquisition zone should be greater than the lightning protection target area.Therefore, it is anti-with this Centered on thunder target area, using from the center to surrounding by region from length and width to 3-10 times of surrounding uniform expansion as external zones Domain;
B. Jing according to the outer peripheral areas border, latitude, select this outer from the lightning data of lightning location system record The all history lightning datas in region are enclosed, statistics occurred date and the natural law of thunder and lightning;Be there is into the day of thunder and lightning in those again Phase, per diem thunder and lightning number of times carried out descending arrangement, and then the Thunderstorm Day of selection front 20% is used as analysis object.Such as:Assume Hongkong The natural law that thunder and lightning occurred over nearly 10 years is 400 days, then by this 400 days per diem thunder and lightning number of times carry out descending arrangement, choose day thunder The electricity front 20% i.e. first 80 days analysis objects as next step often.
C. the Thunderstorm Day of selection is decomposed into into several time periods (e.g., with Thunderstorm Day one by one by a time period of 5-10min The day with 10 minutes as a time period, then can be divided into 144 (24 × 6) the individual time by the conduct analysis object on the 13rd of September in 2009 Section), deletion does not have the time period of the time period of thunder and lightning and thunder and lightning number of times less than 5 times, calculates the thunder and lightning of remaining each time period Density center;Because of single thunder and lightning, in a few days different time sections thunder and lightning density center may drift about along motion track direction, according to above-mentioned The thunder and lightning density center of each time period, calculates the thunder and lightning density for determining and drawing out each Thunderstorm Day same day using method of least square Center motion track;
D. the trend according to above-mentioned history thunder and lightning density center motion track in lightning protection target area, according to motion track Statistical property determines the upstream position of lightning protection target area thunder and lightning motion track, in thundercloud movement in the lightning protection target area The suitable location in upstream sets up the lightning protection devices such as independent lightning rod, lightning conducter and lightning conduction, so as in thunder and lightning invasion and attack lightning protection target area Release before domain thunder and lightning, realize the active lightning protection of lightning protection target area structures.Specifically, 30% will be concentrated to move towards identical thunder and lightning The direction of density center motion track is set to maximum probability thunder and lightning density center motion track direction, and general in lightning protection target area Within 20 kilometers of the updrift side of rate thunder and lightning density center motion track, choose suitable location and set up independent lightning rod and take shelter from the thunder Line, to release in advance and move thundercloud charge to lightning protection target area along track, reduces lightning protection target area lightning strike probability.
Embodiment 1
So that Hong Kong electric light company limited is in the Wind Power Plant at Sea that Hong Kong border Inner Lammas surrounding waters is built as an example.Should The area of Wind Power Plant at Sea offshore wind electric field is 9 square kilometres, represents the wind-powered electricity generation from the surface area of its 3km × 3km The lightning protection region of field is using as lightning protection target area.To understand fully the thunder and lightning motion track for attacking the wind energy turbine set, with the wind energy turbine set it is Center selects each 15kM (the 5 times of target area length and width) marine site of its peripheral length and width as outer peripheral areas (see in Fig. 1 to external expansion Two square frames, internal little square frame are target area, and big square frame is outer peripheral areas).With the corresponding longitude of selected outer peripheral areas and Latitude, finds out all history lightning datas in the outer peripheral areas nearly ten years from the lightning data of lightning location system record For 55729 times, concentrate in 460 days, by this 460 days per diem thunder and lightning number of times carry out after descending arrangement, choose first 92 days (20%) As analysis object.By this 92 days with 10 minutes as a time period, 144 time periods are decomposed into daily, rejected without generation Time periods thunder and lightning and that thunder and lightning number of times is less than 5 times are spent, the thunder and lightning density center of remaining each time period is then calculated.Root again According to multiple thunder and lightning density centers of current Thunderstorm Day, the thunder and lightning on each Thunderstorm Day same day is calculated and is drawn out using method of least square (e.g., the thunder and lightning number of times 3837 on the 13rd of September in 2009 is fitted the thunder and lightning density center motion track for drawing and sees in Fig. 2 motion track Straight line), the thunder and lightning density center motion track of each Thunderstorm Day of selection is obtained according to this, according to those history thunder and lightning density centers Motion track is characterizing the probability thunder and lightning track of the wind energy turbine set.Thunder and lightning is only drawn in Fig. 3 and (accounts for whole thunders and lightnings within most 19 days It is more than half), illustrate the probability thunder of the wind energy turbine set according to as a example by this 19 days history thunder and lightning density center motion track Electric track.
As seen from the figure, in the thunder and lightning motion track of 19 more Thunderstorm Days of offshore wind farm field areas, only one be from South is dynamic toward moving northward, and ten is that, from direction northwest southeastwards direction movement, eight by northeastward, southwest direction is moved, therefore, Will from northwest southeastwards direction movement and northeast southwest direction movement be set to maximum probability thunder and lightning density center motion track direction.
With reference to local truth, in 20 kilometers of the marine wind electric field apart from interior, there are Lamma and the northwest position in northeast orientation Chang Zhoudao.Wherein about 2 square kilometres of Changzhou island area, permanent resident population up to 30,000, populous and island Shang You tourist attractions, no Preferably installing discharging rod and lightning conducter carries out active lightning protection;And 14 square kilometres of the Lamma area in northeast orientation, permanent people It is mouthful less, and island ridge height above sea level is between 100 meters to 300 meters, can set up discharging rod and lightning conducter thereon, you can will be by east Westwards the mobile thundercloud charge in south is released into ground in the north.Because 19 days total thunder and lightning number of times of more thunder and lightning are 25206 times, and thunder and lightning rail Thunder and lightning number of times on Lamma set up discharging rod and lightning conducter released in advance up to 12521 times mark is southwester moved by northeast day Thundercloud charge, carries out the active lightning protection of offshore wind turbine, it is possible to significantly reduce offshore wind turbine Thunderstruck probability, ensures the safe and stable operation of wind energy turbine set.
This method will not be limited by geographical environment, as long as finding out the thunder and lightning motion track rule in the lightning protection region, you can The effective active lightning protection to its region is realized, and reference frame is provided for later thunder and lightning defence.
It is described by object of marine wind electric field in the present embodiment, in fact, the monolithic of land is laid special stress on protecting Object may also be employed similar mode and be protected, such as under nuclear power station, extreme terrain easy thunderstruck transmission line of electricity section or Geographically more scattered oil field, mine etc..
Although embodiments of the invention have been shown and described above, it is to be understood that above-described embodiment is example Property, it is impossible to limitation of the present invention is interpreted as, one of ordinary skill in the art within the scope of the invention can be to above-mentioned Embodiment is changed, changes, replacing and modification.

Claims (1)

1. a kind of active lightening arresting method based on history thunder and lightning motion track statistical property, it is characterised in that the method step is such as Under:
A. centered on lightning protection target area, using from the center by region from length and width to 3 to 10 times of each uniform expansion of surrounding as Outer peripheral areas;
B. according to the corresponding Jing in the outer peripheral areas border, latitude, this is selected from the lightning data of lightning location system record outer The all history lightning datas in region are enclosed, to count date and natural law that thunder and lightning occurred, then those was occurred into thunder and lightning Date, per diem thunder and lightning number of times carried out descending arrangement, and the Thunderstorm Day of selection front 20% is used as analysis object;
C. with 5-10min as a time period, each Thunderstorm Day chosen is decomposed into into several time periods, rejecting do not have thunder and lightning when Between the time period of section and thunder and lightning number of times less than 5 times, calculate the thunder and lightning density center of remaining each time period;According to those thunders and lightnings Density center, draws the thunder and lightning density center motion track on those Thunderstorm Days same day using method of least square;
D. according to above-mentioned thunder and lightning density center motion track, more than 30% will be concentrated to move towards identical thunder and lightning density center moving rail The direction of mark is set to maximum probability thunder and lightning density center motion track direction, and in lightning protection target area maximum probability thunder and lightning density center Within 20 kilometers of the updrift side of motion track, choose correct position and set up independent lightning rod and lightning conducter, released along big in advance Probability thunder and lightning density center motion track moves thundercloud charge to lightning protection target area, general with the thunderbolt for reducing lightning protection target area Rate.
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CN108090605B (en) * 2017-12-08 2020-11-24 广东电网有限责任公司电力科学研究院 Method for predicting lightning attracting effect of lightning attracting tower
CN109545347A (en) * 2018-11-13 2019-03-29 广州金域医学检验中心有限公司 The continuous capability appraisal procedure and device of detection system

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