CN105573310A - Method for positioning and environment modeling of coal mine tunnel robot - Google Patents

Method for positioning and environment modeling of coal mine tunnel robot Download PDF

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CN105573310A
CN105573310A CN201410534858.6A CN201410534858A CN105573310A CN 105573310 A CN105573310 A CN 105573310A CN 201410534858 A CN201410534858 A CN 201410534858A CN 105573310 A CN105573310 A CN 105573310A
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robot
moment
error
theta
angle
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CN201410534858.6A
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CN105573310B (en
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王芳
马娟荣
吕翀
吕博
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北京自动化控制设备研究所
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Abstract

The invention provides a method which is suitable for autonomous positioning and environment modeling of a ground mobile robot in a coal mine underground tunnel environment. The method comprises the following steps of executing a robot combined positioning algorithm; 2) performing positioning correction based on environment information; and 3) executing a robot 3D environment modeling method. The method is advantageous in that a three-dimensional model of the tunnel can be automatically generated through a coal mine tunnel measurement mobile robot; the downhole tunnel and the space relationship of the downhole tunnel can be visually and accurately represented in a three-dimensional manner; and furthermore the method has positive meaning for guiding field production and training safe production for miners.

Description

A kind of coal mine roadway robot localization and environmental modeling method

Technical field

The invention belongs to a kind of intelligent mobile robot navigation control method, be specifically related to a kind of method being applicable to ground mobile robot autonomous location and environmental modeling in the environment of coal mine underground tunnel.

Background technology

Intelligent mobile robot is that a class by sensor senses environment and oneself state, can realize object-oriented independent navigation motion in the environment having barrier, thus complete the robot system of preplanned mission.Realize robot autonomous Navigational Movements, the series of problems such as trajectory planning, motion control, environmental modeling, in real time location must be solved.

The three-dimensional model of coal mine roadway, can three-dimensional, reflect underworkings and spatial relationship thereof exactly, guide field is produced, trains miner's safety in production, enforcement downhole rescuing has positive effect, one of important content of Construction of Mine Digitalization, for the visual virtual reappearance realizing mine down-hole environment is laid a good foundation.

Coal mine underground tunnel circumstance complication, especially caving in when colliery, the accident such as gas explosion time, conditions down-hole is very severe, brings very large difficulty, even jeopardize the safety of survey crew to surveying work.Intelligent robot technology is applied to coal mine roadway detection, a kind of safety, fast and effectively solution route will be provided for underground coal mine mapping.

Summary of the invention

The object of this invention is to provide a kind of coal mine roadway robot localization and environmental modeling method, it can be used in robot localization, the environmental modeling algorithm of the detection of coal mine underground tunnel.Synchronous location with build nomography module, by merging multiple sensors information, pinpoint while, set up the 3D environmental model of underworkings.

The present invention is achieved in that a kind of coal mine roadway robot localization and environmental modeling method, and it comprises the steps,

1) robot integrated positioning algorithm;

2) location based on environmental information is revised;

3) robot 3D environmental modeling method.

Described step 1) be in underground coal mine environment, select the integrated navigation and location mode based on precision inertial navigation system+mileage gauge in Kalman filter, medium accuracy inertial navigation system has stronger attitude hold facility, but positioning error can constantly be accumulated in time; And the measuring error of mileage gauge generally increases with mileage, both have very strong complementarity, can form high-precision autonomous navigation system by combination,

The state equation of INS/OD Integrated Navigation System is: x k=A kx k-1+ w k-1,

Wherein:

State variable for the random constant value zero of accelerometer error partially, Δ v k, Δ s kbe respectively velocity error and site error that inertial navigation resolves, Δ K kfor mileage gauge scale coefficient error;

State-transition matrix A k = 1 0 0 0 T 1 0 0 1 2 T 2 T 1 0 0 0 0 1 , T is the sampling time;

System noise W kfor zero-mean white noise, noise variance matrix is Q k, i.e. E [w k]=0, E [ w k w j T ] = Q k δ ( k , j ) ,

The measurement equation of INS/OD Integrated Navigation System is: z k=H kx k+ ξ k,

Wherein: observed quantity Z kfor from t k-1moment is to t kmoment, the displacement increment of inertial reference calculation the displacement increment measured with mileage gauge difference, namely z k = ( s ~ k - s ~ k - 1 ) - d ~ s = - 1 2 ▿ k T 2 + Δv k T - ΔK k d k After rejecting is skidded and the stochastic error such as to be slided, mileage gauge measured value with actual value d kbetween pass be d ~ k = ( 1 + ΔK k ) d k ;

Calculation matrix H k = [ - 1 2 T 2 , T , 0 , - d k ] ;

Measurement noises ξ kfor zero-mean white noise, measurement noises variance matrix is Rk, i.e. E [ξ k]=0, E [ ξ k ξ j T ] = P k δ ( k , j ) .

Described step 2) error of mileage gauge mainly comprises scale coefficient error, and owing to skidding or sliding the stochastic error caused, if the world coordinates of robot navigation is OXYZ is sky, northeast coordinate system, true origin is the starting point of robot navigation, robot relative coordinate system OrXrYr is defined as with the artificial initial point of machine, with robot working direction for Xr axle, be Yr axle perpendicular to the counterclockwise 90 ° of directions of Xr axle.In global coordinate system, robot course angle ψ is defined as the angle of robot Xr axle relative to X-axis, and by north is just; Pitching angle theta is defined as the projection of Xr axle in OYZ plane and Y-axis angle, is upwards that just, in robot relative coordinate system, target course α is defined as, and target and robot line, relative to the angle of Xr axle, are just counterclockwise,

Select the environmental information of laser radar detection to revise mileage gauge error, when regulation location is revised, the luffing angle of laser radar is 0, and algorithm steps is as follows:

(1) according to the displacement increment that mileage gauge provides with the course angle ψ that inertial navigation system provides k, pitching angle theta k, from the position (x of k-1 moment robot global map k-1, y k-1, z k-1), calculate the predicted position of robot in the k moment

(2) according to the position (x of known environmental characteristic in global map o, y o, z o), and the predicted position in robot k moment (x ' k, y ' k, z ' k), computing environment feature is at the distance l of k moment opposed robots o:

l o = ( x o - x k ′ ) 2 + ( y o - y k ′ ) 2 + ( z o - z k ′ ) 2

(3) k moment laser radar scans surrounding environment, extraction environment feature from analyzing spot, obtains the measured distance ρ of environmental characteristic in robot coordinate system of current concern oand angle [alpha] o;

(4) rejecting abnormalities data: contrast l owith ρ o, work as l oowhen being greater than the skidding threshold value M of setting, think that robot wheel is in slipping state; Work as l oobe less than setting slide threshold value N time, think that robot wheel is in sliding state; Namely above-mentioned abnormal data does not participate in navigation calculation and does not participate in error correction yet;

(5) according to the coordinate (ρ of the unique point obtained by laser radar robot coordinate system o, α o), and the position (x of environmental characteristic in global map o, y o, z o), calculate the position (x of k moment robot k, y k, z k), and robot is at the actual mileage d in k-1 moment to k moment k:

x k = x o - ρ o cos θ k cos α o y k = y o - ρ o cos θ k sin α o z k = z o + ρ o sin θ k

d k = ( x n - x k ) 2 + ( y n - y k ) 2 + ( z n - z k ) 2

(6) mileage gauge scale coefficient error Δ K is calculated k, in Integrated Navigation Algorithm, use Δ K kmileage gauge measured value is revised:

ΔK k = ρ o 2 l o 2 2 d k [ ( x o - x k ) cos θ k cos ψ k + ( y o - y k ) cos θ k sin ψ k + ( z o - z k ) sin ψ k ]

Described step 3) for realizing the 3D environmental modeling to coal mine roadway, two-dimensional laser radar and high precision electric control turntable is selected to form environmental detecting system, two-dimensional laser radar can rotate around Yr axle under the driving of automatically controlled turntable, it is just upwards that the angle of pitch β of laser radar is defined as, be negative downwards

Adopt the mode of two-dimentional Descartes's rectangular grid and height map to represent the environment that radar detection is arrived, with a two-dimensional array T m × nrecord this environmental map:

According to the position (x of k moment robot k, y k, z k), course angle ψ k, pitching angle theta k, and laser radar pitch angle β kwith the obstacle information (ρ that Airborne Lidar measures o, α o), can the coordinate (x of dyscalculia thing in global coordinate system o, y o, z o):

x o = x k + ρ n cos ( θ o + β ) cos ( ψ k + α o ) y o = y k + ρ n cos ( θ o + β ) sin ( ψ k + α o ) z o = z k + ρ n sin ( θ o + β )

If the size of grid is w × w, then two-dimensional coordinate (the x of grid that occupies of barrier g,o, y g,o) be:

x g , o = int ( x o / w ) · w + int ( w / 2 ) y g , o = int ( y o / w ) · w + int ( w / 2 ) (int () represents rounding operation)

When the pitching of two-dimensional laser radar scans,

Advantage of the present invention is, the three-dimensional model that mobile robot can generate tunnel is automatically measured by coal mine roadway, can show three-dimensional, intuitively, exactly and reflect underworkings and spatial relationship thereof, have positive effect for guide field production, training miner safety in production.

Accompanying drawing explanation

Fig. 1 is control system schematic diagram;

Fig. 2 is information processing algorithm schematic diagram.

Embodiment

Below in conjunction with accompanying drawing and example, the present invention is described in detail:

Coal mine roadway sniffing robot control principle as shown in Figure 1.Internal sensor comprises mileage gauge and inertial navigation system, for displacement and the attitude of robot measurement.External sensor comprises laser radar, video camera, ultrasonic range finder sensor, infrared distance sensor, and wherein laser radar, video camera are used for direct perception environmental information, and ultrasonic, infrared distance sensor is used for promptly keeping away barrier.Truck-mounted computer for gathering each sensor information, and processes information, carries out decision-making, and to driver element sending controling instruction.

The algorithm principle of Information Collecting & Processing module as shown in Figure 2.Internal sensor mileage gauge and inertial navigation system obtain robot current location and course by Integrated Navigation Algorithm; Laser radar data is through filtering process, and video camera information is difference extraction environment feature after image procossing, and feature level data anastomosing algorithm is taked in the fusion of two class sensing datas; Robot pose and environmental characteristic, through SLAM algorithm, upgrade global map; And according to global map, current environment feature, mileage gauge model parameter is revised, improve positioning precision.

A kind of coal mine roadway robot localization and environmental modeling method, it comprises the steps:

1. robot integrated positioning algorithm

In underground coal mine environment, robot cannot receive GPS information, and therefore robot must possess autonomous positioning function.And the accuracy of figure is built in order to ensure environment, positioning precision when navigating to robot head proposes very high requirement.Select the integrated navigation and location mode based on precision inertial navigation system+mileage gauge in Kalman filter for this reason.Medium accuracy inertial navigation system has stronger attitude hold facility, but positioning error can constantly be accumulated in time; And the measuring error of mileage gauge generally increases with mileage.Both have very strong complementarity, can form high-precision autonomous navigation system by combination.

The state equation of INS/OD Integrated Navigation System is: x k=A kx k-1+ w k-1.

Wherein:

State variable for the random constant value zero of accelerometer error partially, Δ v k, Δ s kbe respectively velocity error and site error that inertial navigation resolves, Δ K kfor mileage gauge scale coefficient error;

State-transition matrix A k = 1 0 0 0 T 1 0 0 1 2 T 2 T 1 0 0 0 0 1 , T is the sampling time;

System noise Tk is zero-mean white noise, and noise variance matrix is Qk, i.e. E [w k]=0, E [ w k w j T ] = Q k δ ( k , j ) ,

The measurement equation of INS/OD Integrated Navigation System is: z k=H kx k+ ξ k.

Wherein:

Observed quantity zk is from the tk-1 moment to the tk moment, the displacement increment of inertial reference calculation with mileage gauge

The displacement increment measured difference, namely z k = ( s ~ k - s ~ k - 1 ) - d ~ s = - 1 2 ▿ k T 2 + Δv k T - ΔK k d k (after rejecting is skidded and the stochastic error such as to be slided, mileage gauge measured value with actual value d kbetween pass be d ~ k = ( 1 + ΔK k ) d k ;

Calculation matrix H k = [ - 1 2 T 2 , T , 0 , - d k ] ;

Measurement noises ξ kfor zero-mean white noise, measurement noises variance matrix is Rk, i.e. E [ξ k]=0, E [ ξ k ξ j T ] = P k δ ( k , j ) .

2. the location based on environmental information is revised

Mileage gauge is the linear displacement based on the scrambler be arranged on driving wheel, rotation of wheel being converted to relative ground, has certain limitation.The error of mileage gauge mainly comprises scale coefficient error, and owing to skidding or sliding the stochastic error caused.In order to keep the positioning precision of integrated navigation system, suppress the error of mileage gauge most important.

If the world coordinates of robot navigation is OXYZ is sky, northeast coordinate system, true origin is the starting point of robot navigation.Robot relative coordinate system OrXrYr is defined as with the artificial initial point of machine, with robot working direction for Xr axle, is Yr axle perpendicular to the counterclockwise 90 ° of directions of Xr axle.In global coordinate system, robot course angle ψ is defined as the angle of robot Xr axle relative to X-axis, and by north is just; Pitching angle theta is defined as the projection of Xr axle in OYZ plane and Y-axis angle, is just upwards.In robot relative coordinate system, target course α is defined as, and target and robot line, relative to the angle of Xr axle, are just counterclockwise.

The environmental information of laser radar detection is selected to revise mileage gauge error at this.When regulation location is revised, the luffing angle of laser radar is 0.Algorithm steps is as follows:

(7) according to the displacement increment that mileage gauge provides with the course angle ψ that inertial navigation system provides k, pitching angle theta k, from the position (x of k-1 moment robot global map k-1, y k-1, z k-1) (being obtained by integrated navigation system) calculate that robot is in the predicted position in k moment

(8) according to the position (x of known environmental characteristic in global map o, y o, z o), and the predicted position in robot k moment computing environment feature is at the distance l of k moment opposed robots o:

l o = ( x o - x k ′ ) 2 + ( y o - y k ′ ) 2 + ( z o - z k ′ ) 2

(9) k moment laser radar scans surrounding environment, extraction environment feature from analyzing spot, obtains the measured distance ρ of environmental characteristic in robot coordinate system of current concern oand angle [alpha] o.

(10) rejecting abnormalities data: contrast l owith ρ o, work as l oowhen being greater than the skidding threshold value M of setting, think that robot wheel is in slipping state; Work as l oobe less than setting slide threshold value N time, think that robot wheel is in sliding state.Namely above-mentioned abnormal data does not participate in navigation calculation and does not participate in error correction yet.

(11) according to the coordinate (ρ of the unique point obtained by laser radar robot coordinate system o, α o), and the position (x of environmental characteristic in global map o, y o, z o), calculate the position (x of k moment robot k, y k, z k), and robot is at the actual mileage d in k-1 moment to k moment k:

x k = x o - ρ o cos θ k cos α o y k = y o - ρ o cos θ k sin α o z k = z o + ρ o sin θ k

d k = ( x n - x k ) 2 + ( y n - y k ) 2 + ( z n - z k ) 2

(12) mileage gauge scale coefficient error Δ K is calculated k, in Integrated Navigation Algorithm, use Δ K kmileage gauge measured value is revised:

ΔK k = ρ o 2 l o 2 2 d k [ ( x o - x k ) cos θ k cos ψ k + ( y o - y k ) cos θ k sin ψ k + ( z o - z k ) sin ψ k ]

3. robot 3D environmental modeling method

In order to realize the 3D environmental modeling to coal mine roadway, two-dimensional laser radar and high precision electric control turntable is selected to form environmental detecting system.Two-dimensional laser radar can rotate around Yr axle under the driving of automatically controlled turntable, and it is just upwards that the angle of pitch β of laser radar is defined as, and is negative downwards.

Adopt the mode of two-dimentional Descartes's rectangular grid and height map to represent the environment that radar detection is arrived.With a two-dimensional array T m × nrecord this environmental map:

According to the position (x of k moment robot k, y k, z k), course angle ψ k, pitching angle theta k, and laser radar pitch angle β kwith the obstacle information (ρ that Airborne Lidar measures o, α o), can the coordinate (x of dyscalculia thing in global coordinate system o, y o, z o):

x o = x k + ρ n cos ( θ o + β ) cos ( ψ k + α o ) y o = y k + ρ n cos ( θ o + β ) sin ( ψ k + α o ) z o = z k + ρ n sin ( θ o + β )

If the size of grid is w × w, then two-dimensional coordinate (the x of grid that occupies of barrier g,o, y g,o) be:

x g , o = int ( x o / w ) · w + int ( w / 2 ) y g , o = int ( y o / w ) · w + int ( w / 2 ) (int () represents rounding operation)

When the pitching of two-dimensional laser radar scans,

Claims (4)

1. coal mine roadway robot localization and an environmental modeling method, is characterized in that: it comprises the steps,
1) robot integrated positioning algorithm;
2) location based on environmental information is revised;
3) robot 3D environmental modeling method.
2. a coal mine roadway robot localization and environmental modeling method, it is characterized in that: described step 1) in underground coal mine environment, select the integrated navigation and location mode based on precision inertial navigation system+mileage gauge in Kalman filter, medium accuracy inertial navigation system has stronger attitude hold facility, but positioning error can constantly be accumulated in time; And the measuring error of mileage gauge generally increases with mileage, both have very strong complementarity, can form high-precision autonomous navigation system by combination,
The state equation of INS/OD Integrated Navigation System is: x k=A kx k-1+ w k-1,
Wherein:
State variable for the random constant value zero of accelerometer error partially, Δ v k, Δ s kbe respectively velocity error and site error that inertial navigation resolves, Δ K kfor mileage gauge scale coefficient error;
State-transition matrix A k = 1 0 0 0 T 1 0 0 1 2 T 2 T 1 0 0 0 0 1 , T is the sampling time;
System noise W kfor zero-mean white noise, noise variance matrix is Q k, i.e. E [w k]=0, E [ w k , w j T ] = Q k δ ( k , j ) ,
The measurement equation of INS/OD Integrated Navigation System is: z k=H kx k+ ξ k,
Wherein: observed quantity Z kfor from t k-1moment is to t kmoment, the displacement increment of inertial reference calculation the displacement increment measured with mileage gauge difference, namely z k = ( s ~ k - s ~ k - 1 ) - d ~ k = - 1 2 ▿ k T 2 + Δv k T - ΔK k d k , After rejecting is skidded and the stochastic error such as to be slided, mileage gauge measured value with actual value d kbetween pass be d ~ k = ( 1 + ΔK k ) d k ;
Calculation matrix H k = [ - 1 2 T 2 , T , 0 , - d k ] ;
Measurement noises ξ kfor zero-mean white noise, measurement noises variance matrix is Rk, namely E [ ξ k ξ j T ] = R k δ ( k , j ) .
3. a coal mine roadway robot localization and environmental modeling method, it is characterized in that: described step 2) error of mileage gauge mainly comprises scale coefficient error, and owing to skidding or sliding the stochastic error caused, if the world coordinates of robot navigation is OXYZ is sky, northeast coordinate system, true origin is the starting point of robot navigation, robot relative coordinate system OrXrYr is defined as with the artificial initial point of machine, with robot working direction for Xr axle, be Yr axle perpendicular to the counterclockwise 90 ° of directions of Xr axle, in global coordinate system, robot course angle ψ is defined as the angle of robot Xr axle relative to X-axis, by north is just, pitching angle theta is defined as the projection of Xr axle in OYZ plane and Y-axis angle, is upwards that just, in robot relative coordinate system, target course α is defined as, and target and robot line, relative to the angle of Xr axle, are just counterclockwise,
Select the environmental information of laser radar detection to revise mileage gauge error, when regulation location is revised, the luffing angle of laser radar is 0, and algorithm steps is as follows:
(1) according to the displacement increment that mileage gauge provides with the course angle ψ that inertial navigation system provides k, pitching angle theta k, from the position (x of k-1 moment robot global map k-1, y k-1, z k-1), calculate robot the k moment predicted position (x ' k, y ' k, z ' k):
(2) according to the position (x of known environmental characteristic in global map o, y o, z o), and the predicted position in robot k moment (x ' k, y ' k, z ' k), computing environment feature is at the distance l of k moment opposed robots o:
l o = ( x o - x k ′ ) 2 + ( y o - y k ′ ) 2 + ( z o - z k ′ ) 2
(3) k moment laser radar scans surrounding environment, extraction environment feature from analyzing spot, obtains the measured distance ρ of environmental characteristic in robot coordinate system of current concern oand angle [alpha] o;
(4) rejecting abnormalities data: contrast l owith ρ o, work as l oowhen being greater than the skidding threshold value M of setting, think that robot wheel is in slipping state; Work as l oobe less than setting slide threshold value N time, think that robot wheel is in sliding state; Namely above-mentioned abnormal data does not participate in navigation calculation and does not participate in error correction yet;
(5) according to the coordinate (ρ of the unique point obtained by laser radar robot coordinate system o, α o), and the position (x of environmental characteristic in global map o, y o, z o), calculate the position (x of k moment robot k, y k, z k), and robot is at the actual mileage d in k-1 moment to k moment k:
x k = x o - ρ o cos θ k cos α o y k = y o - ρ o cos θ k sin α o z k = z o + ρ o sin θ k
d k = ( x n - x k ) 2 + ( y n - y k ) 2 + ( z n - z k ) 2
(6) mileage gauge scale coefficient error Δ K is calculated k, in Integrated Navigation Algorithm, use Δ K kmileage gauge measured value is revised:
ΔK k = ρ o 2 - l o 2 2 d k [ ( x o - x k ) cos θ k cos ψ k + ( y o - y k ) cos θ k sin ψ k + ( z o - z k ) sin ψ k ]
4. a coal mine roadway robot localization and environmental modeling method, it is characterized in that: described step 3) for realizing the 3D environmental modeling to coal mine roadway, two-dimensional laser radar and high precision electric control turntable is selected to form environmental detecting system, two-dimensional laser radar can rotate around Yr axle under the driving of automatically controlled turntable, it is just upwards that the angle of pitch β of laser radar is defined as, be negative downwards
Adopt the mode of two-dimentional Descartes's rectangular grid and height map to represent the environment that radar detection is arrived, with a two-dimensional array T m × nrecord this environmental map:
According to the position (x of k moment robot k, y k, z k), course angle ψ k, pitching angle theta k, and laser radar pitch angle β kwith the obstacle information (ρ that Airborne Lidar measures o, α o), can the coordinate (x of dyscalculia thing in global coordinate system o, y o, z o):
x o = x k + ρ n cos ( θ o + β ) cos ( ψ k + α o ) y o = y k + ρ n cos ( θ o + β ) sin ( ψ k + α o ) z o = z k + ρ n sin ( θ o + β )
If the size of grid is w × w, then two-dimensional coordinate (the x of grid that occupies of barrier g,o, y g,o) be:
When the pitching of two-dimensional laser radar scans,
CN201410534858.6A 2014-10-11 Coal mine roadway robot positioning and environment modeling method CN105573310B (en)

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