CN105557425A - Method for multipoint grafting of fruiting mother branches by aid of Chinese chestnut skeleton branch bald sections - Google Patents

Method for multipoint grafting of fruiting mother branches by aid of Chinese chestnut skeleton branch bald sections Download PDF

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Publication number
CN105557425A
CN105557425A CN201510951933.3A CN201510951933A CN105557425A CN 105557425 A CN105557425 A CN 105557425A CN 201510951933 A CN201510951933 A CN 201510951933A CN 105557425 A CN105557425 A CN 105557425A
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China
Prior art keywords
branch
grafting
scion
insect
sprout
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CN201510951933.3A
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CN105557425B (en
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耿金川
金铁娟
耿睿
孔德军
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Chengde Forestry Technology Extension Station
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Chengde Forestry Technology Extension Station
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G17/00Cultivation of hops, vines, fruit trees, or like trees
    • A01G17/005Cultivation methods
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01CPLANTING; SOWING; FERTILISING
    • A01C21/00Methods of fertilising, sowing or planting
    • A01C21/005Following a specific plan, e.g. pattern
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G2/00Vegetative propagation
    • A01G2/30Grafting
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G3/00Cutting implements specially adapted for horticultural purposes; Delimbing standing trees
    • A01G2003/005Removing buds

Abstract

The invention relates to a method for multipoint grafting of fruiting mother branches by the aid of Chinese chestnut skeleton branch bald sections. The method comprises steps as follows: (1) garden plot selection; (2) rootstock selection; (3) scion selection; (4) scion storage; (5) grafting; (6) grafting of main points; (7) management after grafting and (8) disease and pest control. The high-quality fruiting mother branches are grafted by the aid of the Chinese chestnut bald sections, the inside is rapidly enriched, the operation is simple and practical, the return period is short, and the purposes of high yield and stable yield can be achieved; with the adoption of multipoint bark graft of the fruiting mother branches by the aid of the bald sections, fruits can be obtained in the chestnut orchard in the same year, the yield in three years can be as high as 564.48 kg after grafting, and the method has important application value.

Description

A kind of method of Chinese chestnut skeleton branch baldness band multiple spot grafting bearing basal shoot
Technical field
The present invention relates to fruit-tree grafting field, particularly relate to a kind of method of Chinese chestnut skeleton branch baldness band multiple spot grafting bearing basal shoot.
Background technology
Chinese chestnut is Fagaceae Castanea, originates in China, is distributed in Vietnam, TaiWan, China and CONTINENTAL AREA OF CHINA.Chinese chestnut is one of China's cultivation fruit tree the earliest, the cultivation history of about existing 2000 ~ 3000 years.At present, China's Chinese chestnut cultivated area about has 1,800 ten thousand mu, and being distributed widely in the whole nation has more than 20 province (district, city), mainly concentrates on the ground such as Shandong, Hebei, Henan, Hubei, Anhui, Zhejiang, Liaoning, Guangxi, Beijing.
Castanea mollissima Nut rich in nutrition content, wherein content of starch is close with the grain such as rice, flour, protein and flour are approximate and higher than sweet potato more than 1 times, fat higher than rice, 2 times of flour, amino acid content is higher 1.5 times than corn, flour, rice, vitamin C is higher 5 ~ 10 times than fruit such as apple, pears, peaches, and containing mineral matter elements such as calcium, phosphorus, iron, potassium.
China is that Chinese chestnut produces and big export country, gross annual output amount is 580,000 tons, annual export volume is about 250,000 tons, domestic Chinese chestnut has that kind is excellent, look gorgeous taste is sweet, the puckery skin of nut is easily peeled off and is suitable for the unique shape such as processing and is valued by common people, be described as in the international market " oriental peral " or " Gan Li ", market prospects are very wide.But China's Chinese chestnut average yield per mu only about 46 kilograms, the main cause of Low-yielding Chinese Chestnut Plantations is that improved variety degree is low, and the chestnut wood of more than 70% is the non-breeding standing forest that grows directly from seeds.And high yield chestnut wood per mu yield Chinese chestnut can reach about 250 kilograms, the yield potential that low production forest is huge and benefit are not played, and therefore low production forest improvement is extremely urgent.
Existing research at present adopts the mode of grafting to achieve the volume increase of Chinese chestnut, such as CN105075681A discloses a kind of grafting method of chestnut tree, its step is as follows: step one, preparation before grafting: it is 1.5-1.8 centimetre that (1) stock chooses Chinese chestnut sapling rugosity, overhead go up 20 centimeters to section, do stock; (2) to management autumn of stock to stock sealing fertilizer; (3) scion selects the joint being no more than 0.5 centimeter length to do scion to joint Chinese chestnut; Step 2, grafting carries out grafting when ready stock rudiment 0.5 centimetre; Step 3, by the exposed section of varnish application scion and interface; Step 4, connects rear management; Step 5, survives rear management.This method is the exposed section interface being coated in scion with varnish to the water-retaining method of grafting, this method can well reduce the evaporation of grafting twig moisture, effectively prevent the damage by disease and insect in grafting procedures, thus improve the survival rate of grafting, especially particularly remarkable when the high temperature season grafting of autumn in summer.
CN104737828A discloses the grafting method of the embedding branch of a kind of Chinese chestnut, when stock or treelet reach the standard of grafting, carries out grafting, and its grafting method comprises scion, two cutter graftings, grafting management then, wipes out pillar step alive.Due to the nursery stock of nursery lot and the cortex of planting treelet thin; adopt the method grafting of embedding branch; can effectively protect limb cortex; its method is simple and direct, practical, survival rate is high; the coppice shoot that after this method removes grafting in time, limb occurs or bud picking early; decrease the loss of resin nutrient, grafting bud is grown vigorously.This kind of method is particularly suitable for nursery lot and cultivates grafting and the use of planting treelet Chestnut Orchard, also can be used in the graft seedling growth process of the upper grafting of the thinner limb of adult Chinese chestnut large tree epithelial layer and other fruit tree.
Although above-mentioned technology achieves the volume increase of Chinese chestnut, but, because yield of Chestnut on Mountain Slope is based on peripheral fruit branch result, interior thorax is hollow, skeleton branch baldness band is excessive seldom causes yield of Chestnut on Mountain Slope output lower without fruit bearing shoot or fruit bearing shoot quantity, only applies above-mentioned graft technology and can not realize Chinese chestnut volume increase well.Therefore, be how current problem demanding prompt solution for a kind of method improving Chinese chestnut output of this Study on Problems.
Summary of the invention
For the deficiencies in the prior art, the invention provides a kind of method of Chinese chestnut skeleton branch baldness band multiple spot grafting bearing basal shoot, the female branch grafting of quality results is carried out by utilizing Chinese chestnut baldness band, can grafting get bumper crops then then, thorax in enriching rapidly, practicality simple to operate, reciprocation cycle is short, reach the object of stable high yield, the method is applicable to yield of Chestnut on Mountain Slope dense planting, low-quality, low yield orchard high and stable yield.
For reaching this object, present invention employs following technical scheme:
The invention provides a kind of method of Chinese chestnut skeleton branch baldness band multiple spot grafting bearing basal shoot, comprise the following steps:
(1) field is selected
Chinese chestnut garden soil requires fertile, loose ventilative, and preserve moisture and fertility ability is strong, and away from highway, factories and miness and industrial pollution, the mountain region having house refuse or level land, pH value is in 6.5 ~ 7.5 scopes, and average temperature of the whole year is 8.6 DEG C, annual more than 180 days frost-free season;
(2) Root-stock selection
Select without the Chinese chestnut skeleton branch of damage by disease and insect, life in 5 ~ 10 years as graft stock;
(3) scion is selected
Healthy and strong in morning in maturing stage, strong stress resistance, production, gather scion without on damage by disease and insect, the Chinese chestnut elite stand that has no mechanical damage;
(4) scion storage
Take storage practice of sealing with wax, heating paraffin is dissolved, scion is placed in the paraffin of fusing and is stained with wax, finish writing mark, avoid air-dry, spread wet cloth, put into cellar for storing things for subsequent use;
(5) grafting period
Sprouting to expanding stock sprout does not have Zhan Yeshi to carry out grafting;
(6) grafting main points
Scion lower end is whittled into the smooth ramp of 6 ~ 7cm, is whittled into the peltate of about 0.5cm at bevel lower backside; In the skeleton branch both sides of tree body, every 20 ~ 30cm, alternately spiral digs crescent shaped cuttings groove, then vertical partial application, in T-shaped, inserts in cortex by the scion bevel cut, finally with plastic strip, interface is bandaged, guarantee that interface position does not interspace, survive rear interface rudiment of erasing in time;
(7) rear management is connect;
(8) extermination of disease and insect pest.
In step of the present invention (two), the skeleton branch baldness band of described Root-stock selection low yield, High Density Planting Orchard of Chestnut inferior is as graft stock.
In step of the present invention (three), the kind of described scion is that the Yanshan Mountain is early rich or swallow is golden.
Preferably, in step of the present invention (three), described scion is full sprout quantity is 4 ~ 5, and length is 15 ~ 20cm, without damage by disease and insect, the bearing basal shoot that has no mechanical damage.
In step of the present invention (four), the temperature that described heating paraffin is dissolved is no more than 85 DEG C.
Preferably, in step of the present invention (four), described scion being placed in the paraffin of fusing is stained with the wax time and is no more than 1s, in order to avoid scald sprout.
In step of the present invention (five), grafting period selects peach blossom when blooming or mid or late April carries out grafting.
In the present invention, the concrete period of grafting sprouts to expanding stock sprout, and do not open up when leaf or peach blossom are bloomed and carry out, and Yanshan Region, North probably just can grafting in mid or late April, now temperature raises, and resin flows, and forms layer and enlivens, bark is easily peeled off, and graft survival rate is high.If grafting is too early, temperature is low, scion in outside the exposed time long, affect survival rate.Grafting time is excessively late, and stock opens up leaf, and now temperature is high, although healing is fast, survival rate is also high, and stock has consumed a large amount of nutrition when opening up leaf, and after grafting survival, amount of growth is little, and branch growing way is weak, prolongs after causing fruiting period, and impact carrys out annual production.
In step of the present invention (six), described scion is not carried out cutting and is cut; Anvil is not cut to described stock, retains original trunk top fruit bearing shoot and carry out result.
The smooth ramp length in the present invention, scion lower end is whittled into and the peltate size be whittled at bevel lower backside, to replace the spacing distance that spiral digs crescent shaped cuttings groove in the skeleton branch both sides of tree body and select, it has material impact to Relationship between Graft Effect, and it finally can have influence on the output size of Chinese chestnut.
In step of the present invention (seven), described in connect rear management and comprise:
(1) sprout tillers is removed: survive rear timely removing sprout tillers, the place that the exposed position of limb in the south is larger, retains some sprout tillers, in order to avoid cause limb day to burn;
(2) partly separate bondage: when young sprout grows to 30cm, retain 1/3 plastic strip, remove bottom bondage, in order to windproof;
(3) male, florescence spray fertilizer is dredged: manually dredge 90 ~ 95% of emasculation inflorescence total amount, retain the male inflorescence 5 ~ 10% at tree crown top or outlying position, mixed inflorescence all retains; Before at 10 in the morning that florescence selects fine day calm or after at 16 in afternoon, spray 0.3% boric acid+0.3% potassium dihydrogen phosphate mixed liquor, every spray in 7 days 1 time, spray 3 times altogether;
(4) the outer edge strip ditch spread of tree dish fertile, water: the dressing furrow digging wide 20cm, dark 25cm along tree dish edge, to be evenly sprinkled into 5kg ecological organic fertilier in ditch and earthing, to take to water during slight irrigation mode drought;
(5) autumn cutting back: before the beginning of autumn 2 ~ 3 days, grafting young sprout grow to 30 ~ 50cm long time, on grafting young sprout raw Li Peng place stay 3 ~ 5 full buds, by end pin cutting back above; There is no the young sprout of Li Peng, play the fullest bud place at grafting young sprout base portion and retain 4 ~ 6 full buds, by end pin cutting back;
(6) winter pruning: take fruit-bearing shoot cluster rotate upgrade trimming method manage, High Density Planting Orchard removes overstocked branch and overlapping branch, cutting back crosses prosperous branch, sick branch and useless branch, utilize golden mean of the Confucian school branch result, open light path, make branch inside and outside tree crown prosperous strong, tree body upper and lower light, tree crown is compact, inside and outside result, and tree crown expansion slowly;
(7) prune spring: before germinateing, branch is drawn to the long excessively prosperous upright branch of growth, branch angle 65 ° ~ 70 °, and alternately carve wound at branch back every the full bud place of 20 ~ 25cm, whole weak bud of erasing after germination, make nutrient focus on full bud, form result branch;
(8) summer pruning: renewal pruning method of taking to rotate remove in the invalid branch of the too much baby's branch of thorax and fruit branch base portion, pinching is carried out to the young sprout of over growth.
In step of the present invention (eight), the described extermination of disease and insect pest comprises: utilize light, insect sticker, insect-sticking plate, gyplure, sugar-vinegar liquid, machinery, artificial capture method or grass insect-killing trapping.
As preferred technical scheme, said method comprising the steps of:
(1) field is selected
Chinese chestnut garden soil requires fertile, loose ventilative, and preserve moisture and fertility ability is strong, and away from highway, factories and miness and industrial pollution, the mountain region having house refuse or level land, pH value is in 6.5 ~ 7.5 scopes, and average temperature of the whole year is 8.6 DEG C, annual more than 180 days frost-free season;
(2) Root-stock selection
Select without the skeleton branch baldness band of damage by disease and insect, the low yield of life in 5 ~ 10 years, High Density Planting Orchard of Chestnut inferior as graft stock;
(3) scion is selected
Healthy and strong in morning in maturing stage, strong stress resistance, production, gather scion without on damage by disease and insect, the Chinese chestnut elite stand that has no mechanical damage; The kind of described scion be the Yanshan Mountain early the maturing stage such as rich or Yan Jin early, the kind of strong stress resistance; Described scion is full sprout quantity is 4 ~ 5, and length is 15 ~ 20cm, without damage by disease and insect, the bearing basal shoot that has no mechanical damage;
(4) scion storage
Take storage practice of sealing with wax, heating paraffin dissolved, temperature is no more than 85 DEG C; Scion be placed in the paraffin of fusing and be stained with wax, being stained with the wax time is no more than 1s, finishes writing mark, avoids air-dry, spread wet cloth, puts into cellar for storing things for subsequent use;
(5) grafting period
Sprouting to expanding stock sprout does not have Zhan Yeshi to carry out grafting;
(6) grafting main points
Scion lower end is whittled into the smooth ramp of 6 ~ 7cm, is whittled into the peltate of about 0.5cm at bevel lower backside, do not carry out cutting and cut; Anvil is not cut to described stock, retain original trunk top fruit bearing shoot and carry out result, in the skeleton branch both sides of tree body, every 20 ~ 30cm, alternately spiral digs crescent shaped cuttings groove, then vertical partial application, in T-shaped, the scion bevel cut is inserted in cortex, finally with plastic strip, interface is bandaged, guarantee that interface position does not interspace, survive rear interface rudiment of erasing in time;
(7) rear management is connect
(1) sprout tillers is removed: survive rear timely removing sprout tillers, the place that the exposed position of limb in the south is larger, retains some sprout tillers, in order to avoid cause limb day to burn;
(2) partly separate bondage: when young sprout grows to 30cm, retain 1/3 plastic strip, remove bottom bondage, in order to windproof;
(3) male, florescence spray fertilizer is dredged: manually dredge 90 ~ 95% of emasculation inflorescence total amount, retain the male inflorescence 5 ~ 10% at tree crown top or outlying position, mixed inflorescence all retains; Before at 10 in the morning that florescence selects fine day calm or after at 16 in afternoon, spray 0.3% boric acid+0.3% potassium dihydrogen phosphate mixed liquor, every spray in 7 days 1 time, spray 3 times altogether;
(4) the outer edge strip ditch spread of tree dish fertile, water: the dressing furrow digging wide 20cm, dark 25cm along tree dish edge, to be evenly sprinkled into 5kg ecological organic fertilier in ditch and earthing, to take to water during slight irrigation mode drought;
(5) autumn cutting back: before the beginning of autumn 2 ~ 3 days, grafting young sprout grow to 30 ~ 50cm long time, on grafting young sprout raw Li Peng place stay 3 ~ 5 full buds, by end pin cutting back above; There is no the young sprout of Li Peng, play the fullest bud place at grafting young sprout base portion and retain 4 ~ 6 full buds, by end pin cutting back;
(6) winter pruning: take fruit-bearing shoot cluster rotate upgrade trimming method manage, High Density Planting Orchard removes overstocked branch and overlapping branch, cutting back crosses prosperous branch, sick branch and useless branch, utilize golden mean of the Confucian school branch result, open light path, make branch inside and outside tree crown prosperous strong, tree body upper and lower light, tree crown is compact, inside and outside result, and tree crown expansion slowly;
(7) prune spring: before germinateing, branch is drawn to the long excessively prosperous upright branch of growth, branch angle 65 ° ~ 70 °, and alternately carve wound at branch back every the full bud place of 20 ~ 25cm, whole weak bud of erasing after germination, make nutrient focus on full bud, form result branch;
(8) summer pruning: renewal pruning method of taking to rotate remove in the invalid branch of the too much baby's branch of thorax and fruit branch base portion, pinching is carried out to the young sprout of over growth;
(8) extermination of disease and insect pest;
Utilize light, insect sticker, insect-sticking plate, gyplure, sugar-vinegar liquid, machinery, artificial capture method or grass insect-killing trapping.
Compared with prior art, the present invention at least has following beneficial effect:
1, the rich graft technology of baldness band multiple spot bearing basal shoot speed provided by the invention, simple to operate, applied widely, under the prerequisite of not cutting anvil reservation top bearing basal shoot, select the scion of precocious high-quality Chinese chestnut, make full use of interior thorax skeleton branch baldness space, grafting is replaced every 20 ~ 30cm, take after connecing to rotate the flower and fruit managements such as renewal pruning technology and reasonably rich water quality management make its grafting then work as annual bearing, high and stable yield is high, economic benefit and ecological benefits remarkable;
2, by taking baldness band multiple spot bearing basal shoot cortex grafting grafting method of the present invention, Chestnut Orchard grafting then just can result, and after grafting 3 years add up to output up to 564.48kg, can have important using value.
Accompanying drawing explanation
Fig. 1 is the chestnut tree after adopting turn of the screw grafting of the present invention;
Fig. 2 is the Chestnut Orchard adopting Chinese chestnut skeleton branch waist grafting bearing basal shoot method of the present invention.
Embodiment
Below in conjunction with the drawings and specific embodiments, set forth the present invention further.These embodiments are interpreted as only being not used in for illustration of the present invention limiting the scope of the invention.After the content of having read the present invention's record, those skilled in the art can make various change or amendment to the present invention, and these equivalence changes and modification fall into the scope of the claims in the present invention equally.
Embodiment 1:
(1) field is selected
Chinese chestnut garden soil requires fertile, loose ventilative, and preserve moisture and fertility ability is strong, and away from highway, factories and miness and industrial pollution, the mountain region having house refuse or level land, pH value is in 6.5 ~ 7.5 scopes, and average temperature of the whole year is 8.6 DEG C, annual more than 180 days frost-free season;
(2) Root-stock selection
Select without the skeleton branch baldness band of damage by disease and insect, the low yield of life in 5 years, High Density Planting Orchard of Chestnut inferior as graft stock;
(3) scion is selected
Healthy and strong in morning in maturing stage, strong stress resistance, production, gather scion without on damage by disease and insect, the Chinese chestnut elite stand that has no mechanical damage; The kind of described scion is the Yanshan Mountain early rich kind; Described scion is full sprout quantity is 4, and length is 15cm, without damage by disease and insect, the bearing basal shoot that has no mechanical damage;
(4) scion storage
Take storage practice of sealing with wax, heating paraffin dissolved, temperature is no more than 85 DEG C; Scion be placed in the paraffin of fusing and be stained with wax, being stained with the wax time is no more than 1s, finishes writing mark, avoids air-dry, spread wet cloth, puts into cellar for storing things for subsequent use;
(5) grafting period
Sprouting to expanding stock sprout does not have Zhan Yeshi to carry out grafting;
(6) grafting
Scion lower end is whittled into the smooth ramp of 7cm, is whittled into the peltate of 0.5cm at bevel lower backside, do not carry out cutting and cut; Anvil is not cut to described stock, retain original trunk top fruit bearing shoot and carry out result, in the skeleton branch both sides of tree body, every 25cm, alternately spiral digs crescent shaped cuttings groove, then vertical partial application, in T-shaped, the scion bevel cut is inserted in cortex, finally with plastic strip, interface is bandaged, guarantee that interface position does not interspace, survive rear interface rudiment of erasing in time;
(7) rear management is connect
(1) sprout tillers is removed: survive rear timely removing sprout tillers, the place that the exposed position of limb in the south is larger, retains some sprout tillers, in order to avoid cause limb day to burn;
(2) partly separate bondage: when young sprout grows to 30cm, retain 1/3 plastic strip, remove bottom bondage, in order to windproof;
(3) male, florescence spray fertilizer is dredged: manually dredge 90 ~ 95% of emasculation inflorescence total amount, retain the male inflorescence 5 ~ 10% at tree crown top or outlying position, mixed inflorescence all retains; Before at 10 in the morning that florescence selects fine day calm or after at 16 in afternoon, spray 0.3% boric acid+0.3% potassium dihydrogen phosphate mixed liquor, every spray in 7 days 1 time, spray 3 times altogether;
(4) the outer edge strip ditch spread of tree dish fertile, water: the dressing furrow digging wide 20cm, dark 25cm along tree dish edge, to be evenly sprinkled into 5kg ecological organic fertilier in ditch and earthing, to take to water during slight irrigation mode drought;
(5) autumn cutting back: before the beginning of autumn 2 ~ 3 days, grafting young sprout grow to 30 ~ 50cm long time, on grafting young sprout raw Li Peng place stay 3 ~ 5 full buds, by end pin cutting back above; There is no the young sprout of Li Peng, play the fullest bud place at grafting young sprout base portion and retain 4 ~ 6 full buds, by end pin cutting back;
(6) winter pruning: take fruit-bearing shoot cluster rotate upgrade trimming method manage, High Density Planting Orchard removes overstocked branch and overlapping branch, cutting back crosses prosperous branch, sick branch and useless branch, utilize golden mean of the Confucian school branch result, open light path, make branch inside and outside tree crown prosperous strong, tree body upper and lower light, tree crown is compact, inside and outside result, and tree crown expansion slowly;
(7) prune spring: before germinateing, branch is drawn to the long excessively prosperous upright branch of growth, branch angle 65 ° ~ 70 °, and alternately carve wound at branch back every the full bud place of 20 ~ 25cm, whole weak bud of erasing after germination, make nutrient focus on full bud, form result branch;
(8) summer pruning: renewal pruning method of taking to rotate remove in the invalid branch of the too much baby's branch of thorax and fruit branch base portion, pinching is carried out to the young sprout of over growth;
(8) extermination of disease and insect pest;
Utilize light, insect sticker, insect-sticking plate, gyplure, sugar-vinegar liquid, machinery, artificial capture method or grass insect-killing trapping.
Embodiment 2:
(1) field is selected
Chinese chestnut garden soil requires fertile, loose ventilative, and preserve moisture and fertility ability is strong, and away from highway, factories and miness and industrial pollution, the mountain region having house refuse or level land, pH value is in 6.5 ~ 7.5 scopes, and average temperature of the whole year is 8.6 DEG C, annual more than 180 days frost-free season;
(2) Root-stock selection
Select without the skeleton branch baldness band of damage by disease and insect, the low yield of life in 5 years, High Density Planting Orchard of Chestnut inferior as graft stock;
(3) scion is selected
Healthy and strong in morning in maturing stage, strong stress resistance, production, gather scion without on damage by disease and insect, the Chinese chestnut elite stand that has no mechanical damage; The kind of described scion is the Yanshan Mountain early rich kind; Described scion is full sprout quantity is 4, and length is 15cm, without damage by disease and insect, the bearing basal shoot that has no mechanical damage;
(4) scion storage
Take storage practice of sealing with wax, heating paraffin dissolved, temperature is no more than 85 DEG C; Scion be placed in the paraffin of fusing and be stained with wax, being stained with the wax time is no more than 1s, finishes writing mark, avoids air-dry, spread wet cloth, puts into cellar for storing things for subsequent use;
(5) grafting period
Sprouting to expanding stock sprout does not have Zhan Yeshi to carry out grafting;
(6) grafting
Scion lower end is whittled into the smooth ramp of 6.5cm, is whittled into the peltate of 0.6cm at bevel lower backside, do not carry out cutting and cut; Anvil is not cut to described stock, retain original trunk top fruit bearing shoot and carry out result, in the skeleton branch both sides of tree body, every 23cm, alternately spiral digs crescent shaped cuttings groove, then vertical partial application, in T-shaped, the scion bevel cut is inserted in cortex, finally with plastic strip, interface is bandaged, guarantee that interface position does not interspace, survive rear interface rudiment of erasing in time;
(7) rear management is connect
(1) sprout tillers is removed: survive rear timely removing sprout tillers, the place that the exposed position of limb in the south is larger, retains some sprout tillers, in order to avoid cause limb day to burn;
(2) partly separate bondage: when young sprout grows to 30cm, retain 1/3 plastic strip, remove bottom bondage, in order to windproof;
(3) male, florescence spray fertilizer is dredged: manually dredge 90 ~ 95% of emasculation inflorescence total amount, retain the male inflorescence 5 ~ 10% at tree crown top or outlying position, mixed inflorescence all retains; Before at 10 in the morning that florescence selects fine day calm or after at 16 in afternoon, spray 0.3% boric acid+0.3% potassium dihydrogen phosphate mixed liquor, every spray in 7 days 1 time, spray 3 times altogether;
(4) the outer edge strip ditch spread of tree dish fertile, water: the dressing furrow digging wide 20cm, dark 25cm along tree dish edge, to be evenly sprinkled into 5kg ecological organic fertilier in ditch and earthing, to take to water during slight irrigation mode drought;
(5) autumn cutting back: before the beginning of autumn 2 ~ 3 days, grafting young sprout grow to 30 ~ 50cm long time, on grafting young sprout raw Li Peng place stay 3 ~ 5 full buds, by end pin cutting back above; There is no the young sprout of Li Peng, play the fullest bud place at grafting young sprout base portion and retain 4 ~ 6 full buds, by end pin cutting back;
(6) winter pruning: take fruit-bearing shoot cluster rotate upgrade trimming method manage, High Density Planting Orchard removes overstocked branch and overlapping branch, cutting back crosses prosperous branch, sick branch and useless branch, utilize golden mean of the Confucian school branch result, open light path, make branch inside and outside tree crown prosperous strong, tree body upper and lower light, tree crown is compact, inside and outside result, and tree crown expansion slowly;
(7) prune spring: before germinateing, branch is drawn to the long excessively prosperous upright branch of growth, branch angle 65 ° ~ 70 °, and alternately carve wound at branch back every the full bud place of 20 ~ 25cm, whole weak bud of erasing after germination, make nutrient focus on full bud, form result branch;
(8) summer pruning: renewal pruning method of taking to rotate remove in the invalid branch of the too much baby's branch of thorax and fruit branch base portion, pinching is carried out to the young sprout of over growth;
(8) extermination of disease and insect pest;
Utilize light, insect sticker, insect-sticking plate, gyplure, sugar-vinegar liquid, machinery, artificial capture method or grass insect-killing trapping.
Embodiment 3:
(1) field is selected
Chinese chestnut garden soil requires fertile, loose ventilative, and preserve moisture and fertility ability is strong, and away from highway, factories and miness and industrial pollution, the mountain region having house refuse or level land, pH value is in 6.5 ~ 7.5 scopes, and average temperature of the whole year is 8.6 DEG C, annual more than 180 days frost-free season;
(2) Root-stock selection
Select without the skeleton branch baldness band of damage by disease and insect, the low yield of life in 5 years, High Density Planting Orchard of Chestnut inferior as graft stock;
(3) scion is selected
Healthy and strong in morning in maturing stage, strong stress resistance, production, gather scion without on damage by disease and insect, the Chinese chestnut elite stand that has no mechanical damage; The kind of described scion is the Yanshan Mountain early rich kind; Described scion is full sprout quantity is 4, and length is 15cm, without damage by disease and insect, the bearing basal shoot that has no mechanical damage;
(4) scion storage
Take storage practice of sealing with wax, heating paraffin dissolved, temperature is no more than 85 DEG C; Scion be placed in the paraffin of fusing and be stained with wax, being stained with the wax time is no more than 1s, finishes writing mark, avoids air-dry, spread wet cloth, puts into cellar for storing things for subsequent use;
(5) grafting period
Sprouting to expanding stock sprout does not have Zhan Yeshi to carry out grafting;
(6) grafting
Scion lower end is whittled into the smooth ramp of 6cm, is whittled into the peltate of 0.8cm at bevel lower backside, do not carry out cutting and cut; Anvil is not cut to described stock, retain original trunk top fruit bearing shoot and carry out result, in the skeleton branch both sides of tree body, every 30cm, alternately spiral digs crescent shaped cuttings groove, then vertical partial application, in T-shaped, the scion bevel cut is inserted in cortex, finally with plastic strip, interface is bandaged, guarantee that interface position does not interspace, survive rear interface rudiment of erasing in time;
(7) rear management is connect
(1) sprout tillers is removed: survive rear timely removing sprout tillers, the place that the exposed position of limb in the south is larger, retains some sprout tillers, in order to avoid cause limb day to burn;
(2) partly separate bondage: when young sprout grows to 30cm, retain 1/3 plastic strip, remove bottom bondage, in order to windproof;
(3) male, florescence spray fertilizer is dredged: manually dredge 90 ~ 95% of emasculation inflorescence total amount, retain the male inflorescence 5 ~ 10% at tree crown top or outlying position, mixed inflorescence all retains; Before at 10 in the morning that florescence selects fine day calm or after at 16 in afternoon, spray 0.3% boric acid+0.3% potassium dihydrogen phosphate mixed liquor, every spray in 7 days 1 time, spray 3 times altogether;
(4) the outer edge strip ditch spread of tree dish fertile, water: the dressing furrow digging wide 20cm, dark 25cm along tree dish edge, to be evenly sprinkled into 5kg ecological organic fertilier in ditch and earthing, to take to water during slight irrigation mode drought;
(5) autumn cutting back: before the beginning of autumn 2 ~ 3 days, grafting young sprout grow to 30 ~ 50cm long time, on grafting young sprout raw Li Peng place stay 3 ~ 5 full buds, by end pin cutting back above; There is no the young sprout of Li Peng, play the fullest bud place at grafting young sprout base portion and retain 4 ~ 6 full buds, by end pin cutting back;
(6) winter pruning: take fruit-bearing shoot cluster rotate upgrade trimming method manage, High Density Planting Orchard removes overstocked branch and overlapping branch, cutting back crosses prosperous branch, sick branch and useless branch, utilize golden mean of the Confucian school branch result, open light path, make branch inside and outside tree crown prosperous strong, tree body upper and lower light, tree crown is compact, inside and outside result, and tree crown expansion slowly;
(7) prune spring: before germinateing, branch is drawn to the long excessively prosperous upright branch of growth, branch angle 65 ° ~ 70 °, and alternately carve wound at branch back every the full bud place of 20 ~ 25cm, whole weak bud of erasing after germination, make nutrient focus on full bud, form result branch;
(8) summer pruning: renewal pruning method of taking to rotate remove in the invalid branch of the too much baby's branch of thorax and fruit branch base portion, pinching is carried out to the young sprout of over growth;
(8) extermination of disease and insect pest;
Utilize light, insect sticker, insect-sticking plate, gyplure, sugar-vinegar liquid, machinery, artificial capture method or grass insect-killing trapping.
In identical land occupation condition, the identical age of tree, identical tree vigo(u)r, same breed scion situation, take different graft technology, dock the chestnut fruit bearing shoot in latter 3 years, output carries out investigation ratio, result is as shown in table 1.
As shown in Table 1, take the grafting method of embodiment 1-3 then with regard to result, within after grafting 3 years, add up to output can up to 564.48kg, and other grafting method grafting then with the second does not have output every year, benefit be very remarkable.
Table 1
Remarks: kind is that the Yanshan Mountain is early rich, and seeding row spacing 2*4, stock age of tree 6-7 are raw.
Can be found out by above-described embodiment, by taking baldness band multiple spot bearing basal shoot cortex grafting grafting method of the present invention, Chestnut Orchard grafting then just can result, and after grafting 3 years add up to output up to 564.48kg, can have important using value.
Applicant states, the present invention illustrates detailed process equipment and process flow process of the present invention by above-described embodiment, but the present invention is not limited to above-mentioned detailed process equipment and process flow process, namely do not mean that the present invention must rely on above-mentioned detailed process equipment and process flow process and could implement.Person of ordinary skill in the field should understand, any improvement in the present invention, to equivalence replacement and the interpolation of auxiliary element, the concrete way choice etc. of each raw material of product of the present invention, all drops within protection scope of the present invention and open scope.

Claims (9)

1. a method for Chinese chestnut skeleton branch baldness band multiple spot grafting bearing basal shoot, is characterized in that, comprise the following steps:
(1) field is selected
Chinese chestnut garden soil requires fertile, loose ventilative, and preserve moisture and fertility ability is strong, and away from highway, factories and miness and industrial pollution, the mountain region having house refuse or level land, pH value is in 6.5 ~ 7.5 scopes, and average temperature of the whole year is 8.6 DEG C, annual more than 180 days frost-free season;
(2) Root-stock selection
Select without the Chinese chestnut skeleton branch of damage by disease and insect, life in 5 ~ 10 years as graft stock;
(3) scion is selected
Healthy and strong in morning in maturing stage, strong stress resistance, production, gather scion without on damage by disease and insect, the Chinese chestnut elite stand that has no mechanical damage;
(4) scion storage
Take storage practice of sealing with wax, heating paraffin is dissolved, scion is placed in the paraffin of fusing and is stained with wax, finish writing mark, avoid air-dry, spread wet cloth, put into cellar for storing things for subsequent use;
(5) grafting period
Sprouting to expanding stock sprout does not have Zhan Yeshi to carry out grafting;
(6) grafting main points
Scion lower end is whittled into the smooth ramp of 6 ~ 7cm, is whittled into the peltate of 0.5 ~ 0.8cm at bevel lower backside; In the skeleton branch both sides of tree body, every 20 ~ 30cm, alternately spiral digs crescent shaped cuttings groove, then vertical partial application, in T-shaped, inserts in cortex by the scion bevel cut, finally with plastic strip, interface is bandaged, guarantee that interface position does not interspace, survive rear interface rudiment of erasing in time;
(7) rear management is connect;
(8) extermination of disease and insect pest.
2. method according to claim 1, is characterized in that, in step (two), the skeleton branch baldness band of described Root-stock selection low yield, High Density Planting Orchard of Chestnut inferior is as graft stock.
3. method according to claim 1 and 2, is characterized in that, in step (three), the kind of described scion be the Yanshan Mountain early the maturing stage such as rich or Yan Jin early, the kind of strong stress resistance;
Preferably, described scion is full sprout quantity is 4 ~ 5, and length is 15 ~ 20cm, without damage by disease and insect, the bearing basal shoot that has no mechanical damage.
4. the method according to any one of claim 1-3, is characterized in that, in step (four), the temperature that described heating paraffin is dissolved is no more than 85 DEG C;
Preferably, described scion being placed in the paraffin of fusing is stained with the wax time and is no more than 1s.
5. the method according to any one of claim 1-4, is characterized in that, in step (five), grafting period selects peach blossom when blooming or mid or late April carries out grafting.
6. the method according to any one of claim 1-5, is characterized in that, in step (six), described scion is not carried out cutting and cut; Anvil is not cut to described stock, retains original trunk top fruit bearing shoot and carry out result.
7. the method according to any one of claim 1-6, is characterized in that, in step (seven), described in connect rear management and comprise:
(1) sprout tillers is removed: survive rear timely removing sprout tillers, the place that the exposed position of limb in the south is larger, retains some sprout tillers, in order to avoid cause limb day to burn;
(2) partly separate bondage: when young sprout grows to 30cm, retain 1/3 plastic strip, remove bottom bondage, in order to windproof;
(3) male, florescence spray fertilizer is dredged: manually dredge 90 ~ 95% of emasculation inflorescence total amount, retain the male inflorescence 5 ~ 10% at tree crown top or outlying position, mixed inflorescence all retains; Before at 10 in the morning that florescence selects fine day calm or after at 16 in afternoon, spray 0.3% boric acid+0.3% potassium dihydrogen phosphate mixed liquor, every spray in 7 days 1 time, spray 3 times altogether;
(4) the outer edge strip ditch spread of tree dish fertile, water: the dressing furrow digging wide 20cm, dark 25cm along tree dish edge, to be evenly sprinkled into 5kg ecological organic fertilier in ditch and earthing, to take to water during slight irrigation mode drought;
(5) autumn cutting back: before the beginning of autumn 2 ~ 3 days, grafting young sprout grow to 30 ~ 50cm long time, on grafting young sprout raw Li Peng place stay 3 ~ 5 full buds, by end pin cutting back above; There is no the young sprout of Li Peng, play the fullest bud place at grafting young sprout base portion and retain 4 ~ 6 full buds, by end pin cutting back;
(6) winter pruning: take fruit-bearing shoot cluster rotate upgrade trimming method manage, High Density Planting Orchard removes overstocked branch and overlapping branch, cutting back crosses prosperous branch, sick branch and useless branch, utilize golden mean of the Confucian school branch result, open light path, make branch inside and outside tree crown prosperous strong, tree body upper and lower light, tree crown is compact, inside and outside result, and tree crown expansion slowly;
(7) prune spring: before germinateing, branch is drawn to the long excessively prosperous upright branch of growth, branch angle 65 ° ~ 70 °, and alternately carve wound at branch back every the full bud place of 20 ~ 25cm, whole weak bud of erasing after germination, make nutrient focus on full bud, form result branch;
(8) summer pruning: renewal pruning method of taking to rotate remove in the invalid branch of the too much baby's branch of thorax and fruit branch base portion, pinching is carried out to the young sprout of over growth.
8. the method according to any one of claim 1-7, is characterized in that, in step (eight), the described extermination of disease and insect pest comprises: utilize light, insect sticker, insect-sticking plate, gyplure, sugar-vinegar liquid, machinery, artificial capture method or grass insect-killing trapping.
9. the method according to any one of claim 1-8, is characterized in that, said method comprising the steps of:
(1) field is selected
Chinese chestnut garden soil requires fertile, loose ventilative, and preserve moisture and fertility ability is strong, and away from highway, factories and miness and industrial pollution, the mountain region having house refuse or level land, pH value is in 6.5 ~ 7.5 scopes, and average temperature of the whole year is 8.6 DEG C, annual more than 180 days frost-free season;
(2) Root-stock selection
Select without the skeleton branch baldness band of damage by disease and insect, the low yield of life in 5 ~ 10 years, High Density Planting Orchard of Chestnut inferior as graft stock;
(3) scion is selected
Healthy and strong in morning in maturing stage, strong stress resistance, production, gather scion without on damage by disease and insect, the Chinese chestnut elite stand that has no mechanical damage; The kind of described scion be the Yanshan Mountain early the maturing stage such as rich or Yan Jin early, the kind of strong stress resistance; Described scion is full sprout quantity is 4 ~ 5, and length is 15 ~ 20cm, without damage by disease and insect, the bearing basal shoot that has no mechanical damage;
(4) scion storage
Take storage practice of sealing with wax, heating paraffin dissolved, temperature is no more than 85 DEG C; Scion be placed in the paraffin of fusing and be stained with wax, being stained with the wax time is no more than 1s, finishes writing mark, avoids air-dry, spread wet cloth, puts into cellar for storing things for subsequent use;
(5) grafting period
Sprouting to expanding stock sprout does not have Zhan Yeshi to carry out grafting;
(6) grafting
Scion lower end is whittled into the smooth ramp of 6 ~ 7cm, is whittled into the peltate of about 0.5cm at bevel lower backside, do not carry out cutting and cut; Anvil is not cut to described stock, retain original trunk top fruit bearing shoot and carry out result, in the skeleton branch both sides of tree body, every 20 ~ 30cm, alternately spiral digs crescent shaped cuttings groove, then vertical partial application, in T-shaped, the scion bevel cut is inserted in cortex, finally with plastic strip, interface is bandaged, guarantee that interface position does not interspace, survive rear interface rudiment of erasing in time;
(7) rear management is connect
(1) sprout tillers is removed: survive rear timely removing sprout tillers, the place that the exposed position of limb in the south is larger, retains some sprout tillers, in order to avoid cause limb day to burn;
(2) partly separate bondage: when young sprout grows to 30cm, retain 1/3 plastic strip, remove bottom bondage, in order to windproof;
(3) male, florescence spray fertilizer is dredged: manually dredge 90 ~ 95% of emasculation inflorescence total amount, retain the male inflorescence 5 ~ 10% at tree crown top or outlying position, mixed inflorescence all retains; Before at 10 in the morning that florescence selects fine day calm or after at 16 in afternoon, spray 0.3% boric acid+0.3% potassium dihydrogen phosphate mixed liquor, every spray in 7 days 1 time, spray 3 times altogether;
(4) the outer edge strip ditch spread of tree dish fertile, water: the dressing furrow digging wide 20cm, dark 25cm along tree dish edge, to be evenly sprinkled into 5kg ecological organic fertilier in ditch and earthing, to take to water during slight irrigation mode drought;
(5) autumn cutting back: before the beginning of autumn 2 ~ 3 days, grafting young sprout grow to 30 ~ 50cm long time, on grafting young sprout raw Li Peng place stay 3 ~ 5 full buds, by end pin cutting back above; There is no the young sprout of Li Peng, play the fullest bud place at grafting young sprout base portion and retain 4 ~ 6 full buds, by end pin cutting back;
(6) winter pruning: take fruit-bearing shoot cluster rotate upgrade trimming method manage, High Density Planting Orchard removes overstocked branch and overlapping branch, cutting back crosses prosperous branch, sick branch and useless branch, utilize golden mean of the Confucian school branch result, open light path, make branch inside and outside tree crown prosperous strong, tree body upper and lower light, tree crown is compact, inside and outside result, and tree crown expansion slowly;
(7) prune spring: before germinateing, branch is drawn to the long excessively prosperous upright branch of growth, branch angle 65 ° ~ 70 °, and alternately carve wound at branch back every the full bud place of 20 ~ 25cm, whole weak bud of erasing after germination, make nutrient focus on full bud, form result branch;
(8) summer pruning: renewal pruning method of taking to rotate remove in the invalid branch of the too much baby's branch of thorax and fruit branch base portion, pinching is carried out to the young sprout of over growth;
(8) extermination of disease and insect pest;
Utilize light, insect sticker, insect-sticking plate, gyplure, sugar-vinegar liquid, machinery, artificial capture method or grass insect-killing trapping.
CN201510951933.3A 2015-12-17 2015-12-17 A kind of method of Chinese chestnut skeleton branch baldness with multiple spot grafting bearing basal shoot Expired - Fee Related CN105557425B (en)

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CN107396799A (en) * 2017-08-23 2017-11-28 广西桂平市蒙圩镇柱强种养专业合作社 A kind of cultural method of organic Chinese chestnut
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CN109496581A (en) * 2019-01-27 2019-03-22 左齐 A kind of Chinese chestnut tree engrafting method of high-survival rate
CN110326439A (en) * 2019-08-08 2019-10-15 承德市林业技术推广总站 The efficiently fast rich graft technology of one planting fruit-trees
CN111296165A (en) * 2020-04-14 2020-06-19 万源市润雨中药有限公司 Planting method for promoting production of dark plums in associated mode
CN113439599A (en) * 2021-06-25 2021-09-28 北京仙峰云海生态农业有限公司 Regeneration and rejuvenation pruning method and pruning tool for baby branches of chestnut trees

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CN107251835A (en) * 2016-07-26 2017-10-17 韦健 A kind of selection of high-quality Chinese Chestnut New Lines
CN107278748A (en) * 2016-07-27 2017-10-24 韦健 An a kind of high position changes kind of a method for technological transformation low yield Chinese chestnut
CN107173068A (en) * 2017-05-10 2017-09-19 麦丽 A kind of engrafting method of Chinese chestnut tree
CN107396799A (en) * 2017-08-23 2017-11-28 广西桂平市蒙圩镇柱强种养专业合作社 A kind of cultural method of organic Chinese chestnut
CN107484622A (en) * 2017-09-29 2017-12-19 广西那坡县翠株园林业科技有限公司 A kind of pruning method of Chinese chestnut tree
CN108353720A (en) * 2018-05-17 2018-08-03 迁西县五为生物科技有限公司 The dry restorative procedure of long major branch on Chinese chestnut tree
CN109496581A (en) * 2019-01-27 2019-03-22 左齐 A kind of Chinese chestnut tree engrafting method of high-survival rate
CN110326439A (en) * 2019-08-08 2019-10-15 承德市林业技术推广总站 The efficiently fast rich graft technology of one planting fruit-trees
CN111296165A (en) * 2020-04-14 2020-06-19 万源市润雨中药有限公司 Planting method for promoting production of dark plums in associated mode
CN111296165B (en) * 2020-04-14 2021-10-22 万源市润雨中药有限公司 Planting method for promoting production of dark plums in associated mode
CN113439599A (en) * 2021-06-25 2021-09-28 北京仙峰云海生态农业有限公司 Regeneration and rejuvenation pruning method and pruning tool for baby branches of chestnut trees
CN113439599B (en) * 2021-06-25 2022-08-19 北京仙峰云海生态农业有限公司 Regeneration and rejuvenation pruning method and pruning tool for baby branches of chestnut trees

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