CN105547632B - A method of impact velocity is examined and determine or calibrated using impact velocity measuring device - Google Patents

A method of impact velocity is examined and determine or calibrated using impact velocity measuring device Download PDF

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Publication number
CN105547632B
CN105547632B CN201510915520.XA CN201510915520A CN105547632B CN 105547632 B CN105547632 B CN 105547632B CN 201510915520 A CN201510915520 A CN 201510915520A CN 105547632 B CN105547632 B CN 105547632B
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impact velocity
measuring device
impact
velocity measuring
pendulum
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CN105547632A (en
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王强
陈镇
金美峰
黄利君
贺德溪
宋淮北
李鸣
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Anhui Province Metering Scientific Research Institute
Anhui Landun Photoelectron Co Ltd
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Anhui Province Metering Scientific Research Institute
Anhui Landun Photoelectron Co Ltd
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    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01MTESTING STATIC OR DYNAMIC BALANCE OF MACHINES OR STRUCTURES; TESTING OF STRUCTURES OR APPARATUS, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • G01M7/00Vibration-testing of structures; Shock-testing of structures
    • G01M7/08Shock-testing

Abstract

The invention discloses a kind of new methods for being examined and determine or being calibrated impact velocity using impact velocity measuring device, it includes signal receiving antenna, spectroscopy processing module and signal processing module, the signal processing module includes the orthogonal mixer of successively signal connection, amplifying circuit, automatic gain control circuit and A/D converter, it is characterized in that the signal receiving antenna is the high-gain receiving antenna of 35dB, successively signal is connected with filter circuit and shaping circuit between the amplifying circuit and automatic gain control circuit, the shaping circuit output end is connected with the pulsewidth trapping module that dominant frequency is 150MHz.The beneficial effects of the invention are as follows the measurement ranges that (0.5-10) m/s is accurately acquired in such a way that the receiving antenna of high-gain and pulsewidth capture, it is acquired using the pulsewidth trapping module (eCAP) that dominant frequency is up to 150MHz, frequency acquisition precision can be greatly improved, Acquisition Error is reduced, to realize that high precision velocity measures.

Description

A method of impact velocity is examined and determine or calibrated using impact velocity measuring device
Technical field
The present invention relates to metering and the field of test technology more particularly to a kind of use impact velocity measuring device is examined and determine or school The method of quasi- impact velocity.
Background technique
In transport package horizontal impact test (horizontal, inclined-plane impact test), impact velocity is slope impact tester The whether accurate key parameter of Control experiment sampling test intensity value.Therefore with the calibrating of impact velocity measuring device or calibration test Whether the impact velocity of system is accurate most important, and especially low speed measures, it is desirable that accuracy, high resolution, tracking is accurate, object The distance of running body to shock surface is shorter, and the sensor sensing time obtains speed by vibration influence, and error is larger, and laser velocimeter is difficult To capture target, the high speed acquisition that velocity radar mainly synchronizes Doppler signal, collected data are by central processing Unit makees corresponding noise processed, frequency transformation analysis, the processing of data correlation scheduling algorithm, obtains the frequency spectrum of detection target, really The Doppler frequency to set the goal obtains the movement velocity of target further according to Doppler effect.In terms of signal processing, signal is first After orthogonal mixer comes out, level-one or second level amplification are carried out to it, is controlled using automatic gain control circuit (AGC) The sinusoidal signal of needs is finally sent to ADC acquisition module, its analog-to-digital conversion obtains by system within certain amplitude range Corresponding digital quantity.In terms of low speed low frequency signal relatively due to low frequency low speed signal and noise, if processing is fast in this way Degree error will accordingly increase.
Slope impact tester is the equipment for carrying out horizontal impact test to transport package and unit cargo, suitable for commenting The impact resistant strength of transport package and unit cargo when by horizontal impact and packaging are determined to the protective capability of content.Its It is widely used in all conglomeraties such as electronics, electrical, household electrical appliance, instrument and meter and packaging product quality supervision and inspection mechanism.Inclined-plane Shock machine is with the potential energy of object be kinetic energy principle, acquisition when package is slided by predetermined position to end Certain impact velocity shock plate collision vertical with one and directional velocity, to reach scheduled test objective.Inclined-plane impact Testing machine (containing sensor, is shown by steel track, trolley, baffle, inclined-plane control device, traction device, release device, speed measuring device Show device), the composition such as console.According to GB/T 4857.18-1992, " packed and transported package works out determining for performance test outline Measure data " and GB/T 4857.11-2005 " the 11st part of packed and transported package fundamental test: horizontal impact test method " Requirement, the intensity value of package horizontal impact test is (1.5~5) m/s, and the impact velocity maximum of slope impact tester permits Perhaps error is not more than ± 5%.
Charpy impact machine tester be with the pendulum of specified altitude to the impact specimen on impact testing machine anvil block into The disposable strike of row, impact absorbing energy when measurement sample is bent.Pendulum is centered on shock machine balance staff, in pre- Pendulum is discharged when the alpha position of the elevation angle, with the impact specimen on certain speed impact testing machine anvil block.
JJG 145-2007 " Charpy impact machine tester vertification regulation " is mainly according to the " pendulum of GB/T 3808-2002 The inspection of shock machine " it works out, and GB/T 3808-2002 " inspection of Charpy impact machine tester " is that modification uses 148-2:1998 of international standard ISO " inspection of metal material Charpy pendulum impact test part 2 testing machine ".That is As long as adopting international standards to examine Charpy impact machine tester (hereinafter referred to as testing machine) both at home and abroad at present, method is consistent 's.But JJG145-2007 " Charpy impact machine tester vertification regulation " is in addition to the component meter characteristic of certificate test machine, to examination Test in the calibratings of meter characteristics such as the energy loss, impact velocity, the energy error of indication of machine that there are the following problems:
One, the calibrating of energy loss fails the whole for objectively reflecting energy loss
As that pointer friction, bearing friction and air drag be considered as whole energy losses is not objective for regulation.Because except above-mentioned Outside energy loss, there are also energy losses caused by the factors such as the vibration of the impact on basis, rack and pendulum.At present both at home and abroad also Not energy caused by the factors such as vibration of the impact on mature measurement method and measuring instrument measurement basis, rack and pendulum Loss.Therefore, energy loss caused by measurement pointer friction, bearing friction and air drag is only one of energy loss Point.
It two, should not be using the indicating value of testing machine energy loss as the result of certificate test machine energy loss
The purpose of calibrating is to find out and confirm whether measurement instrument meets related legal requirements, for the metering with magnitude Characteristic, it is necessary to checked object and mete-wand, measurement criteria are subjected to Technical comparing, finally based on as defined in measurement verification regulations Whether flow characteristic is verified, thus qualified to measurement instrument, if meets which class of accuracy makes calibrating conclusion.The rule Requirement of the journey to energy loss is shown in Table 1:
The requirement of 1 energy loss of table
However the calibrating of the digital display type testing machine energy loss regulation is used " for digital display type pendulum impact test Machine does not have the influence of pointer friction, should have energy loss autorun for bearing friction and air drag " side Method carrys out certificate test machine energy loss, damages to the energy loss of pointer testing machine also with the pointer detection energy of itself It loses.Use the indicating value of tested measurement instrument as it is examining and determine as a result, rather than examined and determine by measurement standard, it is clear that this Kind method is incorrect.
Three, the calibrating of impact velocity does not account for energy caused by the factors such as pointer friction, bearing friction and air drag Loss, and when examining and determine energy loss it is further contemplated that above-mentioned Energy Consumption Factors, keep regulation calibration method front and back different.
The regulation has caused pointer friction, bearing friction and air drag in the direct calibration method of 7.3.1.1 (7) Energy loss examined and determine, although to digital display type testing machine energy loss be using be detected testing machine indicating value as calibrating knot Fruit, but used when examining and determine impact velocityImpact velocity υ is calculated, is not considered but in formula The influence of above-mentioned energy loss, so that regulation calibration method inconsequent, and the impact velocity value one according to said method measured It is fixed to be greater than the impact velocity value actually occurred.
Four, indirect checking method calibrating is at high cost, no operability and enforceability, and error is big, and the accordance of testing machine is difficult To determine
1, indirect checking method calibrating is at high cost, and operability and enforceability are poor
So-called indirect checking method is exactly the calibrating that impact energy is carried out using standard sample, i.e. value testing method.Regulation It is required that the error of indication be for the first time, the essential items for inspection of subsequent calibrating.Regulation regulation is " at least two in detection testing machine use scope Absorb energy level ", when being examined and determine with v-notch standard sample, the standard sample of each energy level selects 5, with non-v-notch mark When quasi- sample is examined and determine, the standard sample of each energy level selects 3: " to the testing machine used in particular range, standard sample Energy should be as far as possible close to its conventional use of range ".That is if the error of indication of one testing machine of calibrating uses v-notch 10 standard samples are needed when standard sample is examined and determine, and 6 standard samples are needed when examining and determine using non-v-notch standard sample, it is right The testing machine used in particular range at least needs 3 standard samples when examining and determine using non-v-notch standard sample.Disregarding In the case of the wage of testing person, travel transportation expenses, the market price for only examining and determine the standard sample used is about 260 yuan/, inspection One testing machine needs (3~10) a standard sample, meter RMB (780~2600) member.And a testing machine is examined and determine by national each province Metage as defined in local pricing bureau is about 1300 yuan of province metage extremely individual generally in (350~660) member.If by calibrating rule Range request carries out the calibrating of the error of indication with standard sample, then the expense of metage deficiency purchase standard sample.In addition, test If machine is divided by energy size there are about 20 plurality of specifications, for the normal calibrating for guaranteeing this area testing machine, calibration authority needs standby The whole nation is caused because calibrating cost examines and determine expense much higher than as defined in pricing bureau with the standard sample of a large amount of various measurement ranges Most area calibration authority examines one and loses one, more luckily more of inspection.Therefore most domestic calibration authority is in daily inspection Almost do not have to the standard sample calibrating error of indication, indicating value repeatability in fixed work, does not have the regulation substantially in actual operation There are operability and enforceability.
2, indirect checking method error is big, and the accordance of testing machine is difficult to determine
By taking v-notch standard sample as an example, be using the average value of 25 or more the energy values measured as The standard energy value K of this batchR, while standard deviation is calculated, the standard deviation allowed is shown in Table 2:
The standard deviation that 2 v-notch standard sample of table allows
Energy KR Standard deviation
< 40J ≤2.0J
≥40J ≤ 5%KR
As shown in Table 2: as standard energy KRWhen >=40J, the standard deviation that v-notch standard sample allows is≤5%KR。 And the error of indication of testing machine is ± 10%KR, then the 1/3 testing machine indicating value of limits of error > of standard sample is maximum allowable Error.The basic demand evaluated by accordance:
Work as U95When > 1/3MPEV,
If MPEV-U95< | Δ | < MPEV+U95, then it is determined as area undetermined.
In formula
U95Error of indication uncertainty of measurement;
MPEV- is by the absolute value of the limits of error of test examination instrument;
Δ-is by the error of indication of test examination instrument.
So can not then carry out meeting sex determination to testing machine when the error of indication of testing machine is at area undetermined.
Now use measurement range for (0.5~10) m/s, the impact velocity that the limits of error are ± 0.005m/s measures dress Calibrating Charpy impact machine tester is set not only to avoid JJG 145-2007 " Charpy impact machine tester vertification regulation " there are above-mentioned Problem, and measure more acurrate.
Summary of the invention
The technical problem to be solved by the present invention is to various disadvantages existing for the method for existing calibrating Charpy impact machine tester It holds, there is presently no being calibrated using impact velocity of the radar velocity measurement device to slope impact tester, one kind is provided thus The method that measurement low speed, high-precision, high-resolution impact velocity measuring device are used to examining and determine or calibrating impact velocity.
The technical scheme is that a kind of method for examining and determine or calibrating impact velocity using impact velocity measuring device, It includes impact velocity measuring device, and the impact velocity measuring device includes signal receiving antenna, spectroscopy processing module and letter Number processing module, the signal processing module include orthogonal mixer, the amplifying circuit, automatic growth control of successively signal connection Circuit and A/D converter, it is characterized in that the signal receiving antenna be 35dB high-gain receiving antenna, the amplifying circuit and Successively signal is connected with filter circuit and shaping circuit between automatic gain control circuit, and the shaping circuit output end is connected with Dominant frequency is the pulsewidth trapping module of 150MHz;
The method for further including calibrating or calibration impact velocity, it is the following steps are included: by the impact velocity measuring device It is directed at the motion profile of earnest body to be checked, opening impact velocity measuring device, when examining and determine or calibrate object and pass through shock point, Signal receiving antenna captures the Doppler signal of earnest body to be checked, by the Doppler signal by spectroscopy processing module output The pulsewidth trapping module that frequency signal input dominant frequency is 150MHz is captured to obtain high-precision impact velocity value.
Earnest body to be checked described in above scheme is Charpy impact machine tester, and calibration method is as follows: impact velocity is surveyed Amount device measuring center is overlapped with the striking point of testing machine, and opening impact velocity measuring device, the pendulum of release test machine works as pendulum When hammer passes through striking point, pendulum swings 100 time t when being not more than 5 ° of positions with No. 3 pendulums of stopwatch duplicate measurements, takes it flat Mean value, by formulaOr when ceiling capacity≤5J,Calculate to obtain l;With level meter, dynamometer duplicate measurements The torque of No. 3 pendulums takes its average value to obtain torqueAccording toCalculate the quality m of swing rod, pendulum, opening impact speed Measuring device is spent, pendulum is respectively placed in 10%, 50%, 80% position of nominal energy, the pendulum of release test machine, with punching It hits velocity measuring device and records testing machine respectively in the impact velocity υ of nominal energy 10%, 50%, 80%i, press Standard energy value is acquired, by formulaError of indication δ K is calculated, by formula R=KRmax-KRminCalculate repeatability R.
Object to be calibrated described in above scheme is slope impact tester, and calibration method is as follows: opening inclined-plane impact examination Machine is tested, promotes orbit inclination angle to 10 ° of positions of nominal value, after optical clinometer is arranged zero-bit, with optics dipmeter survey trolley The angle on surface and horizontal plane;Impact velocity measuring device is mounted on tripod, impact baffle plate opposite is placed it in, from oblique Locate other than the shock machine 0.5m of face;Adjustment tripod height makes impact velocity measuring device alignment test sample or trolley, and Center of antenna axis with optical clinometer adjustment impact velocity measuring device is parallel with raceway surface;Opening impact tachometric survey Device discharges the trolley of slope impact tester, the impact speed of impact velocity measuring device automatic collection slope impact tester Degree.
Object to be calibrated described in above scheme is horizontal impact tester, and calibration method is as follows: opening horizontal impact examination Machine is tested, after optical clinometer is arranged zero-bit, impact velocity measuring device is mounted on tripod, impact baffle plate is placed it in Opposite is located from other than horizontal impact tester 0.5m;Adjustment tripod height makes impact velocity measuring device alignment test sample Or trolley, and it is parallel with raceway surface with the center of antenna axis of optical clinometer adjustment impact velocity measuring device;Open punching Hit velocity measuring device, the trolley of emission levels shock machine, the test of impact velocity measuring device automatic collection horizontal impact The impact velocity of machine.
The beneficial effects of the invention are as follows the sides that impact velocity measuring device is captured using the receiving antenna and pulsewidth of high-gain Formula accurately acquires the measurement range of (0.5-10) m/s, is adopted using the pulsewidth trapping module (eCAP) that dominant frequency is up to 150MHz Collection can greatly improve frequency acquisition precision, reduce Acquisition Error, constant repeatedly replaces on Computational Method of Velocity Measurement and is changed to single generation It changes, while taking the mode calculating speed mean value of 4 root mean square, to reduce calculating error.With impact velocity measuring device The value that directly measurement impact velocity obtains can objectively react testing machine and be converted into impacting after energy loss by initial potential energy True velocity and energy when kinetic energy;For examining and determine Charpy impact machine tester, pressIt can be to testing machine Any one calibrating point in measurement range carries out the calibrating of the error of indication, avoids having used high-cost standard sample.So using Impact velocity measuring device certificate test machine is more scientific compared with vertification regulation, more reasonable.
Detailed description of the invention
Fig. 1 is impact velocity measuring device module diagram of the present invention.
Specific embodiment
Below with reference to embodiment, the present invention will be further described.
As shown in Figure 1, the impact velocity measuring device in the present invention, it includes signal receiving antenna, spectroscopy processing module And signal processing module, the signal processing module include orthogonal mixer, the amplifying circuit, automatic gain of successively signal connection Control circuit and A/D converter, the signal receiving antenna are the high-gain receiving antenna of 35dB, the amplifying circuit and automatic Successively signal is connected with filter circuit and shaping circuit between gain control circuit, and the shaping circuit output end is connected with dominant frequency For the pulsewidth trapping module of 150MHz.
Calibrating or calibration impact velocity method, it the following steps are included: by the impact velocity measuring device alignment to The motion profile of calibrating or calibration object, opening impact velocity measuring device, when examining and determine or calibrate object and pass through shock point, Signal receiving antenna captures the Doppler signal of earnest body to be checked, by the Doppler signal by spectroscopy processing module output The pulsewidth trapping module that frequency signal input dominant frequency is 150MHz is captured to obtain high-precision impact velocity value.
Impact velocity measuring device utilizes microwave Doppler principle, carries out noise processed to low speed, low frequency signal, extracts filter Wave amplification, frequency transformation analysis, the processing of data correlation scheduling algorithm obtain the frequency spectrum of detection target, can be extremely easily to object Body moment impact, impact velocity measure, and rate accuracy is high, and the range that tests the speed is wide.There is the present apparatus information record, data to deposit Storage, statistical analysis, printing, time and speed the multiple functions such as motion profile figure.
It had both overcome using the relatively narrow high-gain aerial of lobe using Doppler radar measurement and has been difficult to capture asking for target Topic, and be not affected by the surrounding environment, installation and debugging are convenient.Random shock tachometric survey resolution ratio reaches 0.005m/s, for solution Certainly error problem captures the signal after shaping by the pulsewidth trapping module of processor to it, since high speed is handled The frequency of device pulsewidth trapping module can reach hundred megahertzs or more, frequency acquisition precision can be greatly improved, so as to reality Existing high precision velocity calculates.Present apparatus measurement range (0.5~10) m/s, measurement lower limit 0.5m/s, the limits of error be ± 0.005m/s, resolution ratio 0.005m/s, and the minimum measurement lower limit of similar products at home and abroad is 3.6km/h (1m/s), error is ± 0.1km/h (± 0.03m/s), resolving power are 0.1km/h (0.03m/s).
Impact velocity measuring device can be used for the impact velocity measurement of slope impact tester, impact velocity measuring device Level sets up or is set to tripot the high-end front on inclined-plane, the regional alignment that tests the speed of signal receiving antenna object to be impacted Body, the main lobe of signal receiving antenna is narrow, high gain, and principal subsidiary lobe inhibits effectively to avoid the interference of surrounding objects than good.To measurement Data are stored, are analyzed, being formed the motion profile figure of statistical report form and time and speed.The device can be straight to other Speed when line moving object impact, collision measures.Specific calibration method is as follows: opening slope impact tester, is promoted Orbit inclination angle is to 10 ° of positions of nominal value, after optical clinometer is arranged zero-bit, with optics dipmeter survey trolley surface and level The angle in face.Impact velocity measuring device is mounted on tripod, impact baffle plate opposite is placed it in, from inclined-plane impact test Locate other than machine 0.5m.Adjustment tripod height makes radar impact velocity measuring device alignment test sample or trolley, and uses optics The center of antenna axis that dipmeter adjusts impact velocity measuring device is parallel with raceway surface.Opening impact velocity measuring device, Discharge the trolley of slope impact tester, the impact velocity of impact velocity measuring device automatic collection slope impact tester.Weight Repetition measurement amount totally 10 times, impact velocity error of indication δ is calculated by formula (1)υ, impact velocity indicating value repeatability is calculated by formula (2) r。
In formula:
δv- impact velocity the error of indication, %;
υsiThe impact velocity value of-slope impact tester i-th measurement, m/s;
υbiThe impact velocity value of-impact velocity measuring device i-th measurement, m/s;
The impact velocity arithmetic mean of instantaneous value of-slope impact tester 10 times measurements, m/s;
The impact velocity arithmetic mean of instantaneous value of-impact velocity measuring device 10 times measurements, m/s;
R-impact velocity indicating value repeatability, %;
N-pendulous frequency.
Impact velocity measuring device can be also used for the impact velocity measurement of horizontal impact tester, it and inclined-plane impact try The step of impact velocity measuring process for testing machine is roughly the same, has only lacked adjustment orbit inclination angle and optical clinometer.
Under normal conditions, after sinusoidal signal analog-to-digital conversion, velocity amplitude is obtained by FFT transform, will be generated in the process Velocity error, if sample rate is 96kHz, sampling number 1024, then the positive and negative biased error generated is answered are as follows: 96000/1024 =93.75Hz, if 35.1GHz radar, velocity error 93.75/65.050=1.4412km/h=0.4003m/ S, it is clear that it can not meet the requirement of the limits of error ± 0.005m/s, it, can be by increasing using points, so if wanting to reduce error And increase to greatly increase using points and calculate the time, cause real-time poor, obviously unreasonable in this way, another method is Sample rate is reduced, however nyquist sampling theorem is specified that, in the conversion process for carrying out analog/digital signal, when adopting When sample frequency fs.max is greater than 2 times of highest frequency fmax in signal (fs.max > 2fmax), the digital signal after sampling is It can completely remain the information in original signal, guarantee that sample frequency is signal highest frequency in general practical application 5~ 10 times.Therefore reducing sample rate is also not very reasonable approach.To improve accuracy of measurement, we are using following processing:
1, it is acquired using the pulsewidth trapping module (eCAP) that dominant frequency is up to 150MHz, frequency acquisition can be greatly improved Precision reduces Acquisition Error, to realize that high precision velocity measures.2, constant is repeatedly replaced and is changed to single replacement, it such as will be fast Angle value calculation formula(C-electromagnetic wave propagation speed, 0.299792458Gm/s;K1- unit conversion factor, 10-3/ 3.6) it is changed toDo not influencing real-time Under the premise of, we take the mode calculating speed mean value of 4 root mean square, it may be assumed that Because hardware is half frequency dividing, then To reduce Calculate error.
2. present apparatus numerical value 4 after software is calculated to decimal point, shows after decimal point 3, its minimum is made by software Increment is 0.005m/s.Method are as follows: such as 2.00AB, as AB≤25, A=0;As 25 < AB < 75, A=5;When AB >=75 When, A=0, and to the left into one.It can ensure that resolution ratio is 0.005m/s.
The present invention can be also used for the impact velocity of calibrating Charpy impact machine tester, and calibration method is as follows: by impact speed Degree measuring device measuring center is overlapped with the striking point of testing machine, opening impact velocity measuring device, the pendulum of release test machine, When pendulum passes through striking point, impact velocity measuring device records the impact velocity of testing machine at this time.With stopwatch duplicate measurements 3 times Pendulum swings 100 time t when pendulum is not more than 5 ° of positions, its average value is taken, by formulaOr ceiling capacity≤5J When,Calculate to obtain l;With the torque of No. 3 level meter, dynamometer duplicate measurements pendulums, its average value is taken to obtain torqueAccording toThe quality m of swing rod, pendulum is calculated, pendulum is respectively placed in nominally by opening impact velocity measuring device 10%, 50%, 80% position of energy, the pendulum of release test machine record testing machine with impact velocity measuring device respectively In the impact velocity υ of nominal energy 10%, 50%, 80%i, pressIt acquires standard energy value and (is equivalent to standard examination The standard energy value of sample), by formulaError of indication δ K is calculated, by formula R=KRmax-KRminCalculate repeatability R。
In formula
δ K-energy the error of indication, J;
Ks- testing machine energy indicating value, J;
The average value of -5 measurement acceptance of the bid quasi-energies, J;
R-testing machine repeatability, J;
KRmaxThe maximum value of -5 measurement acceptance of the bid quasi-energies, J;
KRminThe minimum value of -5 measurement acceptance of the bid quasi-energies, J.
The present invention is compared with existing Charpy impact machine tester vertification regulation, the advantage with the following aspects:
1, the present invention is more scientific, more reasonable
(1), vertification regulation impact velocityFormula does not account for energy loss, and what is acquired is a kind of Ideal value, value are centainly bigger than actual value.And impact velocity υ is directly measured with impact velocity measuring device, the value obtained is but True velocity when testing machine is converted into impact kinetic energy by initial potential energy after energy loss can objectively have been reacted.
(2), vertification regulation can only examine and determine out one of energy loss to pointer testing machine when examining and determine energy loss Point, digital display type testing machine is not examined and determine with standard, but uses the indicating value of tested testing machine as verification result, it is clear that It is not objective, inappropriate." energy loss " calibrating project can actually be cancelled, because either pointer testing machine still counts Energy loss etc. has been contained in its error of indication of explicit testing machine.This is just as calibrating pulling force, pressure and universal testing machine Equally, after examining and determine the error of indication, without individually being examined and determine frictional force caused by various factors.
2, present invention measurement is accurate
By taking v-notch standard sample calibrating >=40J testing machine as an example, the standard deviation of v-notch standard sample is ± 5%KR, and measurement range (0.5~10) m/s is used, the impact velocity measuring device that the limits of error are 0.005m/s is examined The testing machine for determining impact velocity (3~6) m/s, in 3m/s, impact velocity worst error isWith public affairs FormulaAcquire standard energy KRWhen, the quality of testing machine swing rod, pendulum, Gu Chong are obtained using 0.1 grade standard dynamometer Hit standard energy K when speed 3m/sRThe uncertainty of measurement result is Use impact velocity measuring device calibrating >=40J testing machine standard energy KRCompared with v-notch standard sample certificate test machine Standard energy KRAccuracy improve 14 times, therefore new method measurement it is more acurrate.
3, strong operability of the present invention
Vertification regulation provides that the error of indication of certificate test machine must use standard sample in head inspection, subsequent calibrating, by It is more, at high cost in the specification of standard sample, so that calibration authority needs to be equipped with a large amount of standard sample, if encountering the examination of new spec Machine is tested, not existing standard sample when need to buy again, is difficult to meet customer requirement on the time, and because metage is too low, make Many calibration authorities examine one and lose one, more luckily more of inspection.Therefore, it is examined and determine and is tried with standard sample in actual operation The error of indication of machine is tested almost without operability and enforceability.And the impact velocity measuring device of (0.5~10) m/s can be with The testing machine for the various specifications that impact velocity is (3~6) m/s is examined and determine, therefore this method operability and enforceability are more By force.
Use the measurement method and measurement result verification method 1 (Comparison Method) of impact velocity measuring device: in the same terms The lower impact velocity measuring device and laser velocimeter for being ± 1.0% with accuracy respectively exists to same slope impact tester The angle of orbit plane and horizontal plane is 9.17 °, running length 1610mm, predetermined impact speed are that 2.2m/s calibration point carries out 10 duplicate measurements, calibration result should meet:The following table 3 is measurement result:
If: ylab=1.4%, y2=1,3%, Ulab=1.4%, then:
And 0.707Ulab=0.99%, thereforeVerifying is met the requirements.
Using the measurement method and measurement result verification method 2 of impact velocity measuring device, (actual measured value is pushed away with theory Calculation value compares): according to data measured by table 3, coefficient of friction η is calculated by law of conservation of energy, changes running length, and then calculate The theoretical estimated value of impact velocity out, then with impact velocity measuring device calibration inclined-plane punching in the state of changing running length The impact velocity for hitting testing machine obtains actual measured value, and actual measured value is compared with theoretical estimated value, is pressedVerifying.Known by law of conservation of energy:
It is obtained by (5)
In formula:
| δ | the measured value of-impact velocity measuring device and the absolute value of the difference of impact velocity theory estimated value;
MPEV-slope impact tester impact velocity limits of error absolute value;
η-coefficient of friction;
β-raceway surface angle with horizontal plane;
L-test specimen running length;
V-impact velocity.
According to the data that table 3 is calibrated, if:
β==9.17 °
L=1.610m
v1=2.115m/s
v2=2.129m/s
Above known conditions substitution (6) formula is obtained: η1=0.018, η2=0.016, thereforeWhen β=9.17 °, when L=1.205m: then obtaining theoretical estimated value: v=1.835m/s by (7) formula.
School is carried out when running length is 1.205m to slope impact tester on the same stage with impact velocity measuring device It is quasi-.Impact velocity measuring device measurement data is shown in Table 4:
4 impact velocity measuring device measurement data of table
As L=1.205m: actual alignment impact velocity value are as follows: 1.856m/s.
Then actual measured value and theoretical estimated value relative error are as follows:Because of quilt The MPEV=5% of the slope impact tester of calibration, therefore:
| δ |=1.1%≤1/3MPEV=1.67%, verifying are met the requirements.
Impact velocity measuring device compared to common radar meter change its measurement unit, improve its accuracy, Just the slope impact tester of the impact velocity limits of error ± 5% can be calibrated on the basis of resolution ratio, it is verified The calibration method is convenient, practical, and measurement data is accurate, reliable.

Claims (1)

1. a kind of method for examining and determine or calibrating impact velocity using impact velocity measuring device, it is characterized in that it includes impact velocity Measuring device, the impact velocity measuring device include signal receiving antenna, spectroscopy processing module and signal processing module, described Signal processing module includes the orthogonal mixer, amplifying circuit, automatic gain control circuit and A/D conversion of successively signal connection Device, the signal receiving antenna is the high-gain receiving antenna of 35dB, between the amplifying circuit and automatic gain control circuit Successively signal is connected with filter circuit and shaping circuit, and the shaping circuit output end is connected with the pulsewidth that dominant frequency is 150MHz and catches Obtain module;The method for further including calibrating or calibration impact velocity, it is the following steps are included: by the impact velocity measuring device pair Impact velocity measuring device measuring center is overlapped by the motion profile of quasi- Charpy impact machine tester with the striking point of testing machine, Opening impact velocity measuring device, the pendulum of release test machine are put when pendulum passes through striking point with stopwatch duplicate measurements 3 times Pendulum swings 100 time t when hammer is no more than 5 ° of positions, its average value is taken, by formulaOr when ceiling capacity≤5J,Calculate to obtain l;With the torque of No. 3 level meter, dynamometer duplicate measurements pendulums, its average value is taken to obtain torqueRoot According toThe quality m of swing rod, pendulum is calculated, pendulum is respectively placed in nominal energy by opening impact velocity measuring device 10%, 50%, 80% position, the pendulum of release test machine record testing machine nominal with impact velocity measuring device respectively The impact velocity υ of energy 10%, 50%, 80%i, pressStandard energy value is acquired, by formulaMeter Error of indication δ K is calculated, by formula R=KRmax-KRminCalculate repeatability R.
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