CN105547297B - A kind of indoor orientation method based on UWB positioning systems - Google Patents

A kind of indoor orientation method based on UWB positioning systems Download PDF

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Publication number
CN105547297B
CN105547297B CN201510920280.2A CN201510920280A CN105547297B CN 105547297 B CN105547297 B CN 105547297B CN 201510920280 A CN201510920280 A CN 201510920280A CN 105547297 B CN105547297 B CN 105547297B
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label
anchor point
antenna
attitude
positioning
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CN201510920280.2A
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CN105547297A (en
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张涛
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武汉大学
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    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01CMEASURING DISTANCES, LEVELS OR BEARINGS; SURVEYING; NAVIGATION; GYROSCOPIC INSTRUMENTS; PHOTOGRAMMETRY OR VIDEOGRAMMETRY
    • G01C21/00Navigation; Navigational instruments not provided for in groups G01C1/00 - G01C19/00
    • G01C21/20Instruments for performing navigational calculations
    • G01C21/206Instruments for performing navigational calculations specially adapted for indoor navigation

Abstract

The present invention proposes a kind of indoor orientation method based on UWB positioning systems, in each attitude transducer for needing to install the antenna attitude for perceiving label on the label positioned respectively, measure in advance label and anchor point respectively used in the group delay parameter of antenna obtain antenna groups delay parameter table, measure the position of each anchor point and the antenna attitude of anchor point and storage;When carrying out indoor positioning, label obtains the posture of itself from attitude transducer, and attitude parameter is transferred to anchor point, anchor point receive the attitude parameter of label and and Distance Transmission to positioning calculation server;When positioning calculation server is positioned, it carries out initial resolve and obtains the rough position of label, the mutual direction relations between label antenna and each anchor point antenna are calculated according to the posture information of rough position and label, it searches antenna groups delay parameter table to be modified the initial range information of label and each anchor point, resolves obtain position after the amendment of label again.

Description

A kind of indoor orientation method based on UWB positioning systems
Technical field
The invention belongs to location technology, it is related to the method based on TOA/TDOA/TOF technology indoor positionings.
Background technology
Outdoor positioning technology is highly developed, can expire there are many GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System) equipment in the market Sufficient different user is from meter level to millimetre-sized various demands.And in fact, numerous industries are all more next to indoor positioning technologies proposition Higher requirement, such as Internet of Things industry, tourism industry, business place, airport, fire-fighting, public security is military, parking lot, hospital, Robot, unmanned plane, tunnel mine etc..For indoor positioning, although there are many solution, such as WIFI fingerprints are fixed at present Position, ultrasonic wave positioning, bluetooth positioning, ground magnetic orientation, pseudolite positioning, UWB positioning etc., but due to technology limitation and cost Problem, there has been no the matured products for allowing different user to be satisfied with as GNSS location technologies at present, furtherly, these technologies Positioning accuracy cannot be satisfied requirement or cost is too high, and therefore, it is difficult to promote.In numerous indoor positioning technologies solutions In, at present, UWB technology is to compare a kind of technology that can obtain balance between accuracy and costs, is most hopeful to obtain The popularization of development.
UWB is the abbreviation of Ultra Wide Band, means ultra wide band, is using more much broader than conventional communication techniques Frequency spectrum (being typically hundreds of Mhz to number GHz) is communicated.According to Shannon theories, channel width is wider, just has stronger Anti-interference ability, required transmission power is smaller, and transmission rate is also faster.Therefore UWB technology can use less electric energy, Effective transmission of data is quickly carried out, the transmission time of each of which data packet can be very short, reaches ps ranks, so With regard to efficiently solve the problems, such as in indoor positioning one it is prodigious -- multipath problem.This point is that other several technologies are difficult to solve 's.
And the basis of UWB location technologies is communicated using UWB, the electromagnetic transmission time between metric objective, is led to What is be often used is that (Time of Flight, electromagnetic wave fly TOA (Time of Arrival, electromagnetic wave reach the time) or TOF The row time) and TODA (reaching the time difference) technology, then measure the distance between target.UWB technology can be at present Realize that full accuracy reaches the indoor positioning of Centimeter Level, and the other positioning product of decimeter grade has gradually been promoted, but at present All UWB technology positioning accuracy and other location technologies based on TOA/TOF/TDOA all cannot be guaranteed service precision, In a major reason be exactly antenna group delay.What TOA/TOF/TDOA technologies must measure is the wave transmissions between target Time, and electromagnetic wave has to be emitted in the air by transmitting antenna, is then obtained by reception antenna.The skyborne biography of electromagnetic wave Defeated speed is more stable, and transmission situation in antennas is more complicated, since electromagnetic wave is from all directions of antenna To external radiation, and delay time in all directions is different, and can not actually ensure in communication or position fixing process In, the direction relations between two target antennas be always maintained at it is constant, just because of this, the distance between two targets measured begin Eventually there are one because the group delay of all directions of antenna is different and caused by error, this error looks like a kind of system and misses Difference, but can not directly be eliminated because its margin of error is not unique.Usually, the group delay of UWB antennas is in all directions On difference probably have tens ps to several ns, and therefore just have several centimetres to tens centimetres to the error that range measurement is brought, Further, according to error propagation principle, this range error brings last position error and is typically larger than range error (generally For, the magnitude of position error is range errorTimes).This technology barrier is that limitation UWB indoor positioning technologies are practical A key factor, institute is reflected is that the range accuracy of many products under lab is very high for it, but it is practical when It is very big to wait but error, the reason is that the antenna direction that the test condition in laboratory is two measuring distance of target of requirement is consistent, and it is real This condition cannot be satisfied in border.
Invention content
The technical problem to be solved by the present invention is to the position errors caused by antenna all directions group delay difference.
Technical scheme of the present invention provides a kind of indoor orientation method based on UWB positioning systems, the UWB positioning systems Including anchor point, label and positioning calculation server, need to be installed respectively for perceiving label on the label positioned each The attitude transducer of antenna attitude,
The group delay parameter for measuring antenna used in label and anchor point difference in advance, obtains antenna groups delay parameter table; Realization method is that antenna is fixed on rotating platform, is measured respectively whole on two orthogonal planes in rectangular coordinate system in space The group delay parameter of a circumference, measurement interval is according to the precision respective settings of used attitude transducer, according to measuring gained Group delay parameter store to obtain antenna groups delay parameter table;
The position of each anchor point and the antenna attitude of anchor point and storage are measured in advance;
When carrying out indoor positioning, following operation is carried out,
When carrying out range measurement into row label and anchor point every time, label obtains the appearance of itself from attitude transducer State, and attitude parameter is transferred to anchor point;
When being measured at a distance from every time into row label between anchor point, anchor point receives the attitude parameter of label and is arrived with label The distance of this anchor point is transferred to positioning calculation server together;
When positioning calculation server is positioned, execution includes the following steps,
Step a, the distance that each anchor point is sent initially are resolved as the initial range information of label and each anchor point, progress To the rough position of label;
Step b is extracted according to the rough position of label and the posture information of label obtained by step a and is measured gained phase in advance The position of anchor point and the antenna attitude of anchor point are answered, the mutual direction relations between label antenna and each anchor point antenna are calculated;
Step c searches antenna groups delay parameter table according to direction relations obtained by step b, to the original of label and each anchor point Range information is modified;
Step d is resolved according to correction result obtained by step c, obtains position after the amendment of label again.
Moreover, the realization method of step c is, the antenna group delay between label antenna and certain anchor point antenna is obtained if searching Total amount DLgrp, then it is the light velocity to need modified distance DISdgrp=DLgrp × C, C, to the initial range of label and the anchor point Information be modified after accurate distance DISprec=Dcoast-DISdgrp.
The advantage of the invention is that used technological means is multi-sensor fusion technology, few item is improved in cost Positioning accuracy can be effectively improved under part.
Specific implementation mode
Technical solution of the present invention is specifically described below in conjunction with UWB positioning system embodiments.
Remaining range positioning system based on TOA/TDOA/TOF technologies, which is referred to this example, to be implemented, and is carried with reaching High-precision purpose.
By research, the present invention proposes that, although the group delay of UWB antenna all directions is different, this retardation is phase To stable, not changing at random, that is to say, that the group delay frequency characteristic of each antenna can be measured by means, An antenna groups delay parameter property list is obtained, this property list has reacted the group delay amount of the antenna in each direction. In practical application, as long as the posture of perception target antenna, the relative direction between target antenna is further obtained, and according to this Antenna groups delay parameter property list is eliminated using antenna group delay as systematic error, you can improve range accuracy, with this come into One step positions, so that it may to improve positioning accuracy.
In UWB positioning systems, three parts, anchor point, label and positioning calculation server are generally comprised.Participate in ranging Part is anchor point and two kinds of equipment of label, anchor point device be fitted with electromagnetic wave transceiver on labeling apparatus and communicate control Device and antenna processed.The effect of anchor point is control point or reference point, and the position of antenna and posture are fixed, it is used in position Its means accurately measures, and is input to as a reference point in system.Label is the target for needing to position, and the process of positioning is: Each positioning label is communicated with each anchor point respectively, and to obtain the distance between label and anchor point, each anchor point is by ranging As a result it is transferred to positioning calculation server, when positioning calculation server obtains the distance between a label and two anchor points simultaneously When, so that it may to carry out two-dimensional localization to the label, when positioning calculation server obtains a label and three anchor points simultaneously The distance between when, so that it may with to the label carry out three-dimensional localization.Aerial position and posture on label may become at any time Change, and this variation can cause the direction between anchor point antenna and label antenna different, so as to cause the antenna in distance measurement result Group delay amount is different, influences range accuracy.The present invention proposes on label while Installation posture sensor, while ranging, The posture for obtaining label, after carrying out ranging to more than two anchor points (distance at this time carries group delay error), you can into Row first time positioning calculation, obtains the rough position of label, according to the posture of this rough position and label, calculate label antenna with Then the relative direction of anchor point antenna searches the group delay parameter characteristic table of label antenna and each anchor point antenna, by the direction Corresponding group delay amount eliminates, and to obtain accurate distance, then these practical revised accurate distances carry out second Secondary positioning clearing, you can obtain the exact position of label.
On existing UWB positioning systems basis, need to take following measures, to realize the design of the present invention, from And improve positioning accuracy:
1, each need the labeling apparatus positioned (comprising antenna and electromagnetic wave transceiver and communication control processor Deng running communication control program on communication control processor) on be required for Installation posture sensor, to perceive label antenna Posture (the around, angle in three directions of level), in general, this needs a three axis magnetometric sensors and three axis to add Velocity sensor combination is completed, such as HMC6343.
2, before system operation, do following preparation:
A measures the group delay parameter of used antenna
On stricti jurise, the group delay parameter for measuring each antenna is needed, as long as but the in fact, production technology of antenna Reliably, the group delay parameter of same model antenna is very similar, therefore is generally only required every used in measuring system The group delay parameter of the antenna of kind model.For the sake of reducing complexity, it is same usually to lay the antenna used when each anchor point The antenna of one model, the antenna used on each label is similarly.Present embodiment assumes that anchor point is same with antenna used in label The antenna of model.If anchor point is different from the antenna model used on labeling apparatus, need respectively to measure it group delay ginseng Number.
Final required antenna groups delay parameter is the group delay parameter of entire spherical surface, and measurement method is, will required for The antenna of measurement is fixed on rotating platform, measures the whole circumference in rectangular coordinate system in space on two orthogonal planes respectively The setting of group delay parameter, measurement interval (angle rotated every time) should be with the precision phase of used attitude transducer Match, such as the precision of used attitude transducer is 5 degree, then measurement interval should also be 5 degree.
And these parameters are stored as table, it is used with reference table.
Table 1:Antenna groups delay parameter indicates example (part)
Serial number Vertical direction (degree) Horizontal direction (degree) Group delay amount (ps)
1 0 5 300
2 0 10 500
3 0 15 800
4 0 20 560
5 0 25 600
6 0 30 860
...... ...... ...... ......
...... 0 210 900
...... ...... ...... ......
...... 0 355 200
...... 5 0 270
...... 5 5 490
...... ... ... ...
...... 355 355 290
B, measures position and the antenna attitude of each anchor point, and stores spare.
Table 2:Anchor point position and antenna attitude indicate example
3, when carrying out indoor positioning, carry out following operation:
3.1 when measurement, transmit the attitude parameter of label from label at a distance from every time into row label between anchor point To anchor point:
It is realized when it is implemented, can control to improve on procedure basis in the label communication of script.
The label communication control program of script is that the transmission of ranging message is carried out between anchor point, to obtain label and anchor The distance between point.Need increased be:
When carrying out range measurement with anchor point every time, the posture of own antenna is obtained from attitude transducer, and by appearance State parameter is transferred to anchor point;
3.2 at a distance from every time into row label between anchor point measure when, anchor point receive label attitude parameter and and mark The distance of attendance book anchor point is transferred to positioning calculation server together:
When it is implemented, realization can be improved on the basis of the anchor point communication control program of script.
The anchor point communication control program of script is accomplished that the transmission that ranging message is carried out between label, to obtain label The distance between anchor point, and the distance between anchor point and label are transferred to positioning calculation server, by positioning calculation service Device calculates the position of label.Need increased be:
When carrying out range measurement with label every time, the posture information that label is sent is received, and posture information is connected Same distance information is transmitted to positioning calculation server together.
3.3, when positioning calculation server is positioned, are initially resolved, and are believed according to the rough position of label and posture Breath calculates the mutual side between label antenna and each anchor point antenna according to the antenna attitude of the position of corresponding anchor point and anchor point To relationship, antenna groups delay parameter table is searched according to relationship, the initial range information of label and each anchor point is modified, is carried out It resolves again.
The positioning flow of positioning calculation server is modified as following flow:
It is after receiving the initial range information DIScoast and posture information of positioning label and more than two anchor points, i.e., sharp Carry out first time positioning calculation (original positioning calculation algorithm can be used when specific implementation) with these range informations, at this time away from From the group delay that information includes label antenna and anchor point antenna both sides, therefore it can only obtain the rough position of positioning label.
Then according to the rough position of label and posture information, the table 2 that is obtained in lookup measure 2 and calculate label antenna with Mutual direction relations between each anchor point antenna, according to this relationship, the table 1 obtained in lookup measure 2 obtains label antenna Antenna group delay total amount DLgrp between anchor point antenna, then, it is light to need modified distance DISdgrp=DLgrp × C, C Speed.And anchor point is to the accurate distance DISprec=Dcoast-DISdgrp of label.Antenna group delay total amount DLgrp is label day The summation of line and this anchor point antenna group delay parameter of respective direction in antenna groups delay parameter table.
Positioning calculation is carried out again with this accurate distance DISprec (original positioning calculation can be used when specific implementation Algorithm), obtain the accurate location of label.
For example, the initial range apart from anchor point 1 that positioning label measures is 36.58 meters, the initial range apart from anchor point 2 is 22.05 meters, the initial range apart from anchor point 3 is 14.71 meters, and posture is:0,0,0.
First time positioning calculation is carried out accordingly, and the rough position for obtaining label is (20.50,30.30,4.10);
And label is respectively relative to the orientation of three anchor points:(approximate to 5 degree of integral multiple, to table look-up)
Anchor point 1:30 degree of horizontal angle, 0 degree of vertical angle
Anchor point 2:120 degree of horizontal angle, 0 degree of vertical angle
Anchor point 3:225 degree of horizontal angle, 0 degree of vertical angle
Three anchor points are respectively relative to the orientation of label:
Anchor point 1:210 degree of horizontal angle, 0 degree of vertical angle
Anchor point 2:300 degree of horizontal angle, 0 degree of vertical angle
Anchor point 3:45 degree of horizontal angle, 0 degree of vertical angle
By taking the distance between label antenna and anchor point 1 as an example, vertical angle between the two is zero (on a horizontal plane), And the horizontal angle between them is respectively 30 degree and 210 degree, through tabling look-up 1, obtain antenna the two angles group delay amount point Not Wei 900ps and 860ps needed by the two when transmission between anchor point antenna and label antenna due to electromagnetic wave Antenna, therefore the group delay of the two antennas is contained in initial range information DIScoast, therefore antenna group delay total amount is 900+860=1670ps, caused by range deviation be:
C × 1760ps=0.53 meters
Then correcting later distance is:
36.58-0.53=36.06 meters
The distance between modifying label and three anchor points successively are used in combination revised accurate distance to recalculate position, are obtained To later accurate coordinate (20.0,30.0,4.0) is corrected, this positioning terminates.
When it is implemented, following steps realization can be used:
Include the following steps,
Step a, the distance that each anchor point is sent initially are resolved as the initial range information of label and each anchor point, progress To the rough position of label;
Step b is extracted according to the rough position of label and the posture information of label obtained by step a and is measured gained phase in advance The position of anchor point and the antenna attitude of anchor point are answered, the mutual direction relations between label antenna and each anchor point antenna are calculated;
Step c searches antenna groups delay parameter table according to direction relations obtained by step b, to the original of label and each anchor point Range information is modified;
Step d is resolved according to correction result obtained by step c, obtains position after the amendment of label again.
When it is implemented, computer software technology, which can be used, in those skilled in the art realizes automatic indoor positioning.
The present invention provides the technical solutions that those skilled in the art can realize.Above example is only for illustrating the present invention It is used rather than limitation of the present invention, person skilled in the relevant technique, in the feelings for not departing from the spirit and scope of the present invention Under condition, various transformation or modification, therefore all equivalent technical solutions can also be made, protection scope of the present invention is both fallen within.

Claims (2)

1. a kind of indoor orientation method based on UWB positioning systems, the UWB positioning systems include anchor point, label and positioning Resolve server, it is characterised in that:Antenna attitude for perceiving label is installed respectively on the label that each needs position Attitude transducer,
The group delay parameter for measuring antenna used in label and anchor point difference in advance, obtains antenna groups delay parameter table;It realizes Mode is that antenna is fixed on rotating platform, measures the entire circle in rectangular coordinate system in space on two orthogonal planes respectively The group delay parameter in week, measurement interval is according to the precision respective settings of used attitude transducer, the group obtained by measuring Delay parameter stores to obtain antenna groups delay parameter table;
The position of each anchor point and the antenna attitude of anchor point and storage are measured in advance;
When carrying out indoor positioning, following operation is carried out,
When carrying out range measurement into row label and anchor point every time, label obtains the posture of itself from attitude transducer, and Attitude parameter is transferred to anchor point;
When being measured at a distance from every time into row label between anchor point, anchor point receives the attitude parameter of label and and mark attendance book anchor The distance of point is transferred to positioning calculation server together;
When positioning calculation server is positioned, execution includes the following steps,
Step a, the distance that each anchor point is sent carry out initial resolve and are marked as the initial range information of label and each anchor point The rough position of label;
Step b is extracted according to the rough position of label and the posture information of label obtained by step a and is measured gained respective anchors in advance The position of point and the antenna attitude of anchor point, calculate the mutual direction relations between label antenna and each anchor point antenna;
Step c searches antenna groups delay parameter table, to the initial range of label and each anchor point according to direction relations obtained by step b Information is modified;
Step d is resolved according to correction result obtained by step c, obtains position after the amendment of label again.
2. the indoor orientation method according to claim 1 based on UWB positioning systems, it is characterised in that:The realization side of step c Formula is to obtain the antenna group delay total amount DLgrp between label antenna and certain anchor point antenna if searching, then need modified distance DISdgrp=DLgrp × C, C are the lighies velocity, the accurate distance after being modified to the initial range information of label and the anchor point DISprec=DIScoast-DISdgrp, wherein DIScoast are initial range information.
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CN106329119A (en) * 2016-08-29 2017-01-11 纳恩博(北京)科技有限公司 Antenna control method and device
CN107270913A (en) * 2017-07-14 2017-10-20 山东大学 A kind of alignment by union system and method towards home-services robot
CN107390169B (en) * 2017-07-19 2019-07-16 灵动科技(北京)有限公司 A kind of antenna parameter calibration method and device
CN109407079B (en) * 2017-08-15 2021-02-02 杭州米越科技有限公司 Area positioning method based on attitude sensor calibration
JP2019074519A (en) * 2017-10-13 2019-05-16 アンリツ株式会社 Antenna device and measurement method
CN108036784A (en) * 2017-11-10 2018-05-15 云保(佛山)智控科技有限公司 A kind of indoor orientation method, navigation methods and systems
CN108112070B (en) * 2017-12-25 2020-08-25 武汉大学 Time synchronization method in UWB (ultra wide band) unidirectional positioning system
CN108255194A (en) * 2018-01-08 2018-07-06 江苏工程职业技术学院 A kind of agricultural plant protection unmanned plane precise positioning spraying control method based on UWB
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