CN105542056B - 一种用于污水处理的石膏‑水凝胶复合材料及其制备方法 - Google Patents

一种用于污水处理的石膏‑水凝胶复合材料及其制备方法 Download PDF

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CN105542056B
CN105542056B CN201510994608.5A CN201510994608A CN105542056B CN 105542056 B CN105542056 B CN 105542056B CN 201510994608 A CN201510994608 A CN 201510994608A CN 105542056 B CN105542056 B CN 105542056B
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俞庆
张勇
徐志彬
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杭州树联园艺科技有限公司
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    • C08ORGANIC MACROMOLECULAR COMPOUNDS; THEIR PREPARATION OR CHEMICAL WORKING-UP; COMPOSITIONS BASED THEREON
    • C08FMACROMOLECULAR COMPOUNDS OBTAINED BY REACTIONS ONLY INVOLVING CARBON-TO-CARBON UNSATURATED BONDS
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    • C02F1/28Treatment of water, waste water, or sewage by sorption
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Abstract

本发明公开了一种用于污水处理的石膏‑水凝胶复合材料,利用半纤维素和石膏的增强、增韧作用,将半纤维素和石膏均匀的穿插于丙烯酸、丙烯酰胺和聚乙烯醇形成的三维网状水凝胶材料中,形成结构稳固,比表面积大,过滤分离和吸附效率好,吸水率和耐盐性高,力学性能优异水凝胶复合材料,提高了制得的用于污水处理的水凝胶材料亲水性和吸附分离能力,降低了生产成本,同时提高材料热分解温度,延长材料使用寿命,适用于污水处理技术。本发明还公开了用于污水处理的石膏‑水凝胶复合材料的制备方法,其生产工艺简单,成本低廉,安全环保,具有市场应用前景。

Description

一种用于污水处理的石膏-水凝胶复合材料及其制备方法

技术领域

[0001] 本发明属于新材料领域,具体涉及一种用于污水处理的石膏-水凝胶复合材料及 其制备方法。

背景技术

[0002] 现代工业的快速发展和经济高速增长,越来越多的目光关注在化学化工、污水处 理、环境保护等领域带来的环境问题,特别是在水质污染上,目前已经成为不容忽视的社 会问题。水质受到污染,不仅会对水环境以及整个生态系统造成严重的危害,甚至危及人类 的身体健康。因此,如何快速、高效进行污水处理成为水污染控制研究领域迫切需要解决的 难题。

[0003] 中国专利公开号为CN103709328A公开了一种半纤维素基有机-无机复合水凝胶 的制备方法,该制备方法包括:将半纤维素与水在反应器中混合,然后加热至80 °C〜90 °C反 应获得混合液;向混合液中加入蒙脱土,在氮气氛围下搅拌形成粘稠状溶液,降温;当粘稠 状溶液温度降至68〜75°C时,加入过硫酸钾反应5〜15min,然后分别加入丙烯酸、2-丙烯胺-2-甲基丙磺酸、N,N-亚甲基丙烯酰胺,反应4小时,获得初级水凝胶产物;将初级 水凝胶产物放入过量的乙醇溶液中,进行脱水;然后将脱水后的初级水凝胶产物在60°C〜 80°C下干燥,得到半纤维素基有机-无机复合水凝胶。但是该方法制备的水凝胶亲水性较 差,吸附过滤效率较低。

[0004] 中国专利公开号为CN 104804203A公开了一种水凝胶微球的制备方法,步骤(1): 合成含有双烯体基团的聚合物;步骤(2):合成含有亲双烯体基团的聚合物;步骤(3):选择 乳化剂和有机相,将步骤(2)和步骤(3)中合成的大分子双烯体和大分子亲双烯体溶解于水 中,搅拌形成稳定的W/0型乳液;将步骤(3)中形成的稳定的W/0型乳液进行升高温度,发 生双烯合成反应,反应结束后经过破乳、洗涤、抽滤和干燥程序,即得到水凝胶微球。该发明 水凝胶微球的制备方法操作简单方便,无需催化剂或引发剂;但是该发明制备的水凝胶微 球结构稳定性和力学性能较差。

[0005] 中国专利公开号为CN 104031275A公开了一种粘土改性聚乙烯醇防污水凝胶的制 备方法,该发明包括下列步骤:(1)将无机粘土加热溶于去离子水中,充分溶解得到悬浮 液,然后将该悬浮液超声分散,得到均匀的粘土分散液;(2)向粘土分散液中加入聚乙烯 醇,80〜100°C下搅拌2〜3h,得到粘土改性聚乙烯醇水凝胶混合溶液;(3)将粘土改性 聚乙烯醇水凝胶混合溶液重复至少三次冷冻-解冻过程,制得粘土改性聚乙烯醇防污水凝 胶。该发明制备工艺简单,原料易于得到且制备成本低廉;但是该发明制备的水凝胶材料结 构稳定性较差,吸附量较低。

[0006] 在经济和工业技术的快速发展之际,随着环境保护越来越受到重视,污水处理材 料已经成为污水处理技术中的重要组成部分,同时受到各个领域关注,而目前用于污水处 理的水凝胶材料的种类较少,大大限制了污水处理材料的选择,因此,开发一种适用于污水 处理的具有结构稳固,以及优异的吸附效率和力学性能的水凝胶材料,对丰富污水处理材 料,促进污水处理的发展具有重要意义。

发明内容

[0007] 本发明目的:为了丰富污水处理材料种类,本发明提供一种用于污水处理的复合 材料,其结构稳固、力学性能强、比表面积大、过滤分离和吸附效率好,生产成本低廉,使用 寿命长,为污水处理材料提供更多的选择。

[0008] 本发明采用的技术方案:

[0009] —种用于污水处理的石膏-水凝胶复合材料,其特征在于:包含石膏的水凝胶,由 以下材料以重量份制备而成:

[0010] 丙烯酸 20-40

[0011] 石膏 20-30

[0012] 丙烯酰胺 10-20

[0013] 聚乙烯醇 5.0-8.0

[0014] 半纤维素 2.0-4.0

[0015] 过硫酸钾 0.4-0.6

[0016] N,N'_亚甲基双丙烯酰胺 0.05-0.08

[0017] 所述丙稀酸中和度在65%和90%之间.

[0018] 所述的石膏为生石膏;所述半纤维素为季铵型秸杆半纤维素。

[0019] —种用于污水处理的石膏-水凝胶复合材料的制备方法,其特征在于,包括以下步 骤··_

[0020] (1)将重量份为20-30的石膏和重量份为2.0-4.0的半纤维素置于水中,并进行超 声分散,形成悬浮液;

[0021] (2)将重量份为20-40的丙烯酸,重量份为10-20的丙烯酰胺,重量份为5.0-8.0的 聚乙烯醇,重量份为0.4-0.6的过硫酸钾和重量份为0.05-0.08的N,N' -亚甲基丙烯酰胺加 入步骤(1)的悬浮液中,在加热温度为85°C下进行超声搅拌混合,搅拌转速400-600rpm,搅 拌时间90-120分钟,得到混合均匀含有石膏和半纤维素的初级产物;

[0022] (3)将步骤(2)得到混合均匀含有石膏和半纤维素的初级产物进行过滤,过滤后产 物用乙醇洗涤,压片,得到用于污水处理的石膏-水凝胶复合材料。

[0023] 本发明的原理:利用半纤维素对水凝胶的三维网状结构增强增韧,以及成本低廉 石膏的优异的吸附性能、力学性能和亲水性能,将半纤维素和石膏均匀的穿插于丙烯酸、丙 烯酰胺和聚乙烯醇形成的三维网状水凝胶材料中,形成结构稳固,比表面积大,过滤分离和 吸附效率好,吸水率和耐盐性高,力学性能优异水凝胶复合材料,提高了制得的用于污水处 理的石膏-水凝胶复合材料韧性和吸附分离能力,降低了生产成本;同时,由于石膏提高了 丙烯酸、丙烯酰胺和聚乙烯醇的热分解温度和使用寿命。

[0024] 本发明突出特点和有益效果在于:

[0025] (1)本发明的用于污水处理的石膏-水凝胶复合材料具有结构稳固,比表面积大, 过滤分离和吸附效率好,吸水率和耐盐性高;

[0026] (2)本发明的用于污水处理的石膏-水凝胶复合材料力学性能和韧性好,通过石膏 和半纤维素的增强和增韧作用,使得用于污水处理的水凝胶复合材料的力学性能和韧性增 强,并延长了复合材料的使用寿命;

[0027] (3)本发明用于污水处理的石膏-水凝胶复合材料的生产工艺简单,成本低廉,安 全环保,具有较高的市场应用前景。

具体实施方式

[0028] 下面根据具体实施例对本发明作更进一步的说明,以下所述仅是本发明的优选实 施方式,在相同原理下,可以做出部分改进,这些改进也属于本发明的保护范围内:

[0029] 实施例1:

[0030] 用于污水处理的石膏-水凝胶复合材料:

[0031] (1)将重量份为30的石膏和重量份为4.0的半纤维素置于水中,并进行超声分散, 形成悬浮液;

[0032] (2)将重量份为40的丙烯酸,重量份为20的丙烯酰胺,重量份为8.0的聚乙烯醇,重 量份为0.6的过硫酸钾和重量份为0.08的N,N'_亚甲基丙烯酰胺加入步骤(1)的悬浮液中, 在加热温度为85 °C下进行超声搅拌混合,搅拌转速600rpm,搅拌时间120分钟,得到混合均 匀含有石膏和半纤维素的初级产物;

[0033] (3)将步骤(2)得到混合均匀含有石膏和半纤维素的初级产物进行过滤,过滤后产 物用乙醇洗涤,压片,得到用于污水处理的石膏-水凝胶复合材料。

[0034] 实施例2:

[0035] 用于污水处理的石膏-水凝胶复合材料:

[0036] (1)将重量份为20的石膏和重量份为2.0的半纤维素置于水中,并进行超声分散, 形成悬浮液;

[0037] (2)将重量份为20的丙烯酸,重量份为10的丙烯酰胺,重量份为5.0的聚乙烯醇,重 量份为0.4的过硫酸钾和重量份为0.05的N,N'_亚甲基丙烯酰胺加入步骤(1)的悬浮液中, 在加热温度为85 °C下进行超声搅拌混合,搅拌转速400rpm,搅拌时间90分钟,得到混合均勾 含有石膏和半纤维素的初级产物;

[0038] (3)将步骤(2)得到混合均匀含有石膏和半纤维素的初级产物进行过滤,过滤后产 物用乙醇洗涤,压片,得到用于污水处理的石膏-水凝胶复合材料。

[0039] 实施例3:

[0040] 用于污水处理的石膏-水凝胶复合材料:

[0041] (1)将重量份为28的石膏和重量份为3.1的半纤维素置于水中,并进行超声分散, 形成悬浮液;

[0042] (2)将重量份为35的丙烯酸,重量份为11的丙烯酰胺,重量份为5.9的聚乙烯醇,重 量份为〇. 5的过硫酸钾和重量份为0.05的N,N'_亚甲基丙烯酰胺加入步骤(1)的悬浮液中, 在加热温度为85 °C下进行超声搅拌混合,搅拌转速480rpm,搅拌时间100分钟,得到混合均 匀含有石膏和半纤维素的初级产物;

[0043] (3)将步骤(2)得到混合均匀含有石膏和半纤维素的初级产物进行过滤,过滤后产 物用乙醇洗涤,压片,得到用于污水处理的石膏-水凝胶复合材料。

[0044] 实施例4:

[0045] 用于污水处理的石膏-水凝胶复合材料:

[0046] (1)将重量份为22的石膏和重量份为2.8的半纤维素置于水中,并进行超声分散, 形成悬浮液;

[0047] (2)将重量份为27的丙烯酸,重量份为19的丙烯酰胺,重量份为7.2的聚乙烯醇,重 量份为0.6的过硫酸钾和重量份为0.07的N,N'_亚甲基丙烯酰胺加入步骤(1)的悬浮液中, 在加热温度为85 °C下进行超声搅拌混合,搅拌转速600rpm,搅拌时间120分钟,得到混合均 匀含有石膏和半纤维素的初级产物;

[0048] (3)将步骤(2)得到混合均匀含有石膏和半纤维素的初级产物进行过滤,过滤后产 物用乙醇洗涤,压片,得到用于污水处理的石膏-水凝胶复合材料。

[0049] 实施例5:

[0050] 用于污水处理的石膏-水凝胶复合材料:

[0051] (1)将重量份为24的石膏和重量份为3.4的半纤维素置于水中,并进行超声分散, 形成悬浮液;

[0052] (2)将重量份为36的丙烯酸,重量份为17的丙烯酰胺,重量份为5.8的聚乙烯醇,重 量份为0.4的过硫酸钾和重量份为0.06的N,N'_亚甲基丙烯酰胺加入步骤(1)的悬浮液中, 在加热温度为85 °C下进行超声搅拌混合,搅拌转速540rpm,搅拌时间120分钟,得到混合均 匀含有石膏和半纤维素的初级产物;

[0053] (3)将步骤(2)得到混合均匀含有石膏和半纤维素的初级产物进行过滤,过滤后产 物用乙醇洗涤,压片,得到用于污水处理的石膏-水凝胶复合材料。

[0054] 表一各实施例性能分析数据

Figure CN105542056BD00061

Claims (1)

  1. I. 一种用于污水处理的石膏-水凝胶复合材料,其特征在于:包含石膏的水凝胶,由以 下材料以重量份制备而成: 丙烯酸 20-40 石膏 20-30 丙烯酰胺 10-20 聚乙烯醇 5.0-8.0 半纤维素 2.0-4.0 过硫酸钾 0.4-0.6 N,N'_亚甲基双丙烯酰胺0.05-0.08; 其中,所述丙烯酸中和度在65%和90%之间;所述的石膏为生石膏;所述半纤维素为季 铵型秸杆半纤维素; 所述用于污水处理的石膏-水凝胶复合材料由如下方法制备得到: (1) 将重量份为20-30的石膏和重量份为2.0-4.0的半纤维素置于水中,并进行超声分 散,形成悬浮液; (2) 将重量份为20-40的丙烯酸,重量份为10-20的丙烯酰胺,重量份为5.0-8.0的聚乙 烯醇,重量份为0.4-0.6的过硫酸钾和重量份为0.05-0.08的N,N 亚甲基丙烯酰胺加入 步骤(1)的悬浮液中,在加热温度为85°C下进行超声搅拌混合,搅拌转速400-600rpm,搅拌 时间90-120分钟,得到混合均匀含有石膏和半纤维素的初级产物; (3) 将步骤(2)得到混合均匀含有石膏和半纤维素的初级产物进行过滤,过滤后产物用 乙醇洗涤,压片,得到用于污水处理的石膏-水凝胶复合材料。
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