CN105533571A - Vegetable pickling method for restraining generation of nitrite and pellicle in pickling process - Google Patents

Vegetable pickling method for restraining generation of nitrite and pellicle in pickling process Download PDF

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Publication number
CN105533571A
CN105533571A CN201510920064.8A CN201510920064A CN105533571A CN 105533571 A CN105533571 A CN 105533571A CN 201510920064 A CN201510920064 A CN 201510920064A CN 105533571 A CN105533571 A CN 105533571A
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China
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salt
dish
stain
nitrite
salting
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CN201510920064.8A
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Chinese (zh)
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刘大群
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浙江省农业科学院
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Publication of CN105533571A publication Critical patent/CN105533571A/en

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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A23FOODS OR FOODSTUFFS; TREATMENT THEREOF, NOT COVERED BY OTHER CLASSES
    • A23YINDEXING SCHEME RELATING TO LACTIC OR PROPIONIC ACID BACTERIA USED IN FOODSTUFFS OR FOOD PREPARATION
    • A23Y2220/00Lactobacillus
    • A23Y2220/17Casei
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A23FOODS OR FOODSTUFFS; TREATMENT THEREOF, NOT COVERED BY OTHER CLASSES
    • A23YINDEXING SCHEME RELATING TO LACTIC OR PROPIONIC ACID BACTERIA USED IN FOODSTUFFS OR FOOD PREPARATION
    • A23Y2220/00Lactobacillus
    • A23Y2220/67Plantarum

Abstract

The invention relates to a vegetable pickling method for restraining generation of nitrite and pellicle in a pickling process, and aims to provide a method having a positive significance in pollution control, emission reduction, clean processing and sustainable development for vegetable pickling industry in China. The vegetable pickling method for restraining generation of nitrite and pellicle in the pickling process is characterized by comprising the following steps of (1) preparing a pickling tank; (2) preparing a fermenting agent; (3) pretreating vegetable pickling raw materials; (4) preparing a bag film; (5) pickling; (6) sealing and performing adjusting and controlling on gas; and (7) storing and managing.

Description

The stain dish method that nitrite and mycoderm generate is suppressed in a kind of salting process
Technical field
The present invention relates to vegetables salting zymolysis food technology field, be specifically related to a kind of gas regulating technology such as carbon dioxide that utilize and suppress the stain dish method that in salting process, mycoderm and nitrite generate.
Background technology
China is the first in the world Vegetable produce big country and vegetable for processing kind is numerous.Salted is an important way of China's fruits and vegetables, and it completes salting process with immixtures such as the biochemistries of the decomposition of the fermentation of the osmosis of salt, microorganism, protein and dish body series of complex.
Stain dish salting process is lactic acid bacteria fermentation process, and its primary product is lactic acid, and subsidiary product mainly contains ester class, amino acid and other organic acid etc., and these products form salted peculiar taste and the requisite material of nutrition.Stain dish owing to easily producing nitrite in salting process, and excessive nitrite affects the physical and mental health of people, and it more and more causes the attention of people at present to the harm of human body.The harm of nitrite to human body mainly contains two aspects, causes the methemoglobinemia of human body to cause acute poisoning on the one hand, is the precursor substance of N-nitroso compound on the other hand, increases carcinogenic risk.Therefore, control the generation of stain dish salting process nitrite, to the security improving fermented vegetable food, there is vital meaning.
In addition, because stain dish salt marsh is main mainly with traditional sweat, easily invade by miscellaneous bacteria in air.In opening salting zymolysis or storage process, if container does not strictly seal, though or be contained in airtight container and do not fill, just there is air to enter zymotic fluid, dissolved oxygen amount in zymotic fluid is increased, and just on zymotic fluid surface, ramp breeding forms mycoderm to film-forming yeast.When mycoderm starts to be formed, only become a ring film along bucket wall director, then occurring canescence or faint yellow point on zymotic fluid surface, and then form fritter mycoderm.During beginning, mycoderm is light and thin, subsequently progressive additive.Film produces many wrinkles, all covered by liquid level, slightly vibrate, namely film breaks, and is divided into some white small pieces or particles sink, and make zymotic fluid muddy, the time is slightly long, and taste degenerates.The mycoderm of intact is grown up gradually, and some fritters connect together, and by edge to central growth, finally forms the abundant and crisp mycoderm of one deck.Prove through Micro biological Tests, mycoderm is the microorganism composition body based on saccharomycete and film-forming yeast.Film-forming yeast is a kind of harmful yeast, and a large amount of mycoderms generates except giving salted " mycoderm " taste, and also the attractive in appearance of period is pickled in impact, boring, affects appetite, causes zymotic fluid muddy.What is more important when salted pickle when being exposed in air time, the amount reproduction of film-forming yeast not only can decompose salted in-house organic substance, also can decompose the nutriments such as the lactic acid that generates in salted curing process and other ester classes, with cause salted preserved product acidity decline and putrid and deteriorated, affect quality and the local flavor of salted preserved product, directly affect product quality and economic benefit.
Summary of the invention
The present invention seeks to, even if adopt high salt for traditional pickling process vegetables, the technological proces s of hyperosmosis still forms a large amount of mycoderm in pickling liquid surface and affects the attractive in appearance of the period of pickling, cause zymotic fluid muddiness and affect stain vegetable matter, generate the drawbacks such as high-load nitrite, on lower salt dosage (7%) basis, a kind of mode by gas regulating is provided to suppress the generation of stain dish stain liquid bacterium mycoderm and nitrite, for the technique improving China tradition salted vegetable provides new thinking and countermeasure, the pollution control of China's stain dish industry is reduced discharging, clean processing and sustainable development have positive meaning.
For realizing object of the present invention, the present invention is achieved by the following technical programs:
The stain dish method suppressing nitrite and mycoderm to generate in salting process, carry out as follows:
(1) preparation in salt marsh pond: in digging the salt marsh pond building 3-5 × 2-4 × 1-2m below ground, and make anti-drain process; For subsequent use.
(2) preparation of leavening: bacterium mud Lactobacillus casei and Lactobacillus plantarum being collected after cultivating bottom, bacterium mud, skimmed milk, maltodextrin, tripolyphosphate are stirred postlyophilization by the parts by weight then pressing 100:15:5:1, for subsequent use;
(3) pretreatment of stain dish raw material: the dish of harvesting is clapped clean earth, when Exposure to Sunlight to moisture reduces 20-30%, bundlees bundled, weighs, for subsequent use;
(4) preparation of bag film: according to the size in salt marsh pond, selects the EVOH bag film of one end open, and the lower of opening fills air discharge cook along the rear installation one of position punching, and after this bag film is inserted in salt marsh pond, sack exceeds salt marsh pond 100-120cm, for subsequent use;
(5) salt marsh: sprinkle the leavening described in the thin salt of one deck and a small amount of step (4) in bag film bottom surface, salt marsh is carried out according to the stacking pattern of one deck dish one deck salt, every stain one deck dish will spread once throws salt, pin salt, one time fermentation agent and a glucide, a small amount of water is spread before throwing salt, first spread throwing salt, after pin salt is sprinkling upon and steps on dish, the ratio of throwing salt and pin salt is the 7:3 of every layer of dish salt dosage; The parts by weight of stain dish, edible salt, leavening and glucide are 100:6-8:0.4-0.6:0.8-1.2, and wherein edible salt reserved 20% is as face salt; Finally, dish body covers layer of plastic film, and on frame, stone pressurizes; The weight ratio of dish and stone is 1:0.08-0.1;
(6) sealing and gas regulating: to the VOH bag film sack heat sealing machine heated sealant exceeding salt marsh pond; Connect with vavuum pump and fill air discharge cook, extract the air in EVOH bag film out and be filled with antibacterial gas, and several times, until the pressure in bag reaches 0.06MPa, antibacterial gas purity stops when reaching 95%-98%, are closed and filled air discharge cook, until seal completely repeatedly;
(7) storage and management: regularly the gas purity in EVOH bag film and pressure are checked, if gas purity supplements lower than during 0.04MPa in time lower than 90% or pressure; Until salting process terminates.
Described stain dish raw material refers to potherb mustard, Chinese cabbage, celery, leaf mustard, fiddlehead, purple perilla, cabbage head, lettuce, jerusalem artichoke, ginger, wild cabbage, garlic, Onion head, bag heart mustard, root-mustard, turnip, radish, lotus root, water chestnut, capsicum, cucumber, wild rice stem, wax gourd, cowpea, sword bean, matsutake, bamboo shoot.
Described Lactobacillus casei (LactobacillusCasei), Lactobacillus plantarum (Lactobacillusplantarum), all draw from China Committee for Culture Collection of Microorganisms's common micro-organisms center CGMCC, numbering is respectively 1.0029,1.0556.
Described glucide refers to the mixing of one or more arbitrary proportions in glucose, fructose, sucrose and galactolipin.
Whether the anti-drain process of described step (1), be floating at surface, pond cement, inlay the white ceramic tiles of acid and alkali-resistance, finally fill with observation with water and leak.
The bacterium mud of described step (2) is mixed with the ratio of Lactobacillus plantarum according to 1:1 after 35 DEG C of High Density Cultivation 36-48h by Lactobacillus casei, then within 15 minutes, obtain with the rotating speed of 4000 revs/min, 0 ~ 5 DEG C of refrigerated centrifuge; Described freeze drying is that adopt the vacuum packaging of EVOH bag film, lucifuge to 0 ~ 5 DEG C temperature is stored in-55--60 DEG C of freeze drying 48-72h after bacterium mud, skimmed milk, maltodextrin, tripolyphosphate being stirred.
The Exposure to Sunlight of described step (3) is shakeout on the spot by the dish of harvesting, and consecutive days, period prevented from drenching with rain according to air dry 2-4 hour.
During the salt marsh of described step (5), vertically arranged from four limits to center convolution by the dish put in order, down, upwards, the second layer starts root down to root to the ground floor dish leaf of bottom, and upward, arrangement accomplishes that thickness is even to leaf; During salt marsh, often spread a salt, steady and sure from four turning centers, limit according to the direction of row's dish.
Antibacterial gas in described step (6) is the one in carbon dioxide, nitrogen, helium and argon gas.
The described installation of filling air discharge cook, it is the hole being EVOH bag film is opened diameter 2-3mm, fill exhaust nozzle through hole gasket seal screwing hermetic, pad is coated AB glue, by emulsion tube with fill exhaust nozzle and link, junction adopts connecting plate to reinforce, and other one end of emulsion tube is by screwed stop valve screwing hermetic.
The invention has the beneficial effects as follows:
One, the antibacterial gases affect growth of the film-forming yeasts such as Han Xunde Bali of high concentration, postpones the exponential phase of the film-forming yeast growths such as Han Xunde Bali; Although thus salt dosage is only 7%, stain liquid surface does not have " mycoderm " to generate, and pickling liquid is transparent.
Two, stain dish during preservation microbe colony sum, acidity obviously declines, dish body be yellow light tone, has the distinctive fragrant of stain dish, and deliciousness is tender and crisp, and salt marsh blank surface and liquid do not have obvious growth of microorganism from start to finish.
Three, the content of stain dish during preservation nitrite obviously declines, and be saved to 6th month, content of nitrite is no more than 2mg/kg.
Four, change China's tradition stain dish and rely on the method for pickling such as high salt (salt content is up to more than 15%), hyperosmosis, subtract high salt marsh bittern discharge in a large number and cause the pollutions such as black and odorous water, soil compaction and salinization of soil to environment, less salt salt marsh also reduces the technique such as desalting and dewatering in stain dish process, reduce cost, decrease stain dish nutrient loss and high salt food to the threat of human health, for the technique improving China tradition salted vegetable provides new thinking and countermeasure.
Accompanying drawing explanation
Fig. 1 is stain dish salt marsh schematic diagram.
Detailed description of the invention
EVOH bag film of the present invention, refer to and adopt ethylene/vinyl alcohol copolymer to make, a kind of have the fabulous barrier high-isolation film bag all stronger with the transparency, glossiness, mechanical strength, retractility, wearability, cold resistance and surface strength to gas.
The present invention will be described further by following examples, but should be appreciated that the present invention not limited by these contents.
Embodiment 1:
(1) preparation in salt marsh pond: whether, in digging the salt marsh pond building 5 × 4 × 2m below ground, surface, pond cement is floating, inlays the white ceramic tiles of acid and alkali-resistance, finally fill with observation with water and leak; For subsequent use.
(2) preparation of leavening: Lactobacillus casei is mixed with the ratio of Lactobacillus plantarum according to 1:1 after 35 DEG C of High Density Cultivation 36h, the bacterium mud of bottom is collected after 15 minutes with the rotating speed of 4000 revs/min, 5 DEG C of refrigerated centrifuges, add skimmed milk, maltodextrin, tripolyphosphate, the parts by weight of bacterium mud and skimmed milk, maltodextrin, tripolyphosphate are 100:15:5:1, with-55 DEG C of freeze drying 56h after abundant stirring, adopt the vacuum packaging of EVOH high-isolation film bag, lucifuge to 0 ~ 5 DEG C temperature storage.For subsequent use.
(3) pretreatment of stain dish raw material: the potherb mustard of harvesting is clapped clean earth, shakeouts on the spot, consecutive days shines air dry 2 hours, and period prevents from drenching with rain, and when Exposure to Sunlight to moisture reduces 20%, bundlees bundled, weighs, for subsequent use;
(4) preparation of bag film: according to the size in salt marsh pond, order the bag film of 6 × 5 × 3m, the material of bag film is the top end opening of high barrier material EVOH, bag film, opening lower install after the punching of position one there is high sealing performance fill air discharge cook.Salt marsh pond surrounding spreads a small amount of water, and being inserted in by this bag film in salt marsh pond and sack is opened completely, EVOH bag film sack exceeds salt marsh pond 100cm, for subsequent use.
(5) salt marsh: sprinkle the thin salt of one deck and a small amount of leavening in bag film bottom surface, then the dish put in order is vertically arranged to center convolution from four limits, the ground floor dish leaf of bottom is down, root upwards, the second layer starts root down, and upward, arrangement accomplishes that thickness is even to leaf.Carry out salt marsh according to the stacking pattern of one deck dish one deck salt, every stain one deck dish will spread once throws salt and a pin salt, spreads a small amount of water, first spread throwing salt before throwing salt, and after pin salt is sprinkling upon and steps on dish, the ratio of throwing salt and pin salt is the 7:3 of every layer of dish salt dosage.Shed the leavening described in step (2) and glucide after shedding pin salt again, the parts by weight of stain dish and edible salt, leavening and glucide are 100:7:0.5:1, reserve the edible salt of wherein 20% as face salt.Often spread a salt, steady and sure from four turning centers, limit according to the direction of row's dish.Finally, potherb mustard dish body covers layer of plastic film, frame is arranged in the bamboo chip of groined type, and the ratio being 1:0.08 in potherb mustard and stone weight ratio is thereon placed stone and pressurizeed.
(6) sealing and gas regulating: heated sealant is carried out to the VOH bag film sack heat sealing machine exceeding salt marsh pond; Be connected with the air discharge cook that fills that vavuum pump and bag film are arranged, extract the air in EVOH bag after opening switch out and be filled with carbon dioxide, several times so repeatedly, until stop when the pressure in EVOH bag reaches 0.06MPa, carbon dioxide purity reaches 98%, screw carbon dioxide cylinder, and with water check valve clamping EVOH bag connects the emulsion tube filling air discharge cook, until seal completely.As schematic diagram 1.
(7) store and management: the regular purity to carbon dioxide in EVOH high-isolation bag and pressure check, when discovery leakage, purity supplement carbon dioxide lower than 90% or pressure in time lower than during 0.04MPa; Until salting process terminates.
Embodiment 2:
In this example, step (1) stain dish salt marsh container is potter's clay cylinder, and cylinder body 70% is embedded in underground, cylinder is cleaned and dries; The Chinese cabbage air dry at sunshine of harvesting is terminated when within 4 hours, moisture reduces 30%; The parts by weight of stain dish and edible salt are 100:7.5, be divided into by potter's clay cylinder in the middle of cylinder bottom, cylinder and cylinder top 3 part, cylinder bottom salt 20-30% fewer than average, the mid portion salt of cylinder exceeds the 10-15% of average, remaining salt is added in the top of cylinder, and stain completely adds front cover salt; Remaining processing step is same as embodiment 1.
Embodiment 3:
In this example, step (5) extracts air in EVOH bag out and insufflation gas, so repeatedly several times, until when the antibacterial gas purity in EVOH bag reaches 95% only, closes and nitrogen cylinder and EVOH bag fill air discharge cook; Remaining processing step is same as embodiment 1.Antibacterial gas described in this example is nitrogen.
Embodiment 4:
In this example, step (2) stain dish raw material is radish, and salt marsh container is potter's clay cylinder.By radish airing after 4 hours, the parts by weight of raw material and edible salt are that 100:3 enters cylinder salt marsh, and salt marsh mode is one deck salt one deck radish, and finally raw material and stone weight ratio are that the ratio of 1:0.08 is placed stone and pressurizeed thereon, and salt marsh terminated after 3 ~ 5 days.The radish that salt marsh is good is gone out cylinder airing 24-48 is little to be terminated when comparatively original weight reduces 25-30%, second time salt marsh is carried out according to front described method, the parts by weight of radish and edible salt are 100:2, cylinder airing is gone out to the dry and hard bundle of surface water after salt marsh 5-7 days, carry out salt marsh according to step (4), the parts by weight of radish and edible salt are 100:2; Remaining processing step is same as embodiment 1.Stain dish raw material described in this example can be changed to cabbage head.
Embodiment 4:
In this example, step (1) salt marsh container is Plastic Drum, and step (2) stain dish raw material is bamboo shoot.Bamboo shoot are cut the bamboo shoot container made of bamboo, wicker, ratten, etc., cut bamboo shoot shell and peel off, put after bamboo shoot are split into 3-4 block in the container filling clear water; Step (4) adopts salt solution salt marsh, and the weight fraction of bamboo shoot and water and salt is 100:70:7; Be contained in container after salt solution prepares, be stirred to salt and all melt end; The EVOH polybag of high-barrier is put in salt marsh container, EVOH polybag sack exceeds 80cm than plastics bung, by bamboo shoot tiling with in polybag, fill with at once after into salt solution to plastics bung 20cm, cover layer of plastic film, well shape bamboo chip on frame, and the ratio being 1:0.08 in bamboo shoot and stone weight ratio is thereon placed stone and is pressurizeed; Remaining processing step is same as embodiment 1.

Claims (10)

1. the stain dish method suppressing nitrite and mycoderm to generate in salting process, carry out as follows:
(1) preparation in salt marsh pond: in digging the salt marsh pond building 3-5 × 2-4 × 1-2m below ground, and make anti-drain process; For subsequent use.
(2) preparation of leavening: bacterium mud Lactobacillus casei and Lactobacillus plantarum being collected after cultivating bottom, bacterium mud, skimmed milk, maltodextrin, tripolyphosphate are stirred postlyophilization by the parts by weight then pressing 100:15:5:1, for subsequent use;
(3) pretreatment of stain dish raw material: the dish of harvesting is clapped clean earth, when Exposure to Sunlight to moisture reduces 20-30%, bundlees bundled, weighs, for subsequent use;
(4) preparation of bag film: according to the size in salt marsh pond, selects the EVOH bag film of one end open, and the lower of opening fills air discharge cook along the rear installation one of position punching, and after this bag film is inserted in salt marsh pond, sack exceeds salt marsh pond 100-120cm, for subsequent use;
(5) salt marsh: sprinkle the leavening described in the thin salt of one deck and a small amount of step (4) in bag film bottom surface, salt marsh is carried out according to the stacking pattern of one deck dish one deck salt, every stain one deck dish will spread once throws salt, pin salt, one time fermentation agent and a glucide, a small amount of water is spread before throwing salt, first spread throwing salt, after pin salt is sprinkling upon and steps on dish, the ratio of throwing salt and pin salt is the 7:3 of every layer of dish salt dosage; The parts by weight of stain dish, edible salt, leavening and glucide are 100:6-8:0.4-0.6:0.8-1.2, and wherein edible salt reserved 20% is as face salt; Finally, dish body covers layer of plastic film, and on frame, stone pressurizes; The weight ratio of dish and stone is 1:0.08-0.1;
(6) sealing and gas regulating: to the VOH bag film sack heat sealing machine heated sealant exceeding salt marsh pond; Connect with vavuum pump and fill air discharge cook, extract the air in EVOH bag film out and be filled with antibacterial gas, and several times, until the pressure in bag reaches 0.06MPa, antibacterial gas purity stops when reaching 95%-98%, are closed and filled air discharge cook, until seal completely repeatedly;
(7) storage and management: regularly the gas purity in EVOH bag film and pressure are checked, if gas purity supplements lower than during 0.04MPa in time lower than 90% or pressure; Until salting process terminates.
2. the stain dish method suppressing nitrite and mycoderm to generate in salting process according to claim 1, is characterized in that described stain dish raw material refers to potherb mustard, Chinese cabbage, celery, leaf mustard, fiddlehead, purple perilla, cabbage head, lettuce, jerusalem artichoke, ginger, wild cabbage, garlic, Onion head, bag heart mustard, root-mustard, turnip, radish, lotus root, water chestnut, capsicum, cucumber, wild rice stem, wax gourd, cowpea, sword bean, matsutake, bamboo shoot.
3. in salting process according to claim 1, suppress the stain dish method that nitrite and mycoderm generate, it is characterized in that described Lactobacillus casei (LactobacillusCasei), Lactobacillus plantarum (Lactobacillusplantarum), all draw from China Committee for Culture Collection of Microorganisms's common micro-organisms center CGMCC, numbering is respectively 1.0029,1.0556.
4. the stain dish method suppressing nitrite and mycoderm to generate in salting process according to claim 1, is characterized in that described glucide refers to the mixing of one or more arbitrary proportions in glucose, fructose, sucrose and galactolipin.
5. in the salting process according to Claims 2 or 3 or 4, suppress the stain dish method that nitrite and mycoderm generate, it is characterized in that the anti-drain process of described step (1), floating at surface, pond cement, inlay the white ceramic tiles of acid and alkali-resistance, finally fill with observation with water and whether leak.
6. in salting process according to claim 5, suppress the stain dish method that nitrite and mycoderm generate, it is characterized in that the bacterium mud of described step (2), be that Lactobacillus casei is mixed with the ratio of Lactobacillus plantarum according to 1:1 after 35 DEG C of High Density Cultivation 36-48h, then within 15 minutes, obtain with the rotating speed of 4000 revs/min, 0 ~ 5 DEG C of refrigerated centrifuge; Described freeze drying is that adopt the vacuum packaging of EVOH bag film, lucifuge to 0 ~ 5 DEG C temperature is stored in-55--60 DEG C of freeze drying 48-72h after bacterium mud, skimmed milk, maltodextrin, tripolyphosphate being stirred.
7. suppress the stain dish method that nitrite and mycoderm generate in salting process according to claim 6, it is characterized in that the Exposure to Sunlight of described step (3), is shakeout on the spot by the dish of harvesting, and consecutive days, period prevented from drenching with rain according to air dry 2-4 hour.
8. in salting process according to claim 7, suppress the stain dish method that nitrite and mycoderm generate, when it is characterized in that the salt marsh of described step (5), the dish put in order is vertically arranged from four limits to center convolution, the ground floor dish leaf of bottom down, root upwards, the second layer starts root down, and upward, arrangement accomplishes that thickness is even to leaf; During salt marsh, often spread a salt, steady and sure from four turning centers, limit according to the direction of row's dish.
9. the stain dish method suppressing nitrite and mycoderm to generate in salting process according to claim 8, the antibacterial gas that it is characterized in that in described step (6) is the one in carbon dioxide, nitrogen, helium and argon gas.
10. in salting process according to claim 9, suppress the stain dish method that nitrite and mycoderm generate, it is characterized in that installation of filling air discharge cook of the present invention, it is the hole being EVOH bag film is opened diameter 2-3mm, fill exhaust nozzle through hole gasket seal screwing hermetic, pad is coated AB glue, by emulsion tube with fill exhaust nozzle and link, junction adopts connecting plate to reinforce, and other one end of emulsion tube is by screwed stop valve screwing hermetic.
CN201510920064.8A 2015-12-11 2015-12-11 Vegetable pickling method for restraining generation of nitrite and pellicle in pickling process CN105533571A (en)

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CN106262099A (en) * 2016-08-22 2017-01-04 邵玉华 A kind of preparation method of Herba Apii graveolentis crispy slice

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Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN106262099A (en) * 2016-08-22 2017-01-04 邵玉华 A kind of preparation method of Herba Apii graveolentis crispy slice

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Application publication date: 20160504