CN105499578B - A kind of compression casting polar coordinates 3D printing apparatus and method for - Google Patents

A kind of compression casting polar coordinates 3D printing apparatus and method for Download PDF

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Publication number
CN105499578B
CN105499578B CN201610027458.5A CN201610027458A CN105499578B CN 105499578 B CN105499578 B CN 105499578B CN 201610027458 A CN201610027458 A CN 201610027458A CN 105499578 B CN105499578 B CN 105499578B
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China
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printing
motor
printhead
leading screw
polar coordinates
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CN105499578A (en
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程永丽
王永信
张冲
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SHAANXI HENGTONG INTELLIGENT MACHINE CO Ltd
Weinan Dingxin Innovation Zhizao Technology Co Ltd
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SHAANXI HENGTONG INTELLIGENT MACHINE CO Ltd
Weinan Dingxin Innovation Zhizao Technology Co Ltd
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    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B22CASTING; POWDER METALLURGY
    • B22FWORKING METALLIC POWDER; MANUFACTURE OF ARTICLES FROM METALLIC POWDER; MAKING METALLIC POWDER
    • B22F3/00Manufacture of workpieces or articles from metallic powder characterised by the manner of compacting or sintering; Apparatus specially adapted therefor ; Presses and furnaces
    • B22F3/115Manufacture of workpieces or articles from metallic powder characterised by the manner of compacting or sintering; Apparatus specially adapted therefor ; Presses and furnaces by spraying molten metal, i.e. spray sintering, spray casting
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B22CASTING; POWDER METALLURGY
    • B22FWORKING METALLIC POWDER; MANUFACTURE OF ARTICLES FROM METALLIC POWDER; MAKING METALLIC POWDER
    • B22F3/00Manufacture of workpieces or articles from metallic powder characterised by the manner of compacting or sintering; Apparatus specially adapted therefor ; Presses and furnaces
    • B22F3/003Apparatus, e.g. furnaces

Abstract

The invention discloses a kind of compression casting polar coordinates 3D printing apparatus and method for, the equipment includes printhead and feed device, insulation, transmission and squeezing out quantitative for high temperature fused state aluminium and aluminium alloy;Polar coordinates motion control device, for realizing revolution curvilinear motion track;Plane coordinates motion control device, for being engaged with polar coordinates motion control device, realizes straight-line trajectory;Motion control and process control system, using two-dimensional silhouette data-driven polar coordinates motion control device, plane coordinates motion control device and printhead and feed device, realize the 3D printing of aluminium and aluminium alloy.Methods described realizes the hot investment casting of aluminium and aluminium alloy using polar coordinates 3D printing, and this method has thoroughly broken traditional castings production pattern.

Description

A kind of compression casting polar coordinates 3D printing apparatus and method for
Technical field
The invention belongs to three-dimensional increases material manufacturing technology field, more particularly to a kind of compression casting 3D printing device and method.
Background technology
In industrial circle, casting is most basic specialty, and blank or semi-finished product, traditional casting are provided for machinery manufacturing industry Production model be first to make wooden model, core or cured mould (precision casting is used), then moulding (sand mold), drying sand mold, swabbing, Cast, cooling, are then cleared up casting, the subsequent treatment such as remove rising head, polish, sandblast;It is known that foundry industry is deposited at present It is in greatest problem:1. the labor intensity of workman is big;2. working environment is severe:Filthy, dust it is big (metal dust of polishing and Moulding sand dirt powder end);3. the control of interiors of products quality hardly possible and percent defective are high, although be cast with certain development in the last few years, But by this professional particularity limited and Chinese labour force scarcity, foundry industry has also been absorbed in difficult condition.Component of machine If can directly print, without processing or few processing, this is the target of the revolution of futurity industry 4.0.
Current rapid prototyping & manufacturing technology development comparison block, concrete technology is a lot, but metal material rapid shaping has at present Two methods:Direct method and indirect method.1. indirect method Selective laser sintering:Be by organic binder bond powder and have metal dust by Material obtained by certain proportion composition mechanical impurity, or organic binder bond overlay film and metal dust is made;Due to organic adhesive The fusing point of agent or organic binder bond overlay film is more much lower than metal, therefore binding agent first melts in laser scanning, by metal dust Particle bonds, and forms the base substrate product of metal parts.Indirect method sintering process also needs to the subsequent treatment process of complexity Can be as metallic article, this method dispensing is complicated, and technological operation trouble, product is yielding, so only adapting to smallclothes and a small amount of Production, part mechanical property (intensity) and precision are all poor, and especially product cost is high.2. direct Selective laser sintering method: The powder mixed using single pure metal powder or by refractory metal powder and metal powder with low melting point is as sintering Material, directly obtain metal parts using high energy laser sintering, direct sintering is also required to the subsequent treatment process of complexity, The density and mechanical property of gained product are difficult to meet the functional requirement of part, and surface quality is also poor, at present in titanium alloy, stainless Experimenter is carried out in the special materials such as steel more.To sum up metal dust SLS technologies simply start (experiment now in industrial circle Trial stage), three dimensional articles generally existing mechanical property, surface quality, density, the precision of sintering are poor, can't conduct Functional mechanical parts are directly used, and await the exploitation and utilization of new material, new technology and new intelligence equipment.
The content of the invention
Based on this, the invention discloses a kind of compression casting polar coordinates 3D printing equipment, the printing device includes:
Printhead and feed device, insulation, transmission and squeezing out quantitative for high temperature fused state aluminium and aluminium alloy;
Polar coordinates motion control device, motion and workbench for realizing warp direction of the workbench in revolution-radius Revolution curvilinear motion;
Plane coordinates motion control device, for being engaged with polar coordinates, realizes the successively accumulation printing system of printing device The process made, and the motion of printhead warp direction and Z-direction can be realized;
Motion control and process control system, are sat using two-dimensional silhouette data-driven polar coordinates motion control device, plane Motion control device and printhead and feed device are marked, the 3D printing of aluminium and aluminium alloy is realized.
Brief description of the drawings
Fig. 1 is the schematic diagram of compression casting 3D printing equipment in one embodiment of the invention;Wherein:1. bottom plate;2. riser; 3. the first motor;4. the first leading screw;5. crossbeam and feed screw nut;6. the second motor;7. the second leading screw;8. sliding block and printhead; 9. delivery pipe;10. melting furnace;11 workbench;12. the 4th motor;13. the 3rd leading screw;14. the 3rd motor;15. rocking arm;16. the Five motors;17. the back-up roller wheel of polar coordinates sliding block 18..
Embodiment
Below in conjunction with the accompanying drawings and the present invention is further detailed specific embodiment;
In one embodiment, the invention discloses a kind of compression casting polar coordinates 3D printing equipment, the printing device Including:
Printhead and feed device, insulation, transmission and squeezing out quantitative for high temperature fused state aluminium and aluminium alloy;
Polar coordinates motion control device, motion and workbench for realizing warp direction of the workbench in revolution-radius Revolution curvilinear motion;
Plane coordinates motion control device, for being engaged with polar coordinates, realizes the successively accumulation printing system of printing device The process made, and the motion of printhead warp direction and Z-direction can be realized;
Motion control and process control system, are sat using two-dimensional silhouette data-driven polar coordinates motion control device, plane Motion control device and printhead and feed device are marked, the 3D printing of aluminium and aluminium alloy is realized.
Equipment of the present invention is used for the hot investment casting of aluminium and aluminium alloy, can also develop other materials on this basis Hot investment casting, the equipment utilization polar coordinates 3D printer creates the thought of compression casting shaping as casting operation platform, And the 3D printing technique of aluminium and aluminium-alloy pressure-casting is proposed on this basis.Compression casting 3D polar coordinates printer will be casting The starting point of industry transition and upgrade is made, is also the developing direction of futurity industry.
The invention and appearance of compression casting 3D printing equipment of the present invention are by the transition and upgrade and unlatching to realize foundry industry Robot of state and intelligence equipment 2.0 increase one pages of radiance, realize efficiently, section material and energy-conserving and environment-protective it is few without machining, Change backward casting industry by thorough.
In one embodiment, the printhead and feed device include:Printhead, delivery pipe, melting furnace and it is arranged on Constant displacement pump in melting furnace;Described delivery pipe one end and melting furnace are operably coupled, the other end with printhead is exercisable couples.
The printed material that delivery pipe described in the present embodiment is used in handling molten stove, constant displacement pump is used to enter printed material The quantitative output of row;Device described in the present embodiment disclosure satisfy that the printing demand of different metal material, and melting furnace can be by difference Molten condition under metal material be incubated, constant displacement pump according to printing demand it is quantitative pass through delivery pipe output printing material Printed material is sent to place to be printed by material, printhead.
In one embodiment, the polar coordinates motion control device includes:Workbench, the 3rd motor, the 4th motor, Three leading screws, polar coordinates sliding block;
The workbench and the 4th motor are arranged on polar coordinates sliding block;3rd leading screw is under the drive of the 3rd motor Make circular table is overall to be moved linearly along the 3rd leading screw direction, realize warp direction motion of the workbench in revolution-radius; Workbench rotates under the drive of the 4th motor simultaneously, realizes revolution curvilinear motion.
More excellent, the workbench described in the present embodiment is circular table;As shown in Figure 1:Circular table and the 4th electricity Machine 12 is arranged on polar coordinates sliding block, and polar coordinates sliding block makes workbench along pole axis (the 3rd leading screw 13) under the drive of the 3rd leading screw 13 Radially move ρ;Workbench rotates under the drive of the 4th motor 12 simultaneously, realizes the rotation of workbench, rotation angle 0 ~360, workbench rotation realizes the printing of revolution curve.
In one embodiment, the plane coordinates motion control device includes:Crossbeam and feed screw nut, the first motor, First leading screw, sliding block and printhead, the second motor and the second leading screw;
First leading screw rotates under the drive of the first motor, and the crossbeam band movable slider and printhead edge First leading screw does Z-direction and moved integrally, and realizes the process of successively accumulation printing manufacture;
The sliding block and printhead are the X vertical with Z-direction to motion under the drive of the second motor and the second leading screw, and with Polar coordinates coordinate the motion for making printhead do warp direction and Z-direction.
In the present embodiment, as shown in Figure 1:Printhead is arranged on entablature sliding block, and sliding block is with the second leading screw 7 in horizontal stroke Side-to-side movement on beam guide rail, realizes the rectilinear print in plane;The first motor drives the first leading screw 4 to make crossbeam along Z axis side simultaneously To moving up and down
Arbitrary curve and straight line in impulse stroke can be completed by this covering device printhead in theory under polar coordinate system Printing, belong to 5 axle linkage devices simple in construction, often print one layer of printhead move one layer along Z-direction;It is of the present invention The thickness of equipment, liquid metal solidification situation and precision, rate request are set in three-dimensional data specific hierarchical software.
In one embodiment, the printing device device also includes the 5th motor, rocking arm and back-up roller wheel;
The workbench is under the drive of the 5th motor, by rocking arm under the cooperation of back-up roller wheel, realizes that polar angle θ turns It is dynamic.
More excellent, as shown in Figure 1:Workbench 11, the 4th motor 12, polar coordinates sliding block 17, the 3rd leading screw 13, the 3rd motor 14 are fixed on rocking arm 15, and rocking arm rotates around the 5th motor 16, that is, revolves round the sun, 0~360 degree of revolution angle, The polar angle θ for so realizing workbench by rocking arm under the drive of the 5th motor 16 is rotated.
In one embodiment, feeding pressure, the material of printing when the printhead prints go out the diameter of material by printing Surface tension under matter and its semi-molten state is determined.
In the present embodiment, conventional FDM3D printer material therefor is generally plastics etc, and printhead diameter is generally 0.4mm, and compression casting 3D printer printhead diameter depends on pressure and material, current normal pressures cast minimal wall Thickness is 2mm, in view of the mobility and material of aluminium and aluminum alloy melts state can smoothly spray, the tentative printhead diameter of the present invention For 2mm (0.8mm special case can be accomplished by also having pressure to increase minimum wall thickness (MINI W.)), certain smaller printing precision of printhead diameter is higher, With practical application and depth development, semi-molten state surface tension force, solidifiability, printing can be sprayed by studying printhead The printhead of smaller diameter is done step-by-step in the research of the matching relationship of header structure and other high temperature micro-spray technologies, to improve casting essence Degree and application.
In one embodiment, first leading screw, the second leading screw, the 3rd leading screw use ball-screw.
In the present embodiment, because aluminium and aluminium alloy casting temperature are between 660~760 degree, and existing 3D printer Transmission mechanism uses high-precision monodentate face or bidentate face timing belt V belt translation substantially, the transmission of not competent hot environment, because This is in 3D polar coordinates casting print structure, all using ball-screw as power transmission parts, and entirely component from selection It is intended to meet heat-resisting and stable mechanical property requirement on material and its specially treated.
In one embodiment, be provided with heater in the workbench, for ensure printable layer initial temperature and Accumulation horizon temperature must not be less than 175 DEG C.
Heater can be located at the bottom of workbench in the present embodiment, for the temperature for making workbench keep certain, this temperature Degree will the temperature for the printable layer and accumulation horizon being placed on workbench can be made to be not less than 175 DEG C, with avoid fast cooling cool down to The defects such as cracking, the grain coarsening that the printing casting belts just printed are come.
In one embodiment, the working environment of the printing device is sealing structure, empty between layers for preventing Gas dissolves in generation stomata and aoxidized;Inert gas is full of in seal operation environment.
In the present embodiment, the operating room of whole printing equipment is sealing structure, to prevent that air dissolves between layers Produce stomata and aoxidize, inert gas is full of in seal operation room;Melting furnace is independent, is placed on closing printing body Outside, feeding is controlled by metered dose pump, passes through delivery pipe (band heat insulation layer structure) supply, melt temperature, print temperature and accumulation Layer temperature is by temperature control system control.
In one embodiment, the invention discloses a kind of compression casting polar coordinates 3D printing method, methods described includes Following steps:
S100, the three-dimensional digital model for the casting to be printed crossed using software RPData layered shapings data-driven printing Equipment;
S200, under the second motor 6, the 3rd motor 14, the 4th motor 12, the driving of the 5th motor 16, the second leading screw, Under 3rd leading screw, delivery pipe, melting furnace, polar coordinates sliding block, the cooperation of rocking arm and back-up roller wheel, printhead is along each layering Data do profile printing and filling printing on the table;
S300, after the completion of one layer prints, drive the first leading screw successively to adjust the height of printhead along Z axis by motor 1, According to next layer of profile and filling data, the printing of rest layers is completed according to step S200 successively, the reality of three-dimensional is ultimately formed Thing.
The present embodiment methods described realizes the hot investment casting of aluminium and aluminium alloy using polar coordinates 3D printing, and this method is thorough Break traditional castings production pattern, and disclosure satisfy that variously-shaped and specification casting printing.
Method described in the present embodiment uses polar coordinates when casting is printed, and some are special in printing for polar coordinatesCurveSuch as During the revolving bodies such as circle, constant speed helix, workbench rotates (shower nozzle is motionless) around the centre of gyration, so curved surface is by turning round What motion was formed, in the absence of distortion, while polar coordinates printing curve speed as rectangular co-ordinate printing straight line is fast;In industry In field, the geometric figure 80% of casting, therefore can perfection with polar coordinates 3D printer above is be made up of straight line and circle circular arcs Realize hot investment casting.
In one embodiment, the printing device structure and motor function described in the disclosure are as follows:1. printhead is arranged on On entablature sliding block, sliding block realizes the rectilinear print in plane with the second side-to-side movement on beam guideway of leading screw 7;While the One motor 3 drives the first leading screw 4 to make, and crossbeam moves up and down .2. circular tables along Z-direction and the 4th motor 12 is arranged on pole On coordinate sliding block, polar coordinates sliding block makes workbench radially move ρ along pole axis (the 3rd leading screw 13) under the drive of the 3rd leading screw 13; Workbench rotates under the drive of the 4th motor 12 simultaneously, realizes the rotation of workbench, rotation angle 0~360, workbench Rotation realizes the printing of revolution curve.3. workbench 11, the 4th motor 12, polar coordinates sliding block 17, the electricity of the 3rd leading screw the 13, the 3rd Machine 14 is fixed on rocking arm 15, and rocking arm rotates around the 5th motor 16, that is, revolves round the sun, revolution angle 0~360 Degree, the polar angle θ for so realizing workbench by rocking arm under the drive of the 5th motor 16 is rotated.Existed by this covering device printhead The printing of arbitrary curve and straight line in impulse stroke can be completed under polar coordinate system in theory, belongs to 5 axles linkage simple in construction Device, often prints one layer of printhead and is moved one layer (thickness can freely be set) along Z-direction.4. the work of whole printing equipment Room is sealing structure, to prevent that air dissolves in generation stomata and aoxidized between layers, is full of inertia in seal operation room Gas;Melting furnace is independent, is placed on closing printer in vitro, feeding is controlled by metered dose pump, and passing through delivery pipe, (band is protected Warm Rotating fields) supply, melt temperature, print temperature and accumulation horizon temperature are by temperature control system control.5. due to aluminium and aluminium alloy Casting temperature is between 660~760 degree, and the transmission mechanism of existing 3D printer uses high-precision monodentate face or bidentate face substantially The transmission of timing belt V belt translation, not competent hot environment, therefore in 3D polar coordinates casting print structure, all using rolling Ballscrew pair is as power transmission parts, and whole component is intended to meet heat-resisting and mechanics from the material of selection and its specially treated The requirement of performance stabilization.6. conventional FDM3D printer material therefor is generally plastics etc, jet diameters are generally 0.4mm, and press Power casting 3D printer jet diameters size depends on pressure and material, and current normal pressures casting minimum wall thickness (MINI W.) is 2mm, in view of The mobility and material of aluminium and aluminum alloy melts state can smoothly spray, and the tentative jet diameters of the present invention are that 2mm (also has pressure Increase minimum wall thickness (MINI W.) can accomplish 0.8mm special case), certain smaller printing precision of jet diameters is higher, with practical application and depth Degree development, can by study printhead spray semi-molten state surface tension force, solidifiability, the matching relationship of nozzle structure and The shower nozzle of smaller diameter is done step-by-step in the research of other high temperature micro-spray technologies, to improve casting accuracy and application.7. it is circular Workbench is built with heater, it is ensured that the initial temperature and accumulation horizon temperature of printable layer must not be less than certain temperature.
It is described on end, the invention has the advantages that:
1. rectangular coordinate system is as the principle that 3 D stereo printing is realized in polar coordinate system 3D printing, but in rectangular coordinate system Plane curve is approximately to replace generation by countless segment straight lines, if circle is the n numbers by positive n sides shape is inscribed or the external circle formed Value is bigger, and circle is more accurate, but no matter n is much always approximate and approach, and there is distortion, then have jet diameters be it is present, it Directly influence the printing precision of curve and limit thin-walled parts, the printing of small arc-shaped fillet part, and polar coordinates are in printing During some particular curves such as circle, constant speed helix revolving body, workbench rotates (shower nozzle is motionless) around the centre of gyration, institute Formed with curved surface by gyration, in the absence of distortion, while polar coordinates print curve as rectangular co-ordinate prints straight line one Sample speed is fast;
2. in industrial circle, the geometric figure 80% of casting straight line and circle circular arcs above is be made up of, therefore sat with pole Hot investment casting is realized in mark 3D printer energy perfection;
3. casting requires that casting rate is fast, prevent the metal of melting from quickly cooling down, while to prevent air from entering to produce gas The defects such as hole, shrinkage porosite, have impact on the inherent quality of product, the present invention is using closing operating room and inert gas shielding, workbench Heater is inside set, the production requirement of casting is fully met.3D printer under rectangular coordinate system, when printing curve, speed is slow It can not meet requirement, and polar coordinates 3D printing revolution curve and printing straight line be, speed is exceedingly fast.

Claims (7)

1. a kind of compression casting polar coordinates 3D printing equipment, it is characterised in that the printing device includes:
Printhead and feed device, insulation, transmission and squeezing out quantitative for high temperature fused state aluminium and aluminium alloy;
Polar coordinates motion control device, the fortune for realizing warp direction of the workbench of the printing device in revolution-radius The revolution curvilinear motion of dynamic and workbench, the polar coordinates motion control device includes:Workbench, the 3rd motor, the 4th motor, 3rd leading screw and polar coordinates sliding block;The workbench and the 4th motor are arranged on polar coordinates sliding block;3rd leading screw is Make workbench is overall to be moved linearly along the 3rd leading screw direction under the drive of three motors, realize warp of the workbench in revolution-radius Move in direction;Workbench rotates under the drive of the 4th motor simultaneously, realizes the revolution curvilinear motion of workbench;
Plane coordinates motion control device, for being engaged with polar coordinates motion control device, realizes the successively heap of printing device The process of product printing manufacture, and the motion of printhead warp direction and Z-direction, the plane coordinates motion control dress can be realized Put including:Crossbeam and feed screw nut, the first motor, the first leading screw, sliding block and printhead, the second motor and the second leading screw;It is described First leading screw rotates under the drive of the first motor, and causes the crossbeam band movable slider and printhead along the first leading screw Do Z-direction to move integrally, realize the process of successively accumulation printing manufacture;The sliding block and printhead are in the second motor and the second leading screw Drive under be the X vertical with Z-direction to motion, and coordinating with polar coordinates makes printhead do the motion of warp direction and Z-direction;
Wherein, first leading screw, the second leading screw, the 3rd leading screw use ball-screw;
Motion control and process control system, utilize the two-dimensional silhouette data of casting to be printed, driving stage coordinate motion control dress Put, plane coordinates motion control device and printhead and feed device, realize the 3D printing of aluminium and aluminium alloy.
2. printing device according to claim 1, it is characterised in that the printhead and feed device include:Printhead, Delivery pipe, melting furnace and the constant displacement pump in melting furnace;Described delivery pipe one end and melting furnace are operably coupled, the other end With printhead is exercisable couples.
3. printing device according to claim 1, it is characterised in that the printing device also includes the 5th motor, rocking arm With back-up roller wheel;
The workbench is under the drive of the 5th motor, by rocking arm under the cooperation of back-up roller wheel, realizes that polar angle θ is rotated.
4. printing device according to claim 1, it is characterised in that:The printhead prints go out the diameter of material by printing When feeding pressure, printing material and its semi-molten state under surface tension determine.
5. printing device according to claim 1, it is characterised in that be provided with heater in the workbench, be used for Must not be less than by ensuring the initial temperature and accumulation horizon temperature of printable layer by 175 DEG C.
6. the printing device according to claim any one of 1-5, it is characterised in that:The working environment of the printing device is Sealing structure, for preventing that air dissolves in generation stomata and aoxidized between layers;Inertia is full of in seal operation environment Gas.
7. a kind of compression casting polar coordinates 3D printing method, it is characterised in that the described method comprises the following steps:
S100, the data-driven printing of the three-dimensional digital model for the casting to be printed crossed using software RPData layered shapings are set It is standby;
S200, under the second motor (6), the 3rd motor (14), the 4th motor (12), the driving of the 5th motor (16), second Under leading screw, the 3rd leading screw, delivery pipe, melting furnace, polar coordinates sliding block, the cooperation of rocking arm and back-up roller wheel, printhead is along each The data of layering do profile printing and filling printing on the table;
S300, after the completion of one layer prints, drive the first leading screw successively to adjust the height of printhead along Z axis by the first motor (3) Degree, according to next layer of profile and filling data, the printing of rest layers is completed according to step S200, three-dimensional is ultimately formed successively It is in kind.
CN201610027458.5A 2016-01-15 2016-01-15 A kind of compression casting polar coordinates 3D printing apparatus and method for Active CN105499578B (en)

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