CN105499570A - 3D printing method of metal ceramic functional gradient part in alternating magnetic field - Google Patents

3D printing method of metal ceramic functional gradient part in alternating magnetic field Download PDF

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Publication number
CN105499570A
CN105499570A CN201510990255.1A CN201510990255A CN105499570A CN 105499570 A CN105499570 A CN 105499570A CN 201510990255 A CN201510990255 A CN 201510990255A CN 105499570 A CN105499570 A CN 105499570A
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printing
metal
alternating magnetic
temperature
magnetic
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CN201510990255.1A
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CN105499570B (en
Inventor
周雪莉
刘庆萍
任露泉
赵彻
宋正义
李冰倩
刘清荣
李卓识
刘慧力
于征磊
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吉林大学
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    • B22F10/00
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B22CASTING; POWDER METALLURGY
    • B22FWORKING METALLIC POWDER; MANUFACTURE OF ARTICLES FROM METALLIC POWDER; MAKING METALLIC POWDER
    • B22F2202/00Treatment under specific physical conditions
    • B22F2202/05Use of magnetic field
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B22CASTING; POWDER METALLURGY
    • B22FWORKING METALLIC POWDER; MANUFACTURE OF ARTICLES FROM METALLIC POWDER; MAKING METALLIC POWDER
    • B22F2207/00Aspects of the compositions, gradients
    • B22F2207/11Gradients other than composition gradients, e.g. size gradients
    • B22F2207/17Gradients other than composition gradients, e.g. size gradients density or porosity gradients

Abstract

The invention discloses a 3D printing method of a metal ceramic functional gradient part in an alternating magnetic field. A metal material with excellent electric conductivity in the alternating magnetic field generates induction current inside due to continuous change of a magnetic field; based on different responses of the metal material with excellent electric conductivity and ceramic not easy to conducting electricity to the alternating magnetic field, the directional distribution of the metal materials is controlled through the alternating magnetic field in the printing process; the magnitude of driving force is changed through changing alternating current intensity and current frequency; the metal ceramic functional gradient part is prepared; the 3D printing of the metal ceramic gradient part in the alternating magnetic field is realized; the gradient material distribution can be realized in any space position; the material and the equipment cost are saved; and the 3D printing method is suitable for wide popularization and application.

Description

A kind of 3D Method of printing of cermet functionally gradient part in alternating magnetic field

Technical field

The invention belongs to the 3D printing technique of mechanical manufacturing field, be related specifically to a kind of 3D Method of printing of cermet functionally gradient part in alternating magnetic field.

Background technology

3D printing is a kind of is drive source with mathematical model, the rapid shaping technique of constructed object spatial shape is carried out by the mode successively printed, in recent years along with the manufacture of increasing material develops to function part manufacture, the manufacture of metal increasing material also reaches and greatly develops, the selective laser sintering technology of existing metal 3D printing technique (SLS), precinct laser fusion forming technique (SLM), Laser Rapid Prototyping Technique (LRF) or laser solid forming technology (LSF), this several technology is all operated by laser, majority all rests on single material homogeneous processing aspect, cannot realize and the forming parts of functionally gradient material (FGM), and in fact most of part or product are formed by multiple material, prior art cannot prepare metal and ceramic gradient part, and printing device and material expensive, marker's process is complicated, shaping speed is low.

Summary of the invention

Object of the present invention is exactly for existing metal 3D printing technique, can only prepare single material metal part, cannot prepare intermetallic or metal ceramic gradient part, and provide a kind of 3D Method of printing using action of alternating magnetic field to realize cermet functionally gradient part.

A kind of 3D Method of printing of cermet functionally gradient part in alternating magnetic field, its technological principle uses fused glass pellet technique, by metal ceramic powder and hot-melt adhesive composite material deposition modeling, its core technology is before extruded material does not solidify, use electromagnetic actuation force that magnetic particle in material is moved, thus change material composition distribution, finally prepare functionally gradient material (FGM).

The 3D Method of printing of a kind of cermet functionally gradient part in alternating magnetic field of the present invention, the step of the method is as follows:

One: the preparation of mixed slurry, heat after metal ceramic powder and high polymer binder Homogeneous phase mixing, metal paste melts 160 ~ 200 DEG C time, at room temperature can rapid curing;

Constituent and the mass percent of described mixed slurry are as follows:

Metal ceramic powder 56-65%, high polymer binder 35-44%;

Constituent and the mass percent of metal ceramic powder are as follows:

Metal dust 1-40%, ceramic powders 60-99%;

Described metal dust: 1-90 μm, median particle diameter is 40 μm;

Described metal dust material is Fe or Al or Ag or Mg or Zn or Cu;

Described ceramic powders: 1-90 μm, median particle diameter is 40 μm;

Described ceramic powders material is one in Al2O3, SiC, SiO2, ZrO2 or wherein several mixed-powder particle;

Constituent and the mass percent of high polymer binder are as follows:

Paraffin 65-70%, ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer 7-12%, polypropylene 18-23%, stearic acid 1-5%.

Two: data modeling process, utilize three-dimensional software Modling model, then carry out slicing treatment, the thickness of synusia is 0.06 ~ 0.24mm, sets up the three-dimensional data model of part, arranges fill route accordingly according to required function part;

Three: fused glass pellet under alternating magnetic field, fused glass pellet technique is utilized to carry out printing shaping, according to the position that print track is needing, corresponding alternating magnetic field is set, the temperature that rotatable duckbill prints extruder head is 175 DEG C, speed is 14mm/s, the intensity 0.5A-5A of electric current, power frequency 100-10000HZ, computer controls apparatus of the present invention, mixed slurry is supplied printing equipment by material and is delivered to rotatable duckbill printing extruder head, and molten condition is heated in rotatable duckbill printing extruder head, then be optionally coated on workbench, processing work cross section profile is formed after quick cooling, when after shaping completing, workbench declines the height of a cross-sectional layers, rotatable duckbill prints the printing that extruder head carries out lower one deck again, circulation like this, final formation product, in print procedure, rotatable duckbill prints extruder head and is extruded according to the track of computer settings and speed by the mixed slurry with mobility at a certain temperature, the metal powder material movement rapidly under the influence of a magnetic field in molten road, component consecutive variations in molten road, change alternating current intensity and power frequency change driving force size, in any locus, gradient parameter is controlled, and the anglec of rotation of extruder head is printed by changing rotatable duckbill, obtain the base substrate of various wall thickness,

Four: the high polymer binder in base substrate is carried out removing process, first be solvent degreasing, base substrate is put into trichloro-ethylene solution, the temperature of solution is 30-50 DEG C, degreasing 8-12h, after drying, then imbedded in alundum (Al2O3) powder by base substrate, then entirety is put into vacuum atmosphere oven and heat-treated and presintering, rate of rise in temperature is 1 ~ 3 DEG C/min, temperature is 500-700 DEG C, and the time is 3-4h;

Five: sintering, be placed in vacuum atmosphere oven by presintering base substrate and continue to heat, programming rate is 4-6 DEG C/min, and final temperature is relevant with the fusing point of the metal material of sintering with temperature retention time, after having sintered, obtains required graded metal part.

The 3D printing equipment of a kind of cermet functionally gradient part in alternating magnetic field of the present invention: supply printing equipment, digitlization alternating magnetic field generator and workbench by bed piece, material and form, workbench is fixedly installed on the ground, material supply printing equipment is arranged on bed piece, and digitlization alternating magnetic field generator is arranged between workbench and bed piece.

Operation principle of the present invention:

The metal material in alternating magnetic field with good electric conductivity produces induced-current because of the consecutive variations in magnetic field at material internal, and according to Lenz's law, the induced field that this kind of induced-current produces hinders the change of original magnetic field flux.Therefore, Induced magnetic field and alternating magnetic field can produce power can produce active force, and the size of power F is: wherein, V is particle volume to F=V × M × gradH, and M is the raw intensity of magnetization of granular sensation, and gradH is magnetic field gradient, and magnetization M is directly proportional to input current intensity; Magnetic field gradient is relevant with the position residing for particle, coil inside, and Distribution of Magnetic Field is even, and gradient is zero, and end turn, magnetic field gradient is maximum.

Beneficial effect of the present invention:

The present invention is based on the ceramic material of the good metal material of electric conductivity and not easy conductive to the different responses of alternating magnetic field, metal material directional profile is controlled by alternating magnetic field in print procedure, by changing alternating current intensity and power frequency change driving force size, prepare cermet functionally gradient part, achieve alternating magnetic field 3D and print metal ceramic gradient part, material gradient distribution can be realized in any locus.

Accompanying drawing explanation

Fig. 1 is the 3D printing equipment structural representation of the present invention.

Fig. 2 is the front view that the rotatable duckbill of the present invention prints extruder head.

Fig. 3 is the left view that the rotatable duckbill of the present invention prints extruder head.

Fig. 4 is the top view that the rotatable duckbill of the present invention prints extruder head.

Fig. 5 is the part section print state schematic diagram that the present invention prints when working.

Fig. 6 is the part section print state schematic diagram that the present invention prints when working.

Fig. 7 is the part section print state schematic diagram that the present invention prints when working.

Detailed description of the invention

Refer to shown in Fig. 1, Fig. 5, Fig. 6 and Fig. 7, the 3D Method of printing of a kind of cermet functionally gradient part in alternating magnetic field of the present invention, the step of the method is as follows:

One: the preparation of mixed slurry, heat after metal ceramic powder and high polymer binder Homogeneous phase mixing, metal paste melts 160 ~ 200 DEG C time, at room temperature can rapid curing;

Constituent and the mass percent of described mixed slurry are as follows:

Metal ceramic powder 56-65%, high polymer binder 35-44%;

Constituent and the mass percent of metal ceramic powder are as follows:

Metal dust 1-40%, ceramic powders 60-99%;

Described metal dust: 1-90 μm, median particle diameter is 40 μm;

Described metal dust material is Fe or Al or Ag or Mg or Zn or Cu;

Described ceramic powders: 1-90 μm, median particle diameter is 40 μm;

Described ceramic powders material is one in Al2O3, SiC, SiO2, ZrO2 or wherein several mixed-powder particle;

Constituent and the mass percent of high polymer binder are as follows:

Paraffin 65-70%, ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer 7-12%, polypropylene 18-23%, stearic acid 1-5%.

Two: data modeling process, utilize three-dimensional software Modling model, then carry out slicing treatment, the thickness of synusia is 0.06 ~ 0.24mm, sets up the three-dimensional data model of part, arranges fill route accordingly according to required function part;

Three: fused glass pellet under alternating magnetic field, fused glass pellet technique is utilized to carry out printing shaping, according to the position that print track is needing, corresponding alternating magnetic field is set, the temperature that rotatable duckbill prints extruder head 21 is 175 DEG C, speed is 14mm/s, the intensity 0.5A-5A of electric current, power frequency 100-10000HZ, computer controls apparatus of the present invention, mixed slurry is supplied printing equipment 2 by material and is delivered to rotatable duckbill printing extruder head 21, and molten condition is heated in rotatable duckbill printing extruder head 21, then optionally extrude and be deposited on workbench 4, processing work cross section profile is formed after quick cooling, when after shaping completing, workbench 4 declines the height of a cross-sectional layers, rotatable duckbill prints the printing that extruder head 21 carries out lower one deck again, circulation like this, final formation product, in print procedure, rotatable duckbill prints extruder head 21 and is extruded according to the track of computer settings and speed by the mixed slurry with mobility at a certain temperature, the metal powder material movement rapidly under the influence of a magnetic field in molten road, component consecutive variations in molten road, change alternating current intensity and power frequency change driving force size, in any locus, gradient parameter is controlled, and the anglec of rotation of extruder head is printed by changing rotatable duckbill, obtain the base substrate of various wall thickness,

Four: the high polymer binder in base substrate is carried out removing process, first be solvent degreasing, base substrate is put into trichloro-ethylene solution, the temperature of solution is 30-50 DEG C, degreasing 8-12h, after drying, then imbedded in alundum (Al2O3) powder by base substrate, then entirety is put into vacuum atmosphere oven and heat-treated and presintering, rate of rise in temperature is 1 ~ 3 DEG C/min, temperature is 500-700 DEG C, and the time is 3-4h;

Five: sintering, be placed in vacuum atmosphere oven by presintering base substrate and continue to heat, programming rate is 4-6 DEG C/min, and final temperature is relevant with the fusing point of the metal material of sintering with temperature retention time, after having sintered, obtains required graded metal part.

The 3D printing equipment of a kind of cermet functionally gradient part in alternating magnetic field of the present invention: supply printing equipment 2, digitlization alternating magnetic field generator 3 and workbench 4 by bed piece 1, material and form, workbench 4 is fixedly installed on the ground, material supply printing equipment 2 is arranged on bed piece 1, and digitlization alternating magnetic field generator 3 is arranged between workbench 4 and bed piece 1.

Instantiation 1:

Refer to shown in Fig. 1, Fig. 5, Fig. 6 and Fig. 7, the 3D Method of printing of a kind of cermet functionally gradient part in alternating magnetic field of the present invention, the step of the method is as follows:

One: the preparation of mixed slurry, heat after metal ceramic powder and high polymer binder Homogeneous phase mixing, mixed slurry melts 170 DEG C time, at room temperature can rapid curing;

Constituent and the mass percent of described mixed slurry are as follows:

Metal ceramic powder 60%, high polymer binder 40%;

Constituent and the mass percent of metal ceramic powder are as follows:

Metal dust 33%, ceramic powders 67%;

Described metal dust: 1-90 μm, median particle diameter is 40 μm;

Described metal dust material is Cu;

Described ceramic powders: 1-90 μm, median particle diameter is 40 μm;

Described ceramic powders material is Al2O3;

Constituent and the mass percent of high polymer binder are as follows:

Paraffin 68%, ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer 10%, polypropylene 19%, stearic acid 3%.

Two: data modeling process, utilize three-dimensional software Modling model, then carry out slicing treatment, the thickness of synusia is 0.2mm, sets up the three-dimensional data model of part, arranges fill route accordingly according to required function part;

Three: fused glass pellet under alternating magnetic field, fused glass pellet technique is utilized to carry out printing shaping, according to the position that print track is needing, corresponding alternating magnetic field is set, the temperature that rotatable duckbill prints extruder head 21 is 175 DEG C, speed is 14mm/s, the intensity 2.5A of electric current, power frequency 1000HZ, computer controls apparatus of the present invention, mixed slurry is supplied printing equipment 2 by material and is delivered to rotatable duckbill printing extruder head 21, and molten condition is heated in rotatable duckbill printing extruder head 21, then optionally extrude and be deposited on workbench 4, processing work cross section profile is formed after quick cooling, when after shaping completing, workbench 4 declines the height of a cross-sectional layers, rotatable duckbill prints the printing that extruder head 21 carries out lower one deck again, circulation like this, final formation product, in print procedure, rotatable duckbill prints extruder head 21 and is extruded according to the track of computer settings and speed by the mixed slurry with mobility at a certain temperature, the metal powder material movement rapidly under the influence of a magnetic field in molten road, component consecutive variations in molten road, change alternating current intensity and power frequency change driving force size, in any locus, gradient parameter is controlled, and the anglec of rotation of extruder head is printed by changing rotatable duckbill, obtain the base substrate of various wall thickness,

Four: the high polymer binder in base substrate is carried out removing process, first be solvent degreasing, base substrate is put into trichloro-ethylene solution, the temperature of solution is 35 DEG C, degreasing 9h, after drying, then imbedded in alundum (Al2O3) powder by base substrate, then entirety is put into vacuum atmosphere oven and heat-treated and presintering, rate of rise in temperature is 2 DEG C/min, temperature is 600 DEG C, and the time is 3.5h;

Five: sintering, be placed in vacuum atmosphere oven by presintering base substrate and continue to heat, programming rate is 5.5 DEG C/min, and final temperature is relevant with the fusing point of the metal material of sintering with temperature retention time, after having sintered, obtains required graded metal part.

Instantiation 2:

Refer to shown in Fig. 1, Fig. 5, Fig. 6 and Fig. 7, the 3D Method of printing of a kind of cermet functionally gradient part in alternating magnetic field of the present invention, the step of the method is as follows:

One: the preparation of mixed slurry, heat after metal ceramic powder and high polymer binder Homogeneous phase mixing, melt during metal paste 200 DEG C, at room temperature can rapid curing;

Constituent and the mass percent of described mixed slurry are as follows:

Metal ceramic powder 63%, high polymer binder 37%;

Constituent and the mass percent of metal ceramic powder are as follows:

Metal dust 35%, ceramic powders 65%;

Described metal dust: 1-90 μm, median particle diameter is 40 μm;

Described metal dust material is Fe;

Described ceramic powders: 1-90 μm, median particle diameter is 40 μm;

Described ceramic powders material is SiC;

Constituent and the mass percent of high polymer binder are as follows:

Paraffin 66%, ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer 11%, polypropylene 20%, stearic acid 3%.

Two: data modeling process, utilize three-dimensional software Modling model, then carry out slicing treatment, the thickness of synusia is 0.22mm, sets up the three-dimensional data model of part, arranges fill route accordingly according to required function part;

Three: fused glass pellet under alternating magnetic field, fused glass pellet technique is utilized to carry out printing shaping, according to the position that print track is needing, corresponding alternating magnetic field is set, the temperature that rotatable duckbill prints extruder head 21 is 175 DEG C, speed is 14mm/s, the intensity 3A of electric current, power frequency 1500HZ, computer controls apparatus of the present invention, mixed slurry is supplied printing equipment 2 by material and is delivered to rotatable duckbill printing extruder head 21, and molten condition is heated in rotatable duckbill printing extruder head 21, then optionally extrude and be deposited on workbench 4, processing work cross section profile is formed after quick cooling, when after shaping completing, workbench 4 declines the height of a cross-sectional layers, rotatable duckbill prints the printing that extruder head 21 carries out lower one deck again, circulation like this, final formation product, in print procedure, rotatable duckbill prints extruder head 21 and is extruded according to the track of computer settings and speed by the mixed slurry with mobility at a certain temperature, the metal powder material movement rapidly under the influence of a magnetic field in molten road, component consecutive variations in molten road, change alternating current intensity and power frequency change driving force size, in any locus, gradient parameter is controlled, and the anglec of rotation of extruder head is printed by changing rotatable duckbill, obtain the base substrate of various wall thickness,

Four: the high polymer binder in base substrate is carried out removing process, first be solvent degreasing, base substrate is put into trichloro-ethylene solution, the temperature of solution is 45 DEG C, degreasing 11h, after drying, then imbedded in alundum (Al2O3) powder by base substrate, then entirety is put into vacuum atmosphere oven and heat-treated and presintering, rate of rise in temperature is 2.5 DEG C/min, temperature is 650 DEG C, and the time is 3h;

Five: sintering, be placed in vacuum atmosphere oven by presintering base substrate and continue to heat, programming rate is 6 DEG C/min, and final temperature is relevant with the fusing point of the metal material of sintering with temperature retention time, after having sintered, obtains required graded metal part.

Refer to shown in Fig. 1, the 3D printing equipment of a kind of cermet functionally gradient part in alternating magnetic field of the present invention: be made up of XY direction numerical control mobile device 1, numerical control quantitative material extrusion mechanism 2, magnetic field and mobile controller 3 and shaped platform 4, shaped platform 4 is fixedly installed on the ground, numerical control quantitative material extrusion mechanism 2 is arranged on XY direction numerical control mobile device 1, and magnetic field and mobile controller 3 are arranged on shaped platform 4 between XY direction numerical control mobile device 1.

Operation principle of the present invention:

The metal material in alternating magnetic field with good electric conductivity produces induced-current because of the consecutive variations in magnetic field at material internal, and according to Lenz's law, the induced field that this kind of induced-current produces hinders the change of original magnetic field flux.Therefore, Induced magnetic field and alternating magnetic field can produce power can produce active force, and the size of power F is: F=V × M × gradH, and wherein, V is particle volume, and M is the raw intensity of magnetization of granular sensation, and gradH is magnetic field gradient, and magnetization M is directly proportional to input current intensity; Magnetic field gradient is relevant with the position residing for particle, coil inside, and Distribution of Magnetic Field is even, and gradient is zero, and end turn, magnetic field gradient is maximum.

Claims (4)

1. the 3D Method of printing of cermet functionally gradient part in alternating magnetic field, the step of the method is as follows:
One: the preparation of mixed slurry, heat after metal ceramic powder and high polymer binder Homogeneous phase mixing, metal paste melts 160 ~ 200 DEG C time, at room temperature can rapid curing;
Constituent and the mass percent of described mixed slurry are as follows:
Metal ceramic powder 56-65%, high polymer binder 35-44%;
Constituent and the mass percent of metal ceramic powder are as follows:
Metal dust 1-40%, ceramic powders 60-99%;
Described metal dust: 1-90 μm, median particle diameter is 40 μm;
Described metal dust material is Fe or Al or Ag or Mg or Zn or Cu;
Described ceramic powders: 1-90 μm, median particle diameter is 40 μm;
Described ceramic powders material is one in Al2O3, SiC, SiO2, ZrO2 or wherein several mixed-powder particle;
Constituent and the mass percent of high polymer binder are as follows:
Paraffin 65-70%, ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer 7-12%, polypropylene 18-23%, stearic acid 1-5%.
Two: data modeling process, utilize three-dimensional software Modling model, then carry out slicing treatment, the thickness of synusia is 0.06 ~ 0.24mm, sets up the three-dimensional data model of part, arranges fill route accordingly according to required function part;
Three: fused glass pellet under alternating magnetic field, fused glass pellet technique is utilized to carry out printing shaping, according to the position that print track is needing, corresponding alternating magnetic field is set, the temperature that rotatable duckbill prints extruder head (21) is 175 DEG C, speed is 14mm/s, the intensity 0.5A-5A of electric current, power frequency 100-10000HZ, computer controls apparatus of the present invention, mixed slurry is supplied printing equipment (2) by material and is delivered to rotatable duckbill printing extruder head (21), and molten condition is heated in rotatable duckbill printing extruder head (21), then optionally extrude and be deposited on workbench (4), processing work cross section profile is formed after quick cooling, when after shaping completing, workbench (4) declines the height of a cross-sectional layers, rotatable duckbill prints the printing that extruder head (21) carries out lower one deck again, circulation like this, final formation product, in print procedure, rotatable duckbill prints extruder head (21) and is extruded according to the track of computer settings and speed by the mixed slurry with mobility at a certain temperature, the metal powder material movement rapidly under the influence of a magnetic field in molten road, component consecutive variations in molten road, change alternating current intensity and power frequency change driving force size, in any locus, gradient parameter is controlled, and the anglec of rotation of extruder head is printed by changing rotatable duckbill, obtain the base substrate of various wall thickness,
Four: the high polymer binder in base substrate is carried out removing process, first be solvent degreasing, base substrate is put into trichloro-ethylene solution, the temperature of solution is 30-50 DEG C, degreasing 8-12h, after drying, then imbedded in alundum (Al2O3) powder by base substrate, then entirety is put into vacuum atmosphere oven and heat-treated and presintering, rate of rise in temperature is 1 ~ 3 DEG C/min, temperature is 500-700 DEG C, and the time is 3-4h;
Five: sintering, be placed in vacuum atmosphere oven by presintering base substrate and continue to heat, programming rate is 4-6 DEG C/min, and final temperature is relevant with the fusing point of the metal material of sintering with temperature retention time, after having sintered, obtains required graded metal part.
2. the 3D Method of printing of a kind of cermet functionally gradient part in alternating magnetic field according to claim 1, is characterized in that: described metal dust material is Fe or Al or Ag or Mg or Zn or Cu.
3. the 3D Method of printing of a kind of cermet functionally gradient part in alternating magnetic field according to claim 1, is characterized in that: described ceramic powders material is Al2O3 or SiC or SiO2 or ZrO2.
4. the 3D printing equipment of a cermet functionally gradient part in alternating magnetic field, it is characterized in that: be made up of XY direction numerical control mobile device (1), numerical control quantitative material extrusion mechanism (2), magnetic field and mobile controller (3) and shaped platform (4), shaped platform (4) is fixedly installed on the ground, numerical control quantitative material extrusion mechanism (2) is arranged on XY direction numerical control mobile device (1), and magnetic field and mobile controller (3) are arranged on shaped platform (4) between XY direction numerical control mobile device (1).
CN201510990255.1A 2015-12-25 2015-12-25 A kind of 3D printing method of the cermet functionally gradient part in alternating magnetic field CN105499570B (en)

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