CN105490959B  Implementation method is embedded in based on the nonhomogeneous bandwidth virtual data center that congestion is evaded  Google Patents
Implementation method is embedded in based on the nonhomogeneous bandwidth virtual data center that congestion is evaded Download PDFInfo
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 CN105490959B CN105490959B CN201510932813.9A CN201510932813A CN105490959B CN 105490959 B CN105490959 B CN 105490959B CN 201510932813 A CN201510932813 A CN 201510932813A CN 105490959 B CN105490959 B CN 105490959B
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Abstract
Description
Technical field
The present invention relates to the technology in system for cloud computing field, specifically a kind of nonhomogeneous bandwidth evaded based on congestion Virtual data center is embedded in implementation method.
Background technique
With popularizing for cloud computing, data center network (DCN) virtualization technology is attracted extensive attention.Virtual machine technology To dispose multiple virtual machines (VM) example in physical server, these virtual machines pass through a shared physics Network is communicated.When the virtual machine of multiple tenants is when shared bottom data central site network generates competition conflict, due to network Bandwidth, which does not ensure, causes unpredictable communication delay and loss of data, eventually leads to hiring cost raising, and bottomlayer network mentions For the income decline of quotient.Predictable network performance can be by providing virtual data center (VDC) Lai Shixian to tenant. Ballani et al. exists " Towards predictable datacenter networks, " (ACM SIGCOMM Computer Communication Review, vol.41, no.4, pp.2422532011) in propose and a kind of proposed based on Hose model The abstractdesription of VDC request.In Hose model, virtual data center is the set of the virtual machine of a N platform automorphis, They are communicated by virtual link.
R.Matthias et al. exists " Beyond the stars:Revisiting virtual cluster Embeddings, " (ACM SIGCOMM Computer Communication Review, vol.45, no.3, pp.1218, 2015.) then propose in: resource may be performed Star topology insertion and be wasted, and being based on thus can branch Hose routing proposition HVCACE heuristic algorithm, but it is only applicable to uniform bandwidth request.
Even if having determined the placement location of virtual machine, the Multipath route distribution based on the description of Hose model is very tired Difficult, the Multipath route distribution being similarly under Virtual Private Network (VPN).Kodialam et al. " Maximum Throughput routing of traffic in the hose model. " (U.S.Patent No.7,558, In 209.7Jul.2009.) it is similar in VPN by applying the principle of duality of linear programming to solve the problems, such as.
After searching and discovering the prior art, Chinese patent literature CN105072049A, open (bulletin) day 2015.11.18, the resource allocation methods and device of a kind of multilevel flexible application in dataoriented center are disclosed, multilayer is belonged to Secondary cloud application technical field.The technical method obtains the multilevel application request of user's proposition first；Secondly to the bandwidth of each layer Demand carries out descending arrangement；It next is each Layer assignment resources of virtual machine according to the sequence of the bandwidth demand of each layer from high to low, Specific as follows: the virtual machine quantity needed first to this layer request is calculated according to the tree topology under current cloud platform to be owned The feasible vector FVl of allocation plan, secondly, obtaining each of the links to the optimal distributing scheme of this layer by recursion method；It connects down It calculates the quantity of " on demand operation " virtual resource, and is reserved in the data center；The user is finally exported to answer at many levels With the optimal distributing scheme of request.But the technology can only solve the resource allocation problem of treelike typical data center network, can not Solve the VDC imbedding problem of general topology data center.Exclusive path is only existed between tree topology twoserver, routing is asked It inscribes very simple；And there is mulitpath mostly between twoserver in typical data center network at present, with tree topology In there were significant differences.
Chinese patent literature CN105103506A, open (bulletin) day 2015.11.25 disclose a kind of for being cloud The method and system of the nonhomogeneous bandwidth request allocation bandwidth in network is calculated, wherein virtual network includes one or more virtual The first set of interchanger, one or more physics clothes of one or more of virtual switch management hosts virtual machine (VM) The second set of business device.Method starts from the request that more than first a VM are received by a virtual switch, wherein a VM more than first In at least one VM contain the bandwidth different from the bandwidth of remaining VM in one or more VM.Then it is handed over by calculating with virtual It changes planes the set of associated range of distribution (allocationrange, AR), it is determined whether receive the request of more than first a VM, Each AR in middle AR set indicates at least one discontinuous VM allocation space in virtual switch, then for the request point With VM.The algorithm that the technology is related to is known as range of distribution algorithm.But the technology can only solve treelike typical data center network VDC imbedding problem can not solve the VDC imbedding problem of general topology data center.
Summary of the invention
The present invention In view of the above shortcomings of the prior art, proposes that a kind of nonhomogeneous bandwidth evaded based on congestion is virtual Data center is embedded in implementation method, solves putting for the routing issue and virtual machine in virtual data center (VDC) imbedding problem Problem is set, VDC insertion success rate more higher than the prior art can be obtained.
The invention is realized by the following technical scheme:
The present invention relates to a kind of nonhomogeneous bandwidth VDC evaded based on congestion to be embedded in implementation method, and VM is pressed bandwidth demand With the sequence sequence successively decreased, first it is sequentially placed in server with adaptation search method for the first time；When for the first time adaptation search method without Method starts perturbation procedures when placing the VM, i.e., be targeting with the most congestion link of physical network, this link load is contributed in search Maximum bottleneck server preferentially will restart the sequence after the smallest VM unloading of bandwidth required in bottleneck server and put It sets.
The most congestion link has the link of maximum link utilization that is, in physical network, which is expressed as:Wherein maximum link utilization is expressed asE indicates that physical link, E indicate Physical link set, u_{e}Indicate the maximum load of physical link e, C_{e}The remaining bandwidth of physical link e, specifically uses linear gauge It draws optimal method for routing or Kwidest path load route equalization method is calculated:
A) when using the optimal method for routing of linear programming, the maximum link utilization μ is to solve for following linear gauge The target value drawn:
Minimizeμ
Subject to:
Flow conservation constraints:
Link constraint, i.e., the ratio between the load of each link and remaining bandwidth are no more than maximum link utilization:
Wherein: routing variableValue range are as follows:
The constraint of dual variable sum are as follows:
B) when using Kwidest path load route equalization method, then linear programming is calculated first and obtains physical link e Maximum load, as u_{e}, then all by findingIn maximum value obtain maximum link utilization μ, calculate maximum load u_{e}Linear programming specifically:
Subject to
①
②
Wherein: s and d indicates server, and Q is the set for being at least assigned with the server of a virtual machine,For from service Device s to server d passes through the route assignment variable of link e, is determined by being responsible for proportional routing algorithm,For linear programming Dual variable.
The link load contribution, passes through congestion coefficient f_{∑}[s] is indicated,Wherein:  V_{s} it is the quantity of physical server, most congestion link, r indicates nonhomogeneous bandwidth VDC request, Π^{r}=π (i, j)  i=1 ..., N；J=1 ...,  V_{s} be The virtual machine of r is requested to place combination, in which: to place variable π (i, j)=1 when VM i is placed on server j；Otherwise π (i, j) =0, N are the virtual machine quantity for requesting r), μ (Π^{r}) it is to place combination Π^{r}Corresponding peak use rate, in the meter of congestion coefficient During calculation, consider that all interim placements for causing network congestion are combined, i.e. { Π^{r}μ(Π^{r})>1}。
The adaptation search method for the first time, specifically includes the following steps:
The maximum virtual machine of bandwidth is selected in step 1, the virtual machine set X never placed.When VM i is selected, by the void Quasi machine, which is placed into candidate collection S [i] first, not will lead to the server of network congestion, and adaptation search for the first time can skip taboo Server in table Tabu [i].
Step 2, when VM i is temporarily placed into server j, using maximum link utilization μ measure physical network congestion Degree.Once detecting μ > 1, illustrate that VM i, which is placed into server j, can generate network congestion, it is necessary to cancel this and invalid put Combination is set, continues to attempt to VM i being placed into next server.
Step 3, when any link of physical network does not all block, then return to step 1 and continue to place next void Quasi machine, until all virtual machines are all successfully placed
The perturbation procedures pass through most congestion link firstFind the bottle that most flows are sent to most congestion link Neck serverI.e. bottleneck server byIt is calculated；Then from the serverMiddle removal is minimum BandwidthAnd by bottleneck serverCongestion coefficientZero is reset to, i.e. the perturbation priority of the server is reduced to most It is low.
It recycles in order to prevent, the present invention is by serverIt is added toIntroduce taboo listPlaced subsequent Forbid the virtual machine that will have been unloaded in journeyDuplicate allocation is into bottleneck server
Technical effect
Compared with prior art, the present invention has the characteristics that congestion aware, if it find that since network congestion can not place When one VM, by some the allocated virtual machines of migration of selectivity, help the flow for discharging heavy congestion chain road negative It carries.Since insertion success rate and the income of infrastructure provider are directly linked, the performance of present invention insertion success rate balancing method. Simulation result confirms: the insertion success rate of congestion bypassing method is significantly higher than for the first time very close to the retrogressive method of exponential time Three kinds of methods such as adaptation, adjacent adaptation and greedy method.In the special case of treeshaped physical topology, emulation knot according to the present invention The embedded performance of fruit, congestion bypassing method is better than existing range of distribution method.Mentioned method, which is equally applicable to uniform bandwidth, asks It asks, according to the optimal routing of linear programming for solution, the insertion success rate of congestion bypassing method is apparently higher than HVCACE method.
Detailed description of the invention
Fig. 1 is the method for the present invention schematic diagram；
In figure: a is free physical link bandwidth；B is third time iteration schematic diagram；C is that the failure of adaptation method for the first time swashs Perturbation procedures living；D is final scheme；
Fig. 2 evades algorithm (congestionaware) for congestion and is adapted to backtracking algorithm (backtracking), for the first time (firstfit), the property of adjacent adaptation (nextfit) and greedy algorithm (greedy) in Fattree data center network Can compare: abscissa is virtual machine number, and ordinate is insertion success rate；
Fig. 3 be congestion evade algorithm with backtracking algorithm, for the first time be adapted to, it is adjacent be adapted to and greedy algorithm in VL2 data center Performance in network compares: abscissa is virtual machine number, and ordinate is insertion success rate；
Fig. 4 be congestion evade algorithm with backtracking algorithm, for the first time be adapted to, it is adjacent be adapted to and greedy algorithm in BCube data Performance in heart network compares: abscissa is virtual machine number, and ordinate is insertion success rate；
Fig. 5 be congestion evade algorithm with recall algorithm, be adapted to, adjacent be adapted to and fortune of the greedy algorithm in BCube for the first time The row time compares: abscissa is virtual machine number, and ordinate is runing time (unit: second)；
Fig. 6 be congestion evade algorithm with recall algorithm, for the first time be adapted to, range of distribution algorithm (allocationrange) exists The performance of tree data central site network compares: abscissa is virtual machine number, and ordinate is insertion success rate；
Fig. 7 is the performance pair that congestion evades algorithm and the uniform bandwidth VDC request of HVCACE algorithm process in Fattree Than:
Abscissa is virtual machine number, and ordinate is insertion success rate；
Fig. 8 is the performance comparison that congestion evades algorithm and the uniform bandwidth VDC request of HVCACE algorithm process in BCube: horizontal Coordinate is virtual machine number, and ordinate is insertion success rate.
Specific embodiment
Assuming that V indicates the set (V of node in a physics DCN_{s}Indicate server set, VV_{s}Indicate interchanger collection Close), E indicates physics link set.V_{s} a server with 1 ...,  V_{s} mark, and interchanger with  V_{s}+1 ...,  V  label.The set of the input/output link at the both ends node v (v ∈ V) uses E respectively^{+}(v) and E^{}(v) it indicates.Assuming that server j∈V_{s}On have a_{j}A Free Slots accommodate new virtual machine, the corresponding virtual machine of a slot.Definition e ∈ E is physical link.
According to Hose model, nonhomogeneous bandwidth VDC request r can use vector (N, B_{1}, B_{2}..., B_{N}) abstractdesription, in which: N indicates the quantity of virtual machine, B_{1}, B_{2}..., B_{N}Respectively indicate the bandwidth demand of N number of virtual machine.
Define Π^{r}=π (i, j)  i=1 ..., N；J=1 ...,  V_{s} it is that the virtual machine of r is requested to place combination, in which: It places variable π (i, j)=1: as virtual machine i (bandwidth B_{i}) it is placed on server j；Otherwise, π (i, j)=0.
Defining Q is the set for being at least assigned with the server of a virtual machine, it is clear that  Q ≤min ( V_{s}, N).
It defines reception/transmission that b (s) is server s ∈ Q and converges flow, it is known that, b (s) is limited on this server s The total bandwidth of all virtual machines is not as follows on server s with other for the total bandwidth of all virtual machines:
Specific step is as follows for the present embodiment:
Step 1, initialization of variable, comprising: the virtual machine VM set that do not place: X={ VM1, VM2 ... VMN }；VM i's Avoid server setThe congestion factor f of server_{∑}[s] ← 0, s=1 ...  V_{s}；The number of iterations H←0；
If step 2, the VM not placed gatherIt then returns and is embedded in successfully.If having reached maximum number of iterations H= V_{s} N then returns to insertion failure.Otherwise the maximum virtual machine of bandwidth demand is selected from X, might as well be set as VM i, and add up the number of iterations H ←H+1.The standby server set S [i] of VM i is calculated, server j belongs to the condition of the candidate server set S [i] of VM i Are as follows: it has a vacant slot, and inlet/outlet total surplus bandwidth is not less than the virtual machine for being assigned to server j and other virtual Message capacity between machine.If S [i] Tabu [i] be empty set, return insertion failure.
Step 3, first with adaptation search method for the first time attempt for VM i to be placed into set S [i] in Tabu [i] some properly Server in.Assuming that by the experimental merging server j of VM i, and calculate physical network maximum link utilization μ.If μ > 1 Prove that there are congestions in network, it is necessary to cancel this invalid placement group and merge the congestion factor f for updating server_{∑}[s] continues It attempts VM i being placed into next server.If μ≤1 proves that, without congestion in network, VM i is placed in server j: π by confirmation (i, j) ← 1；And by VM i never place set in remove: X ← X { VMi }, return to step 2 and continue to place next virtual machine.
Step 4 triggers following perturbation procedures if abovementioned adaptation search method failure (failing correct placement VMi) for the first time:
It finds and maximum bottleneck server is contributed to network congestionSo thatBy minimum bandwidth void Quasi machine (is denoted as) from bottleneck serverMiddle removal,It will be unloadedIt places back in and does not place collection In conjunctionReset congestion factor:And update taboo list: Step 2 is then return to continue to place next virtual machine.
The above placement process calculates maximum link utilization μ, needs clear route assignment.Linear gauge is used in the present embodiment It draws optimal method for routing or Kwidest path load route equalization method is calculated, in which: the optimal routing of linear programming Method is the energy minimization maximum link utilization in the case where given virtual machine places combination condition, but flow transmits have in a network Any split ratio, multichannel will appear delay variance in path；Kwidest path load route equalization method efficiently utilizes Multiple paths of physical network, individual path number K therein are configurable (when K=1 indicate single path routing), are suitable for pair The application of path delay difference sensitivity.
The optimal method for routing of the linear programming specifically refers to: a given virtual machine places combination Π^{r}, Optimization routeIt obtains, optimal route assignment can be obtained by solving linear programming presented below.In order to The congestion in network is avoided, the maximum link utilization that the objective function of linear programming is set as minimizing physical network is denoted as μ.
Minimizeμ
Subject to:
Flow conservation constraints:
Link constraint, i.e., the ratio between the load of each link and remaining bandwidth are no more than maximum link utilization:
Route variableValue range are as follows:
Dual variableWithConstraint are as follows:
Maximum link utilization μ is the target value for being to solve for linear programming.
The Kwidest path load route equalization method specifically refers to: first using J.Y.Yen in " Finding The K shortest loopless paths in a network. " (Management Science, vol.17, no.11, Pp.712716, in 1971) algorithm that proposes, precalculate and store the K of every a pair of of communication server_{SPT}Shortest path.So The present embodiment is from K afterwards_{SPT}Loopfree shortest path selects K item most broad way diameter, i.e., maximum bottleneck bandwidth.By server s to server The K item of d most broad way diameter is usedIndicate, in which: s, d=1 ...  V_{s}, s ≠ d.Definition For server s to the bottleneck bandwidth of server d kth paths, its calculation formula is:
According to the remaining bandwidth capacity of this K paths, the present embodiment is assigned to the uniform flow between server K item Path.The calculation formula of the split ratio of kth paths are as follows:
The calculation formula of route assignment variable on link e are as follows:
When using Kwidest path load route equalization method, in the worst case, congestion evades embedded mobile GIS Time complexity be O (N  V_{s}Emin(V_{s}, N)^{3.5}L), wherein L is input bit number,  V_{s} it is the number of physical server Amount, N is the quantity of virtual machine in VDC,  E  it is physical link number.When method for routing optimal using linear programming, congestion is evaded The time complexity of embedded mobile GIS be O (N  V_{s}E^{3.5}min(V_{s}, N)^{7}L), it is much higher than load balancing in the worst case Routing.
Congestion is evaded embedded mobile GIS embodiment and is specifically included:
Embodiment as shown in Figure 1 demonstrates congestion and evades insertion in two layers of data center comprising six servers The implementation procedure of algorithm.The remaining slot quantity of six servers is respectively a_{1}=0, a_{2}=2, a_{3}=1, a_{4}=a_{5}=2 and a_{6}=1 With free physical link bandwidth such as Fig. 1 (a) identifies (unit: Mbps).There are three virtual machine, bands for VDC request tool to be embedded Wide demand is respectively 90Mbps, 70Mbps and 60Mbps.
In preceding iteration twice, it is adapted to search method for the first time, VM1 (90Mbps) is placed in server 3 first, then by VM2 (70Mbps) is placed on server 2.However due to network congestion, VM3 (60Mbs) can not be placed into any service by adaptive method for the first time In device.
Such as in third time iteration, if VM2 temporarily to be placed to the 6th server, the present embodiment can find second Congestion occurs for the physical link between interchanger and third server, because its load (82Mbps) has been more than residual capacity (75Mbps), as shown in Fig. 1 (b).The failure of adaptation method activates perturbation procedures for the first time, server 3 can be identified as bottleneck clothes Business device simultaneously therefrom removes VM1, as shown in Fig. 1 (d).In next iteration twice, which can be placed on VM1 new master VM3, is then successfully placed on third server, as shown in Fig. 1 (d) by machine, i.e. second server.
Performance Evaluation: below to algorithm in three kinds of typical data center networks (including Fattree, VL2 and BCube) Performance carry out emulation testing, while it is contemplated that treelike physical network and uniform bandwidth VDC request two kinds of special circumstances, specifically It is as follows:
Three kinds of typical data centers are made of 16 servers in emulation testing, and the rate of physical link is 1Gbps. A physics network is all generated according to a kind of typical data center topology at random in each emulation experiment, it is random to its distribution one The VDC of generation is requested, in which: the bandwidth request of N number of virtual machine, which follows, to be uniformly distributed.Since insertion success rate is directly related to number According to the income of hub facility provider, therefore the present embodiment is mainly using the performance of insertion success rate measure algorithm.In addition to this originally Embodiment also pays close attention to the runing time of algorithm, because this is closely related with the feasibility and user experience of algorithm.
The present embodiment and backtracking algorithm, for the first time adaptation algorithm and adjacent adaptation algorithm and greedy in multipath data central site network The performance of greedy algorithm compares:
Assuming that this five kinds of algorithms are all made of the routing of K most broad way diameter load balancing, individual path number K=2.
In the test, server and physical link have full capacity with Probability p, and server residue slot count is with probability 1 P obeys being uniformly distributed between [0,4], and the remaining bandwidth of physical link obeys uniformly dividing between [0,1Gbps] with probability 1p Cloth.The bandwidth B of VDC request_{i}(j=1 ..., N) follows being uniformly distributed between [100Mbps, 700Mbps].
Fig. 2~Fig. 4 shows that average success rate increases the simulation result of (N is from 2 to 10) with virtual machine number, in which: Probability p =0.5.As the success rate highest of expected backtracking algorithm, the reason is that: exclusive segment not will lead to an effective solution scheme Placement combination it is outer, all possible placements of backtracking algorithm search is combined, and cost is the runing time complexity of exponential increase.It is imitative True result be also shown that congestion evade algorithm performance it is very close recall algorithm, and be adapted to than for the first time, adjacent adaptation and greediness Algorithm has significant advantage.
As shown in figure 5, comparing the runing time of the lower five kinds of algorithms of BCube network.The runing time of backtracking algorithm is higher than It is more than two orders of magnitude of other heuritic approaches.Meanwhile congestion evades the runing time of algorithm than adaptation and adjacent adaptation for the first time It is slightly long, and it is lower than greedy algorithm.Since congestion evades embedded mobile GIS with polynomial time complexity, and recalling algorithm has finger Number time complexity, it is contemplated that as virtual machine number/server count etc. increases, the congestion that the present embodiment proposes evades algorithm and exists Advantage in terms of runing time can rapid expansion.To sum up apparently, congestion evade algorithm provided for VDC imbedding problem it is multiple in the time The solution of good tradeoff between miscellaneous degree and performance.
The present embodiment is compared with the prior art (range of distribution algorithm) in tree data central site network:
Emulation uses three layers of tree network comprising 20 servers, and core switch connects two convergence switches, Every convergence switch is connected to two frame topcross.Five servers are connected to a frame topcross.ServicePort Rate is 1Gbps, and the link bandwidth between convergence switch and frame topcross is 5Gbps.The present embodiment passes through emulation ratio Evade algorithm and backtracking algorithm compared with mentioned congestion, is adapted to for the first time flat with range of distribution algorithm (allocationrange) algorithm It is embedded in success rate, as shown in Figure 6.Backtracking algorithm can obtain highest insertion success rate, but regrettably it in tree topology Under still have exponential time complexity.Congestion evade the very close backtracking algorithm of success rate of embedded mobile GIS as a result, and bright It is aobvious to be higher than other two kinds of algorithms.
Uniform bandwidth VDC the present embodiment and HVC algorithm comparison:
As uniform bandwidth VDC, all N number of virtual machine bandwidth demands are equal.Congestion evades algorithm using linear gauge It draws and obtains optimal path, optimization aim is to minimize network congestion (maximum link utilization).Fig. 7 and 8 is respectively in Fattree In BCube, the performance that congestion evades insertion Yu HVCACE embedded mobile GIS is compared, congestion evades algorithm ratio HVCACE success Rate is significantly increased.
Abovementioned specific implementation can by those skilled in the art under the premise of without departing substantially from the principle of the invention and objective with difference Mode carry out local directed complete set to it, protection scope of the present invention is subject to claims and not by abovementioned specific implementation institute Limit, each implementation within its scope is by the constraint of the present invention.
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