CN105490314B - It sends the transmitter of wireless power, receive the receiver and method of wireless power - Google PatentsIt sends the transmitter of wireless power, receive the receiver and method of wireless power Download PDF
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- CN105490314B CN105490314B CN201610046529.6A CN201610046529A CN105490314B CN 105490314 B CN105490314 B CN 105490314B CN 201610046529 A CN201610046529 A CN 201610046529A CN 105490314 B CN105490314 B CN 105490314B
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- H02—GENERATION; CONVERSION OR DISTRIBUTION OF ELECTRIC POWER
- H02J—CIRCUIT ARRANGEMENTS OR SYSTEMS FOR SUPPLYING OR DISTRIBUTING ELECTRIC POWER; SYSTEMS FOR STORING ELECTRIC ENERGY
- H02J50/00—Circuit arrangements or systems for wireless supply or distribution of electric power
- H02J50/10—Circuit arrangements or systems for wireless supply or distribution of electric power using inductive coupling
- H02J50/12—Circuit arrangements or systems for wireless supply or distribution of electric power using inductive coupling of the resonant type
- H02—GENERATION; CONVERSION OR DISTRIBUTION OF ELECTRIC POWER
- H02J—CIRCUIT ARRANGEMENTS OR SYSTEMS FOR SUPPLYING OR DISTRIBUTING ELECTRIC POWER; SYSTEMS FOR STORING ELECTRIC ENERGY
- H02J17/00—Systems for supplying or distributing electric power by electromagnetic waves
- H02—GENERATION; CONVERSION OR DISTRIBUTION OF ELECTRIC POWER
- H02J5/00—Circuit arrangements for transfer of electric power between ac networks and dc networks
- H02J5/005—Circuit arrangements for transfer of electric power between ac networks and dc networks with inductive power transfer
- H02—GENERATION; CONVERSION OR DISTRIBUTION OF ELECTRIC POWER
- H02J50/00—Circuit arrangements or systems for wireless supply or distribution of electric power
- H02J50/40—Circuit arrangements or systems for wireless supply or distribution of electric power using two or more transmitting or receiving devices
- H02—GENERATION; CONVERSION OR DISTRIBUTION OF ELECTRIC POWER
- H02J50/00—Circuit arrangements or systems for wireless supply or distribution of electric power
- H02J50/80—Circuit arrangements or systems for wireless supply or distribution of electric power involving the exchange of data, concerning supply or distribution of electric power, between transmitting devices and receiving devices
- H02—GENERATION; CONVERSION OR DISTRIBUTION OF ELECTRIC POWER
- H02J7/00—Circuit arrangements for charging or depolarising batteries or for supplying loads from batteries
- H02J7/02—Circuit arrangements for charging or depolarising batteries or for supplying loads from batteries for charging batteries from ac mains by converters
- H02J7/022—Circuit arrangements for charging or depolarising batteries or for supplying loads from batteries for charging batteries from ac mains by converters characterised by the type of converter
- H02J7/025—Circuit arrangements for charging or depolarising batteries or for supplying loads from batteries for charging batteries from ac mains by converters characterised by the type of converter using non-contact coupling, e.g. inductive, capacitive
- H04—ELECTRIC COMMUNICATION TECHNIQUE
- H04B5/00—Near-field transmission systems, e.g. inductive loop type
- H04B5/0025—Near field system adaptations
- H04B5/0037—Near field system adaptations for power transfer
- H02—GENERATION; CONVERSION OR DISTRIBUTION OF ELECTRIC POWER
- H02J7/00—Circuit arrangements for charging or depolarising batteries or for supplying loads from batteries
- H02J7/0013—Circuit arrangements for charging or depolarising batteries or for supplying loads from batteries for charging several batteries simultaneously or sequentially
The application is the divisional application of following application: application number: 201280034756.7, the applying date: May 14 in 2012 Day, denomination of invention: transmitters and receivers and transmitters and receivers wireless transmission/reception in Wireless power transmission system The method for receiving and dispatching electric power.
The present invention relates to Wireless power transmission systems, and can have more particularly, in Wireless power transmission system There are the transmitters and receivers of high resonance characteristic, and the wireless power method of sending and receiving for transmitters and receivers.
With the development of wireless communication technique, ubiquitous information environment now provided with, wherein anyone is ok Any information for going to dig report is exchanged, but regardless of when and where.Even however, present, most of communication information equipment It powers dependent on battery and by wired power supply line, so that communication and the use of information equipment are restricted.Therefore, exist In the case where not solving the problems, such as the electric power about terminal, wireless communications network environment, which is unable to real meaning Shangdi, freely to be made With.
In order to solve this problem, the technology of many wireless transmission electric power has been developed.Wherein, using the microwave of microwave Receiving type technology, using magnetic field magnetic inductive technology and based between magnetic field and electric field energy conversion magnetic resonance technology be Representative art.
Here, microwave receiving formula technology this have the advantage that, sends electric power to long-range distance by radiating microwave in the sky, But a large amount of radiation losses due to caused by the microwave consumed in the air, there is limitation in terms of power transmission efficiency.Magnetic Induction type technology is using the technology coupled based on the magnetic field energy of sending side primary coil and receiving side secondary coil, and tool There is high power transmission efficiency.However, for power transmission, sending side primary coil and receiving side secondary coil must between it It is adjacent to each other in several millimeters of short distance.The efficiency of power transmission is with sending side primary coil and receiving side secondary coil Coil alignment and change rapidly, and calorific value is very big.
Summary of the invention
Therefore, magnetic resonance technology is had recently been developed, it is similar to magnetic induction technology, but it passes through coil form inductance Device (L) and capacitor (C) amount of making it possible to concentrate on specific resonance frequency, to send electric power in the form of magnetic energy.Although this Kind of technology transmits biggish electric power in several meters, but its demanding quality factor.Result it is required that with high resonance characteristic The design of Wireless power transmission system.
Therefore, the present invention provides the transmitters and receivers that can have high resonance characteristic in Wireless power transmission system And the wireless power method of sending and receiving for transmitters and receivers.
According to an aspect of the present invention, the transmitter in a kind of Wireless power transmission system is provided, which includes: (Tx) electric power converter is sent, for direct current (DC) voltage to be converted into the first alternating current (AC) voltage, and passes through amplification First AC voltage of the conversion is converted into the 2nd AC voltage by the first AC voltage of conversion；Tx match circuit, it is described for making The impedance of Tx match circuit and the impedance matching of the receiver for receiving the 2nd AC voltage are to send the 2nd AC voltage；Tx resonance Device, for being resonance wave by the 2nd AC voltage resonance, to send the 2nd AC voltage to the receiver；And Tx controller, Tx electric power converter is controlled by the first AC voltage for determining the magnifying power of the first AC voltage, and according to identified magnifying power It is converted into the 2nd AC voltage.
According to another aspect of the present invention, the receiver in a kind of Wireless power transmission system, the receiver packet are provided It includes: receiving (Rx) resonator, for receiving alternating current (AC) voltage by transmitter resonance for resonance wave；Rx match circuit is used In the impedance matching of the impedance and the transmitter that make the Rx match circuit to receive the AC voltage from the transmitter；Rx Electric power converter, for by AC voltage commutation at the first direct current (DC) voltage, and by the first D/C voltage of amplification by the One D/C voltage switchs to the second D/C voltage；And Rx controller, for determining the magnifying power of the first D/C voltage, and according to determining Magnifying power control Rx electric power converter the first D/C voltage is converted into the second D/C voltage.
In accordance with a further aspect of the present invention, the transmitter in a kind of Wireless power transmission system, the transmitter packet are provided It includes: sending (Tx) electric power converter, including for putting the E class that direct current (DC) voltage is converted into the first alternating current (AC) voltage First AC voltage of the conversion is converted into the driving of the 2nd AC voltage by big device, and the first AC voltage by amplifying conversion Device amplifier；Tx match circuit, for making the impedance of the Tx match circuit and the receiver for receiving the 2nd AC voltage Impedance matching is to send the 2nd AC voltage；Tx resonator, for being resonance wave by the 2nd AC voltage resonance, so as to the reception Device sends the 2nd AC voltage；And Tx controller, for determining the magnifying power of the first AC voltage, and according to identified amplification Rate controls Tx electric power converter and the first AC voltage is converted into the 2nd AC voltage, wherein the Tx monitoring control devices are in the E class The driving voltage for the transistor for including in amplifier is caused with determining whether the driving voltage due to being applied to the transistor At least one of overvoltage, overcurrent and excess temperature occur in the E class A amplifier A, and in case of overvoltage, mistake At least one of electric current and excess temperature then stop the operation of the transistor.
In accordance with a further aspect of the present invention, the receiver in a kind of Wireless power transmission system, the receiver packet are provided It includes: receiving (Rx) resonator, for receiving alternating current (AC) voltage by transmitter resonance for resonance wave；Rx match circuit is used In the impedance matching of the impedance and the transmitter that make the Rx match circuit to receive the AC voltage from the transmitter；Rx Electric power converter, for by AC voltage commutation at the first direct current (DC) voltage, and by the first D/C voltage of amplification by the One D/C voltage switchs to the second D/C voltage；And Rx controller, for determining the magnifying power of the first D/C voltage, and according to determining Magnifying power control Rx electric power converter the first D/C voltage is converted into the second D/C voltage, wherein the Rx monitoring control devices are logical It crosses the AC voltage that the Rx resonator receives and whether electricity was occurred at least part of the receiver with determination At least one of pressure, overcurrent and excess temperature, and if it happens at least one of overvoltage, overcurrent and excess temperature, Then stop the operation of the receiver.
Also one side according to the present invention, provides a kind of radio for the transmitter in Wireless power transmission system Power method of sending and receiving, which includes: detecting step, wherein the load in monitoring interface Variation supplies the first electric power in each scheduled time and checks whether that the load, which occurs, to be changed；Registration step, wherein Change in case of the load, then feeds more than the second electric power of the first electric power to the interface, and if from having connect The receiver for receiving the second electric power receives response, then distributes short mark corresponding with the receiver to the receiver (SID) and time slot；Configuration step, wherein the letter for including output voltage and exporting at least one of electric current is received from receiver Breath calculates the electric power of requirement required by from the receiver according to the information, and determine the requirement electric power whether The receiver can be sent to；And charge step, wherein if the electric power of the requirement can be sent to described connect Device is received, then sends the electric power of the requirement to the receiver.
Also one side according to the present invention, provides a kind of radio for the receiver in Wireless power transmission system Power method of sending and receiving, the wireless power method of sending and receiving include: to receive to supply in each scheduled time from transmitter The first electric power answered, and the transmitter is added by using the first power request；It is received from the transmitter and is greater than first Second electric power of electric power, and request to charge from the transmitter；It is assigned short mark (SID) and time slot from the transmitter, And send to the transmitter includes that output voltage is required with the information for exporting at least one of electric current with requesting to send Electric power；And the electric power of the requirement is received from the transmitter.
In accordance with a further aspect of the present invention, the transmitters and receivers in a kind of Wireless power transmission system are provided, In, the transmitter and the receiver are by using including media access control (MAC) frame headers, frame payload and school The mac frame of sum is tested to send and receive data.
According to an aspect of the present invention, a kind of method sending wireless power by sender to receiver, the party are provided If method includes: to receive message for connecting with transmitter from receiver, establish between transmitter and receiver Connection；The power information for requesting wireless power is received from receiver；Determine whether wireless power can be sent to reception Device；If wireless power can be sent to receiver, wireless power is sent to receiver.
According to an aspect of the present invention, the transmitter for sending wireless power to receiver is provided, comprising: communication connects Mouthful, including resonator, it is configured as: if the message for connecting with transmitter is received from receiver, in transmitter Connection is established between receiver；And the power information for requesting wireless power is received from receiver；And processor, quilt It is configured that and determines whether wireless power can be sent to receiver based on power information；And if wireless power can be by It is sent to receiver, then control resonator sends wireless power to receiver.
According to an aspect of the present invention, a kind of method for receiving wireless power from transmitter in receiver is provided, This method comprises: sending the message for connecting with transmitter to transmitter；If established between transmitter and receiver Connection, then sending the power information for requesting wireless power to transmitter；And if wireless power can be sent to Receiver, then receiving wireless power from transmitter.
According to an aspect of the present invention, it provides a kind of for receiving the receiver of wireless power from transmitter, comprising: logical Believe interface, including resonator, be configured as: sending the message for connecting with transmitter to transmitter；And if sending Connection is established between device and receiver, then sending the power information for requesting wireless power to transmitter；And processing Device is configured as: if wireless power can be sent to receiver, control resonator receives radio from transmitter Power.
According to the present invention, transmitter and the reception that there can be high resonance characteristic in Wireless power transmission system are provided The method for sending and receiving wireless power of device and device.
Detailed description of the invention
Fig. 1 is the structure for showing the transmitters and receivers in the Wireless power transmission system of embodiment according to the present invention Block diagram；
Fig. 2A is the circuit diagram of serial resonator, wherein resistor (R), capacitor (C) and inductor (L) are connected in series；
Fig. 2 B is the circuit diagram of parallel resonator, wherein resistor (R), capacitor (C) and inductor (L) are connected in parallel；
Fig. 3 A is the circuit diagram of electric single negative (Epsilon-negative, ENG) circuit；
Fig. 3 B is the circuit diagram that magnetic list bears (Mu-negative, MNG) circuit；
Fig. 4 is the figure for showing the characteristic of resonance frequency；
Fig. 5 is the view for showing the example of Meta Materials MNG resonator；
Fig. 6 is the view for showing the structure of two kinds of MNG resonator according to the present invention；
Fig. 7 is the view for showing the example of Tx resonator according to the present invention；
Fig. 8 A to Fig. 8 C is included transistor in each of class-a amplifier, class-b amplifier and E class A amplifier A Drain electrode and source electrode between voltage and current figure；
Fig. 9 is the circuit diagram for showing E class A amplifier A, it is the power amplifier of switching mode；
Figure 10 is the voltage wave and current wave shown when executing switch operation in the switching mode power amplifier in Fig. 9 Figure；
Figure 11 is internal capacitor (Coss) and the outside shown between the drain electrode and source electrode of the FET in E class A amplifier A (shunt) capacitor (C' in parallelS) between voltage figure；
Figure 12 is the circuit diagram of output matching circuit；
Figure 13 is the circuit diagram of input matching circuit；
Figure 14 be include Figure 12 and Figure 13 match circuit E class A amplifier A final equivalent circuit circuit diagram；
Figure 15 is the view for showing the prototype of E class A amplifier A made according to the present invention；
Figure 16 is the block diagram of general transmitter；
Figure 17 is to show to track switched-mode power supply (Switching Mode Power Supply, SMPS) including electric power Transmitter structure block diagram；
Figure 18 is the block diagram for showing the structure of the tracking of electric power shown in Figure 17 SMPS；
Figure 19 is the frame for showing the structure of the frequency generator according to the present invention that 6.78MHz frequency is generated in transmitter Figure；
Figure 20 is the circuit diagram for showing the example of the excess voltage protection in transmitter according to the present invention；
Figure 21 shows the circuit of the basic functional principle for showing excess voltage protection；
Figure 22 is the circuit diagram for showing another example of the protection circuit in transmitter according to the present invention；
Figure 23 is the circuit diagram of another example of the protection circuit in transmitter according to the present invention；
Figure 24 is shown in electrical power transmission system according to the present invention for receiving the DC electric power of the receiver of DC electric power The view of ratio relative to the DC electric power sent from transmitter；
Figure 25 is the circuit diagram of the loss for describing to occur in transmitter；
Figure 26 is to show to be connected in parallel inductor (LP1、LP2And LP3) to increase the view of the circuit of Q value；
Figure 27 is the figure for showing the level of output power of the efficiency according to power amplifier；
Figure 28 is the electricity for showing the efficiency for measuring the transmitter including 6.78MHz frequency generator and power amplifier The circuit diagram on road；
Figure 29 is the figure for showing the amplitude of the frequency generated in the power amplifier shown in Figure 28；
Figure 30 A and Figure 30 B are the view for showing the resonator for including in the transmitters and receivers implemented according to the present invention Figure；
Figure 31 is the coupled characteristic for showing measuring receiver (it is single receiver) and the measuring configuration of efficiency of transmission The view of (measurement setup)；
Figure 32 is the view for showing the measured zone for measuring the signal inputted from Rx resonator；
Figure 33 be show for measure be input to it is humorous for Rx included in each of multiple receivers receiver The view of the measured zone of the signal of vibration device (that is, multiple receivers)；
Figure 34 is the view for showing the MNG TL resonator according to the present invention realized using Rx resonator；
Figure 35 is the view for showing the MNG TL resonator according to the present invention for being implemented as Rx resonator；
Figure 36 is the view for showing the equivalent circuit of Schottky diode and Schottky diode；
Figure 37 A and Figure 37 B are the current level and voltage electricity for showing the Schottky diode that can be used for electrical power transmission system Flat figure；
Figure 38 is the circuit diagram of full wave bridge type diode rectifier circuit；
Figure 39 and Figure 40 is the circuit diagram that full-wave bridge rectifier circuit is tested by using signal generator；
Figure 41 A and 41B are the figures for showing voltage level and current level by the double diode of different company's manufacture；
Figure 42 is the example for showing the all-wave active rectifier for using metal-oxide semiconductor (MOS) (MOS) transistor as switch The circuit diagram of son；
Figure 43 is to show direct current according to the present invention (DC)/DC buck converter circuit diagram；
Figure 44 is to show receiver and the view for protecting the example of the protection equipment of receiver；
Figure 45 is the view for showing the circuit of receiver of the optimization with protection structure；
Figure 46 A is the view for showing Distribution of Magnetic Field when without using screening agent (masking reagent)；
Figure 46 B is the view for showing Distribution of Magnetic Field when using screening agent；
Figure 47 A is the view shown when be not spaced between resonator and screening agent the case where；
Figure 47 B is the view shown when there is the case where interval between resonator and screening agent；
Figure 48 A and Figure 48 B are the views of the size for showing screening agent and equipment and the position of Rx resonator；
Figure 49 is the figure for showing the coupling efficiency of the size relative to screening agent shown in Figure 48 A and Figure 48 B and conductor；
Figure 50 is the exemplary functional block diagram of transmitter；
Figure 51 A to Figure 51 E is the view for showing the Rx resonator of receiver according to the present invention；
Figure 52 is the view for showing the measuring configuration according to the present invention for being used to measure direct current (AC)/DC rectifier efficiency Figure；
Figure 53 is the measuring configuration for showing the efficiency according to the present invention for the DC/DC converter in measuring receiver View；
Figure 54 is the view for showing the system board for the receiver implemented according to the present invention；
Figure 55 is the view for showing the receiver implemented according to the present invention；
Figure 56 is the view for showing the measuring configuration of the efficiency for measuring receiver；
Figure 57 is shown when the electric power exported from transmitter is 35.4dBm and load is 10 Ω in every level-one (stage) figure of the waveform measured in；
Figure 58 A and Figure 58 B are the wireless powers for being shown as single mobile communication terminal or the charging of multiple mobile communication terminals Send and receive the view of system；
Figure 59 is the wireless power shown in the Wireless power transmission system in detection, registration, charging and standby mode The state diagram of transmission process；
Figure 60 is the view for showing the detecting state process when receiver is placed on not yet on interface (for example, charging panel) Figure；
Figure 61 is the view for showing the process for being registered in receiver in transmitter；
Figure 62 is the view for showing the example of packet error situation, wherein transmitter is not received by from the first receiver The grouping ACK_Frame (ACK frame) that receiver 1 or second receiver receiver 2 are sent；
Figure 63 is to show metal object or impurity (or undesirable) equipment is placed in point on the interface of transmitter The view of group error situation；
Figure 64 is the view for showing the normal operating process of the configuration step in Wireless power transmission system；
Figure 65 is the view for showing the charging operations of single receiver；
Figure 66 is the view for showing the process for removing single receiver from the interface of transmitter in the charge state；
Figure 67 is the view for showing with the fully charged of receiver or recharging corresponding process；
Figure 68 is shown in the case where at least one receiver (it will be referred to as the first receiver) has been in charged state When register new receiver (it will be referred to as second receiver) process view；
Figure 69 is to show second receiver when multiple first receiver receivers 1 have been under charged state to connect Receive the view that device 2 enters the process of charged state；
Figure 70 is the view for showing the charging process of multiple first receiver receivers 1；
Figure 71 is the view for showing the process of one of multiple receivers for removing and being charged by transmitter；
Figure 72 is to show to connect in the charging process of the first receiver receiver 1 and second receiver receiver 2 to first Receive the view for the process that device receiver 1 recharges；
Figure 73 is the view for showing short mark (SID) exchange process between multiple receivers；
Figure 74 A is to show the view of the slot period of superframe；
Figure 74 B is the slot period and the view of competition period for showing superframe；
Figure 75 is the view for showing the timing restriction under detecting state；
Figure 76 is the view for showing the timing restriction under login state；
Figure 77 is the view for showing the timing restriction under configuration status；
Figure 78 is the view for showing the timing restriction under charged state；
Figure 79 is the flow chart for showing transmitter and preventing electrical power transmission system by the method for overcurrent；
Figure 80 is the flow chart for showing transmitter and preventing electrical power transmission system by the method for overvoltage；
Figure 81 is the flow chart for showing transmitter and preventing electrical power transmission system by the method for excess temperature；
Figure 82 is the flow chart for showing receiver and preventing electrical power transmission system by the method for overvoltage；
Figure 83 is to show the example communicated between the transmitters and receivers of Wireless power transmission system according to the present invention The view of son；
Figure 84 is the view for showing the Physical Frame Structure in Wireless power transmission system according to the present invention；
Figure 85 is that show access control (MAC) frame structure is view；
Figure 86 is the view for showing the structure of grouping Notice_Frame (notification frame) according to the present invention；
Figure 87 is the view for showing the structure of grouping Report_Frame according to the present invention (report frame)；
Figure 88 is the view for showing the structure that Report_Frame is grouped under standby mode；
Figure 89 is the view for showing the structure that Report_Frame is grouped under charged state；
Figure 90 is the view for showing the structure that Report_Frame is grouped under error condition；
Figure 91 is the view for showing the structure of grouping ACK_Frame according to the present invention；
Figure 92 is the view for showing the overall structure of grouping Interactive_Frame according to the present invention (interaction frame)；
Figure 93 is to show grouping Interactive_Request_Join_Frame according to the present invention (interaction request addition Frame) structure view；
Figure 94 is to show grouping Interactive_Response_Join_Frame according to the present invention (interaction response adds Enter frame) structure view；
Figure 95 is to show grouping Interactive_Request_Charge_Frame according to the present invention (interaction request fills Electric frame) structure view；
Figure 96 is to show grouping Interactive_Response_Charge_Frame (interaction response according to the present invention Charge frame) structure view；
Figure 97 is the view for showing the stelliform connection topology configuration in Wireless power transmission system according to the present invention.
Hereinafter, it will be described in detail with reference to the accompanying drawings exemplary embodiment of the present invention.In the following description, it provides all As the detail of detailed configuration and component is only intended to that the whole of exemplary embodiment of the present invention is helped to understand.Therefore, right Those of ordinary skill in the art are it should be obvious that can make a variety of changes exemplary embodiment as described herein With modification without departing from scope and spirit of the present invention.
The present invention relates to Wireless power transmission systems, utilize the resonance coupling operational between two equipment.According to this In the electrical power transmission system of invention, the equipment for providing electric power is defined as electric power and sends platform, i.e. power transmitter, and receives The equipment of electric power is defined as power reception unit, that is, power receiver.In the following description, for convenience's sake, it is used for The electric power for providing electric power sends platform and is called for short " transmitter ", and the power reception unit for receiving electric power is called for short " receiver ".
Resonance coupling occurs between the resonator in the near field range of the π of λ/2, and in the present invention, by using humorous Vibration coupling phenomenon sends receiver from transmitter for wireless power.By doing so, transmitter can be without using built-in In the case where the power supply line of routine in transmitters and receivers, electric power is provided to receiver.In addition, being coupled using resonance existing The Wireless power transmission system of elephant provides more useful advantages, traditional induction such as between transmitters and receivers Coupling is compared, and the impedance for impedance matching is freely placed.Wireless power transmission system according to the present invention is also mentioned to user For the convenience of multiple chargings, so that multiple receivers are electrically charged simultaneously, to provide conveniently for user.
Fig. 1 is the structure for showing the transmitters and receivers in the Wireless power transmission system of embodiment according to the present invention Block diagram.Although being not shown in Fig. 1, transmitter 10 be may be used as, for example, sending power at least one receiver 20。
Transmitter 10 may include sending (Tx) resonator 11,12, Tx electric power converter Tx match circuit (matching L/C) 13 comprising E class A amplifier A (Class-E Amp) 13-1 and driver amplifier (Driver Amp) as power amplifier 13-2, Tx communication unit 14 and Tx controller (MCU control unit) 15.
Transmitter 10 receives direct current (DC) voltage of 7-15V from system unit 30, and system unit 30 is for exporting 7- The D/C adapter of the D/C voltage of 15V.When inputting D/C voltage, Tx controller 15 controls Tx electric power converter 13 and converts D/C voltage At alternating current (AC) voltage, and amplify the AC voltage of conversion.According to embodiment, Tx controller 15 can control Tx electrical power conversion The magnifying power of the AC voltage of device 13.The AC voltage of amplification is sent to reception (Rx) resonance of receiver 20 by Tx resonator 11 Device 21.
The integrated operation of the control transmitter 10 of Tx controller 15.Tx controller 15 controls transmitter 10 and connects from system unit 30 D/C voltage is received, and controls Tx electric power converter 13 to control the magnifying power of the AC voltage of amplification.When the charging of receiver 20 is complete Cheng Hou, Tx controller 15 can control transmitter 10 and no longer send electric power to receiver 20.According to embodiment, Tx controller 15 can To control the impedance of Tx match circuit 12, to facilitate the power transmission of transmitter 10.Tx controller 15 can use to be sent to and connect The electric power of device 20 is received to calculate the electric power sent from transmitter 10, to calculate electrical efficiency.According to calculated electrical efficiency, Tx Controller 15 can control the impedance of Tx match circuit 12, to maximize electrical efficiency.
The wired or wireless communication of the execution transmitter 10 of Tx communication unit 14.Tx communication unit 14 can connect from receiver 20 It receives power supply request or electric power stops request.
Tx resonator 11 is coupled with the Rx resonator 21 of Rx receiver 20, using by AC voltage resonance as resonance wave, thus to Receiver 20 supplies electric power.
Receiver 20 may include Rx resonator 21, Rx match circuit (matching L/C) 22, Rx electric power converter 23, Rx logical Believe unit 24 and Rx controller (MCU control unit) 25, wherein Rx electric power converter 23 includes (the AC-DC rectification of AC/DC rectifier Device) 23-1 and DC/DC converter (DC-DC converter) 23-2.
When the impedance of Tx match circuit 12 and the impedance matching of Rx match circuit 22, Rx resonator 21 and transmitter 10 Tx resonator 11 couples, so that the AC voltage from transmitter 10 is supplied.
The AC voltage received by Rx resonator 21 is converted by Rx electric power converter 23 by AC/DC rectifier 23-1 D/C voltage.Rx electric power converter 23 amplifies transformed D/C voltage by DC/DC converter 23-2.Rx electric power converter 23 allows By sending conversion and amplification D/C voltage to terminal 40, DC drives terminal 40 is used.
Rx controller 25 controls and receives the integrated operation of device 20.Rx controller 25 controls and receives device 20 and sends D/C voltage, uses In the terminal 40 that driving is connect with receiver 20.
Rx controller 25 controls Rx electric power converter 23 to control the magnifying power for the D/C voltage that will be amplified.Rx controller 25 The impedance of Rx matching unit 22 is also controlled, the electric power sent in order to the Tx resonator 11 received through transmitter 10.
The wired or wireless communication of the execution receiver 20 of Rx communication unit 24.RX communication unit 13 can be asked from transmitter 10 Power supply or power supply is asked to stop.
In the present invention, transmitter 10 can supply electric power to multiple receivers 20.For this purpose, transmitter 10 includes several need The design parameter to be thought over.Most importantly selection is used for the resonance frequency of power transmission, because it influences the property of system Energy and the bill of materials (Bill of Material, BOM) cost.In addition, transmitter 10 includes that Tx resonator 11 or E class are amplified Device 13-1 efficiently to provide variable output power to receiver 20, and can use switched-mode power supply (SMPS) Scheme etc..
(selection of resonance frequency)
Hereinafter, determine resonance frequency so that Tx resonator 11 can be held the Tx controller 15 for describing transmitter 10 The method that row is coupled with the resonance of Rx resonator 21.
Under normal circumstances, in Wireless power transmission system, due to high inductance and low resistance, ferrite and inductor are It is widely used, but cost increases sharply when more than 10MHz or higher frequency.In this respect, in the present invention, will make Implement Wireless power transmission system with 10MHz or lower resonance frequency.Preferably, it is passed in wireless power according to the present invention In defeated system, the frequency of 6.78MHz can be used to send and receive electric power.
Under normal circumstances, as resonance frequency increases, it can easily realize that (this is instruction resonance frequency with more high q-factor The index of the selectivity of rate) resonator system.Especially in the range of MHz frequency, such as 6.78MHz, 13.56MHz and Industrial scientific medical (ISM) frequency band of 27.12MHz can be expected to resonance frequency.
In order to design Coss (international capacitance, state in effective field effect transistor (FET) Border capacitor) value, it is desirable that high Electrical amplitude (Power Amplitude, PA).Because reducing frequency values, Coss is available In the FET of low cost.Compared with high frequency band, in low-frequency band, the unique efficient (unique efficiency) of FET more preferably, thus In the efficiency in 6.78MHz frequency range than the excellent in efficiency in 27.12MHz frequency range about 3%.
The Power Diode Pumped rectifier for including in receiver 20 (that is, AC/DC rectifier 23-1) is needed in Tx resonator 11 Locate the AC electric power of induction, and the efficiency of the higher AC eletric power induction of frequency is lower.It is wrapped by using in AC/DC rectifier 23-1 The diode included, receiver 20 can rectify the alternating current that AC/DC rectifier 23-1 is sent to from Rx resonator 21.Although efficiency Height, still, the diode for including in AC/DC rectifier 23-1 may be decreased frequency characteristic.Particularly, due at low frequency Self-heating increases, therefore when considering self-heating effect, it is safe for using more than the resonance frequency of original frequency about 2-3MHz. Finally, in the present invention, in order to meet above-mentioned condition, the resonance frequency of 6.78MHz frequency band will be used.
It can according to the connection method of resistor, capacitor and inductor for Tx resonator 11 used in the present invention To consider two kinds of resonator.
Firstly, Fig. 2A is the circuit diagram of serial resonator, wherein resistor (R), capacitor (C) and inductor (L) series connection Connection.Serial resonator as shown in Figure 2 A generally includes to be magnetic the minute loop antenna (loop antenna) of dipole.
Fig. 2 B is the circuit diagram of parallel resonator, wherein resistor (R), capacitor (C) and inductor (L) are connected in parallel. Parallel resonator as shown in Figure 2 B generally includes the small wire antenna (wire antenna) with magnetic dipoles.It can root According to the resonance frequency of parallel resonator shown in serial resonator shown in inductor (L) control figure 2A or Fig. 2 B, and resonance The quality factor of frequency can be defined as:
It is serial humorous with dominant magnetic field near field meanwhile in order to minimize influence of the wireless power transmission to human body The device that shakes is suitable.This is because human body and in the world nearly all material are all nonmagnetic materials.
In order to implement artificial Meta Materials transmission line (MTL), artificial through-hole, gap and tap can be added to transmitter 10 Typical transmission line (not shown).In the following description, by description by using two kinds of sides of MTL design Tx resonator 11 Method.First method is electric single negative (ENG) MTL, and second method is that magnetic list bears (MNG) MTL.
Fig. 3 A is the circuit diagram for showing ENG MTL, and Fig. 3 B is the circuit diagram for showing MNG MTL.
It as shown in Figure 3A, can be by adding shunt inductance L' to transmission-line equivalent circuitLTo realize artificial ENG transmission Line.
It as shown in Figure 3B, can be by adding serial capacitor (C' to transmission-line equivalent circuitL, C'R) realize artificial MNG Transmission line.Assuming that Tx resonator 11 according to the present invention is lossless transmission line, it is concluded that the propagation constant of transmission line isWherein Z ' and Y ' is the impedance and admittance with unit length respectively.Once calculating propagation constant, just Calculate the magnetic permeability μ and permittivity ε of transmission line.Magnetic conductivity and dielectric constant can be expressed as follows:
As can be seen that the magnetic permeability μ of ENG transmission line is positive value at any time in formula (3), but dielectric constant ε, which depends on frequency, can be zero, is negative, positive.Similarly, erect image ENG transmission line is the same, and the magnetic conductivity of MNG transmission line has zero, bears And positive value.
As a result, each of ENG and MNG transmission line has stopband in low frequency.This is because the frequency when transmission line increases Added-time, permittivity ε and magnetic permeability μ become zero respectively, so that the propagation constant of each transmission line is likely to become zero.In this way, passing It broadcasts constant to become zero, and therefore, two transmission lines, that is, ENG and MNG transmission line, the wavelength with infinitary value.
The resonance frequency of Tx resonator 11 is given below.
Under normal circumstances, the resonance frequency of resonator depends on the size of resonator, to be difficult tuned frequency and manufacture Small resonator.Fig. 4 is the figure for showing the characteristic of resonance frequency.Referring to Fig. 4, pass through the zeroth order resonance of ENG and MNG, Ke Yi Resonator is designed in the case where not having any restrictions to the size of resonator.For example, due to the resonance frequency of Meta Materials resonator It is unrelated with the size of resonator, therefore small resonator and tuned frequency easy to manufacture.
Meanwhile main electric and magnetic field are had near field according to the resonator of ENG and MNG transmission line respectively.According to MNG The resonator of transmission line has dominant magnetic field near field, because the resonator according to MNG transmission line is to other materials, especially Body effect's very little, so it is suitble to Wireless power transmission system.
(MNG transmission line (TL) resonator)
The key benefit of Meta Materials resonator is actual size of its resonance frequency independent of resonator.For example, right In spiral (Helix) resonator, in order to obtain the resonance frequency of 10MHz, needing diameter is 0.6 meter of resonator.Similarly, right In the resonator of helical coil structure, the resonator of same diameter is needed.Under normal circumstances, in order to reduce receiver resonance frequency Rate, it should increase the size of resonator.Such disadvantage does not meet the requirement for meeting portable mobile wireless electrical power transmission system.
Fig. 5 is the view for showing the example of Meta Materials MNG resonator.
MNG resonator is substantially made of MNG transmission line and capacitor.In the present invention, capacitor is placed on MNG biography Random position in defeated line, and electric field is captured by capacitor.In addition, electric current flows through MNG transmission line.When resonator is much smaller than When wavelength, electric current becomes uniformly, unrelated with the position of MNG transmission line.It therefore, can be according to sense of current from resonator The heart forms strong magnetic field to y-axis direction.
As shown in figure 5, MNG resonator usually has 3 dimension structures.However, if MNG transmission line is placed on the surface x-z, Then resonator can have 2 dimension structures.For high efficiency, resonator is needed using the structure with very small ohmic loss. When resonator has 2 dimension structures to reduce corresponding ohmic loss, the width of transmission line can be in x-axis direction or z-axis direction Increase or can be used the resonator of parallel-connection structure.
In actual design process, capacitor can be inserted by MNG by lamped element or distributed element and transmitted Line, the capacitor be center have high dielectric constant plate interdigitated capacitors (inter-digital capacitor) or Gap capacitor (gap capacitor).Capacitor is inserted into the spy that MNG transmission line makes resonator show Meta Materials Property.
Change capacitor by the length of transmission line of the fixation using MNG transmission line and the resonator size of MNG resonator, it can Easily to realize resonance frequency.MNG resonator preferably includes the matching unit b1 in feedthrough (feed through).? The size of ring with equipment b1 need be it is adjustable, as shown in Figure 5.In this case, matching unit is adjustable and MNG The magnetic-coupled magnetic intensity of resonator.The electric current for being input to connector flows to MNG resonator by matching unit b1.
In order to match the resonance frequency between transmitter 10 and receiver 10 and in order to improve efficiency, according to the present invention Resonator in, the top bar b1 of inner ring can be moved up and down.Fig. 6 be show it is according to the present invention two kinds of The view of the structure of MNG resonator.Referring to Fig. 6, in resonator according to the present invention, the top bar b1 of inner ring can upwards and It moves down, and the left bar b2 and right bar b3 of inner ring can also be moved to the left and to the right.
Fig. 7 is the view for showing the example of Tx resonator according to the present invention.Resonator according to the present invention is preferably Realize wide Region Matching characteristic.Therefore, Tx resonator 11 can be realized in the form of clover (clover) as shown in Figure 7. The mechanically and electrically parameter of resonator according to the present invention is listed in Tables 1 and 2.
Fig. 8 A to Fig. 8 C is to show included crystalline substance in each of class-a amplifier, class-b amplifier and E class A amplifier A The figure of voltage and current between the drain electrode and source electrode of body pipe.Under normal circumstances, the efficiency of amplifier is mainly due to power consumption And reduce, the power consumption can use the voltage and current between drain electrode and source electrode by transistor and be multiplied to calculate.Ginseng According to Fig. 8 A to Fig. 8 C, theoretically, in E class A amplifier A as shown in Figure 8 C, 100% maximal efficiency may be implemented.Therefore, exist In the present invention, transmitter 10 is designed to include E class A amplifier A 13-1.
Fig. 9 is the circuit diagram for showing E class A amplifier A 13-1, it is the power amplifier of switching mode.Figure 10 is to show to work as Fig. 9 Shown in switching mode power amplifier execute switch operation when voltage wave and current wave figure.As shown in Figure 10, E class A amplifier A 13-1 is switching type power supply amplifier, it can eliminate the overlapping of voltage wave and current wave by executing switch operation, so that The power consumption for obtaining E class A amplifier A 13-1 can be minimized.According to embodiment, in E class A amplifier A 13-1 shown in Fig. 9, In order to reduce the capacitor C' during a switch periodsSEnergy loss, zero voltage switch should occur, that is to say, that open Pass should occur in no-voltage.
Figure 11 is to show internal capacitor Coss between the drain electrode and source electrode of the FET in E class A amplifier A 13-1 and outer Portion shunt capacitor C'SBetween voltage figure.
1, Coss and C' referring to Fig.1SSummation can be the characteristic capacitance of E class A amplifier A 13-1, and Coss and C'S's The optimum value Copt of summation can be derived from the Cs expressed by following formula:
However, even if being also not easy when using formula (5) in VDDWithin the scope of find with Coss be less than Copt conjunction Suitable MOSFET.
For example, for the Copt of 374pF and 15pF, in order to design E the class A amplifier A 13-1, V with 10W output powerDD It should be 10V and 50V respectively.However, for the V of 10V and 50VDD, typical MOSFET is respectively provided with 1100pF's and 250pF Coss。
Therefore, when executing zero voltage switch (ZVS) operation, the Coss of MOSFET has the value bigger than Copt.Therefore, In the present invention, the lateral diffused metal oxide with the Coss than typical MOSFET much smaller Coss has been used partly to lead Body (LDMOS) type.
Hereinafter, by E class A amplifier A 13-1 shown in description Fig. 9.Firstly, the electric induction of RF choke inductor is somebody's turn to do Resonance frequency is sufficiently large, and the small direct conversion receiver (DCR) of inductor is preferred.The breakdown voltage of FET should The peak value of source electrode greater than the FET provided by formula 6 is to crest voltage.Copt can be such as in formula 7 using instead of VDD's Vp is indicated.RLOAD(RLoad) and LLoad(LLoad) can be calculated by formula 8 and formula 9.
However, the characteristic impedance of resonator is designed to 50 Ω, it and load impedance are mismatched.Therefore, if feature hinders Anti- and load impedance is inconsistent each other, then 2 times and 3 of E class A amplifier A 13-1 should be eliminated when designing the match circuit of resonance Subharmonic.Therefore, in the present invention, as shown in figure 12, impedance matching electricity is inserted between E class A amplifier A 13-1 resonator Road.Figure 12 is to show Tx match circuit 12 according to the present invention, that is, the circuit diagram of the example of impedance matching circuit.Pass through Figure 12 Shown in impedance matching circuit, the E class A amplifier A 13-1 with higher efficiency may be implemented in the present invention.Figure 12 is to show output Circuit diagram with circuit.The value of each component shown in Figure 12 can be calculated by following formula, in particular, inductance Ladd's Value may be calculated:
In an identical manner, in the present invention, defeated in order to increase power amplifier efficiency (PAE) as shown in formula 11 Enter matching to be necessary.Figure 13 is the circuit diagram for showing input matching circuit.In Figure 13, it is assumed that be applied to the grid of transistor Capacitor is capacitor Ciss.Resonance input driving circuit is designed to removal CissInfluence.
Figure 14 is the circuit diagram for showing the final equivalent circuit of the E class A amplifier A 13-1 including above-mentioned match circuit.Figure 14 Circuit in included each component can have, for example, the value listed in following table 3.Figure 15 is shown according to this hair The view of the prototype of the E class A amplifier A 1301 of bright manufacture.
(electric power tracks SMPS)
Figure 16 is the block diagram of general transmitter 10.Referring to Fig.1 6, transmitter 10 includes radio frequency (RF) signal generator, variable Gain amplifier and power amplifier, and can use the supply voltage of the fixation from system unit 30 (for example, SMPS) Power supply.
The Tx controller 15 of transmitter 10 adjusts the incoming level of E class A amplifier A 13-1, to meet required by receiver 20 Output power.The supply voltage of the fixation exported from SMPS is provided to power amplifier.Generally in maximum output electric power The maximal efficiency of transmitter 10 is obtained around range.In addition, efficiency of transmission declines rapidly in the range of low output power.
In order to overcome this problem, in the present invention, transmitter 10 may include electric power tracking SMPS, in output power All ranges in keep high efficiency, as shown in figure 17.Referring to Fig.1 7, transmitter 10 includes RF signal generator, fixed increases Beneficial amplifier and E class PA, and the supply voltage of the fixation from electric power tracking SMPS can be provided with.Transmitter 10 it is defeated Electric power is depended on by the quantity of the receiver 20 of the power supply from transmitter 10 out.
Figure 18 is the block diagram for showing the structure of the tracking of electric power shown in Figure 17 SMPS.Referring to Fig.1 8, electric power tracks SMPS can To include rectifier and DC/DC converter.8 description referring to Fig.1, the 220V D/C voltage of 60Hz be input into rectifier and It is converted into AC voltage.AC voltage after conversion is input into DC/DC converter, and defeated after being converted into D/C voltage Out.In Figure 18, the voltage exported from DC/DC converter is the V of 5-25VDD。
Figure 19 is to show the knot according to the present invention for the frequency generator of generation 6.78MHz frequency at transmitter 10 The block diagram of structure.Referring to Fig.1 9, frequency generator includes phase-locked loop (PLL) block, low-pass filter (LPF) and driver.In PLL The frequency of the electric power signal generated at block is controlled by " PLL_cont " signal sent in Tx controller 15.It is raw in PLL block At RF signal by the cutoff frequency with 10MHz LPF filter, to reduce harmonic wave and noise.Filtered RF signal is defeated Enter to driver.In order to make power amplifier, that is, E class A amplifier A 13-1 exports enough electric currents, enough electric currents can be mentioned Supply actuator.
(guard method of transmitter or receiver in electrical power transmission system)
Electrical power transmission system according to the present invention is sent out by using the resonance phenomena between transmitter 10 and receiver 20 Send and receive electric power.However, the resonance frequency of electrical power transmission system may be influenced by undesirable accident or abnormal operation, And this may make electrical power transmission system fall into fatal problem.For example, being sent since unsuitable object enters or misplaces The variation of coupled characteristic reduces the efficiency of power transmission caused by the interface (for example, charging panel (not shown)) of device 10.Cause Have to increase input electric power for transmitter 10 to maintain output power, so in power amplifier (that is, E class A amplifier A 131) Including the driving voltage of transistor should increase.As driving voltage increases, transistor is likely to be breached breakdown voltage.As a result, The increased voltage of transistor may cause serious problems to transmitter 10 due to overvoltage, overcurrent and excess temperature.Therefore, In the present invention, it provides for protecting power transmission and receiving the system protection function of system.
Figure 20 is the circuit diagram for showing the example of the excess voltage protection in transmitter according to the present invention, and Figure 21 Show the circuit of the basic functional principle for showing excess voltage protection.
Referring to Figure 21, the AC output voltage of the DC bias voltage resonator of FET drain will be described.Electric power is not being caused to put In the case where the performance loss of big device, DC bias voltage and AC output voltage are sampled by high-impedance resistors divider.It is monitoring In the case where resonator voltage, the AC output voltage sampled is rectified into D/C voltage by half rectifier.The voltage of two monitorings, That is, the value of DC bias voltage and AC output voltage, is sent to Tx controller 15.Then, if the voltage level of these monitorings, That is, DC bias voltage and the voltage level of AC output voltage are higher than respective threshold value, then need to protect.For OVP, Tx controller The control signal for being used to reduce the drain bias voltage of FET is sent to SMPS by 15.Then, transmitter 10 start to recharge and Monitor whether the monitoring voltage level is more than respective threshold value.If overvoltage occurs again, Tx controller 15 can be closed Close the operation of transmitter 10.
Figure 22 is the circuit diagram for showing another example of the protection circuit in transmitter according to the present invention.
Circuit shown in Figure 22 is the example for preventing circuit from being protected by overcurrent circuit.Because electric power is set It is standby, that is, transmitter 10 has conducting resistance (on-resistance), so even if being the efficient of switch in electrical device operation Power amplifier in, small voltage is also applied to by electrical device with getting type.It is applied to electrical device, that is, transmitter The level of electric current flowed in the voltage level of 10 voltage and transmitter 10 is proportional.Therefore, when overcurrent flows through, apply Voltage level to transmitter 10 increases.Since voltage level needs to measure under the open state that transmitter 10 powers on, Switch for detecting voltage level can be included in currently preferred embodiments of the present invention.This switch is by with input signal Synchronized-pulse control, thus desired pulse on/off the time (can not shown by the comparison equipment with hysteresis It controls out).Comparing equipment can be to include that the form in Tx controller 15 is realized.
Since the output-voltage levels of the resistance very little in open mode, switch are also very low.Therefore, implement currently It can also include the amplifier for amplifying the output voltage of switch in example.By using the signal amplified by amplifier, That is the output voltage of switch, Tx controller 15 determines the need for the protection of circuit.When the peak point current electricity of transmitter 10 When flat increase, by the crest voltage of the signal of amplifier amplification, that is, the output voltage of switch also increases, thus Tx controller 15 Level of protection can be set by the way that hysteresis threshold level appropriate is arranged.
Figure 23 is the circuit diagram of another example of the protection circuit in transmitter according to the present invention.
Circuit shown in Figure 23 is thermal-shutdown circuit.Referring to Figure 23, which includes close to FET switch to detect The temperature sensor (for example, thermistor) of the excess temperature of transmitter 10.According to embodiment, TMP302B Series Temperature Transmitters Switch can be by as temperature sensor.When environment temperature rises to specific temperature, the output of temperature sensor switch is from height Level is switched to low level.In this way, Tx controller 15 identified when temperature sensor switch is when being outputted to low level Temperature occurs.SMPS corresponding with the order for being applied to FET control signal is applied to voltage V by Tx controller 15DD, as sky Not busy mode state voltage.When the voltage for being applied to FET reduces, Tx controller 15 can protect hair while reducing excess temperature Send device 10.
According to embodiment, in fact it could happen that the impurity (contaminant) other than transmitter 10.Assuming that in addition to transmitter Impurity other than 10 appears on the Tx resonator 11 of Wireless power transmission system, and Tx electric power is sent by Tx resonator 11 To receiver 20.When sending electric power in this way, eddy current may be generated in transmitter 10, thus metallic surface temperature Degree can increase and damage system.
Transmitter 10 determines the material for causing eddy current, that is, metal impurities are foreign substance or Rx resonator 21, with control Power transmission processed.When specific impurities appear on Tx resonator 11, voltage or electric current inside transmitter 10 can be due to miscellaneous Different resonance impedance caused by matter and change.When identifying the variation of different resonance impedances in transmitter 10, transmitter The control signal for being used to notify the variation of impedance is sent receiver 20 by 10.
Receiver 20 receives the control signal and electric power sent from transmitter 10, for example, electric signal.However, if impurity It is metal impurities, then transmitter 10 cannot send control signal.The Tx controller 15 of transmitter 10, which can determine, is placed in Tx resonance Impurity on device 11 is receiver 20 or other materials.
According to embodiment, the Q value and resonance frequency of electrical power transmission system can easily be interfered Tx resonator 11 The influence of the metal of electromagnetic field around resonating conductor.In the case where the Tx resonator 11 of transmitter 10, the interference of electromagnetic field The performance of Tx resonator 11 can be greatly reduced.Therefore, electromangnetic spectrum is implemented with minimum to transmitter 10 or receiver 20 It is vital for changing influence of the external environment to transmitter 10.
(power transmission efficiency (PTE))
In order to check the performance of the transmitter 10 in electrical power transmission system according to the present invention, description is put relative to electric power The simulation that big device (it is E class A amplifier A 13-1), SMPS and Tx resonator 11 are made.
Figure 24 is shown in electrical power transmission system according to the present invention for receiving the DC electricity of the receiver 20 of DC electric power View of the power relative to the ratio of the DC electric power sent from transmitter 10.It will be by by the electric power that transmitter 10 is sent to receiver 20 Referred to as " DC sends electric power ", and the electric power being an actually-received in DC transmission electric power by receiver 20 is by referred to as " DC is received Electric power ".
The transmitter electronic efficiency (Transmitter Electronic Efficiency, TEE) of transmitter 10 can be by The AC output phase for being defined as transmitter 10 inputs the ratio of (Tx DC input) for being input to the DC of transmitter 10 from SMPS.Under The formula (12) that face provides is intended to obtain TEE.
Resonance coupling efficiency (RCE) can be defined as the effect of the coupling of the resonance between Tx resonator 11 and Rx resonator 21 Rate, that is, between the AC electric power (Tx AC) that Tx resonator 11 exports and the AC electric power (Rx AC) for being input to Rx resonator 21 Ratio.The formula (13) being provided below is intended to calculate RCE.Receiver electronic efficiency (REE) can be defined as from receiver 20 The AC electric power (Rx AC input) of input and from receiver 20 export DC electric power (DC output) between ratio.Formula (14) purport Obtaining REE.Power transfer efficiency (PTE) is the function that TEE, RCE are multiplied with REE, as shown in formula 15.
PTE=TEE × RCE × REE ... ... ... ... (15)
Realization as transmitter 10 is as a result, even if power amplifier, that is, and E class A amplifier A 13-1 has 88% efficiency, Slight loss still occurs.Figure 25 is the circuit diagram of the loss for describing to occur in transmitter 10.
It has been removed by resonant gate driving and zero voltage switch (ZVS) and outputs and inputs capacitor, but such as Figure 25 institute Show, by the resistance R between the drain electrode and source electrode of the DCR, transistor of choke inductor (Lchoke)DSWith the electron spin of inductance L It is lost caused by resonance (ESP) and is not removed.Figure 25 is the electricity of the residual loss for describing to occur in power amplifier Lu Tu, and table 4 is shown and Q value LTCorresponding power amplifier (PA), that is, the efficiency of E class A amplifier A 13-1.
When only considering RDSWhen, then the efficiency of E class A amplifier A 13-1 can achieve 95%.However, if further including electrically going here and there Join resistance (ESR), then may be implemented to be up to about 86% efficiency.In order to further increase the efficiency of power amplifier, can see The efficiency of power amplifier is according to Q value outVariation.
When Q value increases, power amplifier can have higher efficiency.In order to keep small thickness (being less than 15mm) While increase series reactor Q value, can be connected in parallel high Q inductor, as shown in figure 26.Figure 26, which is shown, to be connected in parallel Inductor LP1、LP2And LP3To increase the circuit of Q value.As shown in Figure 26, as inductor L as shown in Figure 26P1、LP2And LP3 When being connected in parallel, ESR can be reduced and Q value can increase about 5.Figure 27 is the output for showing the efficiency according to power amplifier The figure of the level of electric power.
As inductor L in parallel as shown in Figure 26P1、LP2And LP3When being applied to power amplifier, the damage from ESR Depletion is few, so that the efficiency of power amplifier can increase to 89% from 88%.
Simultaneously as being considered as that 16 Ω are loaded from E class A amplifier A 13-1 from the point of view of SMPS angle, it is possible to negative in output Estimate the efficiency of SMPS at load according to output power using 16 Ω impedances.For example, low mode operation of the SMPS in input 9V voltage There is about 67% efficiency in mode.In the high mode operation mode of input 15V, SMPS can have 80% SMPS effect Rate.
Table 5 is shown according to output power VDDSMPS efficiency.
Figure 28 is the efficiency shown for measuring the transmitter 10 including 6.78MHz frequency generator and power amplifier The circuit diagram of circuit, and Figure 29 is the figure for showing the amplitude of the harmonic wave generated in the power amplifier shown in Figure 28.
Circuit diagram shown in Figure 28 has about 65% efficiency within the scope of the output power of 3-10W.Figure 29 is shown Relative to 6.78MHz centre frequency × 2 or × 3 frequency output harmonic wave amplitude.Output harmonic wave is at second harmonic- 52.51dBc and be -35.29dBc at triple-frequency harmonics.
As described above, transmitter 10 according to the present invention can have about in low mode operation mode (9V input voltage) 67% SMPS efficiency, and in high mode operation originating party formula (15V input voltage) with about 80% SMPS efficiency.Cause This, there are 2 kinds of operation modes in electric current transmitter 10, that is, mode operation low/high.Table 6 is summarized according to the present invention low Input voltage/input current/input electric power of transmitter 10 in mode or height mode.
Figure 30 A and Figure 30 B are to show the resonator for including in the transmitter 10 and receiver 20 implemented according to the present invention 11 and 21 view.Table 7 respectively illustrates the size of transmitter 10 and receiver 20 shown in Figure 30 A and Figure 30 B.
In the resonator 11 of transmitter 10 and 21 the two of resonator of receiver 20, capacitor is connected in parallel, without It is always to be electrically coupled resistance (ESR) value using single capacitor to reduce.In the case where receiver 20, parallel conductor knot Structure is used to reduce the resistance of conductor.The size and characteristic such as table of the resonator 21 of the resonator 11 and receiver 20 of transmitter 10 Described in 7.F0 represents the resonance frequency of resonator 11 and 21.In the case where the f0 of three dB bandwidth, lower and upper limit frequency It is respectively defined as f1 and f2.The Q value of transmitter 10 and receiver 20 is about " -900 " and " -200 " respectively.It is set when that will be inserted into When receiver 20 in standby is placed on Rx resonator 21, the AQ factor can be measured.
Figure 30 B shows the example of the Rx resonator 21 for the receiver 20 that can be inserted into mobile communication terminal.Ginseng According to Figure 30 B, shields piece (μ=130, μ "=1.15, loss tangent=0.00884) and be placed on 21 lower section of Rx resonator.Masking Size ratio Rx resonator (74mm × 44mm) big 2mm of agent (masking reagent).In addition, the thickness of screening agent can be by It is set as 1mm.
For mobile communication terminal charging, it is desirable to, when transmitter 10 and receiver 20 packet together When, measurement coupled characteristic and transmission in the case that there is the transmission range of 3mm or more between transmitter 10 and receiver 20 Efficiency.In addition, mobile communication terminal can be implemented, so that communication module, rectifier and match circuit are inserted into movement In communication terminal.
Figure 31 is the coupled characteristic for showing measuring receiver 20 (it is single receiver) and the measuring configuration of efficiency of transmission View.Rx resonator 21 is coupled to the Tx resonator 11 connecting with E class A amplifier A 13-1, wherein the signal source of 6.78MHz, electricity Press VDDWith electric current IDDIt is applied to E class A amplifier A 13-1.Rx resonator 21 be connected to Rx load (it is Rx matching network) and Electric loading system device.Such component can be inserted into mobile communication terminal, as shown in figure 32.
Figure 32 is the view for showing the measurement range for measuring the signal inputted from Rx resonator 21.It is humorous in order to measure Rx Resonant energy at vibration device 21, Rx resonator 21 can be divided into two parts, and be divided into addition to symmetrical in such as Figure 32 It is measured after 9 regions 1 to 9 other than part.The size for considering mobile communication terminal and installation are in mobile communication terminals Rx resonator 21 position, the centre bit that the Rx resonator 21 of region (5), (7) and (8) corresponding receiver 20 can be located at It sets.Table 8 shows the efficiency of simulation, the efficiency of measurement and the DC/DC for considering the efficiency of the power amplifier at Rx resonator 21 Efficiency.In the case where receiver 20 is single receiver, efficiency distribution is measured as 74.35%-91.83%.
Figure 33 is to show to be input to each of multiple receivers 20 (that is, multiple receivers) receiver 20 for measuring In included Rx resonator 21 signal measured zone view.Referring to Figure 33, in the measured zone shown in Figure 33, 3 receivers are symmetrically described with measurement position when being asymmetrically positioned.In Figure 33, it is assumed that T indicates transmitter The top for the resonator 11 for including in 10, C indicates center, and B indicates bottom.In Figure 33, relative to Tx resonator 11, show Mobile communication terminal at T1, the mobile communication terminal at B2 and the mobile communication terminal at C3.Scheming In 33, the position from center to edge is indicated from 0 to 7 by number.
Table 9 shows the power receiver efficiency and electricity of receiver 20 in each measured zone in the case of multiple receivers Power distribution.
As can be seen from Table 9, the simulation of symmetrical multiple receivers and the efficiency of measurement be with 8% or more respectively The 81.11%-90.53% and 80.24%-88.1% of small difference.As shown in table 9, for 2 receivers 20, electric power Distribution is good.Can also as seen from Table 9, in the case where asymmetrical multiple receivers, gross efficiency is measured as 84%- 86.59%, and for 2 receivers 20, electric power is also distributed well.
Hereinafter, description is based on two resonators (that is, the Tx resonator 11 of transmitter 10 and the Rx of receiver 20 are humorous Shake device 21) between near field magnetic induction electrical power transmission system.As shown in Figure 1, receiver 20 according to the present invention may include Rx resonator 21, AC/DC rectifier 23-1, DC/DC converter 23-2, Rx communication unit 24, Rx controller 25, but also can be with Including protecting circuit.
(the Rx resonator of receiver)
According to an embodiment of the invention, Rx resonator 21 may be implemented as the negative transmission-line efficiency of magnetic list.It is made of copper MNG TL resonator include the inner ring and outer rings with series capacitor.Therefore, MNGTL resonator can pass through mobile inner ring Position control matching, to be used for better resonance efficiency.
In addition, the dozens of series capacitor for including in MNG TL resonator can be used for low ESR.Just As the Tx resonator 11 of transmitter 10, the Rx resonator 21 of receiver 20 also may include having dominant magnetic field near field Magnetic dipole to avoid body effect.Furthermore, it is possible to be easily suitable for by capacitance come the series resonance of tuned frequency The Rx resonator 21 of receiver 20.
Figure 34 is the view for showing the MNG TL resonator according to the present invention realized using Rx resonator 21.In order to With resonance frequency and increase resonance efficiency, MNG TL resonator can move at the top of " inner ring " up and down.
In table 10, the parameter of MNG TL resonator is shown.Figure 35 shows that according to the present invention to be implemented as Rx humorous The MNG TL resonator of vibration device 21.
(the AC/DC rectifier of receiver)
In order to keep AC/DC rectifier 23-1 whole with 90% or higher efficiency, AC/DC in 1MHz or higher RF frequency band The diode for mainly including in stream device 23-1 is preferably Schottky (Schottky) diode.Schottky diode has low pressure Drop and faster speed, this is because since charge is carried by majority carrier, so the not electricity as caused by minority carrier Lotus accumulation.Therefore, the Schottky with low pressure drop is preferably used in resonance type wireless power receiver in 1MHz-15MHzRF frequency band Diode.
Figure 36 is the view for showing the equivalent circuit of Schottky diode and Schottky diode.Schottky diode includes Need the voltage device V for ideal diode is connectedonWith resistor Ron, resistor RonCharacteristic with being applied to Schottky The electric current of diode and change.Depending on manufacturer and manufacturing process, there are different Schottky diodes.In order to design basis High efficiency rectification circuit of the invention, it is desirable to which selection has two pole of Schottky of the pressure drop lower than particular value at given level Pipe.
Figure 37 A and Figure 37 B are the current level and voltage electricity for showing the Schottky diode that can be used for electrical power transmission system Flat figure.Schottky shown in Schottky diode shown in Figure 37 A (hereinafter referred to the first Schottky diode) and Figure 37 B Diode (hereinafter referred to the second Schottky diode) is manufactured by different company.
Referring to Figure 37 A and Figure 37 B, as current level increases, pressure drop also increases.Figure 37 A shows the first Schottky two The curve f0 of pole pipe.Referring to Figure 37 A, when electric current is 0.5A, the pressure drop of the first Schottky diode becomes 0.48V.Figure 37 B shows The curve f0 of the second Schottky diode is gone out.For the second Schottky diode, when electric current is 0.5A, the second Schottky two The pressure drop of pole pipe is 0.3V.
Figure 38 is the circuit diagram of full wave bridge type diode rectifier circuit.Full wave bridge type diode rectifier circuit is in a paths Middle tool is there are two diode, if the implementation uses the first Schottky diode, when 0.5A electric current flowing pressure drop become 2 × 0.48=0.96V.Therefore, the electric power consumed at the first Schottky diode is 0.96V × 0.5A=0.48W.It is assumed that negative The electric power consumed at load is that the efficiency of 2.5W and receiver 20 is 80%, then inputting RF electric power is 2.5 ÷ 0.8=3.125W, To which the final efficiency of the full wave bridge type diode rectifier circuit using the first Schottky diode can be given by:
Full wave bridge type diode rectifier circuit may be implemented by using the second Schottky diode.As the second Xiao Te of use When based diode, when 0.5A electric current flowing, pressure drop becomes 2 × 0.3=0.6V.Therefore, the electricity of the second Schottky diode consumption Power is 0.6V × 0.5A=0.3W.It is assumed that the efficiency that the electric power consumed at load is 2.5W and receiver 20 is 80%, then Inputting RF electric power is 2.5 ÷ 0.8=3.125W, to use the full wave bridge type diode rectifier circuit of the second Schottky diode Final efficiency can be given by:
From formula 16 and 17 as can be seen that in order to realize the full wave bridge type diode rectification electricity with 90% or higher efficiency Road is ideal using the second Schottky diode.
Figure 39 and Figure 40 is the circuit diagram that full-wave bridge rectifier circuit is tested by using signal generator.When by making With signal generator come when testing full-wave bridge rectifier circuit, as shown in figure 39, the signal for carrying out automatic signal generator is connected to Therefore the ground of full-wave bridge rectifier circuit simultaneously cannot function as differential signal.Therefore, it when testing full-wave bridge rectifier circuit, needs Neat lattice (Zig) measuring unit of such as balun (Balun).Figure 40 shows the full-wave bridge including neat lattice measuring unit Formula rectification circuit.
Figure 41 A and 41B are the figures for showing voltage level and current level by the double diode of different company's manufacture.Such as figure Schottky diode shown in 41A will be referred to as the first double diode, and Schottky diode as shown in figure 41b will be claimed For the second double diode.First double diode and the second double diode will be electric by using parallel diode (that is, double diode) Stream is divided into two-way to reduce pressure drop.
In the case where the first Schottky diode, when electric current is 0.5A, the pressure drop of the first Schottky diode is 0.48V.When the electric current of 0.25A is applied to each path in double diode full-wave bridge rectifier circuit, if using it In two diodes in parallel connection the first double diode, then the pressure drop of each diode becomes 0.4V.Because in double diode There are 2 diodes being connected in series, so stagnation pressure is reduced to 2 × 0.4=0.8V in each path of full-wave bridge rectifier circuit. Therefore, the power consumption of diode is 0.8V × 0.5A=0.4W.Assuming that the electric power consumed at load is 2.5W and receiver 20 Efficiency be 80%, then inputting RF electric power is 2.5 ÷ 0.8=3.125W, thus complete using the double diode of the first double diode The gross efficiency of wave bridge diode rectification circuit can be given by:
In addition, in the case where the second Schottky diode, if electric current is 0.5A, the pressure of the second Schottky diode Drop becomes 0.3V.If using the second double diode, when 0.25A electric current is on every road of double diode full-wave bridge rectifier circuit When flowing in diameter, the pressure drop of each diode is 0.26V.Due in each path of double diode full-wave bridge rectifier circuit There are 2 series diodes, therefore stagnation pressure is reduced to 2 × 0.4 × 0.26=0.52V.Therefore, the power consumption of diode be 0.52V × 0.5A=0.26W.Assuming that the efficiency that the electric power consumed at load is 2.5W and receiver 20 is 80%, then RF electric power is inputted It is 2.5 ÷ 0.8=3.125W, thus can be with using the gross efficiency of the double diode full-wave bridge rectifier circuit of the second double diode It is given by:
From the above it can be seen that the efficiency of rectifier increases 2%-3% when using double diode design rectifier.It is false If using the parallel diode that wherein 3 the first Schottky diodes are connected in parallel.In the case where the first Schottky diode, When there are the electric current of 0.5A, the pressure drop of the first Schottky diode becomes 0.48V.When to flow through full wave bridge type whole for 0.17A electric current When each path of current circuit, the pressure drop of each diode when using 3 parallel diodes is 0.38V, thus full-wave bridge The gross efficiency of formula rectification circuit is given by:
Assuming that using the parallel diode that wherein 3 the second Schottky diodes are connected in parallel.When there are the electric currents of 0.5A When, the pressure drop of the second Schottky diode becomes 0.3V.When 0.17A electric current flows through each path of full-wave bridge rectifier circuit When, the pressure drop of each diode when using 3 parallel diodes is 0.25V, thus total effect of full-wave bridge rectifier circuit Rate is given by:
Therefore, and double if using the parallel diode that wherein 3 first or second Schottky diodes are connected in parallel Diode only increases compared to efficiency 0.4%-0.6%.Accordingly, it is considered to which chip size and increased costs, use 3 and union II pole Pipe may be inefficient.However, above-mentioned value corresponds to perfect condition, so that must take into account many parasitisms in actual measurement Factor (parastic factor).It therefore, can not using the gross efficiency of the full-wave bridge rectifier circuit of 3 parallel diodes It is same as above-mentioned value.
Meanwhile it being used to increase such as radio using the active rectifier of metal-oxide semiconductor (MOS) (MOS) transistor Electrical efficiency in the Wireless power transmission system of frequency identification (RFID).RFID individually needs most tens mW electric power, thus There are very big electric power is poor with Wireless power transmission system.However, in addition to output power amplitude, having with MOS transistor The advantages of source rectifier, is readily applicable to Wireless power transmission system.Active rectifier with MOS transistor can be divided For 2 classes.One kind uses MOS transistor to connect as diode, another kind of to use MOS transistor as switch.If using tool , then there is same problem when typical diode is used for rectifier in the MOS transistor for having diode to connect.Therefore, it is Increase electrical efficiency, it should which MOS transistor is used as switch.
Figure 42 is the circuit diagram for showing the example for the all-wave active rectifier for using MOS transistor as switch.Work as VinGreatly In | Vtp| or be less than-| Vtp| when, then MP1And MP2Conducting is for preparing V for power supplyout.Assuming that V=0, VinGreater than 0V And voltage became much larger with the time.Work as VinBecome larger than | Vtp| when, MP1Conducting.Due to VinGreater than 0V, therefore Vin2Become small In 0V, so that the output of CMP2 is got higher and Mn2Conducting.
It is now assumed that VinIt is reduced with the time.If VinReduction and Vin20V is become smaller than, then Mn2It should end, However, the output of CMP2, which becomes 0V, needs finite time.Meanwhile MP1And Mn2The two is both turned on.Due to VinUnder peak value Drop, therefore it has lower than VoutVoltage.
As a result, electric current is from VoutFlow to VinTo generate reverse leakage current.This can seriously reduce electrical efficiency.To understand Certainly this problem, V are set higher than 0V, to make Mn2(Mn1) should be ended first.Electrical efficiency can be improved in this way, However, this method, which is applied to Wireless power transmission system, has many limitations.Due to being received from Wireless power transmission system To the amplitude of voltage be different in all cases, therefore, it is desirable to different V values is arranged to remove reverse leakage current.
Resonance rectifier is used to improve the electrical efficiency of rectifier.E class rectifier can be resonance rectifier most Common type.Resonance rectifier is construed as the concept similar with the E class A amplifier A 13-1 of sender side.In order to meet The input impedance needs of condition of resonance at certain frequency, resonance rectifier are set.In order to which input impedance is arranged, inductor is It is necessary, but in the case where mobile system, if using inductor, as the size of inductor becomes in MHz frequency band Must be very big, form factor (form factor) can increase.
There are the MOS transistors of many types, nonetheless, it is intended that the rectifier circuit for wireless power transmission is selected with low RonThe MOS transistor of impedance and low input capacitance.
For DC/DC converter 23-2 using decompression (buck) converter, it is switching regulator.If DC/DC converter 23- 2 are used as LDO (it is linear voltage regulator), then for single equipment charging, there is no problem, because the transmission of transmitter 10 is suitable for bearing The electric power of load.However, in the case where multiple equipment charging, when transmitter 10 sends the larger electric power amounted to for several loads When, if electrical distribution is imperfect, all power consumption for being expected to other equipment charging can be by the LDO of an equipment Heat.Figure 43 is the circuit diagram for showing DC/DC buck converter according to the present invention.The DC/DC buck converter of Figure 43 optimizes The equipment being electrically charged, that is, multiple receivers 20.
(the protection circuit of receiver 20)
Figure 44 is to show receiver 20 and the view for protecting the example of the protection equipment of receiver 20.Such as Figure 44 institute Show, RF rheostat and DC rheostat can be used to protect equipment.Schottky diode has low pressure drop and faster speed, so And it also has low breakdown reverse voltage.For example, the breakdown reverse voltage of the Schottky diode with 1A capacitor is about 20- 30V.In normal charge mode, load resistance is about 10B Ω, so that RF input voltage becomes 20V or so, but in charging side At the beginning and end of formula, load impedance increases a few K Ω, so that RF input voltage becomes larger than 30V, this can lead to Schottky Diode destroys.In addition, temporarily receiving big electric power in the case where charging to multiple equipment, RF input voltage becomes larger, thus Schottky diode is likely to be broken.Therefore, RF rheostat is inserted between Differential Input, to prevent Schottky diode from meeting with By surge (surge) voltage.RF rheostat has the breakdown voltage of 27V or so, and prevents the influence of impedance, it is desirable to selection tool There is the RF rheostat of 30pF or more small capacitances.
Further, it is desirable to use the small size capacitor with 4 μ F or more bulky capacitor as the rectifier in rectifier Device.However, the ceramic capacitor of small size has the small breakdown reverse voltage of about 20V.Since RF rheostat prevents particular level Voltage, therefore capacitor will not be entered electric power breakdown.However, impedance becomes a few k Ω if load is completely charged, To generate the surge voltage for being higher than 30V, this can destroy capacitor.Therefore, the DC rheostat of the breakdown voltage with about 18V It can be used for protective condenser.Figure 45 is the circuit for showing the receiver 20 of the optimization with protection structure.
In the case where resonance type wireless transmitter 10, when Rx resonator 11 is inserted into transmitter 10, if sent The conductor of device 10 and Rx resonator 11 is closely located to, then the eddy current for leading to reverse phase magnetic field is generated, to reduce power transmission Efficiency.In addition, eddy current can lead to the deterioration of transmitter 10 due to undesirable magnetic field.Eddy current in order to prevent needs With low-loss magnetic screening agent.
Figure 46 A is the view for showing Distribution of Magnetic Field when without using screening agent, and Figure 46 B is shown when using masking The view of Distribution of Magnetic Field when agent.Referring to Figure 46 A and Figure 46 B, since screening agent has higher magnetic conductivity than air, Magnetic field is collected into screening agent in the case where there are screening agent.Accordingly it is possible to prevent above-mentioned power outages and can be with Remove the undesired effect to equipment.However, having the screening agent of loss component to have conductor, and therefore, it is intended that selection tool There is the screening agent of minimal losses component.
Figure 47 A is the view for showing the case where not being spaced between resonator and screening agent, and Figure 47 B is shown humorous It shakes and there is the view of the case where interval between device and screening agent.In Figure 47 B, it is assumed that be divided between resonator and screening agent 0.6mm.Table 11 shows the Q value in Q value and Figure 47 B in Figure 47 A.
Figure 47 A and Figure 47 B and table 11 show the various Q values according to resonator and screening agent position.If using covering Agent is covered, then the intensity in magnetic field increases.Magnetic field directly affects the L value of resonator, therefore, it can be seen that if using screening agent, It is reduced as L value increases resonance frequency.In addition, the thickness with screening agent increases, the intensity in magnetic field increases, it is hereby achieved that Bigger L value and Q value.However, due to component lossy in screening agent, Q value corresponding with screening agent is used be less than with Without using the corresponding Q value of screening agent.In addition, when there is interval between resonator and screening agent, the loss of resonator characteristics It is less.
Figure 48 A and Figure 48 B are the views of the size for showing screening agent and equipment and the position of Rx resonator 21.Figure 48 A Show the case where size of screening agent is greater than the size of conductor, and Figure 48 B show screening agent and conductor have it is identical big Small situation.As the magnetic field from Tx resonator 11 is closer to receiver 20 and Rx resonator 21, then power transmission efficiency drops It is low.
Figure 49 is the figure for showing the coupling efficiency of the size relative to screening agent shown in Figure 48 A and Figure 48 B and conductor. In Figure 49, the efficiency variance of the thickness and size according to screening agent is shown.In an experiment used screening agent have μ= 130, μ '=1.15 and loss tangent=0.00884.When screening agent is with a thickness of 0, it means that naked state coupling efficiency (bare situation coupling efficiency).Consider that Rx resonator 21 is inserted into the situation in mobile communication terminal Under, it can be seen that according to the result of the thickness of screening agent and size.If the size of screening agent is 5mm bigger than the size of conductor, The efficiency increment of maximum 7% can be obtained.As the thickness of screening agent increases, efficiency becomes similar to exposed situation.
(realization of the receiver 20 in Wireless power transmission system)
Figure 50 is the exemplary block diagram of transmitter 10.Receiver 20 in Wireless power transmission system may include Rx resonance Device 21, the electrical power conversion including AC/DC rectifier (AC-DC rectifier) 23-1 and DC/DC converter (DC-DC converter) 23-2 Device 23, Rx controller (MCU control unit) 25, and can also include Rx match circuit (matching L/C) 22 and Rx communication unit 24 (not shown).The electric power exported by receiver 20 can be supplied to the equipment connecting with receiver 20, for example, mobile logical Believe terminal (telephone load), as driving power.
Rx resonator 21 has inner ring and outer rings line and capacitor, to improve power transmission efficiency.According to embodiment, such as The impedance matching of the impedance of fruit Rx match circuit 22 and Tx match circuit 12, then Rx resonator 21 and 12 resonance coupling of Tx resonator It closes, and is therefore provided with the electric power from transmitter 10.Rectification circuit is by using four two poles of Schottky in full bridge configuration Pipe, provides the full-wave rectification of AC waveform.Then, DC electric power can be supplied to 23 He of electric power converter by AC/DC rectifier 23-1 Rx controller 25.DC/DC converter 23-2 amplification is from the AC/DC rectifier 23-1 DC electric power exported and by the DC electric power of amplification Pass to the equipment (for example, the mobile communication terminal installed on receiver 20) connecting with receiver 20.By DC/DC converter The electric power of 23-2 amplification can be 5V.25 operation power control algolithm of Rx controller and agreement.In addition, Rx controller 25 can be controlled Electrical power conversion block (not shown) is intended in molding, and monitors several sensing circuit (not shown).Rx communication unit 24 executes receiver 20 traffic operation.Rx communication unit 24 is under the control of Rx controller 24, with the equipment (example for being mounted with receiver 20 thereon Such as, mobile communication terminal) or transmitter 10 communicate, so as to the various groupings of devices exchange.
Figure 51 A to Figure 51 E shows the Rx resonator 21 of receiver 20 according to the present invention.Figure 51 A shows implementation The structure of Rx resonator 21, Figure 51 B show the thickness of the Rx resonator 21 of implementation, and Figure 51 C shows the Rx resonator of implementation 21 shunt capacitor, Figure 51 D shows the profile of the Rx resonator 21 of implementation, and Figure 51 E shows the Rx resonance of implementation The thickness profile of device 21.
The Rx resonator 21 of receiver 20 may include the parallel construction for having 1 ounce of (0.034 millimeter) copper such as Figure 51 E. In addition, as illustrated in figure 5 1d, using multiple accesses of cover, total conductive sheet is connected to one, so that electric current has in all conductors There is identical direction.When those of ordinary skill in the art wish to realize Rx resonator 21, nearly effect (near effect) is considered And conductor resistance, it can choose the piece number and thickness with maximum Q value.In this case, consider that conductor resistance and magnetic field can With the region (related to the kappa value of coupling) passed through, it is desirable to the width with the Rx resonator 21 of highest transmission efficiency be arranged SW (being 6 millimeters in the case where Rx resonator 21 is inserted into mobile communication terminal).
Table 12 shows the width of Rx resonator 21 of the invention, and the Rx resonator of the width according to Rx resonator 21 Various parameters characteristic in 21.
Referring to table 12, when S21 is 3dB, f1 indicates low frequency, and f2 indicates high frequency, and f0 indicates resonance frequency.Each In the case of kind, the Q value of receiver 20 is about~200.As piece increases, the Q value of Rx resonator 21 increases little by little；However, root Mobile communication terminal can be applied to according to receiver 20,6 (it is the Rx resonator 21 with 0.53 millimeter of width).
Figure 52 is the view for showing the measuring configuration of the efficiency according to the present invention for being used to measure AC/DC rectifier 23-1. The table 13 being provided below shows according to the measuring configuration of Figure 52 the result for measuring the efficiency of AC/DC rectifier 23-1.
As previously mentioned, full wave bridge rectifier needs difference RF input signal, to need such as balun Measure neat lattice (Zig).However, it is difficult to which it is uneven to find the commercialization of electric power and work in 13.56MHz being able to bear higher than 10W Therefore in the present example, measuring configuration is arranged using resonator described below in transformer.
In the present example, it has used the Tx resonator 11 with 15cm × 15cm size and there is 4cm × 6cm size Rx resonator 21.Tx resonator 11 there are 50 Ω match to 50 Ω Rx resonator 21, and be used to be transformed into 50 Ω pairs The match circuit (matching L/C) of 10 Ω is connected to resonator 11 and 21.Therefore, 50 Ω are matched to the Tx resonator of 10 Ω 11 are fixed to 83% for the efficiency of Rx resonator 21.Here, AC/DC rectifier 23-1 is connected to Rx resonator 21, and The load of 10 Ω is inputted, then can measure DC to D/C voltage and electric current.If by the forward power (forward of 35.6dBm Power it) is supplied to E class A amplifier A 13-1, then then electric power is exported by the transmitting of Tx resonator 11 with 83% efficiency.Such as It is 3020mW from the electric power input that transmitter 10 exports to AC/DC rectifier 23-1 shown in table 13.
D/C voltage and electric current including the load both ends in receiver 20 are respectively 4.97V and 509mA.If quilt is lost Compensation, then the output power at DC load is 2685mW, and the gross efficiency of AC/DC rectifier 23-1 is about 89%.
Figure 53 is the measurement for showing the efficiency according to the present invention for the DC/DC converter 23-2 in measuring receiver 20 The view of configuration.The table 14 being provided below shows the efficiency of the DC/DC converter 23-2 of Figure 53.
In Figure 53, it is assumed that the input voltage level for being input to DC/DC converter 23-2 is 5.5V-8V.Implement currently In example, the voltage of 5.5V-10V is supplied to by DC/DC converter 23-2 by using power supply, and mobile load is connected, this The output dc voltage and electric current exported from DC/DC converter 23-2 is measured afterwards.When to the input generated during measurement process/defeated When DC electric current meter measurement loss compensates out, it can find out in table 14, according to the total of input electric power DC/DC converter 23-2 Efficiency is about 92%.
Figure 54 is the view for showing the system board for the receiver implemented according to the present invention, and Figure 55 is shown according to this hair The view of the receiver of bright implementation.
The total size of receiver 20 can be 47 × 5 × 2.6mm.Every level-one of the system board shown in Figure 54 (stage), the signal characteristic of receiver 20 can be checked.In the receiver 20 shown in Figure 54 and Figure 55, most thick component is Matching L/C and the 100uF capacitor of Rx match circuit 22 is formed, and the overall thickness for matching L/C and 100uF capacitor can be 2mm.In system board, the thickness of printed circuit board (PCB) can be set to 0.6mm, so that the overall thickness of system board can be with It is 2.6mm.According to embodiment, the thickness of PCB can be further reduced.
Particularly, in Figure 55, the receiver 20 in the rear shell for being mounted on mobile communication terminal is shown.Receiver 20, Communication module etc. is arranged in the rear surface of mobile communication terminal.When on the rear shell cover of mobile communication terminal, receiver 20 DC output port is connected to mobile communication terminal.
Figure 56 is the view for showing the measuring configuration of the efficiency for measuring receiver 20.Table 15 shows the reception of Figure 56 The measurement result of the efficiency of device 20.
The measuring configuration of efficiency for measuring receiver 20 is similar to the efficiency for measuring AC/DC rectifier 23-1 Measuring configuration.As shown in figure 56, DC/DC converter 23-2 is added to the electricity of the efficiency for measuring AC/DC rectifier 23-1 Road.In the present example, mobile load and the receiver 20 of mobile communication terminal can be measured together by the circuit of Figure 56 Practical charge efficiency.
When the forward power of 36.4dBm is input to receiver 20, electric power pass through with 83% efficiency Rx resonator 21, then the electric power input of 3623mW is to AC/DC rectifier 23-1, as shown in Table 15.Assuming that the D/C voltage at mobile load both ends It is 4.76V and 580mA respectively with electric current.
Since DC electric current meter has the loss of 0.6 Ω, so the output power at DC load is if loss is compensated 2909mW, and the efficiency of receiver 20 is about 80.3%.80.3% efficiency is similar to previously measured (89% AC/DC The DC/DC converter efficiency of rectification efficiency × 92%).The efficiency of receiver 20 and (AC/DC rectifier efficiency × DC/DC conversion Device efficiency) between small gap from mobile load and different input electric powers.
Figure 57 is to show to measure when the electric power exported from transmitter is 35.4dBm and load is 10 Ω in every level-one The figure of waveform.
The output of the measurement of the difference RF input signal of RF input matching circuit is the figure on top, and puts between 0-7V It is dynamic.The output figure of AC/DC rectifier 23-1 is the figure of lower part, wherein the voltage of about 5.7V is input into DC/DC converter 23-2. The electric power exported from DC/DC converter 23-2 is about 4.5V.
Figure 58 A and Figure 58 B are the wireless powers for being shown as single mobile communication terminal or the charging of multiple mobile communication terminals The view of Transmission system.Depending on the quantity of mobile communication terminal, power transmission according to the present invention and reception system control Power level, and power transmission according to the present invention and receive system send wireless power to single mobile communication terminal with it is more Each of a mobile communication terminal.
Even in the environment of multiple equipment, transmitter 10 according to the present invention can based on wireless power transmission control and Communication protocol succeeds, safely and effectively to the supply electric power of receiver 20.Nothing for wireless power network according to the present invention The control of line power transmission and communication protocol are substantially designed as bi-directional half-duplex framework.Wireless power transmission network has star-like Topological structure, wherein transmitter 10 is host and multiple receivers 20 are from equipment.Transmitter 10 and receiver 20 are held each other Row two-way communication, to identify equipment consistency and Change Power negotiation information.For being handed between transmitter 10 and receiver 20 The time-division anti-collision algorithms for the communication packet changed can be applied to power transmission according to the present invention and reception system.Time-division is anti- Collision algorithm can according to Carrier Sense Multiple Access/conflict avoidance (CSMA/CA) algorithm of IEEE802.15.4 time-division slot come Modification.
Be described below will be explained how under the detection in transmitter 10, registration, configuration, charging and standby mode will control and Communication protocol is respectively applied to single receiver 20 and multiple receivers 20.In the present invention, with period of time-division slot and competing The superframe structure for striving the period is designed to the anti-collision algorithms of the communication packet between transmitter 10 and receiver 20.
In the following description, the sequence and timing of each wireless charging state description control and communication protocol will be directed to.Separately Outside, in the following description, the event description for being directed to excess temperature, overvoltage and overcurrent respectively is also used for transmitter 10 or received The wireless power transmission of the safety of device 20 and received interruption control algolithm.In the present invention, control and communication protocol by notice, Interaction, report and confirmation (ACK) frame composition.
When user opens the electric power of transmitter 10, transmitter 10 periodically monitors the power load of Tx resonator 11 It carries, and the value is compared with scheduled threshold value.Transmitter is opened in rogue device (rogue device) and receiver 20 Before 10, if they are placed on transmitter 10 simultaneously, rogue device cannot be verified from receiver 20.In this case, Transmitter 10 stops applying electric power to Tx resonator 11.Object and transmitter off 10 are removed for the sake of security in user Before power switch, transmitter 10 periodically can send alert message to the user interface of transmitter 10 or receiver 20. It is preferred, therefore, that transmitter 10 is turned in the case where no other equipment or object are located on the interface of transmitter 10.
Figure 59 is the wireless power shown in the Wireless power transmission system in detection, registration, charging and standby mode The state diagram of transmission process.
Referring to Figure 59, under detecting state, transmitter 10 periodically supplies small electric power during the short working time Tx resonator 11 should be given, to monitor the variation of the load on interface.If detecting the positive load variation higher than predetermined value, send out Send device 10 that more electric power are supplied to Tx resonator 11, so that new receiver 20 can enter login state.Another party Face, if the respective response not from receiver 20, transmitter 10 returns to detecting state.
Under login state, new receiver 20 by include own mark and basic load characteristic grouping Interactive_Request_Join_Frame is sent to transmitter 10.Transmitter 10 distributes to short mark (SID) new Receiver, and by include SID and time slot allocation grouping Interactive_Response_Join_Frame be sent to it is new Receiver 20.If the response not from new receiver 20, transmitter 10 recognize, load variation is by metal object Or caused by undesirable equipment.In this case, transmitter 10 shows corresponding alert message to user, and stops Only apply electric power to Tx resonator 11.Hereafter, transmitter 10 returns to detecting state after it have passed through the predetermined time.
Under configuration status, new receiver 20 will include required output voltage, output electric current and power transmission efficiency Grouping Interactive_Request_Charge_Frame be sent to transmitter 10.Transmitter 10 is based on passing from receiver 20 The information sent calculates required electric power.Transmitter determines whether current power transmission capabilities meet required by new receiver 20 Electric power.If transmitter 10 has enough electric power, transmitter 10 will be including license data (Permission data) Grouping Interactive_Response_Charge_Frame be sent to new receiver 20, with allow new receiver 20 into Enter charged state.On the other hand, if being unsatisfactory for required electric power, transmitter 10 will disapprove data (or grouping) and send To new receiver 20, to allow new receiver 20 to enter standby mode.
In the charge state, transmitter 10 is broadcast to each receiver 20 for Notice_Frame is grouped.Notice_ Frame grouping is grouped, comprising synchronous for the order of each receiver and the state of whole system.Receiver 20 is in its distribution The grouping Report_Frame with respective electric power negotiation information is periodically transmitted to transmitter 10 during time slot.Transmitter 10 after each Report_Frame grouping is accepted to, start level needed for output power to be adjusted to receiver 20 Value.Transmitter 10 can increase or decrease total electricity according to the electric power negotiation information from one or more receivers 20.If Response not from a certain receiver 20 in the given time, then transmitter 10 identifies the removal of the receiver 20, and subtracts Few output power.Therefore, if receiver 20 is removed, transmitter 10 can divide again for remaining (multiple) receivers 20 Time slot with (multiple) SID He (multiple) distribution.
In the standby state, although receiver 20 does not receive required electric power from transmitter 10, receiver 20 with Transmitter 10 keeps communication.Receiver 20 enters standby mode, and there are two types of situations.
Firstly, the device battery for working as receiver 20 is completely charged or equipment retains (hold) and fill for some reason When electric, receiver 20 can will include completing charged state and (Charge Status of Complete & Wait) being waited to count According to Report_Frame grouping be sent to transmitter 10, and receiver 20 enters standby mode.Then, in standby mode Under, transmitter 10 can stop or decrease to the power transmission of receiver 20.
Second, if the current power transmission capabilities of transmitter 10 be unable to satisfy receiver 20 new under charged state and Total electricity needed for (multiple) other receivers 20, then transmitter 10 will include the grouping Interactive_ for disapproving data Response_Charge_Frame is sent to new receiver 20, and new receiver 20 enters standby mode.If sent Electric power needed for the current power transmission capabilities of device 10 meet new receiver 20, then transmitter 10 will include grouping license Grouping Interactive_Response_Charge_Frame is sent to new receiver 20, and new receiver 20 enters Charged state.
(electric power of single receiver sends and receives)
Figure 60 is the detection shown when receiver 20 is placed on not yet on the interface (for example, charging panel) of transmitter 10 The view of state procedure.Transmitter 10 is in each detection time tdetPeriodically by electric power PdetIt is applied to Tx resonator 11.? tdetPeriod, the monitoring load variation of transmitter 10, to check whether receiver 20 is placed in the interface of transmitter 10 (for example, charging Plate (not shown)) on.
In detecting step, load variation is defined as the difference between the current value of load and the preset value of load.If Load variation is lower than preset threshold value, then transmitter 10 recognizes, and no receiver is placed on the interface of transmitter 10.If Load variation is higher than preset threshold value, then transmitter 10 recognizes, and new receiver 20 is positioned on the interface of transmitter 10. As a result, receiver 20 can enter login state.
Therefore, in the present invention, the only detection time t in detecting step of transmitter 10detPeriod application electric power, and because This can be in addition to detection time tdetDetection time t in additiondet_perPeriod saves power consumption.
Figure 61 is the view for showing the process for being registered in receiver 20 in transmitter 10.
In reference Figure 61, if receiver 20 is placed on the interface (for example, charging panel (not shown)) of transmitter 10, Transmitter 10 increases output power, so that receiver 20 can be communicated with transmitter 10, and transmits electric power to receiver 20.It connects Device 20 is received in registion time tregIt is interior to send transmitter 10 for grouping Interactive_Request_Join_Frame. Interactive_Request_Join_Frame grouping includes the ID and initial load characteristic of receiver 20 oneself.Transmitter 10 As soon as receiving the ID of receiver 20, which is converted into SID (short ID) by transmitter 10, it has smaller volume compared with ID With shorter length.Since the ID for being sent to the receiver 20 of transmitter 10 from receiver 20 is very long, in receiver 20 Transmitter 10 issues SID to receiver 20 during registration, consequently facilitating the management of receiver 20.Transmitter 10 can connect new The SID and load characteristic for receiving device 20 are registered in the device control table of transmitter 10.Device control table can be designed to (more It is a) individual receiver 20 power transmission management.
Table 16 shows the example of the device control table structure managed by transmitter 10.
Referring to table 16, the letter of power transmission information that device control table storage is updated in relation to each receiver 20 and current Breath.The grouping Interactive_Response_Join_Frame including newly assigned SID is sent receiver by transmitter 10 20.In response, receiver 20 will confirm that (ACK) frame is sent to transmitter 10.When transmitter 10 has successfully received ACK, Electrical power transmission system for transmitting wirelessly and receiving electric power is moved to configuration step.
If the packet errors such as packet collisions, crc error and receiver failure occur, sent from receiver 20 Grouping Interactive_Request_Join_Frame can not be correctly delivered to transmitter 10.
Figure 62 is the view for showing the example of packet error situation, and wherein transmitter 10 is not received by from the first receiver The grouping ACK_Frame that receiver 1 or second receiver receiver 2 are sent.Referring to Figure 62, transmitter 10 can be by electric power Preg It is re-applied to the first receiver, this is with (treg_ret) it is to be spaced treg_retIncrease (nreg_ret- 1) secondary.In these processes In, if ACK_Frame grouping is successfully delivered to transmitter 10, power transmission and reception system proceed to configuration status. Otherwise, if transmitter 10 is not received by any ACK_Frame grouping at all, transmitter 10 stops applying to the first receiver It is powered on power.In addition, transmitter 10 can send alert message to user by user interface (not shown).According to embodiment, only Have when leading to the receiver 20 of above-mentioned mistake from the removal of the interface of transmitter 10, the state of transmitter 10 just may return to inspection Survey state.
Figure 63 is to show metal object or impurity (or undesirable) equipment is placed on the interface of transmitter 10 The view of packet error situation.
Referring to Figure 63, when metal object or undesirable equipment are placed on the interface of transmitter 10, transmitter 10 cannot receive any Interactive_Request_Join_Frame grouping from receiver 20.Then, transmitter 10 is again Apply PREGElectric power, this is by treg_retIncrease (nreg_ret- 1) secondary, as shown in Figure 63.Due to being reapplied electric power PREGSet Standby or object is undesirable equipment or object, therefore transmitter 10 cannot receive Interactive_ from equipment or object Request_Join_Frame grouping.Transmitter 10 stops applying electric power PREG, and show that warning disappears to user by user interface Breath.Alarm condition is kept, until impurity equipment or metal object are removed from the interface of transmitter 10.It is not inconsistent from interface removal After closing desired equipment or metal object, transmitter 10 returns to detecting state.
Figure 64 is the view for showing the normal operating process of the configuration step in Wireless power transmission system.Reference Figure 64, After the registration of receiver 20, receiver 20 is sent to transmitter for Interactive_Request_Charge_Frame is grouped 10.Interactive_Request_Charge_Frame grouping include receiver 20 electrical characteristic, such as electric current, voltage and Power transmission efficiency.Transmitter 10 is based on the information transmitted from receiver 20, that is, is based on Interactive_Request_ Charge_Frame grouping, calculates electric power required by receiver 20.Whether transmitter 10 determines current power transmission capabilities Meet electric power required by new receiver 20.If transmitter 10 has enough electric power, transmitter 10 will include being used for The grouping Interactive_Response_Charge_Frame of the license data of charging is sent to new receiver 20.It receives The receiver 20 being grouped to Interactive_Response_Charge_Frame immediately sends grouping ACK_Frame to Send device 10.As a result, receiver 20 can enter charged state, that is, receiver 20 can receive the state of electric power from transmitter 10.
On the other hand, if transmitter 10 does not have enough electric power, transmitter 10, which will disapprove data and be sent to, to be connect Receive device 20.It receives and disapproves the receivers 20 of data and can enter standby mode.
Time restriction can be enforced for aforesaid operations according to embodiment.If transmitter 10 is from receiver 20 Receive the t after ACK_Frame groupingreq_charInteractive_Request_ is not received from receiver 20 in time Charge_Frame grouping, then transmitter 10 recognizes, and receiver 20 is removed from the interface of transmitter 10.
If transmitter 10 recognizes receiver 20 and is removed, transmitter 10 is not by sending Interactive_ Response_Charge_Frame grouping carrys out the information from receiver 20 of the device control table erasing without response.Hereafter, transmitter 10 return to detecting state.On the other hand, when receiver 20 is in tdata_resInside it is not received by Interactive_Response_ When Charge_Frame is grouped and does not send ACK_Frame grouping, transmitter 10 is in trandom(tAt random) in send again Interactive_Response_Charge_Frame grouping.Transmitter 10 can be by Interactive_Response_ The operation that Charge_Frame grouping is sent to receiver 20 repeats (nreg_ret- 1) more than secondary, to be received from receiver 20 ACK_Frame grouping.According to embodiment, even if attempting grouping in transmitter 10 sends operation (nreg_ret- 1) it is secondary it is above it Afterwards, Interactive_Response_Charge_Frame grouping is still not transferred to receiver 20, then receiver 20 can return Return to detecting state.
If transmitter 10 is in time tackInterior not receive ACK_Frame grouping from receiver 20, then transmitter 10 can Will include that the Interactive_Response_Charge_Frame grouping of license data is sent to the operation weight of receiver 20 Multiple nreg_retMore than secondary.Even if in nreg_retTransmitter 10 receives ACK_ still without from receiver 20 after secondary trial Frame grouping, then transmitter 10 can recognize, and receiver 20 is removed from the interface of transmitter 10.In this case, it sends Device 10 wipes the information of the receiver 20 without response from device control table, and returns to detecting state.
According to embodiment, if the current power transmission capabilities of transmitter 10 are not able to satisfy needed for the receiver of new registration Electric power, then will there is transmitter 10 the grouping Interactive_Response_Charge_Frame for disapproving data to be sent to Receiver, and receiver enters standby mode.Then, transmitter 10 can by included electric power resetting (Reset of Over Power) the grouping Interactive_Response_Charge_Frame of data is sent to receiver.In such case Under, transmitter 10 can show the corresponding alert message more than power capacity to the user interface of transmitter 10.Receive including The receiver for crossing the Interactive_Response_Charge_Frame grouping of the resetting of electric power may return to detection shape State.
Here, tackRepresent the duration that transmitter 10 receives the permission of grouping ACK_Frame from receiver 20. nreg_retIt represents transmitter 10 and sends the grouping of interactive response frame to receiver 20 to wait from the reception of receiver 20 ACK_Frame The quantity of grouping retried.
In the charge state, transmitter 10 is to each 20 broadcast packe Notice_Frame of receiver, and each reception The grouping Report_Frame of the state including it is sent transmitter 10 by device 20.Notice_Frame is grouped in 0 quilt of time slot Distribution, and the timeslot number of Report_Frame grouping is assigned to the receiver 20 with the SID distributed by transmitter 10, As shown in Figure 65.Figure 65 is the view for showing the charging operations of single receiver 20.
Grouping Notice_Frame includes the various information of receiver 20, and the charging of such as specific receiver 20 starts, fills Electricity is completed, reset, powering off and the order of SID variation.Transmitter 10 can also to all receivers 20 broadcast include power-off, on The Notice_Frame grouping of electric, synchronous and resetting order.
Grouping Report_Frame includes the charged state and power information of receiver 20.The Report_ of receiver 20 Frame grouping must reach transmitter 10 in the time slot for distributing to receiver 20.It otherwise, may be with other receivers 20 Report_Frame grouping clashes.Therefore, transmitter 10 is with receiver 20 by accurately synchronous.For transmitter 10 and connect The synchronization between device 20 is received, transmitter 10 can be grouped by Notice_Frame sends synchronous subframe (Sub to receiver 20 Frame of Sync) data, allow receiver 20 that its clock is synchronous with the clock of transmitter 10.
Based on included power information in the Report_Frame of receiver 20 grouping, transmitter 10 update with it is every Device control table in the corresponding registration table of state of a receiver 20.Electric power needed for transmitter 10 calculates receiver 20 Summation, and increase or decrease the electric power for being applied to Tx resonator 11.According to embodiment, the above process can be with tcycle(tPeriod) Time interval periodically carries out.
If receiver 20 is in tackInterior not receive ACK_Frame grouping from transmitter 10, then receiver 20 is attempted (it is in t for next time slot of owncycleReached after time interval) send Report_Frame grouping.When receiver 20 is in the case where connecing (3 × the t comecycle) 3 super frame periods do not obtain ACK_Frame grouping when, receiver 20 to transmitter 10 transmission includes The Report_Frame of charged state (Charge Status of Error) data of mistake is grouped and returns to registration shape State.
Figure 66 is the view for showing the process for removing single receiver 20 from the interface of transmitter 10 in the charge state.When In the charge state from interface (for example, charging panel) (not shown) of transmitter 10 remove receiver 20 when, transmitter 10 is not Can any Report_Frame grouping be received from removed receiver 20 again.In order to distinguish the event of removal receiver 20 and divide Group conflict, transmitter 10 are attempted in (nabsence×tcycle) slot period monitors the Report_Frame of removed receiver 20 Grouping.In this (nabsence×tcycle) in the period, transmitter 10 can will be sent to the power level of the electric power of receiver 20 PchargeSmoothly it is reduced to power level Preg.Even if in (nabsence×tcycle) also do not remove self after the period Receiver 20 Report_Frame grouping transmission, then transmitter 10 recognizes, receiver 20 be removed.Transmitter 10 is more New equipment control table, and cut off the electric power to be sent to removed receiver 20.According to embodiment, because not receiving Device 20 is placed on the interface of transmitter 10, so transmitter 10 returns to detecting state.
Figure 67 is the view for showing with the fully charged of receiver 20 or recharging corresponding process.When setting for receiver 20 When standby battery is completely charged, receiver 20 will include completing charged state and standby (Charge Status of Complete And Standby) data Report_Frame grouping be sent to transmitter 10.Receiver 20 is subsequently into standby mode.From The transmitter 10 that receiver 20 receives Report_Frame grouping updates the device control table and electric power of receiver 20 is defeated It is smoothly reduced to power level P outregTo prevent unexpected voltage raising and lowering.
When the hope of receiver 20 recharges battery, receiver 20 is by charged state (the Charge Status including CC Of CC) data Report_Frame grouping be sent to transmitter 10.Hereafter, receiver 20 can enter charged state.It receives The transmitter 10 being grouped to Report_Frame updates device control table, and increase be applied to the electric power of Tx resonator 11 so as to By power transmission to receiver 20.
(electric power of multiple receivers sends and receives)
Figure 68 is to show to be in charging at least one receiver 20 (it will be referred to as the first receiver receiver 1) The view of the process of new receiver 20 (it will be referred to as second receiver receiver 2) is registered when under state.When second Receiver receiver 2 compete the period will be grouped Interactive_Request_Join_Frame be sent to transmitter 10 when, With other receivers 20 communicated in each allotted time slot with transmitter 10, that is, the first receiver receiver 1 is not grouped Conflict.The SID of second receiver receiver 2 and load characteristic are registered in device control table by transmitter 10.Transmitter 10 will Interactive_Response_Join_Frame grouping including SID is sent to second receiver receiver 2.In response, ACK_Frame grouping is sent transmitter 10 by second receiver receiver 2.
If second receiver receiver 2 is in the period of time-division slot, that is, distribute to other receivers (for example, first receives Device receiver 1) slot period send Interactive_Request_Join_Frame grouping, then Interactive_ Request_Join_Frame grouping may be with the Report_Frame packet collisions of the first receiver receiver 1.It connects when second Receiving device receiver 2 cannot be in t due to the conflict between groupingdata_resIt is received in response time from transmitter 10 When Interactive_Response_Join_Frame is grouped, second receiver receiver 2 is attempted with trandomTime interval Interactive_Request_Join_Frame grouping is retransmitted until receiving Interactive_ from transmitter 10 Response_Join_Frame grouping.
When the period in time-division slot sending conflict between grouping, transmitter 10 can be received from first currently to charge Device receiver 1 receives the Report_Frame grouping of damage.The Report_Frame that transmitter 10 abandons damage is grouped, and Next period receives Report_Frame grouping from the first receiver receiver 1.According to embodiment, if connect in the first receiver There are continuous n in the Report_Frame grouping transmit process of receipts device 1col_retSecondary conflict, then transmitter 10 is to all first It includes scheduling error resetting (Reset of Schedule Error) that receiver receiver 1 or second receiver receiver 2, which are sent, The Notice_Frame of data is grouped, and returns to detecting state.
When at least one receiver 20, that is, placed during the charging of the first receiver receiver 1 undesirable When equipment or metal object, transmitter 10 detects that positive (+) load variation is more than threshold value.Therefore, transmitter 10 can not be from One receiver receiver 1 receives Report_Frame grouping.Transmitter 10 is in (3 × tcycle) period during wait and being connect from object Receive Interactive_Request_Join_Frame grouping.If not hearing response from object, transmitter 10 can be true Fixed load is as caused by undesirable equipment or metal object.In this case, transmitter 10 can be to all First receiver receiver 1 sends power-off (the Power Off of Abnormal Object including exception object detection Detection) the Notice_Frame grouping of data, and stop power supply.In order to remove undesirable equipment or Metal object, transmitter 10 can show alert message to user.According to embodiment, transmitter 10 can stop receiving to first The power supply of device receiver 1, and electric power is cut off during the warning period for showing alert message to user.
If transmitter 10 is in time tackIt is interior not receive ACK_Frame from second receiver receiver 2, then it sends Device 10 repeats to send second receiver receiver 2n for Interactive_Response_Charge_Framereg_retIt is secondary with On.However, even if in nreg_retTransmitter 10 receives ACK_ still without from second receiver receiver 2 after secondary trial Frame, then transmitter 10 recognizes, and second receiver receiver 2 is removed from the interface of transmitter 10.In this case, it sends out Send device 10 from the information of receiver of the device control table erasing without response.
If the quantity of the first receiver receiver 1 is greater than the maximum number of timeslots designed for transmitter 10, that is, be greater than hair Send device 10 in the maximum quantity of chargeable receiver 20 of same time, then transmitter 10 is sent to second receiver receiver 2 The Interactive_Response_ for disapproving (Not Permission of Over Node) data including being more than node Frame grouping, and show that alert message removes second receiver receiver 2 until user to user.
Figure 69 is to show second receiver when multiple first receiver receivers 1 have been under charged state to connect Receive the view that device 2 enters the process of charged state.
After login state, second receiver receiver 2 sends Interactive_Request_ to transmitter 10 Charge_Frame grouping.
Interactive_Request_Charge_Frame grouping includes the electrical characteristic of second receiver receiver 2, Such as electric current, voltage and power transmission efficiency.Power transmission efficiency is to utilize the preparatory measured value with reference to sender system.It sends Device 10 determines whether current power transmission capabilities meet electric power required by the first receiver receiver 1.If transmitter 10 With enough electric power, then transmitter 10 will include the Interactive_Response_ for being used for the license data to charge Charge_Frame grouping is sent to second receiver receiver 2.As the determination as a result, if transmitter 10 does not have foot Enough electric power, then transmitter 10 will disapprove data and be sent to second receiver receiver 2.It receives and disapproves the second of data Receiver receiver 2 enters standby mode.
Shortly after receiving license data, ACK_Frame is sent transmitter 10 by second receiver receiver 2. As a result, second receiver receiver 2 can enter charged state.
If t of the transmitter 10 after sending Interactive_Response_Join_Framereq_charDo not have in time Have from second receiver receiver 2 and receive Interactive_Request_Charge_Frame grouping, then transmitter 10 is known It is clipped to, second receiver receiver 2 is removed from sender interface.In this case, transmitter 10 is wiped from device control table Except the information of the receiver of no response.As a result, transmitter 10 does not send Interactive_ to second receiver receiver 2 Response_Charge_Frame.Second receiver receiver 2 is in tdata_resIt is interior not received from transmitter 10 Interactive_Response_Charge_Frame, and it is in trandomDetecting state is returned to after time interval.
If transmitter 10 is in time tackIt is interior not receive ACK_Frame grouping from second receiver receiver 2, then The repetition of transmitter 10 sends second for the Interactive_Response_Charge_Frame grouping including license data and connects Receive device receiver 2nreg_retMore than secondary.Even if however, when in nreg_retTransmitter 10 is received still without from second after secondary trial When device receiver 2 receives ACK_Frame grouping, transmitter 10 can be recognized, and second receiver receiver 2 connects from transmitter Mouth removes.In this case, information of the transmitter 10 from receiver of the device control table erasing without response.Second receiver connects Receiving device 2 not can enter charged state, and return to login state.
When the electric power needed for the current power transmission capabilities of transmitter 10 are not able to satisfy second receiver receiver 2, hair Send device 10 that will there is the Interactive_Response_Charge_Frame for disapproving data grouping to be sent to second receiver Receiver 2, and second receiver receiver 2 enters standby mode.If electric power required by second receiver receiver 2 is super Cross the maximum total electricity capacity of transmitter 10, then transmitter 10 by included electric power resetting data Interactive_ Response_Charge_Frame grouping is sent to second receiver receiver 2.In this case, transmitter 10 can be to User interface sends more than the corresponding alert message of power capacity, and transmitter 10 returns to detecting state.
In the charge state, transmitter 10 is in each time slot to 1 broadcast packe Notice_ of the first receiver receiver Frame.The grouping Report_Frame of the state including it is sent transmitter 10 by first receiver receiver 1.Notice_ Frame frame is assigned to time slot 0, and distributes to the timeslot number of the Report_Frame grouping of the first receiver receiver 1 It is identical as SID shown in Figure 70.Figure 70 is the view for showing the charging process of multiple first receiver receivers 1.
Grouping Notice_Frame of the transmitter 10 to the broadcast of all receivers including power-off, the order for powering on and resetting. Notice_Frame grouping also has the various orders for specific receiver, and such as charging starts, charging terminates, resets, breaking Electricity, synchronous and change time slot.
Report_Frame includes the charged state and power information of the first receiver receiver 1.Transmitter 10 is distributing Report_Frame grouping is received from each first receiver receiver 1 in the time slot of each first receiver receiver 1.It is no Then, it may be clashed between the Report_Frame grouping sent between the first receiver receiver 1.Therefore, transmitter 10 with the first receiver receiver 1 by accurately synchronous.For this purpose, Notice_Frame grouping can have synchronous Subframe (Sub Frame of Sync) data allow the first receiver receiver 1 by the clock of its clock and transmitter 10 It is synchronous.
Based on included power information from the Report_Frame that the first receiver receiver 1 is sent, transmitter 10 Device control table is updated in registration table corresponding with the state of each first receiver receiver 1.Transmitter 10 calculates the The summation of electric power needed for one receiver receiver 1, and the electricity for being applied to Tx resonator 11 is increased or decreased according to calculated result Power.This operation of transmitter 10 can be with tcycleTime interval periodically carry out.
When at least one point of the first receiver receiver 1 in the slot period for distributing to the first receiver receiver 1 When group and at least one packet collisions of second receiver receiver 2, the grouping sent from the first receiver receiver 1, Report_Frame grouping has damaged.Transmitter 10 is abandoned and is received from first occupying the first receiver receiver 1 and second receiver The Report_Frame for the damage that first receiver receiver 1 of the time slot between device 2 receives is grouped.Transmitter 10 is next The Report_Frame grouping of the first receiver receiver 1 first occupied is received in superframe.Transmitter 10 repeats to receive Report_ The operation of Frame grouping reaches ncol_retIt is secondary until not clashing, and therefore receive non-damaging Report_Frame point Group.When Report_Frame grouping is sent transmitter 10 by the first receiver receiver 1, if received with second receiver There are continuous n for the grouping of device 2col_retSecondary conflict, then transmitter 10 is to the first all receiver receivers 1 or second receiver Receiver 2 sends the Notice_Frame grouping including scheduling error resetting (Reset of Schedule Error) data, and And return to detecting state.
If the first receiver receiver 1 is in tackIt is interior not receive ACK_Frame grouping from transmitter 10, then first (it is in t in its next time slot for the trial of receiver receiver 1cycleTime interval reaches) send Report_Frame grouping.When First receiver receiver 1 is in next (3 × tcycle) 3 super frame periods do not obtain ACK_Frame from transmitter 10 Grouping, then sending from the first receiver 1 to transmitter 10 includes wrong charged state (Charge Status of Error) The Report_Frame of data is grouped and returns to login state.
If as shown in Figure 66 in the charge state from the interface of transmitter 10 remove multiple first receiver receivers 1 it One, then transmitter cannot receive Report_Frame grouping from the first receiver receiver 1 of removal.Figure 71 be show removal by The view of the process of one of multiple receivers that transmitter 10 charges.In the following description, the receiver not removed will be claimed Second receiver receiver 2 will be referred to as the receiver of the first receiver receiver 1, and removal.
In order to distinguish the thing of this event and packet collisions for removing second receiver receiver 2 from the interface of transmitter 10 Part, transmitter 10 can be in (nabsence×tcycle) period wait from second receiver receiver 2 receive Report_Frame.
In (nabsence×tcycle) in the period, transmitter 10 can put down the electric power for being sent to second receiver receiver 2 Quietly it is reduced to power level Preg.Even if in (nabsence×tcycle) period wait from second receiver receiver 2 receive Also the transmission of the Report_Frame not from second receiver receiver 2 after Report_Frame, then transmitter 10 is known It is clipped to, second receiver receiver 2 is removed.Transmitter 10 updates device control table, and cuts off and connect for second receiver Receive the electric power of device 2.
In this way, being sent if the power transmission to specific receiver 20 (that is, second receiver receiver 2) is cut off Device 10 can for remaining (multiple) receivers (that is, (multiple) first receiver receiver 1) redistribute (multiple) SID and (multiple) time slot.In the time slot distributed by transmitter 10 for the first receiver receiver 1 and second receiver receiver 2, There is free timeslot since receiver removes.It is inefficent that free timeslot is left in the time slot of occupancy.Therefore, it wishes Prestige is occupied in distributed time slot most by the way that the free timeslot as used in second receiver receiver 2 to be reassigned to The first receiver receiver 1 of time slot eliminates free timeslot afterwards.Transmitter 10 will be including the Notice_ of the SID redistributed Frame is sent to the first receiver receiver 1 for occupying last time slot, and updates its device control table.As a result, having redistributed First receiver receiver 1 of the time slot sends transmitter 10 for Report_Frame in next super frame period.
Figure 72 is to show to connect in the charging process of the first receiver receiver 1 and second receiver receiver 2 to first Receive the view for the process that device receiver 1 recharges.
When the device battery of the first receiver receiver 1 is completely charged, the first receiver receiver 1 will include completing The Report_Frame of charged state and standby data grouping is sent to transmitter 10, and the first receiver receiver 1 enters Standby mode.Then, due to the charging complete of the first receiver receiver 1, transmitter 10 updates device control table.In order to Voltage fluctuation sharply is prevented, the electric power that transmitter 10 can be applied to Tx resonator 11 is smoothly reduced to be connect for first Receive the power level P of device receiver 1reg。
When the first receiver receiver 1 needs to recharge battery, the first receiver receiver 1 is by the charging including CC The Report_Frame grouping of state (Charge Status of CC) data is sent to transmitter 10.Therefore, the first receiver Receiver 1 enters charged state.Then, the transmission that Report_Frame is grouped is received from the first receiver receiver 1 Device 10 updates device control table, and increases and be applied to Rx resonator 11, electric power for the first receiver receiver 1.? In Figure 72, it is assumed that continuously charge for second receiver receiver 2.
Figure 73 is the view for showing the SID exchange process between multiple receivers.
When multiple receivers, for example, the first receiver receiver 1, second receiver receiver 2 and third receiver receive When device 3 is placed on the interface of transmitter 10, the power capacity of transmitter 10 is likely less than multiple receivers (first to third Receiver) needed for total electricity.Therefore, if the power capacity of transmitter 10 be less than receiver needed for total electricity, The receiver for being eventually adding or registering on time must stay in standby mode rather than charged state.
In Figure 73, the first receiver receiver 1 and second receiver receiver 2 are in charged state, and third connects It receives device and rests on standby mode.First has been respectively allocated the first time slot 1,2 and of the second time slot to third receiver Third time slot 3.
Referring to Figure 73, it is in except charged state in the first receiver receiver 1 and second receiver receiver 2, second Receiver receiver 2 is completely charged and enters standby mode.Transmitter 10 will include that charging starts (Charge Start) number According to Notice_Frame grouping be sent to and be in the third receiver receiver 3 of standby mode.Due to from be in charging The power information that the receiver 20 of state is sent is more important, therefore transmitter 10 redistributes 2 receivers currently to charge The SID of (that is, the first receiver receiver 1 or third receiver receiver 3), to exchange the SID of these receivers.Therefore, such as Shown in Figure 73, third receiver receiver 3 has been reallocated the second time slot 2.
Superframe according to the present invention including time slot and competition period can be designed by the anti-collision algorithms of communication packet, The anti-collision algorithms of the communication packet are modified according to IEEE802.15.4CSMA/CA algorithm.The time span of superframe is determined Justice is tcycleCycle time.
Figure 74 A is to show the view of the slot period of superframe, and Figure 74 B is slot period and the competition for showing superframe The view of period.In Figure 74 A and Figure 74 B, tcycleRepresent the time span (for example, 250ms) of superframe, tslot(tTime slot) represent The duration (for example, 5ms) of time slot, nslot(nTime slot) represent the sum of the time slot that transmitter 10 is distributed.tcontRepresent competition Time span during period, and can be represented as:
Superframe can consist of two parts: the period and competition period of the time-division slot as shown in Figure 74 A and Figure 74 B.Allow Report_Frame grouping is sent during the time slot that receiver 20 only distributes to himself in the period of time-division slot, and is not permitted Perhaps receiver 20 sends Report_Frame grouping to transmitter 10 in the competition period.In this way, by only in each receiver 20 Permission time slot during his Report_Frame grouping, the communication packet between multiple receivers 20 are sent to transmitter 10 Conflict be minimized.
Assuming that existing receiver is the first receiver receiver 1 and the receiver that is newly added is that second receiver receives Device 2.Interactive_Request_ is sent to transmitter 10 during period of the second receiver receiver 2 in time-division slot When Join_Frame is grouped, the Interactive_Request_Join_Frame sent from second receiver receiver 2 is grouped It may be with the packet collisions that are sent from least one first receiver receiver 1.
Therefore, if conflicted with each other from the grouping that different receivers (the first and second receivers) is sent, first is connect ACK_Frame grouping can not be received from transmitter 10 by receiving device receiver 1.First receiver receiver 1 distributes in next superframe To sending Report_Frame grouping to transmitter 10 again during its slot cycle.
Second receiver receiver 2 is being less than tcycleArbitrary delay time trandomPeriod sends to transmitter 10 Interactive_Request_Join_Frame grouping.In this way, new receiver is (that is, second receiver receiver 2) SID and time slot can be assigned, in the case where not conflicting with other receiver (the first receiver) communication packets to Transmitter 10 sends Report_Frame grouping.According to embodiment, transmitter 10 can send in the competition period and come from second The Interactive_Request_Join_Frame of receiver receiver 2 is grouped.In the competition period, the first receiver is received Device 1 does not send Report_Frame grouping to transmitter 10.Therefore, transmitter is in the competition period from second receiver receiver 2 receive Interactive_Request_Join_Frame grouping, connect to minimize in the first receiver receiver 1 and second A possibility that receiving the packet collisions that may occur between device receiver 2.
In slot period, zero time slot 0 is connect from transmitter 10 to the first receiver receiver 1 or second receiver Receive the period that device 2 sends Notice_Frame grouping.Notice_Frame grouping includes clock synchronization information and SID, and clock is same Step information keeps the first receiver receiver 1 or second receiver receiver 2 that its clock is synchronous with the clock of transmitter 10.It sends Device 10 can also the corresponding first receiver receiver 1 or second of specific SID in being grouped with Notice_Frame receive Device receiver 2 sends specific command.
Referring to Figure 74 A, by tslotSlot period distribute to first or second receiver.According to embodiment, when by first Gap time slot 1 distributes to the first or second receiver with the first SID, and the second time slot 2 is distributed to second The first or second receiver of SID.In this fashion, nth slot time slot N is distributed to first or with N SID Two receivers.According to embodiment, the quantity for distributing to the time slot of first or second receiver can be lower than 10.Assuming that by transmitter 10 sums for distributing to the time slot of first or second receiver are 10, then slot period is about (10 × tslot)。
If the quantity of first or second receiver is greater than the maximum quantity for the time slot that can be distributed by transmitter 10, send out Sending device 10 to send to new receiver (that is, second receiver receiver 2) includes disapproving (Not more than node Permission of Over Node) data Interactive_Response_Frame grouping, and to user interface send out Send alert message until user removes new receiver receiver 2.
It is according to the present invention as shown in Figure 66 for the time restriction of electrical power transmission system suitably operated.Figure 60 to Figure 74 Shown in show in the table 17 that is presented below of time restriction.
Figure 75 is the view for showing the timing restriction under detecting state.As shown in Figure 75, the transmission under detecting state Device 10 is in each tdet_perTdetPeriod applies power to Tx resonator 11, with new to detect by sensing positive load variation Receiver 20.The power level P exported from transmitter 10detIt can be by the loading sensitivity (sensibility) of transmitter 10 It determines.
Figure 76 is the view for showing the timing restriction under login state.As shown in Figure 76, when the positive load variation of sensing, hair The electric power for sending device 10 to be applied to Tx resonator 11 increases to level Preg, it is enough to wake up the Rx controller 25 of receiver 20.So And the step the step of being before charging starts, and in this step, receiver 20 will not be received from transmitter 10 Supply an electric power to include receiver 20 batter-charghing system.Receiver 20 is in tregIt is interior to sending from transmitter 10 Interactive_Request_Join_Frame grouping responds.If in tregThe interior response not from receiver 2, Then transmitter 10 is in treg_retTime interval stopping apply power to Tx resonator 11.Transmitter can be by aforementioned process weight Multiple nreg_retIt is secondary.Even if when in nreg_retStill without receiving Interactive_Request_Join_Frame after secondary trial Grouping, then transmitter 10 stops electric power (Preg) be applied to Tx resonator 11 and return to detecting state.
Figure 77 is the view for showing the timing restriction under configuration status.Referring to Figure 77, as to being sent from transmitter 10 The response of Interactive_Response_Join_Frame grouping, receiver 10 send ACK_Frame points to transmitter 10 Group.Receiver 20 is also in treq_charIt is interior to send Interactive_Request_Charge_Frame grouping to transmitter.? The transmitter 10 of Interactive_Request_Charge_Frame grouping is received in t from receiver 20data_resIntroversion connects It receives device 20 and sends Interactive_Response_Charge_Frame grouping.As to Interactive_Response_ The response of Charge_Frame grouping, receiver 20 is in tackIt is interior to send ACK_Frame grouping to transmitter 10.Pass through the above mistake Journey, receiver 20 can enter charged state and receive the electric power exported from transmitter.
Figure 78 is the view for showing the timing restriction under charged state.As shown in Figure 78, in the charge state, when zero time slot Gap 0 is the slot period that transmitter 10 broadcasts that Notice_Frame is grouped to receiver 20.Therefore, transmitter 10 is not by zero time slot Distribute to receiver 20.First time slot 1 is distributed into the first receiver receiver 1, so that the first receiver receiver 1 In tdata_resIt is interior to send Report_Frame grouping to transmitter 10.Report_ is received from the first receiver receiver 1 The transmitter 10 of Frame grouping is in tackIntroversive first receiver receiver 1 sends ACK_Frame grouping.In the above method, Transmitter 10 and the first receiver receiver 1 can periodically share electric power negotiation information, such as voltage, electric current and electric power Efficiency of transmission.If removing the first receiver receiver 1 from the interface (for example, charging panel) of transmitter 10 and without from the The report (Report_Frame grouping is not sent to transmitter 10) of one receiver receiver 1, then transmitter 10 determines first Receiver receiver 1 is removed.Since the first receiver receiver 1 is removed, transmitter 10 will divide in the charge state The time slot (that is, first time slot 1) of the first receiver of dispensing receiver 1 is reassigned to last receiver.Therefore, according to Transmitter 10 of the invention reduces the quantity for distributing to the time slot of receiver 20 and increases the competition period, to minimize communication Conflict possibility.
In the standby state, timing restriction is identical as the timing restriction under charged state.
Meanwhile including to the transmission of receiver 20 with security-related interruption, transmitter 10 if receiver 20 is detected Internal error closes the Notice_Frame grouping of electric power (Power Off of Internal Error) data.As a result, sending Device 10 can stop applying power to Tx resonator 11, with protect their own circuit and receiver 20 not by excess temperature, mistake The damage of electric current and overvoltage etc..
Figure 79 is the flow chart for showing transmitter 10 and preventing electrical power transmission system by the method for overcurrent, and Figure 80 is to show Transmitter 10 prevents electrical power transmission system by the flow chart of the method for overvoltage, and Figure 81 is to show transmitter 10 to prevent electricity Flow chart of the force transmission system by the method for excess temperature.
Receiver 20 according to the present invention can detecte and security-related interruption.When detecting interruption, receiver 20 The corresponding error reason data including such as overcurrent data, overvoltage data and excess temperature data are sent to transmitter 10 Report_Frame.As a result, the stopping of transmitter 10 applies power to Tx resonator 11, to protect circuit and the reception of their own Device 20 is not by the damage of excess temperature, overcurrent and overvoltage etc..
Figure 82 is the flow chart for showing receiver 20 and preventing electrical power transmission system by the method for overvoltage.Receiver 20 is anti- Only electrical power transmission system prevents electric power from passing by the method for overcurrent and excess temperature and transmitter 10 shown in Figure 80 and Figure 81 Defeated system is identical with the method for excess temperature by overcurrent, therefore is not separately described.
(communication interface in Wireless power transmission system)
The communication protocol of Wireless power transmission system according to the present invention is based on for sensor network environment IEEE802.15.4.However, IEEE 802.15.4 has due to for Wireless power transmission system according to the present invention Unnecessary function, therefore IEEE 802.15.4 agreement is modified and redesigned in the present invention.Particularly, at this In invention, some physical layer functions are excluded from IEEE802.15.4, and link layer is redesigned to be suitble to according to the present invention Wireless transmitting system.
Figure 83 is to show to communicate between the transmitter 10 and receiver 20 of Wireless power transmission system according to the present invention Example view.
Referring to Figure 83, the communication between transmitter 10 and receiver 20 is executed in the following manner.The sensing load of transmitter 10 And the electric power that the operation of the communication integrated circuit (IC) for transmitter 10 is sent to receiver 20, so that receiver 20 can To be communicated with transmitter 10.Receiver 20 sends Interactive_Request_Join_Frame grouping to transmitter 10 to ask Transmitter 10 is asked to register.Transmitter 10 checks whether receiver 20 is effective equipment, and if receiver 20 is effective equipment, The ID for the receiver 20 that then transmitter 10 is included in Interactive_Request_Join_Frame grouping replaces with short ID (that is, SID).Transmitter 10 sends Interactive_Response_Join_Frame grouping conduct pair to receiver 20 The response of Interactive_Request_Join_Frame grouping.
The receiver 20 that Interactive_Response_Join_Frame grouping has been received is determined for from transmission The registration that device 10 receives electric power is allowed to, and enters configuration status.Receiver 20 sends Interactive_ to transmitter 10 Request_Charge_Frame grouping, to request the power transmission from transmitter 10.Transmitter 10 checks active power.Hair Device 10 is sent to check active power to determine whether transmitter 10 can send the electric power requested from receiver 20 to receiver 20.? In Figure 83, it is assumed that transmitter 10 can send the electric power requested from receiver 20.Transmitter 10 sends Interactive_ To notify to receiver 20, transmitter 10 can send the electricity requested from receiver 20 for Response_Charge_Frame grouping Power.Receiver 20 determines that the setting for receiving electric power from transmitter 10 is allowed to and enters charged state.
When entering charged state, transmitter 10 sends Notice_Sync_Frame (notice synchronization frame) grouping to be used for Receiver 20 is synchronous with transmitter 10.It being grouped according to Notice_Sync_Frame, receiver 20 is synchronous with transmitter 10, and Receiver 20 sends to transmitter 10 and is grouped about the Report_Frame of receiver 20.Hereafter, receiver 20 enters from transmission Device 10 supplies the charging CC mode of electric power, and therefore executes battery charging.
When charging is complete, transmitter 10 can receive Report_Charge_Complete (report from receiver 20 Charging complete) grouping.According to embodiment, transmitter 10 can determine the charging complete of receiver 20.If transmitter 10 determines Electric power is supplied to receiver 20 in the given time or scheduled electric power is supplied to receiver 20, then transmitter 10 can be with Determine the charging complete of receiver 20.When charging is complete, transmitter 10 sends Notice_Charge_ to receiver 20 Finish_Frame (notice charging complete frame) grouping.Receiver 20 identifies charging complete and enters standby mode.
In addition, in the standby state, receiver 20 can send Report_Frame grouping to transmitter 10.If necessary It recharges, then receiver 20 prepares charging；Under charging complete state, receiver 20 can maintain simple standby mode.Such as Fruit must recharge, then transmitter 10 sends Notice_Sync_Frame grouping to receiver 20, and in response to this, receiver 20 can send Report_Frame grouping to transmitter 10.According to embodiment, transmitter 10 can request user that will charge At receiver 20 separated with the interface (for example, charging panel) of transmitter 10.
In wireless transmitting system according to the present invention, it is preferable that institute in communication standard IEEE 802.15.4 can be used The 2.4GHz ISM band of description is as frequency.
Wireless power transmission system according to the present invention can be used with defined in IEEE 802.15.4 standard 16 channels of 2.4GHz frequency.
In IEEE 802.15.4, clear channel assessment (CCA) (CCA) is examined in Carrier Sense Multiple Access-conflict It avoids in (CSMA-CA) channel with the presence or absence of some signals.Identical as the purpose in CSMA-CA channel, CCA is also used for root According to Wireless power transmission system of the invention.In Wireless power transmission system according to the present invention, it will use and be directed to radio The CSMA-CA algorithm of power transmission environment optimization.
(frame structure of grouping used in Wireless power transmission system)
Figure 84 is the view for showing the Physical Frame Structure in Wireless power transmission system according to the present invention.According to the present invention Physical Frame Structure can be identical as the Physical Frame Structure of IEEE 802.15.4 shown in Figure 84.
Referring to Figure 84, the preamble of 4 bytes is the signal for keeping receiver 20 synchronous with transmitter 10.Synchronous head The Start Frame Delimiter (Start Frame Delimiter, SFD) of preamble and 1 byte including 4 bytes.1 byte SFD State the beginning of frame.The PHY head of frame includes the frame length for indicating 7 bits of total length of frame, and 1 bit retained.PHY Payload includes MAC head etc..
Physical Frame Structure according to the present invention can be presented, so that in the physical frame shown in Figure 84, it is leftmost Field is sent first or receives.All minimum effective eight bit groups of multibyte fields are by first (least significant Octet it transmits or receives), and each eight bit groups least significant bit (LSB) formerly is sent or received.Identical biography Defeated sequence is also applied for the data field transmitted between PHY and MAC layer.Use the sequence for the number 0 and 1 that single quotation marks (' ') brackets Column are to indicate the integer in binary representation and bit mode.
The mac frame of Wireless power transmission system according to the present invention is included in PHY payload, and is followed After PHY head.Figure 85 is that show mac frame structure according to the present invention is view.
Referring to Figure 85, mac frame is made of mac frame head, frame payload and verification and (checksum).Verification and word Section includes 16 bit ITU-T CRC.Mac frame header field includes frame type field, short id field and sequence-number field." frame class Type " field is used to distinguish the frame for including in frame payload, and according to frame type, short id field is used as receiver object Address or transmitter address.
The frame type field of 3 bits such as table 18 is defined.
Frame type field is Notice_Frame distribution ' 000 '.When existing from transmitter 10 to the notice of receiver 20, It is grouped using Notice_Frame.When sending to Notice_Frame packet cycle, and being positioned in time slot at first Between in.Frame type field is Report_Frame grouping distribution ' 001 '.When receiver 20 by its property information cycle is sent to hair When sending device 10, it is grouped using Report_Frame.After receiving Notice_Frame frame, in dividing for each receiver 20 Report_Frame grouping is periodically sent in the time slot matched.Frame type field is ACK_Frame grouping distribution ' 010 '.When The equipment to framing having been received confirms that it is when being properly received, to be grouped using ACK_Frame.Frame type field is Interactive_Frame grouping distribution ' 011 '.When request counterpart device (transmitter 10 or receiver 20) provides certain information When, rather than when counterpart device provides the unidirectional information of such as Notice_Frame or Report_Frame grouping, it uses Interactive_Frame grouping.
The short ID of 4 bits such as table 19 is defined.
Referring to table 19, ID ' 0000 ' is the ID by not using from the receiver that transmitter 10 distributes SID.By using address ' 0000 ' as Request_Join_Frame (frame is added in request) grouping, these receivers 20 requests that transmitter 10 " is added ". Address ' 0001 ' is to the available address that ' 1110 ' be that transmitter 10 distributes to receiver 20.Address ' 1111 ' is that transmitter 10 is sent To the broadcast address of all receivers 20.
Notice_Frame grouping have by with receiver synchronize come keep network and manage receiver function.Figure 86 be the view for showing the structure of Notice_Frame grouping according to the present invention.
Notice_Frame grouping is the message only sent by transmitter 10.Therefore, 4 bit lengths in mac frame head Short id field be filled with receiver 20 address.3 bit notification type fields show the type of Notice_Frame.3 bits Notification information field according to the value of notification type field have different information.Table 20 is defined including in notification information The value of notification type and corresponding information.
When the value of Notice_Type (notification type) field is ' 0000 ', Notice_Info (notification information) field is filled out Value filled with number of timeslots.Timeslot number indicates the quantity of the time slot managed by transmitter 10.When the receiver 20 of unassigned ID When receiving Notice_Synch_Frame, it can pass through the value of inspection number of timeslots, it is known that time-slot duration in network Length.Therefore, receiver 20 avoids time-slot duration and sends Interactive_Request_ to transmitter 10 Join_Frame grouping.When the value of Notice_Type field is ' 001 ', Notice_Info field is filled with reset reason Value.The meaning of reset reason is as defined in table 21.
When the value of notification type field is ' 010 ', value of the notification information field filled with power-off reason.Power off reason Meaning is as defined in Table 22.When the value of notification type field is ' 011 ', notification information field is filled with short by what is be changed The value of ID.When the value of notification type field is ' 100 ' or ' 101 ', notification information field is filled with zero, for use as reservation.When When the value of notification type field is ' 100 ', it is used for the receiver 20 in mac frame head with the short address ID of receiver Notice starts to charge.When the value of notification type field is ' 101 ', it be used to have receiver short in mac frame head The notice of receiver 20 of the address ID terminates charging.
When property information cycle of own is sent transmitter 10 by receiver 20, Report_Frame points are used Group.Figure 87 is the view for showing the structure of Report_Frame grouping according to the present invention.
Report_Frame grouping is the message only used by the receiver 20 of addition network.Therefore, 4 bit lengths is short Id field is filled with the address of receiver 20 itself, so which the transmitter 10 for receiving Report_Frame grouping knows Receiver 20 sends Report_Frame grouping.Charged state field has 3 bit lengths, and shows the letter of charged state Breath.Charged state field such as table 23 is defined.
Charged state field includes the information of the charged state of receiver 20 itself.As defined in table 23, with transmitter 10 keep the receiver 20 of communication to have 5 kinds of charged states.Standby mode is receiver 20 to charge and standby while charging Unfinished state.Such as such case, transmitter 10 cannot for receiver 20 charge, but be to maintain communicated with receiver 20 and And it is standby in order to charge, because transmitter is being the charging of other receivers 20.
Charging CC mode is the state that electric current and voltage are maintained at normal level during charging.The CV mode that charges is to fill Voltage is maintained at normal level but the state of electric current reduction during electricity.It completes and standby mode is charging complete but is charging Communication keeps effective state after the completion.
Mistake is that receiver 20 detects mistake in itself and stops the state of charging.Charged state field is received to be set Transmitter 10 for Report_Error_Frame (report erroneous frame) grouping of mistake stops to transmission Report_Error_ The receiver 20 of Frame supplies electric power.Cause field has 4 bit lengths, and only when charged state field is arranged to It is used when mistake.Cause field includes why state is considered as wrong reason by receiver 20 itself.Table 24 defines reason.
Power information field includes the power information of receiver 20, and is 2 bytes or 4 according to the value of charged state field Byte.When charged state field is charging standby ' 000 ' or completes with standby ' 011 ', receiver 20 is in receiver 20 Uncharged standby mode, so that power information field has the required voltage value of 1 byte and the required current value of 1 byte.When When charged state field is charging CC mode ' 001 ' or charging CV mode ' 010 ', the charging shape that is charging in receiver 20 State, so that power information field has the required electricity of the input voltage value of 1 byte and the input current value of 1 byte and 1 byte The required current value of pressure value and 1 byte.When charged state field errors, receiver 20 must stop charging, and therefore omit Power information field.
Figure 88 is the view for showing the structure that Report_Frame is grouped under standby mode, and Figure 89 is shown under charged state The view of the structure of Report_Frame grouping, and Figure 90 is to show the structure that Report_Frame is grouped under error condition View.
ACK_Frame grouping include mac frame head and verification and.Figure 91 is to show ACK_Frame according to the present invention The view of the structure of grouping.
It is grouped when transmitter 10 and receiver 20 exchange information with one another using Interactive_Frame.In competition Also Interactive_Frame grouping can be used in section.When receiver 20 sends Interactive_Frame to transmitter 10 When grouping, the short id field of 4 bit lengths in mac frame head is filled with the address of receiver 20 itself.When transmitter 10 to When receiver 20 sends Interactive_Frame grouping, the short id field of 4 bit lengths in mac frame head is filled with should Receive the address of receiver 20.
Figure 92 is the view for showing the overall structure of Interactive_Frame grouping according to the present invention.Type of interaction Field has 3 bit lengths, and defines the type of Interactive_Frame grouping.Details are defined in table 25.Root According to the value of type of interaction field, Interactive_Frame grouping has different frame structures.
Referring to table 25, when the value of type of interaction field is ' 000 ', Interactive_Frame grouping is grouping Interactive_Request_Join_Frame.When receiver 20 requests transmitter 10 that wireless charging is added in the receiver 20 When network, it is grouped using Interactive_Request_Join_Frame.
Figure 93 is the view for showing the structure of Interactive_Request_Join_Frame grouping according to the present invention. Interactive_Request_Join_Frame grouping is sent transmitter 10 by receiver 20 by that cannot be assigned short ID, So that short id field is arranged to ' 0000 ' to be used for transmission.ID size type field has 2 bit lengths, and shows ID The length of field.Table 26 defines the value of ID size type.
The load characteristic of own is filled into 1 byte load characteristic field by receiver 20.Id field is filled with unique Receiver ID.The transmitter 1 for receiving the value of id field maps in its memory and manages the value of id field, by its sheet Other management parameters of short ID and receiver 20 that status is matched.
When the value of type of interaction field is 001, Interactive_Frame grouping is grouping Interactive_ Response_Join_Frame.When receiving the transmitter 10 of Interactive_Request_Join_Frame grouping to connecing When whether receipts 20 transmitter-receiver 20 of device is added wireless charging network, Interactive_Response_Join_Frame is used Grouping.
Figure 94 is the view for showing the structure of grouping Interactive_Response_Join_Frame according to the present invention Figure.Interactive_Response_Join_Frame grouping is sent from transmitter 10 to the receiver 20 of unassigned short ID, So that short id field is arranged to ' 0000 ' to be used for transmission.The permission field of 1 bit shows whether transmitter 10 allows to connect It receives device 20 and network is added.If this field is arranged to ' 0 ', allow to be rejected；And if the field is arranged to ' 1 ', Then allow to be received.The short id field of distribution has 4 bit lengths, and the ground of receiver 20 is distributed to including transmitter 10 Location.If field is allowed to be set as ' 0 ', the short ID distributed is arranged to ' 0000 ' sky.Short ID is also represented by number of timeslots.
For example, it is assumed that a receiver 20 is assigned the slot time of ' 0011 ' short ID and 5ms.This receiver 20 exists It receives Notice_Frame and waits as sent Report_Frame after the 10ms in formula 23.
(number of timeslots (3) -1) × slot time (5ms)=10ms ... ... ... ... (23)
When the value of type of interaction field is ' 010 ', Interactive_Frame grouping is grouping Interactive_ Request_Charge_Frame.Interactive_Request_Charge_Frame grouping is by grouping has been received The frame that the receiver 20 of Interactive_Response_Join_Frame or Notice_Charge_Start is sent. Interactive_Request_Charge_Frame grouping includes the charge characteristic of receiver 20, and it is sent to transmission Device 10 is to request to charge.Figure 95 is the knot for showing grouping Interactive_Request_Charge_Frame according to the present invention The view of structure.Electricity characteristic has the length of 3 bytes, and the reference current including receiver, reference voltage and reference effect Rate.
When the value of type of interaction field is ' 011 ', Interactive_Frame grouping is grouping Interactive_ Response_Charge_Frame.Interactive_Response_Charge_Frame grouping is by having been received The frame that the transmitter 10 of Interactive_Request_Charge_Frame grouping is sent.Transmitter 10 is by this frame to connecing Receive whether the notice charging of device 20 is allowed to.Figure 96 is to show Interactive_Response_Charge_ according to the present invention The view of the structure of Frame grouping.
If 1 bit allows field to be arranged to ' 0 ', charges and be not allowed to；If it is arranged to ' 1 ', charge It is allowed to.Cause field has 3 bit lengths, and including charging permission or the reason of forbidding of charging.Table 27 defines cause field Value.
The network of Wireless power transmission system according to the present invention includes the transmitter 10 and reception electric power for supplying electric power Single receiver or multiple receivers.Transmitter 10 is grouped the information for collecting receiver by Report_Frame, determines institute The electric power needed, and electric power is supplied to receiver 20.Receiver 20 is grouped by Notice_Frame by their information cycle Property be sent to transmitter 10, and periodically receive from transmitter 10 information for synchronous and network management.For this A little discharge characteristics, it is desirable to which stelliform connection topology configuration is used for the network of Wireless power transmission system according to the present invention.Figure 97 is to show The view of the stelliform connection topology configuration of Wireless power transmission system according to the present invention out.
According to the present invention it is possible to provide in Wireless power transmission system with high resonance characteristic transmitters and receivers with And wireless power transmission and method of reseptance for these equipment.
Although it have been described that detailed embodiment of the invention, but various modifications can be carried out without departing from the present invention Range.Therefore, the scope of the present invention is not defined by the above embodiment of the present invention, should by claim and its Identity-definition.
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