CN105486664B - Detecting marine phytoplankton biomass and poc lidar apparatus and method - Google Patents

Detecting marine phytoplankton biomass and poc lidar apparatus and method Download PDF

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CN105486664B
CN105486664B CN201511029455.7A CN201511029455A CN105486664B CN 105486664 B CN105486664 B CN 105486664B CN 201511029455 A CN201511029455 A CN 201511029455A CN 105486664 B CN105486664 B CN 105486664B
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laser
telescope
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CN105486664A (en
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刘�东
杨甬英
周雨迪
徐沛拓
白剑
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浙江大学
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Abstract

本发明公开了一种探测海洋浮游植物生物量和颗粒有机碳的装置及方法。 The present invention discloses an apparatus and method for detecting marine phytoplankton biomass and particulate organic carbon. 本发明基于高光谱分辨率激光雷达,结合海洋浮游植物生物量和POC反演算法,利用激光雷达方程中散射角为π时的粒子体积散射方程和有效衰减系数同步反演浮游植物生物量和POC。 The present invention is based on the lidar high spectral resolution, in conjunction with marine phytoplankton biomass and POC inversion algorithm using Equation scattering particle volume when π lidar equations for the scattering angle and the effective attenuation coefficient of phytoplankton biomass and simultaneous inversion POC . 本发明采用工作在倍频波段的高光谱分辨率激光雷达系统,配合海洋浮游植物生物量和POC反演算法,无需采样就可以对海洋中的海洋浮游植物生物量和POC进行大范围高深度分辨率的高精度测量。 The present invention uses a laser radar system working in the high-resolution spectral frequency band, with phytoplankton biomass and POC inversion algorithm, no sampling of the phytoplankton biomass can marine ocean for a wide range of POC and high depth resolution of precision measurement.

Description

探测海洋浮游植物生物量和POC的激光雷达装置及方法 Marine phytoplankton biomass probe and laser radar device and method for the POC

技术领域 FIELD

[0001] 本发明属于海洋主动遥感探测领域,特别是涉及一种探测海洋浮游植物生物量和颗粒有机碳的激光雷达装置及方法。 [0001] The present invention belongs to the field of marine active remote sensing, in particular, it relates to a laser radar apparatus and a method of detecting marine phytoplankton biomass and particulate organic carbon.

背景技术 Background technique

[0002] 海洋占据了地球71%的面积,其碳存量远超过陆地生态系统,因此海洋在全球碳循环中起着重要的作用。 [0002] Earth's oceans occupy 71% of the area, which is far more than the stock of carbon in terrestrial ecosystems, oceans and therefore plays an important role in the global carbon cycle. 随着经济的发展,人为碳排放量不断上升,大气中CO2含量的增加引起了全球气候变暖,不仅危害自然生态系统的平衡,还威胁人类的生存。 With economic development, man-made carbon emissions continue to rise, increasing the CO2 content of the atmosphere causes global warming, not only endanger the natural balance of the ecosystem, but also a threat to human survival. 海洋在CO2的自然循环中起到主导作用,研究海洋碳循环对于理解、预测、应对、甚至有效地控制气候变化有巨大的帮助,能够帮助发达和发展中国家制定合适的政策减缓或抑制大气CO2含量的增加。 Oceans play a leading role in the natural cycle of CO2, the ocean carbon cycle research to understand, predict, respond to, or even effective control of climate change has a huge help to help developed and developing countries to develop appropriate policies to slow or inhibit the atmospheric CO2 increase content. 同时,海洋中丰富的生物资源为区域经济发展作出了巨大贡献,不同海域的生物资源量取决于海洋生态系统的生产力。 Meanwhile, the rich marine biological resources contributed greatly to regional economic development, different biological resources of the sea depends on the productivity of marine ecosystems. 海洋污染、洋流、温度等因素都会影响海洋生态系统的生产力,使浮游植物、浮游动物、鱼类等资源量发生变化。 Marine pollution, ocean currents, temperature and other factors will affect the productivity of marine ecosystems, the resources of phytoplankton, zooplankton, fish and other changes. 海洋碳循环是海洋中能量传递的主要媒介,准确测量海洋碳循环的过程和强度对于评估海洋初级生产力、海洋鱼类资源等海洋生态系统生产力参数有重要的参考价值。 Ocean marine carbon cycle is the main energy transfer medium, an accurate measurement of marine carbon cycle and strength of important reference value for evaluating the productivity parameters ocean marine ecosystem primary productivity, marine fish resources. 总之,海洋碳循环在全球碳循环和海洋生态系统的研究中均发挥重要作用。 In short, the ocean carbon cycle all play an important role in the study of global carbon cycle and marine ecosystems.

[0003] 生物栗是海洋碳循环的主导过程之一,它通过浮游植物的光合作用将溶解在海水中的CO2固定为生物体中的有机碳,通过浮游生物的新陈代谢排放颗粒有机碳(Particulate Organic Carbon,P0C)和溶解有机碳(Dissolved Organic Carbon,D0C)。 [0003] Li is one of the biological processes leading marine carbon cycle, which through photosynthesis of phytoplankton dissolved CO2 in seawater organisms fixed organic carbon, particulate organic carbon emissions metabolism by plankton (Particulate Organic carbon, P0C) and dissolved organic carbon (dissolved organic carbon, d0C). 精确分析生物栗的过程和强度在海洋碳循环的研究中具有重要的参考价值。 Strength and accurate analysis of biological Li important reference value for the study of marine carbon cycle.

[0004] 常规的海洋调查手段利用原位的直接采样结果进行生物栗过程和强度的分析,其劣势在于低效率、低时空分辨率。 [0004] Conventional marine survey instruments situ direct sampling process and the results were analyzed Li biological strength, its disadvantage is that the low efficiency, low spatial and temporal resolution. 海洋被动遥感技术具有的大范围实时同步多波段成像的技术优势,可以快速地探测海洋表面各参量的时空变化规律。 Marine Passive remote sensing technology has a wide range of real-time synchronization multiband imaging technical advantages, can quickly detect temporal changes in the ocean surface parameters of each rule. 但是,被动遥感的缺点是仅提供面探测,无法进行垂直探测,并且被动遥感还受太阳辐射的影响,无法在夜间和较低的太阳高度角下正常工作,在白天也会受到大气散射的较大影响。 However, a disadvantage is that only provide passive sensing surface detection, detection can not be vertical, and also by the impact of passive sensing solar radiation, does not work at night and a low solar altitude, atmospheric scattering during the day will also be relatively big impact. 激光雷达作为主动遥感器件, 不受太阳辐射的影响,能够提供高分辨率的海洋深度信息,为海洋生物栗组分的反演提供了新的思路。 Remote laser radar device as a master, not affected by solar radiation, capable of providing high-resolution ocean depth information, it provides a new way for the inversion of marine organisms Li component. 值得注意的是,高光谱分辨率激光雷达利用鉴频器分离了水分子产生的布里渊散射和水中颗粒物产生的米散射光谱,大大提高了海洋生物栗组分的反演精度。 Notably, high spectral resolution laser radar using a separate frequency discriminator Mie scattering spectrum of water molecules generated Brillouin scattering particles and the water produced, greatly improving the accuracy of the inversion component marine organisms Li.

发明内容 SUMMARY

[0005] 本发明的目的是为了克服上述现有技术的不足,提出了一种探测海洋浮游植物生物量和POC的激光雷达装置及方法。 [0005] The object of the present invention is to overcome the disadvantages of the prior art described above, the laser radar apparatus and the proposed method of detecting marine phytoplankton biomass and the POC. 本发明基于高光谱分辨率激光雷达,结合海洋浮游植物生物量和POC反演算法,对浮游植物生物量和POC进行实时的具有深度分辨率的高精度监测。 The present invention is based on the high-resolution spectral lidar, binding marine phytoplankton biomass and POC inversion algorithm, phytoplankton biomass and high-precision real-time monitoring of POC having depth resolution.

[0006] 探测海洋浮游植物生物量和颗粒有机碳的激光雷达装置,包括偏振高光谱分辨率激光雷达系统。 [0006] Detection of marine phytoplankton biomass and particulate organic carbon in the laser radar apparatus, comprising a high spectral resolution polarized laser radar system. 且所述的偏振高光谱分辨率激光雷达系统工作在倍频,包括发射系统、接收系统、锁频系统、数据采集及处理系统;发射系统包括基频单纵模连续激光器、倍频单纵模脉冲激光器、扩束器、光电探测器、分光镜、反射镜;接收系统包括望远镜、窄带滤波片、反射镜、偏振分光棱镜、分光镜、两个倍频/基频二向色分光镜、干涉鉴频器和三个光电探测器; 锁频系统包括基频单纵模连续激光器、单模光纤、干涉鉴频器、两个倍频/基频二向色分光镜和光电探测器;基频单纵模连续激光器发出的连续光经倍频后在倍频单纵模脉冲激光器中发生谐振,使倍频单纵模脉冲激光器发射的脉冲光具有单模特性;脉冲光经扩束器后由分光镜分为两路,较弱透射光由光电探测器监视出射的光强变化,较强反射光在望远镜下方经反射镜后射入海洋;望远镜收集海洋的回波信号后 And said polarizing high spectral resolution in the frequency laser radar system, comprising a transmission system, the receiving system, frequency-locked system, data acquisition and processing system; transmitting system comprising a single longitudinal mode baseband continuous single longitudinal mode laser, frequency doubling a pulsed laser, beam expander, a photodetector, a beam splitter, a mirror; reception system comprises a telescope, a narrow band filter, a mirror, a polarization splitting prism, beam splitter, two frequency / baseband dichroic beam splitter, the interference discriminator and three photodetectors; baseband frequency lock system comprising a continuous single longitudinal mode lasers, single mode fiber, the interference discriminator, two frequency / baseband dichroic beam splitter and the photodetector; baseband pulse resonance occurs continuously after a single longitudinal mode laser light is emitted in a continuous frequency multiplier in a single longitudinal mode laser pulses, so that a single longitudinal mode frequency pulsed laser emitting light with a single mode characteristic; pulsed light after the beam expander after telescopes marine echo signals; dichroic mirror is divided into two, weak transmitted light by the photodetector to monitor changes in emitted light intensity, a strong reflection light enters through the mirror telescope below the ocean 窄带滤波片滤除背景光,经反光镜导入接收系统;回波信号由偏振分光棱镜分为正交的两束偏振光,与出射激光偏振方向垂直的一路信号由接收系统中的一个光电探测器接收,称为垂直混合通道;与出射激光偏振方向平行的一路信号由分光镜分为两束光,一束光由接收系统的另一个光电探测器接收,称为平行混合通道;另一束光透过其中一个倍频/基频二向色分光镜后,经干涉鉴频器滤除海洋颗粒米散射信号,透过海洋布里渊分子散射信号,再透过另一个倍频/基频二向色分光镜由接收系统的再一个光电探测器接收,称为平行分子通道;利用单模光纤将基频单纵模连续激光器发射的连续光射向倍频/基频二向色分光镜,经倍频/基频二向色分光镜反射入干涉鉴频器,由另一个倍频/基频二向色分光镜反射被光电探测器接收,并反馈给干涉鉴频器使其锁定于 Narrowband filter to filter out background light, introduced into the receiving system via mirror; echo signal by the polarization splitting prism into two polarized lights orthogonal to the polarization direction of the emitted laser light perpendicular to the one signal by the receiving system is a photodetector receiving, called vertical mixing channel; parallel to the polarization direction of the emitted laser light by the dichroic mirror group signal into two beams, a beam of light is received by another photodetector receiving system, referred to as parallel mixing channel; the other beam of light wherein a transmission frequency / baseband dichroic beam splitter, filtered by the interference discriminator signal Mie scattering particles marine, sea through Brillouin scattering signal molecule, and then through the other two frequency multiplication / group a photodetector receiving the dichroic mirror and then by the receiving system, referred to as parallel channels molecules; single mode fiber the baseband continuous single longitudinal mode laser emits light toward a continuous frequency / baseband dichroic beam splitter, by multiplier / reflector into two interference baseband frequency discriminator dichroic beam splitter, by another frequency / baseband received two dichroic beam splitter is reflected photodetector, and fed back to the interference discriminator to lock it 频单纵模脉冲激光器;接收系统的三个光电探测器得到的光信号由数据采集及处理系统进行光电转换、采集和数字化,并将其进行海洋浮游植物生物量和POC的反演分析。 Single longitudinal mode laser pulse frequency; three light signals obtained from the detector photoreceiving system is photoelectrically converted by the data acquisition and processing system, collected and digitized and subjected to marine phytoplankton biomass and POC inversion analysis.

[0007] 当系统为非偏振的高光谱分辨率激光雷达时,包括发射系统、接收系统、锁频系统、数据采集及处理系统;发射系统包括基频单纵模连续激光器、倍频单纵模脉冲激光器、 扩束器、光电探测器、分光镜、反射镜;接收系统包括望远镜、窄带滤波片、反射镜、偏振分光棱镜、分光镜、两个倍频/基频二向色分光镜、干涉鉴频器和三个光电探测器;锁频系统包括基频单纵模连续激光器、单模光纤、干涉鉴频器、两个倍频/基频二向色分光镜和光电探测器;基频单纵模连续激光器发出的连续光经倍频后在倍频单纵模脉冲激光器中发生谐振, 使倍频单纵模脉冲激光器发射的脉冲光具有单模特性;脉冲光经扩束器后由分光镜分为两路,较弱透射光由光电探测器监视出射的光强变化,较强反射光在望远镜下方经反射镜后射入海洋;望远镜收集海洋的回波信号后由窄 [0007] When the system unpolarized high spectral resolution laser radar, including the transmission system, the receiving system, frequency-locked system, data acquisition and processing system; baseband transmission system comprises a single longitudinal mode laser is a continuous, single longitudinal mode frequency a pulsed laser, beam expander, a photodetector, a beam splitter, a mirror; reception system comprises a telescope, a narrow band filter, a mirror, a polarization splitting prism, beam splitter, two frequency / baseband dichroic beam splitter, the interference discriminator and three photodetectors; baseband frequency lock system comprising a continuous single longitudinal mode lasers, single mode fiber, the interference discriminator, two frequency / baseband dichroic beam splitter and the photodetector; baseband pulse resonance occurs continuously after a single longitudinal mode laser light is emitted in a continuous frequency multiplier in a single longitudinal mode laser pulses, so that a single longitudinal mode frequency pulsed laser emitting light with a single mode characteristic; pulsed light after the beam expander dichroic mirror is divided into two, weak transmitted light by the photodetector to monitor changes in emitted light intensity, a strong reflection light enters through the mirror below the ocean telescope; telescope echo signals collected by the narrow ocean 滤波片滤除背景光,经反光镜导入接收系统;回波信号由分光镜分为两束光,一束光由接收系统的一个光电探测器接收,称为混合通道;另一束光透过倍频/基频二向色分光镜后,经干涉鉴频器滤除海洋颗粒米散射信号,透过海洋布里渊分子散射信号,再透过倍频/基频二向色分光镜由接收系统的另一个光电探测器接收,称为分子通道;利用单模光纤将基频单纵模连续激光器发射的连续光射向倍频/ 基频二向色分光镜,经倍频/基频二向色分光镜反射入干涉鉴频器,由倍频/基频二向色分光镜反射被光电探测器接收,并反馈给干涉鉴频器使其锁定于倍频单纵模脉冲激光器;接收系统的两个光电探测器得到的光信号由数据采集及处理系统进行光电转换、采集和数字化,并将其进行海洋浮游植物生物量和POC的反演分析。 Filter to filter out background light is introduced via the mirror receiving system; echo signals into two beams by a beam splitter, a beam of light is received by a photodetector of the receiving system, known as the mixing channel; the other through a beam frequency / baseband dichroic beam splitter, filtered by the interference discriminator signal Mie scattering particles marine, sea through Brillouin scattering signal molecule, and then through the frequency / baseband received by the dichroic beam splitter another photodetector receiving system, referred to as molecular pathway; single mode fiber the baseband continuous single longitudinal mode laser emits light toward a continuous frequency / baseband dichroic beam splitter, the frequency / baseband two the dichroic mirror reflecting the interference frequency discriminator, a frequency / baseband received two dichroic beam splitter is reflected photodetector, and fed back to the interference discriminator to lock in a single longitudinal mode frequency pulsed laser; reception system the two photoelectric detector optical signals obtained by photoelectric conversion by the data acquisition and digital acquisition and processing system, and subjected to marine phytoplankton biomass and inversion of POC analysis.

[0008] 所述的两个倍频/基频二向色分光镜和干涉鉴频器为接收系统和锁频系统共用; 当系统的激光波长不存在基频和倍频的关系时,系统没有基频单纵模连续激光器,倍频/基频二向色分光镜改为偏振分光棱镜,倍频单纵模脉冲激光器发射的脉冲光的偏振方向经1/ 4波片旋转90 °后引入锁频系统。 [0008] The two frequency / baseband dichroic beam splitter and an interference discriminator common to the receiving system and a frequency-locked system; and when the relationship between the fundamental frequency of the frequency doubled laser wavelength system does not exist, there is no after baseband single longitudinal mode laser continuously, frequency / baseband to the PBS two dichroic beam splitter, the polarization direction of the pulsed light frequency of a single longitudinal mode laser pulses emitted by a rotation of 90 ° / 4 wave plate is introduced lock frequency system.

[0009] 所述的基频单纵模连续激光器和倍频单纵模脉冲激光器的激光频谱宽度不大于150MHz,在p或s方向偏振;所述的基频单纵模连续激光器和倍频单纵模脉冲激光器的波长根据海水浑浊度和反演算法的需要而改变,如采用l〇64nm单纵模连续和532nm单纵模脉冲激光器,或者133 Inm单纵模连续和665 · 5nm单纵模脉冲Nd: GdCOB激光器。 [0009] The fundamental frequency of a single longitudinal mode frequency and the continuous laser a pulsed laser single longitudinal mode laser spectral width no greater than 150MHz, the p-polarization direction or s; the fundamental frequency of a single longitudinal mode laser and a continuous single frequency longitudinal mode wavelength of the pulsed laser is changed according to water turbidity and inversion algorithm needs, such as the use l〇64nm 532nm single longitudinal mode and single longitudinal mode continuous pulse laser or continuous 133 Inm a single longitudinal mode and single longitudinal mode 665 · 5nm pulse Nd: GdCOB laser.

[0010] 所述的分光镜的透反比(I-Rl) :R1很小,如0.5:99.5。 [0010] The dichroic mirror transparent inverse (I-Rl): R1 is small, such as 0.5: 99.5.

[0011] 所述的反射镜6和望远镜为决定船载激光雷达重叠因子的主要部件,满足船载激光雷达重叠因子盲区不大于3米的条件;所述的望远镜为短焦望远镜,其接收角不小于lOmrad,且具有一定范围的调节能力,如10〜40mrad;当所述的反射镜6与望远镜为共轴时, 反射镜6的直径小于望远镜的1/2;当所述的反射镜6与望远镜为离轴时,反射镜6与望远镜的间距尽量小,且倾斜反射镜6,使出射激光与望远镜的光轴夹角在平行方向上的分量接近望远镜接收角的1/2,且激光偏向望远镜一侧。 [0011] The telescope mirror 6 and the main part is determined onboard laser radar overlapping factor, shipboard conditions lidar blind overlapping factor not greater than 3 m is satisfied; the short-focus telescope is a telescope, which receives angle not less than lOmrad, and has the ability to regulate a range, such as 10~40mrad; when the mirror 6 is coaxial with the telescope, the mirror 6 is smaller than the diameter of the telescope 2; when the mirror 6 when the telescope with off-axis, pitch and telescope mirror 6 as small as possible, and a tilting mirror 6, the angle between the optical axis of laser light emitted resorted telescope component in the parallel direction close to half the acceptance angle of the telescope, and the laser toward the side of the telescope.

[0012] 当激光雷达为机载时,重叠因子的决定部件包括反射镜6和望远镜;所述的望远镜为长焦大口径望远镜,其接收角较小,且具有一定范围的调节能力,如〇. 1〜Imrad;所述的反射镜6与望远镜处于离轴或共轴位置,使激光雷达的重叠因子在海洋中为1。 [0012] When airborne laser radar, the overlapping factor determining means comprises a mirror 6 and the telescope; the telescope telephoto large aperture telescope, which receives a small angle, and having the ability to regulate a range, such as square . 1~Imrad; 6 with the telescope mirror is off-axis or coaxially position the overlapping factor lidar in the ocean is 1.

[0013] 所述的分光镜的透反比(1-R2) :R2不是50:50,其透射率远大于反射率,如95:5。 [0013] The dichroic mirror transparent inverse (1-R2): R2 is not 50:50, which is much greater than the reflectance transmittance, such as 95: 5.

[0014] 所述的干涉鉴频器是具有高光谱分辨率的干涉仪;当激光雷达为船载时,干涉鉴频器对入射光角度不敏感,如共焦Fabry-Perot干涉仪或视场展宽迈克尔逊干涉仪;当激光雷达为机载时,干涉鉴频器选择Fabry-Perot干涉仪或视场展宽迈克尔逊干涉仪;所述的干涉鉴频器的中心滤波波长与倍频单纵模脉冲激光器的出射脉冲光波长一致,干涉鉴频器能够滤除相对于出射脉冲光频谱不变的海洋颗粒米散射信号,透过发生布里渊频移的海洋布里渊分子散射信号。 [0014] The interference discriminator having a high spectral resolution of the interferometer; when the laser radar on board, the interference discriminator insensitive to incident light angle, confocal Fabry-Perot interferometer or a field of view broadening Michelson interferometer; when airborne laser radar, the interference discriminator selection Fabry-Perot interferometer or a broadening field Michelson interferometer; the center frequency of the filter and the wavelength of the interference discriminator single longitudinal mode marine shifted Brillouin scattering molecule pulsed light signal emitted same wavelength, the interference discriminator capable of filtering particles marine Mie spectrum pulsed light emission signal with respect to the same, through the occurrence of Brillouin frequency pulsed laser.

[0015] 探测海洋浮游植物生物量和颗粒有机碳的激光雷达装置的反演方法,包括以下步骤: [0015] Inversion laser radar device detecting marine phytoplankton biomass and particulate organic carbon, comprising the steps of:

[0016] 步骤1、根据上述的偏振高光谱分辨率激光雷达系统的散射信号,反演海洋表观光学参数:散射角为邱寸的颗粒体积散射方程^和有效衰减系数Kd;由偏振高光谱分辨率激光雷达系统望远镜收集的信号强度可以写为 [0016] Step 1, according to the polarization of the scattered signal high spectral resolution of the laser radar system, optical parameters of the apparent inversion Ocean: scattering angle for the high volume scattering particles inch ^ equation and Kd of effective attenuation coefficient; polarization hyperspectral resolution laser radar system signal strength telescopes can be written as

Figure CN105486664BD00091

[0018]其中,Pq为脉冲能量,α为空气的消光系数,To和Ts分别为激光雷达系统和海水表面的透射率,G为重叠因子,η为海水折射率,V为真空中的光速,τ〇为脉冲宽度,Ar为望远镜有效面积,H为望远镜距离海面的距离,ζ为光在水中传播的距离,K为散射角为π时的分子体积散射方程;公式⑴可以被简化为 [0018] wherein, Pq is the pulse energy, [alpha] is the extinction coefficient of the air, To and Ts, respectively, the transmittance of the laser radar system and the water surface, G is the overlapping factor, [eta] is seawater refractive index, V is the light velocity in vacuum, τ〇 pulse width, Ar is the effective area of ​​the telescope, H is the distance from the telescope sea surface, ζ is the distance light travels in the water, K is the scattering angle at the molecular volume scattering equation [pi]; ⑴ equation can be simplified to

Figure CN105486664BD00092

[0020] 其中: [0020] wherein:

Figure CN105486664BD00093

,常数 ,constant

Figure CN105486664BD00094

,光学厚度 , The optical thickness

Figure CN105486664BD00095

[0021] 被望远镜接收的信号进入偏振高光谱分辨率激光雷达系统的垂直混合通道、平行混合通道和平行分子通道,公式(2)分别改写为 [0021] the received signal enters the polarization telescope high spectral resolution lidar vertical mixing channel, a mixing channel in parallel and parallel molecular pathway, formula (2) are respectively rewritten as

Figure CN105486664BD00101

[0025] 其中,上标丄和P分别表示垂直和平行方向,TjPTp*别为滤波器对分子和颗粒散射光的透过率;根据公式(3)、⑷和(5)推导得到平行方向的颗粒体积散射方程 [0025] wherein, superscript Shang and P denote directions perpendicular and parallel, TjPTp * molecules do not filter transmittance and light-scattering particles; according to equation (3), ⑷, and (5) direction parallel deduced volume scattering particles equation

Figure CN105486664BD00102

[0027]其中, [0027] wherein,

Figure CN105486664BD00103

是分子后向散射消偏系数, Is the backscatter coefficient of the molecular partial elimination,

Figure CN105486664BD00104

;垂直方向的颗粒体积散射方程为 ; Particle volume scattering equation for the vertical direction

Figure CN105486664BD00105

[0029]其中, [0029] wherein,

Figure CN105486664BD00106

为总后向散射消偏系数;颗粒的体积散射方程表示为公式(6)与⑺之和 GLD depolarization of backscatter coefficients; volume scattering particles is expressed as Equation Equations (6) and the sum ⑺

Figure CN105486664BD00107

[0031]有效衰减系数写为 [0031] effective attenuation coefficient is written as

Figure CN105486664BD00108

[0033] 步骤2、根据散射角为π时的颗粒体积散射方程仏和有效衰减系数Kd,反演海水的固有光学参数:颗粒后向散射系数bbp和颗粒光束衰减系数cP; [0033] Step 2, according to the particle volume at a scattering angle of π equation Fo scattering and intrinsic optical parameters Kd of effective attenuation coefficient, inversion seawater: after particle backscatter coefficients of attenuation coefficient bbp cP and particle beam;

[0034] 颗粒后向散射系数bbp与散射角为π时的颗粒体积散射方程^的关系表示为 [0034] The relationship between the particle scattering particle volume when the equation for the π ^ backscattering coefficient and the scattering angle bbp is expressed as

Figure CN105486664BD00109

[0036]其中,转换因子Xp⑻由光束衰减系数估算 [0036] wherein the conversion factor is estimated by the attenuation coefficient beam Xp⑻

Figure CN105486664BD001010

[0038]其中,XjPx2为常系数,颗粒光束衰减系数(^由光束衰减系数c去除水的光束衰减系数cw得到 [0038] wherein, XjPx2 is a constant coefficient, the particle beam attenuation coefficient (attenuation coefficient ^ cw beam from the beam attenuation coefficient c of the water is removed to give

Figure CN105486664BD001011

[0040]其中,C能够由多次散射系数η表示 [0040] wherein, C can be represented by a multiple scattering coefficient η

Figure CN105486664BD001012

[0042]由于多次散射会导致退偏,多次散射系数表示为 [0042] Due to multiple scattering can cause depolarization, expressed as a multiple scattering coefficient

Figure CN105486664BD001013

[0044] 其中, [0044] wherein,

Figure CN105486664BD001014

为总的散射消光比; Scattered total extinction ratio;

[0045] 步骤3、根据固有光学参数bbt^PCpi演生物栗组分:浮游植物生物量和P0C; [0045] Step 3, based on the intrinsic optical parameters bbt ^ PCpi biological Li speech components: phytoplankton biomass and P0C;

[0046] 浮游植物生物量Cphyt。 [0046] The phytoplankton biomass Cphyt. 分别由bbp和Cp表不如下: Respectively, and not as a bbp Cp Table:

Figure CN105486664BD001015

Figure CN105486664BD00111

[0049] 颗粒有机碳POC分别由bbt^PCt^示如下 [0049] POC POC are respectively shown by the following bbt ^ PCt ^

Figure CN105486664BD00112

[0052] 其中,ki、k2、γ 1、γ 2、li、h、史!和_为常系数。 [0052] wherein, ki, k2, γ 1, γ 2, li, h, history! _ And for the constant coefficient.

[0053] 当步骤1所述的探测海洋浮游植物生物量和颗粒有机碳的激光雷达装置为非偏振的高光谱分辨率激光雷达时,具体步骤如下: [0053] When a laser radar apparatus according to the step of detecting a marine phytoplankton biomass and particulate organic carbon unpolarized laser radar high spectral resolution, the following steps:

[0054] 步骤4、根据上述的非偏振高光谱分辨率激光雷达系统的散射信号,反演海洋表观光学参数:散射角为邱寸的颗粒体积散射方程^和有效衰减系数Kd;由非偏振高光谱分辨率激光雷达望远镜收集的信号强度可以写为 [0054] Step 4. The above-described non-polarized laser radar system high spectral resolution scatter signal inversion Ocean apparent optical parameters: the scattering angle for the high volume scattering particles inch ^ equation and Kd of effective attenuation coefficient; a non-polarizing high spectral resolution telescopes lidar signal intensity can be written as

Figure CN105486664BD00113

[0056]其中,Po为脉冲能量,α为空气的消光系数,To和Ts分别为激光雷达系统和海水表面的透射率,G为重叠因子,η为海水折射率,V为真空中的光速,τ〇为脉冲宽度,Ar为望远镜有效面积,H为望远镜距离海面的距离,ζ为光在水中传播的距离,K为散射角为π时的分子体积散射方程;公式(19)可以被简化为, [0056] where, Po is the pulse energy, [alpha] is the extinction coefficient of the air, To and Ts, respectively, the transmittance of the laser radar system and the water surface, G is the overlapping factor, [eta] is seawater refractive index, V is the light velocity in vacuum, τ〇 pulse width, Ar is the effective area of ​​the telescope, H is the distance from the telescope sea surface, ζ is the distance light travels in the water, K is the scattering angle at the molecular volume scattering equation [pi]; formula (19) can be simplified to ,

Figure CN105486664BD00114

[0058] 其中, [0058] wherein,

Figure CN105486664BD00115

,常数 ,constant

Figure CN105486664BD00116

,光学厚度 , The optical thickness

Figure CN105486664BD00117

[0059] 被望远镜接收的信号进入非偏振高光谱分辨率激光雷达系统的混合通道和分子通道,公式(20)分别改写为 [0059] The signal received by the telescope into the mixing channel and channel molecules unpolarized laser radar system high spectral resolution, the equation (20) are respectively rewritten as

Figure CN105486664BD00118

[0062]颗粒的体积散射方程表示为 [0062] Equation volume scattering particles is expressed as

Figure CN105486664BD00119

[0064]有效衰减系数写为 [0064] effective attenuation coefficient is written as

Figure CN105486664BD001110

[0066] 步骤5、根据散射角为π时的颗粒体积散射方程仏和有效衰减系数Kd,反演海水的固有光学参数:颗粒后向散射系数bbp和颗粒光束衰减系数cP; [0066] Step 5, the volume of the particle scattering and intrinsic equation Fo effective attenuation coefficient Kd of optical parameters, according to the inversion of seawater when a scattering angle of π: particles after attenuation and backscattering coefficient bbp particle beam coefficient cP;

[0067] 颗粒后向散射系数bbp与散射角为π时的颗粒体积散射方程^的关系表示为 [0067] The relationship between the particle scattering particle volume when the equation for the π ^ backscattering coefficient and the scattering angle bbp is expressed as

Figure CN105486664BD001111

[0069]其中,转换因子Xp⑻由光束衰减系数估算 [0069] wherein the conversion factor is estimated by the attenuation coefficient beam Xp⑻

Figure CN105486664BD001112

[0071]其中,XjPx2为常系数,颗粒光束衰减系数(^由光束衰减系数c去除水的光束衰减系数cw得到 [0071] wherein, XjPx2 is a constant coefficient, the particle beam attenuation coefficient (attenuation coefficient ^ cw beam from the beam attenuation coefficient c of the water is removed to give

Figure CN105486664BD00121

[0073]其中,c的信息包含于有效衰减系数中 [0073] wherein, c is the effective attenuation coefficient information contained in

Figure CN105486664BD00122

[0075] 其中,K/为漫衰减系数,D为望远镜投影在海水上的视场大小。 [0075] where, K / diffuse attenuation coefficient, D is the size of the telescope field of view projected on the sea. 通过改变望远镜接收角,c的大小能够由参数Kd-D的曲线拟合求出;在外海,光束衰减系数能够近似为c〜Kd/ (卜ω),其中,ω = (ftn+βρ) /Kd为总的散射消光比; By changing the angle of the telescope, the size C can be fitted by a curve parameter Kd-D is determined; open sea, beam attenuation coefficient can be approximated to c~Kd / (Bu [omega]), where, ω = (ftn + βρ) / Kd is the total scattering extinction ratio;

[0076] 步骤6、根据固有光学参数bbt^PCpi演生物栗组分:浮游植物生物量和P0C; [0076] Step 6, play a biological component according to the intrinsic optical parameters Li bbt ^ PCpi: phytoplankton biomass and P0C;

[0077] 浮游植物生物量Cphyt。 [0077] The phytoplankton biomass Cphyt. 分别由bbp和Cp表不如下: Respectively, and not as a bbp Cp Table:

Figure CN105486664BD00123

[0080] 颗粒有机碳POC分别由1^和(^表示如下 [0080] POC POC respectively by one and ^ (^ follows

Figure CN105486664BD00124

[0083] 其中,ki、k2、γ 1、γ 2、li、h、奶和朽为常系数。 [0083] wherein, ki, k2, γ 1, γ 2, li, h, is constant coefficients milk and rot.

[0084] 所述的海洋浮游植物生物量和POC反演算法通过所述的步骤1、步骤2、步骤3或者步骤4、步骤5、步骤6,利用激光雷达方程中的颗粒体积散射方程和有效衰减系数同步反演浮游植物生物量和POC。 [0084] The marine phytoplankton biomass and POC by the inversion algorithm Step 1, Step 2, Step 3 or Step 4, Step 5, Step 6, the volume of the particle scattering equation and the effective use of a laser radar equation attenuation coefficient simultaneous inversion of phytoplankton biomass and POC.

[0085] 所述的海洋浮游植物生物量和POC反演算法中的常系数是利用本发明所示的激光雷达系统对相关水域进行实际测量后得到的。 After [0085] the POC marine phytoplankton biomass and constant coefficient retrieval algorithm is related to the actual measurement waters lidar system of the present invention shown obtained.

[0086] 本发明的有益效果如下: [0086] Advantageous effects of the present invention are as follows:

[0087] 本发明采用工作在倍频波段的高光谱分辨率激光雷达系统,配合海洋浮游植物生物量和POC反演算法,无需采样就可以对海洋中的海洋浮游植物生物量和POC进行大范围高深度分辨率的高精度测量。 [0087] The present invention uses a laser radar system working in the high-resolution spectral frequency band, with phytoplankton biomass and POC inversion algorithm, no sampling of the phytoplankton biomass can sea and ocean for a wide range POC high-precision measurement of the depth resolution.

附图说明 BRIEF DESCRIPTION

[0088] 图1为本发明结构不意图; [0088] FIG. 1 of the present invention is not intended structure;

[0089] 图2为本发明中干涉鉴频器工作原理示意图; [0089] FIG. 2 is a schematic view of the interference discriminator invention works;

[0090] 图3为本发明海洋浮游植物生物量和POC的反演算法; [0090] FIG. 3 marine phytoplankton biomass and POC inversion algorithm of the present invention;

[0091] 图中,基频单纵模连续激光器1、倍频单纵模脉冲激光器2、扩束器3、光电探测器4、 分光镜5、反射镜6、望远镜7、窄带滤波片8、反射镜9、单模光纤10、偏振分光棱镜11、分光镜12、倍频/基频二向色分光镜13、干涉鉴频器14、倍频/基频二向色分光镜15、光电探测器16、 光电探测器17、光电探测器18、光电探测器19、数据采集及处理系统20。 [0091] FIG, baseband single longitudinal mode laser is a continuous, single longitudinal mode frequency pulsed laser 2, beam expander 3, the photodetector 4, the dichroic mirror 5, a mirror 6, a telescope 7, a narrow band filter 8, mirror 9, a single-mode optical fiber 10, a polarizing beam splitter prism 11, beam splitter 12, frequency / baseband two dichroic beam splitter 13, the interference frequency detector 14, frequency / baseband dichroic beam splitter 15, the photodetection 16, a photodetector 17, the photodetector 18, the photodetector 19, the data acquisition and processing system 20.

具体实施方式 Detailed ways

[0092] 下面结合附图和实施例对本发明作进一步说明。 Drawings and embodiments of the present invention will be further described [0092] below in conjunction.

[0093] 如图1所示,探测海洋浮游植物生物量和颗粒有机碳的激光雷达装置,可以对浮游植物生物量和POC进行实时的具有深度分辨率的高精度监测。 [0093] 1, the laser radar device detecting marine phytoplankton biomass and particulate organic carbon may be made with high accuracy in real-time monitoring with a depth resolution of phytoplankton biomass and POC. 包括偏振高光谱分辨率激光雷达系统,且所述的偏振高光谱分辨率激光雷达系统工作在倍频,包括发射系统、接收系统、锁频系统、数据采集及处理系统20。 It includes a polarization lidar system of high spectral resolution and high spectral resolution of the polarization of the laser frequency at the radar system, comprising a transmission system, the receiving system, frequency-locked system, data acquisition and processing system 20. 发射系统包括基频单纵模连续激光器I、倍频单纵模脉冲激光器2、扩束器3、光电探测器4、分光镜5、反射镜6;接收系统包括望远镜7、窄带滤波片8、反射镜9、偏振分光棱镜11、分光镜12、倍频/基频二向色分光镜13和15、干涉鉴频器14、 光电探测器16、17、18;锁频系统包括基频单纵模连续激光器1、单模光纤10、干涉鉴频器14、 倍频/基频二向色分光镜13、15和光电探测器19。 Baseband transmission system comprises a single longitudinal mode laser pulses continuous single longitudinal mode laser I, multiplier 2, beam expander 3, the photodetector 4, the dichroic mirror 5, the mirror 6; reception system comprising a telescope 7, a narrow band filter 8, mirror 9, the polarizing beam splitter prism 11, beam splitter 12, frequency / baseband two dichroic beam splitter 13 and 15, the interference frequency discriminator 14, a photodetector 16, 17; baseband frequency lock system comprises a single longitudinal continuous mode laser 1, a single-mode optical fiber 10, the interference frequency detector 14, frequency / baseband dichroic beam splitter 13, 15 and the photodetector 19. 基频单纵模连续激光器1发出的连续光经倍频后在倍频单纵模脉冲激光器2中发生谐振,使倍频单纵模脉冲激光器2发射的脉冲光具有单模特性。 After a single longitudinal mode baseband frequency by the continuous light generating laser 1 continuously at a resonant frequency in a single longitudinal mode pulsed laser 2, so that a single longitudinal mode frequency pulsed laser light emitted from the second pulse having single mode. 脉冲光经扩束器3后由分光镜5分为两路,较弱透射光由光电探测器4监视出射的光强变化,较强反射光在望远镜7下方经反射镜6后射入海洋,称为出射光。 Pulsed light through the beam expander 3 is divided into two by a beam splitter 5, a weak transmitted light is monitored by the photodetector 4 emitted light intensity change, a strong reflection light enters through the mirror 6 in the bottom of the ocean telescope 7, It referred to as the outgoing light. 望远镜7收集海洋的回波信号后由窄带滤波片8滤除背景光,经反光镜9导入接收系统。 After the echo signals collected by the ocean telescope 7 8 narrow band filter to filter out background light, introduced by the mirror 9 receiving system. 如图2所示,回波信号的产生是因为出射光进入海洋后,海水分子产生中心频率偏移的布里渊散射信号,海水中颗粒物产生频谱近似不变的米散射信号,与出射光相比较,它们的偏振态发生一定变化。 2, an echo signal is generated because the light emitted into the ocean, water molecules Brillouin scattering center frequency offset signal, generate spectral seawater particles Mie scattering signal approximately constant, the exit light with comparison, the polarization state thereof changed differently. 回波信号由偏振分光棱镜11分为正交的两束偏振光,与出射激光偏振方向垂直的一路信号由光电探测器16接收,称为垂直混合通道;与出射激光偏振方向平行的一路信号由分光镜12分为两束光,较弱光由光电探测器17接收,称为平行混合通道;较强光透过倍频/基频二向色分光镜13后,经干涉鉴频器14滤除海洋颗粒米散射信号,透过海洋布里渊分子散射信号,并透过倍频/基频二向色分光镜15由光电探测器18接收,称为平行分子通道。 Echo signal into two orthogonal polarized lights by the polarization splitting prism 11, the exit laser beam along a polarization direction perpendicular to the signal received by the photodetector 16, referred to as vertical mixing channel; parallel to the polarization direction of the emitted laser light from the one signal beam splitter 12 into two beams of light, weak light is received by the photodetector 17, referred to as parallel mixing channel; strong light is transmitted through the frequency / baseband two dichroic beam splitter 13, the interference filter frequency discriminator 14 In addition to marine Mie scattering particle signals through sea Brillouin scattering signal molecules, and through frequency / baseband two dichroic beam splitter 15 is received by the photodetector 18, referred to as parallel channels molecule. 利用单模光纤10将基频单纵模连续激光器1发射的连续光射向倍频/基频二向色分光镜13,经倍频/基频二向色分光镜13反射入干涉鉴频器14,由倍频/基频二向色分光镜15反射被光电探测器19接收,并反馈给干涉鉴频器14使其锁定于倍频单纵模脉冲激光器2。 Single-mode fiber 10 using the baseband single longitudinal mode laser 1 emits a continuous light toward a continuous frequency / baseband dichroic beam splitter 13, the frequency / baseband reflected by the dichroic beam splitter 13 into interference discriminator 14, the frequency / baseband two dichroic beam splitter 15 is reflected by the photodetector 19 receives, and fed back to the interference discriminator 14 to lock in a single longitudinal mode frequency pulsed laser 2. 光电探测器16、 17和18得到的光信号由数据采集及处理系统20进行光电转换、采集和数字化,并将其进行海洋浮游植物生物量和POC的反演分析。 Photodetectors 16, 17 and 18 the optical signals obtained by photoelectric conversion by the data acquisition and digital acquisition and processing system 20, and subjected to marine phytoplankton biomass and inversion of POC analysis.

[0094] 所述的两个倍频/基频二向色分光镜、干涉鉴频器为接收系统和锁频系统共用;当系统的激光波长不存在基频和倍频的关系时,系统没有基频单纵模连续激光器,倍频/基频二向色分光镜改为偏振分光棱镜,倍频单纵模脉冲激光器发射的脉冲光的偏振方向经1/4 波片旋转90 °后引入锁频系统。 [0094] The two frequency / baseband dichroic beam splitter, the interference discriminator common to the receiving system and a frequency-locked system; and when the relationship between the fundamental frequency of the frequency doubled laser wavelength system does not exist, there is no after baseband single longitudinal mode laser continuously, frequency / baseband to the PBS two dichroic beam splitter, the polarization direction of the pulsed light frequency of a single longitudinal mode laser pulses emitted by the 90 ° rotation of the 1/4 wave plate is introduced lock frequency system.

[0095] 所述的偏振分光棱镜11和光电探测器16不是必须的,当系统设计为非偏振的高光谱分辨率激光雷达时,系统没有偏振分光棱镜11和光电探测器16,光电探测器17和光电探测器18接收的信号分别称为混合通道和分子通道,具体的: [0095] The polarizing beam splitter prism 11 and the photodetector 16 is not necessary, when the system is designed to be non-polarized laser radar high spectral resolution, the system is not the PBS 11 and the photodetector 16, the photodetector 17 and the photodetector 18 receives a signal referred to as the mixing channel and channel molecules, specifically:

[0096] 回波信号由分光镜12分为两束光,较弱光由光电探测器17接收,称为混合通道;较强光透过倍频/基频二向色分光镜13后,经干涉鉴频器14滤除海洋颗粒米散射信号,透过海洋布里渊分子散射信号,并透过倍频/基频二向色分光镜15由光电探测器18接收,称为分子通道。 [0096] echo signal by the dichroic mirror 12 into two beams of light, weak light is received by the photodetector 17, referred to as a mixing channel; strong light after transmission frequency multiplication / group dichroic beam splitter 13, the filter out the interference discriminator 14 meters ocean particle scattering signal, Brillouin ocean through molecular scattering signal, and transmitted through the frequency / baseband two dichroic beam splitter 15 is received by the photodetector 18, referred to as molecular pathway.

[0097] 上述的基频单纵模连续激光器1采用频宽不大于150MHz的单纵模连续激光器,例如美国NP Photonics公司的抗震动单频窄线宽光纤激光器系统,波长为1064.48nm,功率125mW,频宽5KHz; [0097] The fundamental frequency of a single longitudinal mode laser using a continuous bandwidth is not larger than a continuous single longitudinal mode laser 150MHz, e.g. U.S. anti-shake NP Photonics single frequency narrow linewidth fiber laser system having a wavelength of 1064.48nm, power 125mW , bandwidth 5KHz;

[0098] 上述的倍频单纵模脉冲激光器2采用频宽不大于150MHz的单纵模脉冲激光器,例如美国Continuum公司的Nd: YAG脉冲激光器,采用种子注入技术,波长532.24nm,单脉冲能量30011^,重复频率10抱,频宽1501抱,? [0098] The single longitudinal mode frequency doubled pulsed laser bandwidth no greater than 2 using single longitudinal mode laser pulses of 150MHz, for example, U.S. companies Continuum pulsed Nd: YAG laser, by seed implantation technique, the wavelength of 532.24nm, single pulse energy 30011 ^, repetition rate 10 hold, hold bandwidth 1501,? 偏振输出; Polarized output;

[0099] 上述的扩束器3采用抗强激光扩束器,例如北京大恒公司的GC0-141602型号扩束器,6倍扩束; [0099] The beam expander 3 made of strong laser beam expander, e.g. Beijing Daheng GC0-141602 model of beam expander, the beam expander 6 times;

[0100] 上述的光电探测器4和光电探测器19为高速响应的光电探测器,不需要具有特别高的灵敏度,如Thorlabs公司的FDS025型号PN光电二极管; [0100] The photodetector 4 and a photodetector as the photodetector 19 of the high-speed response, need not have a particularly high sensitivity, such as the type of Thorlabs FDS025 PN photodiode;

[0101] 上述的分光镜5的反射率远大于透射率,能够向具有较高镀膜能力的公司定制,如Thor labs公司,透反比为0.5:99.5。 Reflectance [0101] The dichroic mirror 5 is much larger than the transmittance, it is possible to customize the coating company has a higher capacity, such as the company Thor labs, inversely proportional to the permeability of 0.5: 99.5.

[0102] 上述的反射镜6和望远镜7为决定船载激光雷达重叠因子的主要部件,满足船载激光雷达重叠因子盲区不大于3米的条件;所述的望远镜7为短焦望远镜,其接收角不小于IOmracU且具有一定范围的调节能力,例如广州博冠公司生产的蜂鸟20-60X85A望远镜,接收角10-40mrad可调,直径为85mm;当所述的反射镜6与望远镜7为共轴时,反射镜6的直径小于望远镜7的1/2;当所述的反射镜6与望远镜7为离轴时,反射镜6与望远镜7的间距尽量小, 且倾斜反射镜6,使出射激光与望远镜7的光轴夹角在平行方向上的分量小于望远镜7接收角的1/2,且激光偏向望远镜7—侧。 [0102] The telescope mirror 6 and 7 is to determine the main member shipborne overlapping factor lidar, laser radar shipboard conditions blind overlapping factor not greater than 3 m is satisfied; 7 is the short-focus telescope telescope, which receives angle is not less than IOmracU and having the ability to regulate a range of, for example, produced by Guangzhou Bosma telescope hummingbird 20-60X85A acceptance angle 10-40mrad adjustable diameter 85mm; when the mirror 6 is coaxial with the telescope 7 when the diameter is smaller than the telescope mirror 6 1/2 7; and when the mirror 6 and 7 off-axis telescope, the mirror spacing of 6 and 7 of the telescope as small as possible, and a tilting mirror 6, a laser emitting resorted the angle between the optical axis of the telescope with a component 7 in the parallel direction is smaller than half the acceptance angle telescope 7, and the laser bias 7- telescope side.

[0103] 当激光雷达为机载时,重叠因子的决定部件包括反射镜6和望远镜7;所述的望远镜7为长焦大口径望远镜,其接收角较小,且具有一定范围的调节能力,例如星特朗CllHD望远镜,接收角0.1〜Imrad可调,直径为280mm;所述的反射镜6与望远镜处于离轴或共轴位置,使激光雷达的重叠因子在海洋中为1。 [0103] When airborne laser radar, the overlapping factor determining means comprises a telescope mirror 6 and 7; 7 telescopes the telephoto large aperture telescope, which receives a small angle, and having the ability to regulate a range of Celestron telescope CllHD e.g., acceptance angle 0.1~Imrad adjustable diameter 280mm; the telescope mirror 6 at an off-axis or coaxially position the overlapping factor lidar in the ocean is 1.

[0104] 上述的反射镜6采用抗强激光反射镜,例如北京大恒公司的GCCH-101062,直径25mm; [0104] The use of anti-reflecting mirror 6 of mirror, e.g. Beijing Daheng company GCCH-101062, diameter 25mm;

[0105]上述的窄带滤波片8为带宽较窄的带通光学滤波器,在倍频± 3nm透射,可选用干涉滤光片,找光学镀膜能力较强的公司,如北京大恒公司定制; [0105] The narrow-band filter 8 is a narrow bandwidth optical bandpass filter, the transmission frequency ± 3nm, optional interference filter optical coating strong ability to find companies such as Beijing Daheng customized;

[0106] 上述的反射镜9为普通的介质反射镜即可,如北京大恒公司的GCC101042型号反射镜; [0106] The reflecting mirror 9 as an ordinary dielectric mirrors can, as is GCC101042 Beijing Daheng type mirror;

[0107] 上述的单模光纤10为普通的单模光纤,例如TH0RLABS公司的SM980G80型号单模光纤; [0107] The single mode optical fiber 10 is an ordinary single-mode fiber, e.g. TH0RLABS's SM980G80 type single mode optical fiber;

[0108] 上述的偏振分光棱镜11为普通偏振分光棱镜,例如NEWPORT公司的10BC16PC. 3型号分光棱镜; [0108] The polarizing beam splitter prism 11 as an ordinary polarization splitting prism, e.g. 10BC16PC 3's Model NEWPORT dichroic prism.;

[0109] 上述的透反比为的分光镜12为反射率低于透射率的普通介质分光镜,例如NEWPORT公司的UVBS13-2型号分光镜,透反比为95:5; [0109] Through the above-described dichroic mirror 12 is inversely proportional to the dielectric dichroic mirror reflectivity lower than normal transmittance, e.g. NEWPORT model's UVBS13-2 spectroscope 95 through inverse: 5;

[0110] 上述的倍频/基频二向色分光镜13和倍频/基频二向色分光镜15采用一般的倍频/ 基频二向色分光镜即可,如NEWPORT公司的10QM20HB. 12型号二向色分光镜; [0110] The multiplier / Baseband dichroic beam splitter 13 and a frequency / baseband dichroic beam splitter 15 by using general frequency / baseband to two dichroic beam splitter, such as the company NEWPORT 10QM20HB. 12 model two dichroic beam splitter;

[0111] 上述的干涉鉴频器14是具有高光谱分辨率的干涉仪;当激光雷达为船载时,干涉鉴频器对入射光角度不敏感,如共焦Fabry-Perot干涉仪或视场展宽迈克尔逊干涉仪;当激光雷达为机载时,干涉鉴频器选择Fabry-Perot干涉仪或视场展宽迈克尔逊干涉仪;所述的干涉鉴频器的中心滤波波长与倍频单纵模脉冲激光器的出射脉冲光波长一致,干涉鉴频器能够滤除相对于出射脉冲光频谱不变的海洋颗粒米散射信号,透过发生布里渊频移的海洋布里渊分子散射信号。 [0111] The interference discriminator 14 having a high spectral resolution of the interferometer; when the laser radar on board, the interference discriminator insensitive to incident light angle, confocal Fabry-Perot interferometer or a field of view broadening Michelson interferometer; when airborne laser radar, the interference discriminator selection Fabry-Perot interferometer or a broadening field Michelson interferometer; the center frequency of the filter and the wavelength of the interference discriminator single longitudinal mode marine shifted Brillouin scattering molecule pulsed light signal emitted same wavelength, the interference discriminator capable of filtering particles marine Mie spectrum pulsed light emission signal with respect to the same, through the occurrence of Brillouin frequency pulsed laser. 上述的光电探测器16、光电探测器17、光电探测器18选择相同型号的光电探测器,它们必须有高响应速度和高灵敏度,例如日本滨松公司的R6358型号光电倍增管; Above the photodetector 16, the photodetector 17, the photodetector 18 of the photodetector select the same model, they must have a high response speed and high sensitivity, e.g. Hamamatsu's R6358 photomultiplier tube model;

[0112] 上述的数据采集及处理系统20采用德国Licel公司的TR20-80数据采集系统并配普通个人电脑、台式机或笔记本电脑即可; [0112] The data acquisition and processing system 20 by the German company TR20-80 Licel data acquisition system and with an ordinary personal computer, a desktop or laptop computer to;

[0113] 如图3所示,海洋浮游植物生物量和POC反演算法包括以下步骤: [0113] 3, marine phytoplankton biomass and POC inversion algorithm comprising the steps of:

[0114] 第一步:根据上述的偏振高光谱分辨率激光雷达系统的散射信号,反演海洋表观光学参数:散射角为邱寸的颗粒体积散射方程^和有效衰减系数Kd。 [0114] Step: scattering angle for the high volume scattering particles inch ^ equation and effective attenuation coefficient Kd: Ocean apparent optical parameter of the high spectral resolution of the polarization of the scattered signal laser radar system, according to the inversion. 由海洋激光雷达望远镜收集的信号强度可以写为 The signal strength of the ocean lidar telescope collected can be written as

Figure CN105486664BD00151

[0116]其中,Po为脉冲能量,α为空气的消光系数,To和Ts分别为激光雷达系统和海水表面的透射率,G为重叠因子,η为海水折射率,V为真空中的光速,τ〇为脉冲宽度,Ar为望远镜有效面积,H为望远镜距离海面的距离,ζ为光在水中传播的距离,K为散射角为π时的分子体积散射方程。 [0116] where, Po is the pulse energy, [alpha] is the extinction coefficient of the air, To and Ts, respectively, the transmittance of the laser radar system and the water surface, G is the overlapping factor, [eta] is seawater refractive index, V is the light velocity in vacuum, τ〇 pulse width, Ar is the effective area of ​​the telescope, H is the distance from the telescope sea surface, ζ is the distance light travels in the water, K is the scattering angle of the scattering volume of the molecule when the equation π. 公式(33)可以被简化为, Equation (33) can be simplified to,

Figure CN105486664BD00152

[0118] 其中 [01] where

Figure CN105486664BD00153

,常I Often I

Figure CN105486664BD00154

,光学厚度 , The optical thickness

Figure CN105486664BD00155

[0119] 当探测海洋浮游植物生物量和颗粒有机碳的激光雷达装置为偏振的高光谱分辨率激光雷达时,被望远镜接收的信号进入偏振高光谱分辨率激光雷达系统的垂直混合通道、平行混合通道和平行分子通道,公式(34)分别改写为 [0119] When a laser radar apparatus detecting marine phytoplankton biomass and particulate organic carbon is high spectral resolution polarized laser radar, the received signal enters the polarization telescope high spectral resolution lidar vertical mixing channel, parallel mixed parallel channels and channel molecules, the equation (34) are respectively rewritten as

Figure CN105486664BD00156

[0123] 其中,上标丄和P分别表示垂直和平行方向,TjPTp*别为滤波器对分子和颗粒散射光的透过率。 [0123] wherein, superscript Shang and P denote directions perpendicular and parallel, TjPTp * transmittance of the filter is not light-scattering particles and molecules. 根据公式(35)、(36)和(37)推导得到平行方向的颗粒体积散射方程 According to equation (35), (36) to derive equation scattering particle volume and the parallel direction (37)

Figure CN105486664BD00157

[0125]其中, [0125] wherein,

Figure CN105486664BD00158

是分子后向散射消偏系数, Is the backscatter coefficient of the molecular partial elimination,

Figure CN105486664BD00159

垂直方向的颗粒体积散射方程为 Scattering particles volume in the vertical direction of the equation

Figure CN105486664BD001510

[0127]其中, [0127] wherein,

Figure CN105486664BD001511

为总后向散射消偏系数。 GLD backscattering coefficient of the partial elimination. 颗粒体积散射方程表示为公式(38)与(39)之和 Volume scattering particles equation is expressed as equation (38) and a (39) of

Figure CN105486664BD001512

[0129] 有效衰减系数写为 [0129] effective attenuation coefficient is written as

Figure CN105486664BD001513

[0131] 步骤2、根据散射角为π时的颗粒体积散射方程仏和有效衰减系数Kd,反演海水的固有光学参数:颗粒后向散射系数bbp和颗粒光束衰减系数cP。 [0131] Step 2, according to the particle volume at a scattering angle of π equation Fo scattering and intrinsic optical parameters Kd of effective attenuation coefficient, inversion seawater: after particle backscatter coefficients of attenuation coefficient bbp cP and particle beams.

[0132] 颗粒后向散射系数bbp与散射角为π时的颗粒体积散射方程^的关系表示为 [0132] After the relationship between the particle scattering particle volume when the equation for the π ^ backscattering coefficient and the scattering angle bbp is expressed as

Figure CN105486664BD00161

[0134]其中,转换因子Xp⑻由光束衰减系数估算 [0134] wherein the conversion factor is estimated by the attenuation coefficient beam Xp⑻

Figure CN105486664BD00162

[0136]其中,XjPx2为常系数,颗粒光束衰减系数(^由光束衰减系数c去除水的光束衰减系数cw得到 [0136] wherein, XjPx2 is a constant coefficient, the particle beam attenuation coefficient (attenuation coefficient ^ cw beam from the beam attenuation coefficient c of the water is removed to give

Figure CN105486664BD00163

[0138]其中,c能够利用多次散射系数η表示 [0138] wherein, c can be represented using multiple scattering coefficient η

Figure CN105486664BD00164

[0140]由于多次散射会导致退偏,多次散射系数表示为 [0140] Due to multiple scattering can cause depolarization, expressed as a multiple scattering coefficient

Figure CN105486664BD00165

[0142] 其中 [0142] in which

Figure CN105486664BD00166

为总的散射消光比。 Scattered total extinction ratio.

[0143] 步骤3、根据固有光学参数bbt^PCpi演生物栗组分:浮游植物生物量和P0C。 [0143] Step 3, based on the intrinsic optical parameters bbt ^ PCpi biological Li speech components: phytoplankton biomass and P0C.

[0144] 浮游植物生物量Cphyt。 [0144] phytoplankton biomass Cphyt. 分别由1^和(^表示如下: Respectively, and the 1 ^ (^ as follows:

Figure CN105486664BD00167

[0147] 颗粒有机碳POC分别由1^和(^表示如下 [0147] POC POC respectively by one and ^ (^ follows

Figure CN105486664BD00168

[0150] 其中,ki、k2、γ 1、γ 2、li、h、识1.和朽为常系数。 [0150] wherein, ki, k2, γ 1, γ 2, li, h, and rot is 1. knowledge constant coefficients.

[0151] 当步骤1所述的探测海洋浮游植物生物量和颗粒有机碳的激光雷达装置为非偏振的高光谱分辨率激光雷达时,具体步骤如下: [0151] When a laser radar apparatus according to the step of detecting a marine phytoplankton biomass and particulate organic carbon unpolarized laser radar high spectral resolution, the following steps:

[0152] 步骤4、根据上述的海洋激光雷达散射信号,反演海洋表观光学参数:散射角为π时的颗粒体积散射方程仏和有效衰减系数Kd;由海洋激光雷达望远镜收集的信号强度可以写为 [0152] Step 4, above sea lidar backscatter signal, the apparent inversion Ocean The optical parameters: particle volume at a scattering angle of π scattering equation and the effective attenuation coefficient Kd of Fo; collected by maritime lidar signal strength may telescope written as

Figure CN105486664BD00169

[0154]其中,Po为脉冲能量,α为空气的消光系数,To和Ts分别为激光雷达系统和海水表面的透射率,G为重叠因子,η为海水折射率,V为真空中的光速,τ〇为脉冲宽度,Ar为望远镜有效面积,H为望远镜距离海面的距离,ζ为光在水中传播的距离,K为散射角为π时的分子体积散射方程,Kd为海水的有效衰减系数;公式(51)可以被简化为, [0154] where, Po is the pulse energy, [alpha] is the extinction coefficient of the air, To and Ts, respectively, the transmittance of the laser radar system and the water surface, G is the overlapping factor, [eta] is seawater refractive index, V is the light velocity in vacuum, τ〇 pulse width, Ar is the effective area of ​​the telescope, H is the distance from the telescope sea surface, ζ is the distance light travels in the water, K is the scattering angle of the scattering volume of the molecule when the equation π, Kd is the effective attenuation coefficient of water; equation (51) can be simplified to,

Figure CN105486664BD001610

[0156] 其中, [0156] wherein,

Figure CN105486664BD001611

,常数 ,constant

Figure CN105486664BD001612

,光学厚度 , The optical thickness

Figure CN105486664BD001613

[0157]被望远镜接收的信号进入非偏振高光谱分辨率激光雷达系统的混合通道和分子通道,公式(52)分别改写为 [0157] The signal received by the telescope into the mixing channel and channel molecules unpolarized laser radar system high spectral resolution, the equation (52) are respectively rewritten as

Figure CN105486664BD00171

[0160]颗粒的体积散射方程表示为 [0160] Equation volume scattering particles is expressed as

Figure CN105486664BD00172

[0162]有效衰减系数写为 [0162] effective attenuation coefficient is written as

Figure CN105486664BD00173

[0164] 步骤5、根据散射角为π时的颗粒体积散射方程仏和有效衰减系数Kd,反演海水的固有光学参数:颗粒后向散射系数bbp和颗粒光束衰减系数cP; [0164] Step 5, the volume of the particle scattering and intrinsic equation Fo effective attenuation coefficient Kd of optical parameters, according to the inversion of seawater when a scattering angle of π: particles after attenuation and backscattering coefficient bbp particle beam coefficient cP;

[0165] 颗粒后向散射系数bbp与散射角为π时的颗粒体积散射方程^的关系表示为 [0165] After the relationship between the particle scattering particle volume when the equation for the π ^ backscattering coefficient and the scattering angle bbp is expressed as

Figure CN105486664BD00174

[0167]其中,转换因子Xp⑻由光束衰减系数估算 [0167] wherein the conversion factor is estimated by the attenuation coefficient beam Xp⑻

Figure CN105486664BD00175

[0169]其中,XjPx2为常系数,颗粒光束衰减系数(^由光束衰减系数c去除水的光束衰减系数cw得到 [0169] wherein, XjPx2 is a constant coefficient, the particle beam attenuation coefficient (attenuation coefficient ^ cw beam from the beam attenuation coefficient c of the water is removed to give

Figure CN105486664BD00176

[0171]其中,c的信息包含于有效衰减系数中 [0171] wherein, c is the effective attenuation coefficient information contained in

Figure CN105486664BD00177

[0173] 其中,K/为漫衰减系数,D为望远镜投影在海水上的视场大小。 [0173] where, K / diffuse attenuation coefficient, D is the size of the telescope field of view projected on the sea. 通过改变望远镜接收角,c的大小能够由参数Kd-D的曲线拟合求出;在外海,光束衰减系数能够近似为c〜Kd/ (卜ω),其中,ω = (ftn+βρ) /Kd为总的散射消光比; By changing the angle of the telescope, the size C can be fitted by a curve parameter Kd-D is determined; open sea, beam attenuation coefficient can be approximated to c~Kd / (Bu [omega]), where, ω = (ftn + βρ) / Kd is the total scattering extinction ratio;

[0174] 步骤6、根据固有光学参数1^和(^反演生物栗组分:浮游植物生物量和POC; [0174] Step 6 The intrinsic optical parameters and 1 ^ (^ Li inversion biological components: phytoplankton biomass and the POC;

[0175] 浮游植物生物量Cphyt。 [0175] phytoplankton biomass Cphyt. 分别由bbp和Cp表不如下: Respectively, and not as a bbp Cp Table:

Figure CN105486664BD00178

[0178] 颗粒有机碳POC分别由bbP和Cp表示如下 [0178] POC POC and Cp are represented by the following bbP

Figure CN105486664BD00179

[0181] 其中,ki、k2、γ 1、γ 2、li、h、外和炉2为常系数。 [0181] wherein, ki, k2, γ 1, γ 2, li, h, and an outer furnace 2 is constant coefficients.

[0182] 所述的海洋浮游植物生物量和POC反演算法通过所述的步骤1、步骤2、步骤3或者步骤4、步骤5、步骤6,利用激光雷达方程中的颗粒体积散射方程和有效衰减系数同步反演浮游植物生物量和POC。 [0182] The marine phytoplankton biomass and POC by the inversion algorithm Step 1, Step 2, Step 3 or Step 4, Step 5, Step 6, the volume of the particle scattering equation and the effective use of a laser radar equation attenuation coefficient simultaneous inversion of phytoplankton biomass and POC.

[0183] 所述的常系数xjPx2分别为0.31453和0.36093,在一些特殊的海域,转换因子可以近似表示为〇. 6 (深海区域),0.4 (近海区域),0.8-1.1 (港口浑浊区)。 Constant Coefficients [0183] according xjPx2 0.31453 and 0.36093, respectively, in some special waters, the conversion factor can be approximated square. 6 (deep areas), 0.4 (offshore areas), 0.8-1.1 (turbidity port area).

[0184] 所述的常系数ki、k2、γι、丫2、11、12、%和%的典型值示于表一,展示了不同海域的实验拟合参数,括号内为实验数据采用的激光波长。 Constant Coefficients [0184] according ki, k2, γι, Ah, 11, 12,% and% are typical values ​​shown in Table I, show the experiment fitting parameters of different waters, laser employed in parentheses experimental data wavelength.

Figure CN105486664BD00181

[0186] 所述的反演算法基于不同波长的实验数据,以532nm的工作波长为例,需要用^ (660) =0.75cP(532)和 Inversion [0186] Based on the experimental data of different wavelengths to 532nm operating wavelength for example, we need ^ (660) = 0.75cP (532) and

[0187] [0187]

Figure CN105486664BD00182

,将532nm 的高光谱分辨率激光雷达回波信号变化为适用于公式(61) - (64)回波波长的信号。 The resolution of the laser radar echo signal Hyperspectral 532nm is suitable for use in equations (61) - (64) back to the wave length of the signal.

[0188] 所述的常系数分别基于全球或者不同海域的测量数据,为了使得这些系数能够普适地应用于不同的海域测量,建议大西洋、南极极峰海区、地中海、东太平洋等已有实验数据的海域,常系数采用当前海域的拟合参数,而对于没有实验数据的海域,常系数Iui2J1 和%采用全球的拟合参数,常系数γ l·、γ 2、γ 3采用南极极峰海区的拟合参数,该海区受浮游植物生物量影响较小,常系数I1U2采用东太平洋的拟合参数,该海区叶绿素含量受浮游植物生理活动影响较小。 Constant Coefficients [0188] respectively based on the measurement data of global or different waters, in order to make these coefficients can be applied to different waters universal measurement, experimental data have been recommended Atlantic, Antarctic waters pole peak, the Mediterranean Sea, East Pacific. waters, using constant coefficients of the current parameter fitting waters, but no experimental data for the sea, and the constant coefficient Iui2J1% using global fitting parameters, constant coefficient γ l ·, γ 2, γ 3 peak using the sea area south pole fitting parameters, the sea area less affected by the phytoplankton biomass, using constant coefficients I1U2 fitting parameters in the eastern Pacific, the sea phytoplankton chlorophyll content by physical activity was less affected. 合适的常系数选择将大大减小反演产生的误差。 Suitable constant coefficient selection inversion would greatly reduce the error generated.

Claims (4)

  1. I.探测海洋浮游植物生物量和POC的激光雷达装置,其特征在于包括偏振高光谱分辨率激光雷达系统,且所述的偏振高光谱分辨率激光雷达系统工作在倍频,包括发射系统、接收系统、锁频系统、数据采集及处理系统;发射系统包括基频单纵模连续激光器、倍频单纵模脉冲激光器、扩束器、光电探测器、分光镜、反射镜;接收系统包括望远镜、窄带滤波片、反射镜、偏振分光棱镜、分光镜、两个倍频/基频二向色分光镜、干涉鉴频器和三个光电探测器;锁频系统包括基频单纵模连续激光器、单模光纤、干涉鉴频器、两个倍频/基频二向色分光镜和光电探测器;基频单纵模连续激光器发出的连续光经倍频后在倍频单纵模脉冲激光器中发生谐振,使倍频单纵模脉冲激光器发射的脉冲光具有单模特性;脉冲光经扩束器后由分光镜分为两路,较弱透射光由光电探测器监 I. Detection of marine phytoplankton biomass and POC laser radar apparatus, comprising a polarization lidar system of high spectral resolution and high spectral resolution of the polarization of the laser frequency at the radar system, the system includes a transmitter, receiver system, frequency-locked system, data acquisition and processing system; baseband transmission system comprises a single longitudinal mode laser is a continuous, single longitudinal mode frequency pulsed laser, beam expander, a photodetector, a beam splitter, a mirror; reception system comprises a telescope, narrowband filter, a mirror, a polarization splitting prism, beam splitter, two frequency / baseband dichroic beam splitter, and interference discriminator three photodetectors; baseband frequency lock system comprising a continuous single longitudinal mode laser, single-mode fiber, the interference discriminator, two frequency / baseband dichroic beam splitter and the photodetector; baseband continuously after a single longitudinal mode laser light is emitted in a continuous frequency multiplier in a single longitudinal mode laser pulses resonance occurs, so that a single longitudinal mode frequency pulsed laser having light pulses emitted by the single mode; pulse light after the beam expander into two paths by a beam splitter, the transmitted light is weak monitored by the photodetector 出射的光强变化,较强反射光在望远镜下方经反射镜后射入海洋;望远镜收集海洋的回波信号后由窄带滤波片滤除背景光,经反射镜导入接收系统;回波信号由偏振分光棱镜分为正交的两束偏振光,与出射激光偏振方向垂直的一路信号由接收系统中的一个光电探测器接收,称为垂直混合通道;与出射激光偏振方向平行的一路信号由分光镜分为两束光,一束光由接收系统的另一个光电探测器接收,称为平行混合通道;另一束光透过其中一个倍频/基频二向色分光镜后,经干涉鉴频器滤除海洋颗粒米散射信号,透过海洋布里渊分子散射信号,再透过另一个倍频/基频二向色分光镜由接收系统的再一个光电探测器接收,称为平行分子通道;利用单模光纤将基频单纵模连续激光器发射的连续光射向倍频/基频二向色分光镜(13),经倍频/基频二向色分光镜(13)反射 Change in light intensity emitted, under the strong reflected light is incident on the mirror, after the telescope ocean; post-echo signals are filtered telescopes ocean background light by the narrowband filter, introduced into the receiving system via a mirror; echo signal by the polarization dichroic prism into two orthogonal polarized lights, one signal with a polarization direction perpendicular to the emitted laser light is received by the receiving system is a photodetector, called vertical mixing channel; parallel to the polarization direction of the emitted laser light by the dichroic mirror one signal is divided into two beams, a beam of light is received by another photodetector receiving system, referred to as parallel mixing channel; wherein the other beam of light through a frequency / baseband dichroic beam splitter, the interference discriminator marine filter out particles Mie scattering signal, Brillouin ocean through molecular scattering signal, and then through another frequency / baseband twenty-one then received by a photodetector receiving the dichroic mirror system, referred to as parallel channels molecule ; single mode fiber the baseband continuous single longitudinal mode laser emits light toward a continuous frequency / baseband dichroic beam splitter (13), the frequency / baseband two (13) reflected by the dichroic mirror 干涉鉴频器,由倍频/基频二向色分光镜(15)反射被光电探测器(19)接收,并反馈给干涉鉴频器使其锁定于倍频单纵模脉冲激光器;接收系统的三个光电探测器得到的光信号由数据采集及处理系统进行光电转换、采集和数字化,并将其进行海洋浮游植物生物量和POC的反演分析; 所述的两个倍频/基频二向色分光镜和干涉鉴频器为接收系统和锁频系统共用;当系统的激光波长不存在基频和倍频的关系时,系统没有基频单纵模连续激光器,倍频/基频二向色分光镜改为偏振分光棱镜,倍频单纵模脉冲激光器发射的脉冲光的偏振方向经1/4波片旋转90°后引入锁频系统; 所述的基频单纵模连续激光器采用频宽不大于150MHz的单纵模连续激光器; 所述的倍频单纵模脉冲激光器采用频宽不大于150MHz的单纵模脉冲激光器; 所述的发射系统中的光电探测器(4)和锁频系统中 Interference discriminator is two photodetectors (19) receives the reflection of the dichroic beam splitter (15) by the frequency / baseband, and fed back to the interference discriminator to lock in a single longitudinal mode frequency pulsed laser; reception system three photoelectric detector of the optical signal obtained by photoelectric conversion by the data acquisition and digital acquisition and processing system, and subjected to marine phytoplankton biomass POC analysis and inversion; said two frequency / baseband two of the dichroic mirror and the interference discriminator receiving system and the common frequency-locked system; and when the relationship between the fundamental frequency of the frequency doubled laser wavelength system does not exist, the fundamental frequency is not a continuous single longitudinal mode laser, a frequency / baseband two dichroic beam splitter to the polarization splitting prism, the polarization direction of the pulsed light frequency of a single longitudinal mode laser pulses emitted by the quarter-wave plate after the rotation frequency-locked system incorporated 90 °; said baseband single longitudinal mode laser is continuously no greater than 150MHz bandwidth using single longitudinal mode laser continuously; said multiplier using single longitudinal mode laser pulse bandwidth not greater than a single longitudinal mode laser pulses of 150MHz; transmission system according to the photoelectric detector (4) and frequency-locked system 光电探测器(19)均为高速响应的光电探测器; 所述的反射镜(6)和望远镜为决定船载激光雷达重叠因子的主要部件,满足船载激光雷达重叠因子盲区不大于3米的条件;所述的望远镜为短焦望远镜,其接收角不小于10mrad,且具有一定范围的调节能力;当所述的反射镜(6)与望远镜为共轴时,反射镜⑹的直径小于望远镜的1/2;当所述的反射镜⑹与望远镜为离轴时,反射镜⑹与望远镜的间距尽量小,且倾斜反射镜(6),使出射激光与望远镜的光轴夹角在平行方向上的分量接近望远镜接收角的1 /2,且激光偏向望远镜一侧; 当激光雷达为机载时,重叠因子的决定部件包括反射镜和望远镜;所述的望远镜为长焦大口径望远镜,其接收角较小,且具有一定范围的调节能力;所述的反射镜与望远镜处于离轴或共轴位置,使激光雷达的重叠因子在海洋中为1; 所述的窄带滤波 Photodetector photodetector (19) are high speed response; said mirrors (6) and the main part determines telescope onboard laser radar overlapping factor, satisfy shipboard laser radar blind spot overlapping factor not more than 3 m conditions; the short-focus telescope is a telescope, which receives the angle is not less than 10 Mrad, and the ability to modulate certain range; when said mirror (6) is coaxial with the telescope, the mirror is smaller than the diameter of the telescope ⑹ 1/2; when said mirror telescope with off-axis ⑹ pitch ⑹ telescope mirrors as small as possible, and a tilting mirror (6), the angle between the optical axis of the laser beam emitted resorted to telescope in a direction parallel to the components close to the telescope angle of 1/2, and the laser telescope toward one side; when airborne laser radar, the overlapping factor determining means comprises a mirror and a telescope; the telescope telephoto large aperture telescope, which receives angle is small, and the ability to modulate certain range; the telescope mirror is off-axis or coaxially position the overlapping factor lidar in the ocean is 1; said narrowband filtering 为带宽较窄的带通光学滤波器,在倍频±3nm透射; 所述的干涉鉴频器为具有高光谱分辨率的干涉仪,当激光雷达为船载时,干涉鉴频器对入射光角度不敏感,如共焦Fabry-Perot干涉仪或视场展宽迈克尔逊干涉仪;当激光雷达为机载时,干涉鉴频器选择Fabry-Perot干涉仪或视场展宽迈克尔逊干涉仪; 所述的接收系统中的光电探测器均有高响应速度和高灵敏度。 Narrow bandwidth optical bandpass filter, the transmission frequency ± 3nm; the interference discriminator as an interferometer with a high spectral resolution, when the laser radar on board, the interference of the incident light frequency discriminator angle insensitive, such as confocal Fabry-Perot interferometer or a broadening field Michelson interferometer; when airborne laser radar, the interference discriminator selection Fabry-Perot interferometer or a broadening field Michelson interferometer; the the receiving system has a photodetector with high sensitivity and high response speed.
  2. 2. 根据权利要求1所述的探测海洋浮游植物生物量和POC的激光雷达装置,其特征在于当系统为非偏振的高光谱分辨率激光雷达时,包括发射系统、接收系统、锁频系统、数据采集及处理系统;发射系统包括基频单纵模连续激光器、倍频单纵模脉冲激光器、扩束器、光电探测器、分光镜、反射镜;接收系统包括望远镜、窄带滤波片、反射镜、分光镜、两个倍频/ 基频二向色分光镜、干涉鉴频器和两个光电探测器;锁频系统包括基频单纵模连续激光器、 单模光纤、干涉鉴频器、两个倍频/基频二向色分光镜和光电探测器;基频单纵模连续激光器发出的连续光经倍频后在倍频单纵模脉冲激光器中发生谐振,使倍频单纵模脉冲激光器发射的脉冲光具有单模特性;脉冲光经扩束器后由分光镜分为两路,较弱透射光由光电探测器监视出射的光强变化,较强反射光在望远镜 The probe of claim 1 phytoplankton biomass and marine POC laser radar apparatus as claimed in claim, characterized in that when the system unpolarized when high spectral resolution lidar, comprising a transmission system, the receiving system, the system locked, data acquisition and processing system; baseband transmission system comprises a single longitudinal mode laser is a continuous, single longitudinal mode frequency pulsed laser, beam expander, a photodetector, a beam splitter, a mirror; reception system comprises a telescope, a narrow band filter, a mirror , beam splitter, two frequency / baseband dichroic beam splitter, the interference discriminator and two photodetectors; baseband frequency lock system comprising a continuous single longitudinal mode lasers, single mode fiber, the interference discriminator two a frequency / baseband dichroic beam splitter and the photodetector; resonant frequency occurs in a single longitudinal mode laser pulse after the continuous light by frequency doubling yl continuous single longitudinal mode of the laser, so that a single longitudinal mode frequency pulse pulsed laser light having a single mode emitted; pulsed light after the beam expander into two paths by a beam splitter, a change in light intensity emitted is weak transmitted light is monitored by the photodetector, a strong reflected light in the telescope 下方经反射镜后射入海洋;望远镜收集海洋的回波信号后由窄带滤波片滤除背景光,经反射镜导入接收系统;回波信号由分光镜(12)分为两束光,一束光由接收系统的一个光电探测器(17)接收,称为混合通道;另一束光透过倍频/基频二向色分光镜(13)后,经干涉鉴频器滤除海洋颗粒米散射信号,透过海洋布里渊分子散射信号,并透过倍频/基频二向色分光镜(15)由接收系统的另一个光电探测器(18)接收,称为分子通道;利用单模光纤将基频单纵模连续激光器发射的连续光射向倍频/ 基频二向色分光镜(13),经倍频/基频二向色分光镜(13)反射入干涉鉴频器,由倍频/基频二向色分光镜(15)反射被光电探测器(19)接收,并反馈给干涉鉴频器使其锁定于倍频单纵模脉冲激光器;接收系统的两个光电探测器得到的光信号由数据采集及处理系统进行光电转换、采集和数字 After the incident the mirror below the ocean; post-echo signals are filtered telescopes ocean background light by the narrowband filter, introduced into the receiving system via a mirror; echo signal by the dichroic mirror (12) into two beams, a bundle light is received by a photodetector receiving system (17), called the mixing channel; two-frequency beam of light after the other (13), filtered by the interference discriminator particles m to the ocean through the dichroic mirror frequency / group scattering signal, Brillouin ocean through molecular scattering signal, and transmitted through the frequency / baseband received by the other two photodetectors receiving system (18) to the dichroic mirror (15), referred to as molecular pathway; using a single the baseband-mode optical fiber a continuous single longitudinal mode laser emits light toward a continuous frequency / baseband dichroic beam splitter (13), the frequency / baseband two (13) reflecting dichroic mirror into the interferometric discriminator , is reflected by the photodetector (19) receiving a dichroic beam splitter (15), and fed back to the interference discriminator to lock in a single longitudinal mode frequency of the pulsed laser frequency / baseband II; two photoreceiving system an optical signal detector photoelectrically converted by the data acquisition and processing system, the digital acquisition and ,并将其进行海洋浮游植物生物量和POC的反演分析。 Analyze and conduct marine phytoplankton biomass and POC inversion.
  3. 3. 根据权利要求1所述的探测海洋浮游植物生物量和POC的激光雷达装置的反演方法, 其特征在于包括以下步骤: 步骤1、根据上述的偏振高光谱分辨率激光雷达系统的散射信号,反演海洋表观光学参数:散射角为π时的颗粒体积散射方程^和有效衰减系数Kd;由偏振高光谱分辨率激光雷达望远镜收集的信号强度可以写为 The probe of claim 1 phytoplankton biomass and marine inversion POC laser radar apparatus as claimed in claim, characterized by comprising the following steps: Step 1, the scattered signal resolution laser radar system according to the above polarization hyperspectral , the apparent inversion ocean optical parameters: particle volume at a scattering angle of π ^ scattering equation and Kd of the effective attenuation coefficient; collected by the polarization telescope high spectral resolution lidar signal intensity can be written as
    Figure CN105486664BC00031
    其中,Po为脉冲能量,α为空气的消光系数,To和Ts分别为激光雷达系统和海水表面的透射率,G为重叠因子,η为海水折射率,V为真空中的光速,τ〇为脉冲宽度,Ar为望远镜有效面积,H为望远镜距离海面的距离,ζ为光在水中传播的距离,K为散射角为π时的分子体积散射方程;公式⑴可以被简化为, Where, Po is the pulse energy, the extinction coefficient [alpha] of air, To and Ts, respectively and the transmittance of the laser radar system of the sea surface, G is the overlapping factor, [eta] is the refractive index of water, V is the speed of light in vacuum, to τ〇 pulse width, Ar is the effective area of ​​the telescope, H is the distance from the telescope sea surface, [zeta] is the distance light travels in the water, K is the scattering angle at the molecular volume scattering equation [pi]; ⑴ can be simplified to formula,
    Figure CN105486664BC00032
    其中 among them
    Figure CN105486664BC00033
    ,常数 ,constant
    Figure CN105486664BC00034
    ,光学厚度 , The optical thickness
    Figure CN105486664BC00035
    进入偏振高光谱分辨率激光雷达系统的垂直混合通道、平行混合通道和平行分子通道的信号分别为 Vertical polarization signal enters the mixing channel high spectral resolution of the laser radar system, and the mixing channel parallel to the parallel channels are molecules
    Figure CN105486664BC00041
    其中,上标丄和P分别表示垂直和平行方向,TjPTp分别为滤波器对分子和颗粒散射光的透过率;根据公式(3)、⑷和(5)推导得到平行方向的颗粒体积散射方程 Where the superscript P and Shang indicate parallel and perpendicular orientation, TjPTp each filter transmittance and light-scattering particles molecule; according to equation (3), ⑷, and (5) to derive the particle volume scattering direction parallel equation
    Figure CN105486664BC00042
    其中 among them
    Figure CN105486664BC00043
    是分子后向散射消偏系数, Is the backscatter coefficient of the molecular partial elimination,
    Figure CN105486664BC00044
    ;垂直方向的颗粒体积散射方程为 ; Particle volume scattering equation for the vertical direction
    Figure CN105486664BC00045
    其中 among them
    Figure CN105486664BC00046
    为总后向散射消偏系数;颗粒的体积散射方程表示为公式⑹与⑺之和 GLD depolarization of backscatter coefficients; volume scattering particles is expressed as the equation of formula ⑹ ⑺ sum
    Figure CN105486664BC00047
    有效衰减系数写为 Effective attenuation coefficient is written as
    Figure CN105486664BC00048
    步骤2、根据散射角为31时的颗粒体积散射方程^和有效衰减系数Kd,反演海水的固有光学参数:颗粒后向散射系数bbp和颗粒光束衰减系数cP; 颗粒后向散射系数bbp与散射角为31时的颗粒体积散射方程6的关系表示为 Step 2. The volume of the particle scattering Equation 31 ^ and scattering angle of the effective attenuation coefficient Kd of, the intrinsic optical parameters inversion seawater: after backscattering coefficient bbp cP particles and particle beam attenuation coefficient; backscattering coefficient and the scattering particles after bbp 31 is the relationship between the angle of scattering of the particle volume is expressed as equation 6
    Figure CN105486664BC00049
    其中,转换因子Xp㈨由光束衰减系数估算 Wherein the conversion factor is estimated by the attenuation coefficient beam Xp㈨
    Figure CN105486664BC000410
    其中,X1和X2为常系数,颗粒光束衰减系数Cp由光束衰减系数C去除水的光束衰减系数Cw 得到 Wherein, the X1 and X2 is a constant coefficient, the particle beam from the beam attenuation coefficient Cp beam attenuation coefficient C is removed to give the water attenuation coefficient Cw
    Figure CN105486664BC000411
    其中,C能够利用多次散射系数η表示C = KdAl. (13) 由于多次散射会导致退偏,多次散射系数表示为 Wherein, C is possible by using multiple scattering coefficient η represents C = KdAl. (13) due to multiple scattering can cause depolarization, expressed as a multiple scattering coefficient
    Figure CN105486664BC000412
    其中 among them
    Figure CN105486664BC000413
    为总的散射消光比 Scattered total extinction ratio
    Figure CN105486664BC000414
    :为后向散射消偏系数; 步骤3、根据固有光学参数bbt^PCpi演生物栗组分:浮游植物生物量和POC; 浮游植物生物量Cphyt。 : Backscatter coefficient of depolarization; step 3, play a biological component according to the intrinsic optical parameters Li bbt ^ PCpi: phytoplankton biomass and the POC; phytoplankton biomass Cphyt. 分别由bbp和Cp表不如下: Respectively, and not as a bbp Cp Table:
    Figure CN105486664BC000415
    颗粒有机碳POC分别由bbp和Cp表示如下 POC POC and Cp are represented by the following bbp
    Figure CN105486664BC00051
    其中,ki、k2、γ 1、γ 2、li、h、钓和%为常系数。 Wherein, ki, k2, γ 1, γ 2, li, h, and fishing% of constant coefficients.
  4. 4.根据权利要求2所述的探测海洋浮游植物生物量和POC的激光雷达装置的反演方法, 其特征在于包括以下步骤: 步骤4、根据上述的非偏振高光谱分辨率激光雷达系统散射信号,反演海洋表观光学参数:散射角为π时的颗粒体积散射方程^和有效衰减系数Kd;由海洋激光雷达望远镜收集的信号强度可以写为 The probe 2 of the phytoplankton biomass and marine inversion POC laser radar apparatus as claimed in claim, characterized by comprising the following steps: Step 4, the laser radar system resolution scatter non-polarized signal according to the hyperspectral , the apparent inversion ocean optical parameters: particle volume at a scattering angle of π ^ scattering equation and Kd of the effective attenuation coefficient; collected by maritime telescope lidar signal intensity can be written as
    Figure CN105486664BC00052
    其中,Po为脉冲能量,α为空气的消光系数,To和Ts分别为激光雷达系统和海水表面的透射率,G为重叠因子,η为海水折射率,V为真空中的光速,τ〇为脉冲宽度,Ar为望远镜有效面积,H为望远镜距离海面的距离,ζ为光在水中传播的距离,K为散射角为π时的分子体积散射方程,Kd为海水的有效衰减系数;公式(19)可以被简化为, Where, Po is the pulse energy, the extinction coefficient [alpha] of air, To and Ts, respectively and the transmittance of the laser radar system of the sea surface, G is the overlapping factor, [eta] is the refractive index of water, V is the speed of light in vacuum, to τ〇 pulse width, Ar telescope effective area, H is the distance of the telescope from the sea surface, ζ is the distance light travels in the water, K is the scattering angle for the molecular volume scattering equation when π, Kd is the effective attenuation coefficient seawater; formula (19 ) can be simplified,
    Figure CN105486664BC00053
    其中 among them
    Figure CN105486664BC00054
    ,常1 , Often 1
    Figure CN105486664BC00055
    ,光学厚度 , The optical thickness
    Figure CN105486664BC00056
    进入非偏振高光谱分辨率激光雷达系统的混合通道和分子通道的信号分别表示为 Mixing channel and the channel signal into the molecule non-polarized laser radar system high spectral resolution are represented by
    Figure CN105486664BC00057
    颗粒的体积散射方程表示为 Volume scattering particles is expressed as Equation
    Figure CN105486664BC00058
    有效衰减系数写为 Effective attenuation coefficient is written as
    Figure CN105486664BC00059
    步骤5、根据散射角为31时的颗粒体积散射方程^和有效衰减系数Kd,反演海水的固有光学参数:颗粒后向散射系数bbp和颗粒光束衰减系数cP; 颗粒后向散射系数bbp与散射角为31时的颗粒体积散射方程6的关系表示为 Step 5, according to a scattering angle of the scattering particles by volume when equation 31 ^ and Kd of effective attenuation coefficient, the intrinsic optical parameters inversion seawater: after backscattering coefficient bbp cP particles and particle beam attenuation coefficient; bbp backscatter coefficient and the scattering particles 31 is the relationship between the angle of scattering of the particle volume is expressed as equation 6
    Figure CN105486664BC000510
    其中,转换因子Xp㈨由光束衰减系数估算 Wherein the conversion factor is estimated by the attenuation coefficient beam Xp㈨
    Figure CN105486664BC000511
    其中,X1和X2为常系数,颗粒光束衰减系数Cp由光束衰减系数C去除水的光束衰减系数Cw 得到Cp — C-Cw, (27) 其中,C的信息包含于有效衰减系数中 Wherein the X1 and X2 is a constant coefficient, the particle beam from the beam light attenuation coefficient Cp damping coefficient C to remove water to obtain a damping coefficient Cw Cp - C-Cw, (27) where the information contained in C effective attenuation coefficients
    Figure CN105486664BC000512
    其中,K/为漫衰减系数,D为望远镜投影在海水上的视场大小;通过改变望远镜接收角, c的大小能够由参数Kd-D的曲线拟合求出;在外海,光束衰减系数能够近似为c〜Kd/ (1- ω), 其中,ω = (Pm+Pp) /Kd为总的散射消光比; 步骤6、根据固有光学参数bbt^PCpi演生物栗组分:浮游植物生物量和POC; 浮游植物生物量Cphyt。 Wherein, K / diffuse attenuation coefficient, D is the size of the telescope field of view projected on the seawater; by changing the angle of the telescope, the size C can be fitted by a curve parameter Kd-D was determined; capable sea, beam attenuation coefficient approximately c~Kd / (1- ω), where, ω = (Pm + Pp) / Kd scattered total extinction ratio; step 6, play a biological component according to the intrinsic optical parameters Li bbt ^ PCpi: phytoplankton biomass and POC; phytoplankton biomass Cphyt. 分别由bbp和Cp表不如下: Respectively, and not as a bbp Cp Table:
    Figure CN105486664BC00061
    颗粒有机碳POC分别由bbp和Cp表示如下 POC POC and Cp are represented by the following bbp
    Figure CN105486664BC00062
    (31) (32) 其中,ki、k2、γ 1、γ 2、li、h、炉1和势为常系数。 (31) (32) where, ki, k2, γ 1, γ 2, li, h, and the potential of the furnace 1 constant coefficients.
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