CN105483451A - Nano ceramic particle reinforcing aluminum alloy for piston and manufacturing method of nano ceramic particle reinforcing aluminum alloy - Google Patents

Nano ceramic particle reinforcing aluminum alloy for piston and manufacturing method of nano ceramic particle reinforcing aluminum alloy Download PDF

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Publication number
CN105483451A
CN105483451A CN201510901391.9A CN201510901391A CN105483451A CN 105483451 A CN105483451 A CN 105483451A CN 201510901391 A CN201510901391 A CN 201510901391A CN 105483451 A CN105483451 A CN 105483451A
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Prior art keywords
piston
nano
aluminium alloy
ceramic particle
particle
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CN201510901391.9A
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Chinese (zh)
Inventor
汪明亮
陈哲
张亦杰
马乃恒
王浩伟
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Shanghai Jiaotong University
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Anhui Xiang Bang Matrix Material Co Ltd
Shanghai Jiaotong University
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Priority to CN201510901391.9A priority Critical patent/CN105483451A/en
Publication of CN105483451A publication Critical patent/CN105483451A/en
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    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C22METALLURGY; FERROUS OR NON-FERROUS ALLOYS; TREATMENT OF ALLOYS OR NON-FERROUS METALS
    • C22CALLOYS
    • C22C1/00Making alloys
    • C22C1/10Alloys containing non-metals
    • C22C1/1036Alloys containing non-metals starting from a melt
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C22METALLURGY; FERROUS OR NON-FERROUS ALLOYS; TREATMENT OF ALLOYS OR NON-FERROUS METALS
    • C22CALLOYS
    • C22C21/00Alloys based on aluminium
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C22METALLURGY; FERROUS OR NON-FERROUS ALLOYS; TREATMENT OF ALLOYS OR NON-FERROUS METALS
    • C22CALLOYS
    • C22C21/00Alloys based on aluminium
    • C22C21/02Alloys based on aluminium with silicon as the next major constituent
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C22METALLURGY; FERROUS OR NON-FERROUS ALLOYS; TREATMENT OF ALLOYS OR NON-FERROUS METALS
    • C22CALLOYS
    • C22C30/00Alloys containing less than 50% by weight of each constituent
    • C22C30/02Alloys containing less than 50% by weight of each constituent containing copper
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C22METALLURGY; FERROUS OR NON-FERROUS ALLOYS; TREATMENT OF ALLOYS OR NON-FERROUS METALS
    • C22CALLOYS
    • C22C32/00Non-ferrous alloys containing at least 5% by weight but less than 50% by weight of oxides, carbides, borides, nitrides, silicides or other metal compounds, e.g. oxynitrides, sulfides whether added as such or formed in situ
    • C22C32/0047Non-ferrous alloys containing at least 5% by weight but less than 50% by weight of oxides, carbides, borides, nitrides, silicides or other metal compounds, e.g. oxynitrides, sulfides whether added as such or formed in situ with carbides, nitrides, borides or silicides as the main non-metallic constituents
    • C22C32/0073Non-ferrous alloys containing at least 5% by weight but less than 50% by weight of oxides, carbides, borides, nitrides, silicides or other metal compounds, e.g. oxynitrides, sulfides whether added as such or formed in situ with carbides, nitrides, borides or silicides as the main non-metallic constituents only borides
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F02COMBUSTION ENGINES; HOT-GAS OR COMBUSTION-PRODUCT ENGINE PLANTS
    • F02FCYLINDERS, PISTONS OR CASINGS, FOR COMBUSTION ENGINES; ARRANGEMENTS OF SEALINGS IN COMBUSTION ENGINES
    • F02F3/00Pistons 
    • F02F3/0084Pistons  the pistons being constructed from specific materials
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C22METALLURGY; FERROUS OR NON-FERROUS ALLOYS; TREATMENT OF ALLOYS OR NON-FERROUS METALS
    • C22CALLOYS
    • C22C1/00Making alloys
    • C22C1/10Alloys containing non-metals
    • C22C1/1036Alloys containing non-metals starting from a melt
    • C22C2001/1047Alloys containing non-metals starting from a melt by mixing and casting liquid metal matrix composites
    • C22C2001/1052Alloys containing non-metals starting from a melt by mixing and casting liquid metal matrix composites by mixing and casting metal matrix composites with reaction
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F05INDEXING SCHEMES RELATING TO ENGINES OR PUMPS IN VARIOUS SUBCLASSES OF CLASSES F01-F04
    • F05CINDEXING SCHEME RELATING TO MATERIALS, MATERIAL PROPERTIES OR MATERIAL CHARACTERISTICS FOR MACHINES, ENGINES OR PUMPS OTHER THAN NON-POSITIVE-DISPLACEMENT MACHINES OR ENGINES
    • F05C2201/00Metals
    • F05C2201/90Alloys not otherwise provided for
    • F05C2201/903Aluminium alloy, e.g. AlCuMgPb F34,37

Abstract

The invention relates to a nano ceramic particle reinforcing aluminum alloy for a piston and a manufacturing method of the nano ceramic particle reinforcing aluminum alloy. The nano ceramic particle reinforcing aluminum alloy comprises the following components in percentage by weight: 9-20% of Si, 0.2-3% of Mg, 1-6% of Cu, 1-4% of Ni, 0.1-1.2% of Fe, 0.1-1.2% of Mn, 0.05-1.2% of Zr, 0.05-1.2% of V, 0.1-25% of TiB2 particles, and the balance of Al. Compared with the prior art, the aluminum alloy manufactured by the invention has the features that the tensile strength of the aluminum alloy is greater than 110 MPa at the temperature of 350 DEG C, a coefficient of linear expansion is 15-18x10-6/ DEG C, requirements of a high-performance engine piston on high working temperature and high explosion pressure can be met, and the aluminum alloy can serve as a novel high-performance engine piston material.

Description

A kind of piston nano-ceramic particle strengthens aluminium alloy and preparation method thereof
Technical field
The invention belongs to technical field of metal, especially relate to a kind of piston nano-ceramic particle and strengthen aluminium alloy and preparation method thereof.
Background technology
Piston is called as the heart of engine, subjects mechanical load and the thermal load of lasting alternation, belong to the vital part that in engine, working conditions is the most severe in the working process of engine.Because piston works under the operating mode of High Temperature High Pressure high speed, piston material must have higher hot strength and lower thermal expansivity, to maintain the working efficiency of engine stabilizer.The piston material of current main use is fire resistant aluminum alloy, cast iron and cast steel material.Wherein, being most widely used with fire resistant aluminum alloy.But along with cargo truck, railway locomotive and marine engines are all to superpower, and high loading, harsh emission request future development, existing fire resistant aluminum alloy is more and more difficult to adaption demand.But the density of cast iron and cast steel is excessive, be difficult to meet the over-all properties demand of modern efficient energy engine to piston.
Compare and common aluminum alloy, nano-ceramic particle strengthens aluminium alloy and has high specific strength, high ratio modulus, good high thermal resistance and wear resistance, and low thermal coefficient of expansion, and at automobile, aviation, the industrial circle such as space flight and national defence has a wide range of applications.Retrieval through prior art document finds, Chinese patent application publication No.: CN102410102A, and Shen Qing Publication day is: 2012.04.11, and denomination of invention is: a kind of spontaneous AlNi 3with Si composite grain partially-reinforced aluminum alloy piston and preparation method thereof.The micron-sized AlNi of a kind of use in essence 3strengthen after alloy matrix aluminum in the use as piston material with Si granule partial.The method preparation of the materials'use rotary casting of this invention.Owing to using particle to carry out local enhancement to piston material, make piston material at mechanics, thermal expansion and crocking resistance present unhomogeneity, be unfavorable for the consideration of piston global design, be also unfavorable for that the material property in material preparation process controls.
Summary of the invention
Object of the present invention is exactly provide a kind of meet modern efficient energy engine to the hot strength of piston to overcome defect that above-mentioned prior art exists, and the piston nano-ceramic particle of the composite request of the performances such as the dimensional stability in working temperature interval and wear resistance strengthens aluminium alloy.
Object of the present invention can be achieved through the following technical solutions:
A kind of piston nano-ceramic particle strengthens aluminium alloy, is made up of: Si9 ~ 20%, Mg0.2 ~ 3%, Cu1 ~ 6%, Ni1 ~ 4%, Fe0.1 ~ 1.2%, Mn0.1 ~ 1.2%, Zr0.05 ~ 1.2%, V0.05 ~ 1.2%, TiB the component of following weight percent content 2particle 0.1 ~ 25%, surplus is Al.
Preferably, TiB 2particle is the nano particle of particle diameter at 10-350nm, and shape is hexagon or rectangle.TiB 2uniform particles is distributed in aluminium alloy, clean interfaces and without surface reaction.
Piston nano-ceramic particle strengthens the manufacture method of aluminium alloy, adopts following steps:
(1) melt aluminium ingot, then cover melt with high temperature covering agent, be warming up to 850 ~ 1050 DEG C;
(2) by KBF 4, K 2tiF 6be 1:1.2-2.0 Homogeneous phase mixing in mass ratio, add in melt after oven dry, carry out mechanical stirring, in melt, pass into Ar simultaneously;
(3) reaction slag is taken out, add Si, Mg and Al-Cu, Al-Ni, Al-Fe, Al-Mn, Al-V and Al-Zr binary metal alloy, add aluminum refining agent in the melt and carry out refinery by de-gassing, take off removing dross, be poured in mould after leaving standstill, obtain nano-ceramic particle and strengthen aluminium alloy.
Preferably, high temperature covering agent is commercially available JZF-03 type high temperature covering agent.Aluminum refining agent is the commercially available harmless aluminum refining agent of JZJ type.
Compared with prior art, the Si particle in the present invention provides certain hot strength and wear resisting property; Cu, Mg, Ni, Fe and Mg can form stable and that rate of diffusion is low second-phase in aluminium alloy, at high temperature can play strengthening effect; Zr and V formation there is the second-phase of thermostability while, can also refining aluminum alloy tissue to play strengthening effect.The most important thing is, TiB 2particle, from molten aluminium situ self-formed from reaction, is combined well with aluminum substrate, and it is excellent as ceramic phase stable high-temperature strength.In addition, TiB 2particle scale is tiny, even dispersion be distributed on alloy substrate, be conducive to improving the high-temperature behavior of aluminium alloy.The present invention makes the aluminium alloy tensile strength >110MPa 350 DEG C time obtained, linear expansivity 15 ~ 18 × 10 -6/ DEG C, be suitable for manufacturing piston.
Embodiment
Below in conjunction with specific embodiment, the present invention is described in detail.
Embodiment 1
Component of the present invention and mass percent thereof are: Si12%, Mg2%, Cu5%, Ni2.2%, Fe0.5%, Mn0.2%, Zr0.05%, V0.05%, TiB 2particle 2%, surplus is Al.
In aluminium alloy, TiB 2the size of particle is at 10 ~ 350nm, and particle shape is mainly hexagon and rectangular parallelepiped.Material dense uniform, TiB 2enhanced granule Dispersed precipitate in the base, TiB 2clean with basal body interface, in conjunction with good.Through the heat treated aluminium alloy of T5 at 350 DEG C time mechanical property: σ b=117.6MPa, δ=6.8%, a=17.8 × 10 -6/ DEG C.
Embodiment 2
Component of the present invention and mass percent thereof are: Si12%, Mg0.8%, Cu3.5%, Ni1.75%, Fe0.5%, Mn0.2%, Zr0.4%, V0.05%, TiB 2particle 5%, surplus is Al.
TiB 2the size of particle is at 10 ~ 350nm, and particle shape is mainly hexagon and rectangular parallelepiped.Material dense uniform, TiB 2enhanced granule Dispersed precipitate in the base, TiB 2clean with basal body interface, in conjunction with good.Through the heat treated aluminium alloy of T5 at 350 DEG C time mechanical property: σ b=119.2MPa, δ=5.2%, a=16.5 × 10 -6/ DEG C.
Embodiment 3
Component of the present invention and mass percent thereof are: Si15%, Mg0.8%, Cu4%, Ni1.75%, Fe0.6%, Mn0.4%, Zr0.7%, V0.2%, TiB 2particle 9%, surplus is Al.
TiB 2the size of particle is at 10 ~ 350nm, and particle shape is mainly hexagon and rectangular parallelepiped.Material dense uniform, TiB 2enhanced granule Dispersed precipitate in the base, TiB 2clean with basal body interface, in conjunction with good.Through the heat treated aluminium alloy of T5 at 350 DEG C time mechanical property: σ b=124.5MPa, δ=3.3%, a=15.1 × 10 -6/ DEG C.
Embodiment 4
A kind of piston nano-ceramic particle strengthens aluminium alloy, is made up of: Si9%, Mg0.2%, Cu1%, Ni1%, Fe0.1%, Mn0.1%, Zr0.05%, V0.05%, TiB the component of following weight percent content 2particle 0.1%, surplus is Al.Wherein, TiB 2particle is the nano particle of particle diameter at 100nm, and shape is hexagon.TiB 2uniform particles is distributed in aluminium alloy, clean interfaces and without surface reaction.
Piston nano-ceramic particle strengthens the manufacture method of aluminium alloy, adopts following steps:
(1) melt aluminium ingot, then cover melt with commercially available JZF-03 type high temperature covering agent, be warming up to 850 DEG C;
(2) by KBF 4, K 2tiF 6be 1:1.2 Homogeneous phase mixing in mass ratio, add in melt after oven dry, carry out mechanical stirring, in melt, pass into Ar simultaneously;
(3) reaction slag is taken out, Si, Mg and Al-Cu, Al-Ni, Al-Fe, Al-Mn, Al-V and Al-Zr binary metal alloy is added according to above-mentioned formula, add commercially available JZJ type aluminum refining agent in the melt and carry out refinery by de-gassing, take off removing dross, be poured in mould after leaving standstill, obtain nano-ceramic particle and strengthen aluminium alloy.
Embodiment 5
A kind of piston nano-ceramic particle strengthens aluminium alloy, is made up of: Si20%, Mg3%, Cu6%, Ni4%, Fe1.2%, Mn1.2%, Zr1.2%, V1.2%, TiB the component of following weight percent content 2particle 25%, surplus is Al.Wherein, TiB 2particle is the nano particle of particle diameter at 350nm, and shape is rectangle.TiB 2uniform particles is distributed in aluminium alloy, clean interfaces and without surface reaction.
Piston nano-ceramic particle strengthens the manufacture method of aluminium alloy, adopts following steps:
(1) melt aluminium ingot, then cover melt with commercially available JZF-03 type high temperature covering agent, be warming up to 1050 DEG C;
(2) by KBF 4, K 2tiF 6be 1:2.0 Homogeneous phase mixing in mass ratio, add in melt after oven dry, carry out mechanical stirring, in melt, pass into Ar simultaneously;
(3) reaction slag is taken out, Si, Mg and Al-Cu, Al-Ni, Al-Fe, Al-Mn, Al-V and Al-Zr binary metal alloy is added according to formula, add the commercially available harmless aluminum refining agent of JZJ type in the melt and carry out refinery by de-gassing, take off removing dross, be poured in mould after leaving standstill, obtain nano-ceramic particle and strengthen aluminium alloy.

Claims (7)

1. a piston nano-ceramic particle strengthens aluminium alloy, it is characterized in that, aluminium alloy is made up of the component of following weight percent content: Si9 ~ 20%, Mg0.2 ~ 3%, Cu1 ~ 6%, Ni1 ~ 4%, Fe0.1 ~ 1.2%, Mn0.1 ~ 1.2%, Zr0.05 ~ 1.2%, V0.05 ~ 1.2%, TiB 2particle 0.1 ~ 25%, surplus is Al.
2. a kind of piston nano-ceramic particle according to claim 1 strengthens aluminium alloy, it is characterized in that, described TiB 2particle is the nano particle of particle diameter at 10-350nm.
3. a kind of piston nano-ceramic particle according to claim 1 strengthens aluminium alloy, it is characterized in that, described TiB 2the shape of particle is hexagon or rectangle.
4. a kind of piston nano-ceramic particle according to claim 1 strengthens aluminium alloy, it is characterized in that, described TiB 2uniform particles is distributed in aluminium alloy.
5. a kind of piston nano-ceramic particle as claimed in claim 1 strengthens the manufacture method of aluminium alloy, it is characterized in that, the method adopts following steps:
(1) melt aluminium ingot, then cover melt with high temperature covering agent, be warming up to 850 ~ 1050 DEG C;
(2) by KBF 4, K 2tiF 6be 1:1.2-2.0 Homogeneous phase mixing in mass ratio, add in melt after oven dry, carry out mechanical stirring, in melt, pass into Ar simultaneously;
(3) reaction slag is taken out, add Si, Mg and Al-Cu, Al-Ni, Al-Fe, Al-Mn, Al-V and Al-Zr binary metal alloy, add aluminum refining agent in the melt and carry out refinery by de-gassing, take off removing dross, be poured in mould after leaving standstill, obtain nano-ceramic particle and strengthen aluminium alloy.
6. a kind of piston nano-ceramic particle according to claim 5 strengthens the manufacture method of aluminium alloy, and it is characterized in that, described high temperature covering agent is commercially available JZF-03 type high temperature covering agent.
7. a kind of piston nano-ceramic particle according to claim 5 strengthens the manufacture method of aluminium alloy, and it is characterized in that, described aluminum refining agent is the commercially available harmless aluminum refining agent of JZJ type.
CN201510901391.9A 2015-12-09 2015-12-09 Nano ceramic particle reinforcing aluminum alloy for piston and manufacturing method of nano ceramic particle reinforcing aluminum alloy Pending CN105483451A (en)

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Cited By (6)

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Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN105886847A (en) * 2016-06-01 2016-08-24 上海交通大学 High-temperature-resistant ceramic nanoparticle reinforced aluminum alloy and preparation method and application thereof
CN105886853A (en) * 2016-06-01 2016-08-24 上海交通大学 Nano ceramic particle reinforced aluminum silicon alloy, preparation method and application thereof
CN105908024A (en) * 2016-06-21 2016-08-31 上海交通大学 High-temperature-resistant nano ceramic particle reinforced cocrystallized Al-Si alloy and casting method thereof
CN106086538A (en) * 2016-06-21 2016-11-09 上海交通大学 High-temperature resistant nano ceramic particle strengthens hypoeutectic al-si alloy and casting method thereof
CN107254612A (en) * 2017-06-09 2017-10-17 山东滨州渤海活塞股份有限公司 A kind of confusion enhancing novel wear resistant aluminum matrix composite and preparation method thereof
CN108796316A (en) * 2018-06-12 2018-11-13 安徽相邦复合材料有限公司 A kind of piston and preparation method thereof of heavy duty diesel engine aluminum matrix composite

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Cited By (6)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN105886847A (en) * 2016-06-01 2016-08-24 上海交通大学 High-temperature-resistant ceramic nanoparticle reinforced aluminum alloy and preparation method and application thereof
CN105886853A (en) * 2016-06-01 2016-08-24 上海交通大学 Nano ceramic particle reinforced aluminum silicon alloy, preparation method and application thereof
CN105908024A (en) * 2016-06-21 2016-08-31 上海交通大学 High-temperature-resistant nano ceramic particle reinforced cocrystallized Al-Si alloy and casting method thereof
CN106086538A (en) * 2016-06-21 2016-11-09 上海交通大学 High-temperature resistant nano ceramic particle strengthens hypoeutectic al-si alloy and casting method thereof
CN107254612A (en) * 2017-06-09 2017-10-17 山东滨州渤海活塞股份有限公司 A kind of confusion enhancing novel wear resistant aluminum matrix composite and preparation method thereof
CN108796316A (en) * 2018-06-12 2018-11-13 安徽相邦复合材料有限公司 A kind of piston and preparation method thereof of heavy duty diesel engine aluminum matrix composite

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