CN105467277B - A kind of power distribution network mixed fault distance measuring method and device based on PMU - Google Patents

A kind of power distribution network mixed fault distance measuring method and device based on PMU Download PDF

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CN105467277B
CN105467277B CN201610023075.0A CN201610023075A CN105467277B CN 105467277 B CN105467277 B CN 105467277B CN 201610023075 A CN201610023075 A CN 201610023075A CN 105467277 B CN105467277 B CN 105467277B
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fault
pmu
substation
distribution network
power distribution
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CN105467277A (en
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刘永军
刘敏
周伟
余辛
印然
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Guizhou University
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    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01RMEASURING ELECTRIC VARIABLES; MEASURING MAGNETIC VARIABLES
    • G01R31/00Arrangements for testing electric properties; Arrangements for locating electric faults; Arrangements for electrical testing characterised by what is being tested not provided for elsewhere
    • G01R31/08Locating faults in cables, transmission lines, or networks
    • G01R31/081Locating faults in cables, transmission lines, or networks according to type of conductors
    • G01R31/086Locating faults in cables, transmission lines, or networks according to type of conductors in power transmission or distribution networks, i.e. with interconnected conductors
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02EREDUCTION OF GREENHOUSE GAS [GHG] EMISSIONS, RELATED TO ENERGY GENERATION, TRANSMISSION OR DISTRIBUTION
    • Y02E40/00Technologies for an efficient electrical power generation, transmission or distribution
    • Y02E40/70Smart grids as climate change mitigation technology in the energy generation sector
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02EREDUCTION OF GREENHOUSE GAS [GHG] EMISSIONS, RELATED TO ENERGY GENERATION, TRANSMISSION OR DISTRIBUTION
    • Y02E60/00Enabling technologies; Technologies with a potential or indirect contribution to GHG emissions mitigation
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y04INFORMATION OR COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGIES HAVING AN IMPACT ON OTHER TECHNOLOGY AREAS
    • Y04SSYSTEMS INTEGRATING TECHNOLOGIES RELATED TO POWER NETWORK OPERATION, COMMUNICATION OR INFORMATION TECHNOLOGIES FOR IMPROVING THE ELECTRICAL POWER GENERATION, TRANSMISSION, DISTRIBUTION, MANAGEMENT OR USAGE, i.e. SMART GRIDS
    • Y04S10/00Systems supporting electrical power generation, transmission or distribution
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y04INFORMATION OR COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGIES HAVING AN IMPACT ON OTHER TECHNOLOGY AREAS
    • Y04SSYSTEMS INTEGRATING TECHNOLOGIES RELATED TO POWER NETWORK OPERATION, COMMUNICATION OR INFORMATION TECHNOLOGIES FOR IMPROVING THE ELECTRICAL POWER GENERATION, TRANSMISSION, DISTRIBUTION, MANAGEMENT OR USAGE, i.e. SMART GRIDS
    • Y04S10/00Systems supporting electrical power generation, transmission or distribution
    • Y04S10/22Flexible AC transmission systems [FACTS] or power factor or reactive power compensating or correcting units

Abstract

The invention discloses a kind of power distribution network mixed fault distance measuring method and device based on PMU, the device is that information processing substation is provided in substation, feeder terminal unit (FTU) is mounted on each block switch of backbone, fault detector (FI) is installed in the head end of every branch line, one synchronous phasor measuring device (PMU) is respectively installed in substation and backbone end simultaneously, the PMU of two sides passes through GPS receiver and satellite carries out real-time communication and the electric quantity information before and after failure is transferred to information processing substation, channel is connected FTU and FI with subsystem in substation by wireless communication.The present invention formerly determines after section on the basis of ranging, using carrying out the accurate fault localization of power distribution network based on the mixed fault telemetry of PMU, will both-end synchronized phasor method based on PMU and single-ended impedance method the problem of combining, eliminating pseudo-fault point, realize the fault localization of degree of precision.

Description

A kind of power distribution network mixed fault distance measuring method and device based on PMU
Technical field
The present invention relates to a kind of power distribution network mixed fault distance measuring method and device based on PMU, belongs to electric network fault ranging Technical field.
Background technique
2011, the Department of Science and Technology was in the advanced energy technology field deployment of national high-tech research development plan (863 Program) Smart grid major project research is in full swing.As the important component of smart grid, intelligent distribution network is to push intelligence The source of power network development and power and the key technology area of smart grid construction.The typical case of intelligent distribution network operation control Be characterized in realizing self-healing control, the key technology of intelligent distribution network self-healing control first is that realizing that the failure under fault condition is fixed Position, network reconfiguration and service restoration, the intelligent distribution network characterized by self-healing are the inexorable trends of the following electric power network technique development.Match End of the power grid as power network, directly reflect user electric energy safe, it is high-quality, in terms of proposed requirement.With The continuous development of China's distribution network, more stringent requirements are proposed for reliability and power supply quality of the user to power supply, once match Electric network breaks down, and should find out the position of failure generation as early as possible and take isolation, propose that countermeasure restores the confession to user Electricity, therefore failure accurate positioning is particularly important.
Currently, the external application to synchronous phasor measuring device (PMU) on power distribution network has had a large amount of research, and And there is actual application.Power distribution network diagnosis above, the application of PMU includes fault location and detection, isolated island detection, state Estimation, voltage stability monitoring and electric energy quality monitoring and accident post analysis.Application in terms of control includes to power distribution network Protection and control, voltage and reactive power optimization, micro electric network coordination and power system recovery etc..Therefore, PMU is applied to power distribution network In, it is not only necessary, but also be also an inexorable trend of the following power distribution network development.At home, State Grid Corporation of China exists It is pointed out about the opinion for the Eleventh Five-Year Plan period reinforcing Power Grid Dispatching Work, it be in 330 kilovolts and the above main grid structure and the Wang Nei main force Power plant disposes PMU, and realization country, region, the networking for saving three-level wide area measurement system improve power grid dynamic and measure level, But it is less in the research of distribution web-based applications to PMU.And fault detector FI technology is more mature, and its reliable operation, at This is low, has large-tonnage product and is applied to electric system.
Short circuit fault of power distribution network location technology includes failure line selection, section positioning and fault localization, and technical difficulty is step by step It is incremented by.It currently, there are many research achievement of fault location both at home and abroad, but is mostly the ultra-high-tension power transmission line for 110KV or more, and The fault location technology of mesolow distribution line is still in conceptual phase.Fault location research majority based on PMU concentrates on defeated Electric system, not about the research in terms of short circuit fault of power distribution network positions.
Currently, being suitable for the method for short trouble ranging of power distribution network has: traveling wave method, impedance method and automatic based on power distribution network The localization method of change system.Traveling wave method is difficult to differentiate between the catadioptric ejected wave of wave impedance discontinuity point generation, and closes without cost performance Suitable traveling wave detector equipment;Localization method based on distribution automation system can only realize fault section location, and to matching Grid automation level is more demanding, while secondly reclosing is larger to system shock, easily causes a wide range of power outages;Impedance method institute The measurement end needed is few, it is easy to accomplish, the power distribution network of only single-ended measuring condition can be suitable for.Therefore using impedance method for reality The fault location of existing huge power distribution network is practicable.The fault localization of single-ended impedance method only needs single ended voltage, electric current to make For input quantity, and be suitable for various types of failures of heavy current grounding system, be at present using more one of ranging technology, And the technical costs is lower, and it is easy to implement, suitable for distribution system in large scale.Both-end synchronized phasor telemetry response speed Fastly, range accuracy is high, suitable for the phasor measurement under fault condition.However, in the above method still without it is a kind of can be in difference Under a variety of uncertain factors such as short trouble type, fault resstance, fault distance, the fault localization of degree of precision is realized.
Summary of the invention
The purpose of the present invention is to provide a kind of matching based on PMU for being easily achieved, precision height, pseudo-fault point being avoided to interfere Power grid mixed fault distance measuring method and device, this method arrange both-end synchronized phasor method and the combination of single-ended impedance method based on PMU It is still feasible under a variety of uncertain factors such as different short trouble types, fault resstance, fault distance to have in addition to pseudo-fault point Effect, can be realized the fault localization of degree of precision.
Technical solution of the present invention: a kind of power distribution network mixed fault distance measuring method based on PMU, at each point of power distribution network Zhi Shouduan installs fault detector FI, feeder terminal unit FTU is installed in each block switch of backbone, in substation and trunk A synchronous phasor measuring device PMU is respectively installed in line end, by the PMU based on GPS signal to voltage before and after distribution network failure, Electric current carries out the measurement under same markers, and provides markers unified phase and amplitude information, obtains the whole network any two node Between phase angle difference;In this way, FTU and FI in fault loop at each block switch have event when power distribution network breaks down Barrier electric current flows through and generates alarm signal, and the alarm signal is uploaded to subsystem in substation, then obtain phase by logic judgment The fault section or fault branch answered, it is same at substation and N using being based on if fault section is between substation and N bus The both-end synchronized phasor method that step measures measures fault point to the distance of substation;If failure occurs to use in branch feeder Single-ended impedance method based on both-end PMU measures fault point to the distance of substation.
In the above method, the fault localization of the backbone is obtained based on the PMU measurement installed at substation and N Synchronous electrical quantity, the phase-model transformation of electrical quantity before and after failure is carried out using symmetrical component method, is obtained mutually independent before and after failure Electrical quantity after failure that PMU is measured is subtracted electrical quantity under normal circumstances and obtains fault component by three sequence phase components.
In the above method, the both-end synchronized phasor method be directly using positive sequence fault component can be realized institute it is faulty The fault location of type is not needed to know that phase occurs for failure in advance, and is not influenced by fault resstance, ensure that backbone event Hinder the accuracy of ranging.
In the above method, the single-ended impedance method is to utilize the voltage and current at fault section upstream node when failure All fault type positioning can be realized in three order components.
In the above method, the fault type includes single-phase grounding fault, two-phase phase fault, two connects Ground short circuit failure and three phase short circuit fault.
A kind of power distribution network mixed fault range unit based on PMU constructed by the above method, including substation and power transformation Stand connection backbone and the branch line that is connected on backbone, information processing substation is provided in substation, in trunk It is mounted on feeder terminal unit FTU on each block switch of line, fault detector FI is installed in the head end of every branch line, Synchronous phasor measuring device PMU is installed in substation and backbone end simultaneously, the PMU of two sides by GPS and satellite into Electric quantity information before and after failure is simultaneously transferred to information processing substation by row real-time communication, while FTU and FI are by wireless communication Channel is connect with information processing substation.
It, only need to be each in substation and backbone end for the radial distribution system of 10KV multiple-limb in above-mentioned apparatus Installing a PMU can be realized the accurate fault localization of distribution feeder.
Due to the adoption of the above technical scheme, the present invention has the advantages that the present invention formerly determines after section to adopt on the basis of ranging With carrying out the accurate short trouble ranging of power distribution network based on the mixed fault telemetry of synchronous phasor measuring device (PMU), Will both-end synchronized phasor method based on PMU and single-ended impedance method the problem of combining, eliminating pseudo-fault point, and different short It still can be realized the fault localization of degree of precision under a variety of uncertain factors such as road fault type, fault resstance, fault distance. In addition, the present invention overcomes the actual imbalance of electric line parameter to fault localization according to phase-model transformation principle well The influence of precision, is not only suitable for the route that do not replace, and is also applied for various transposition routes, and the both-end fundamental frequency electricity that the present invention uses Tolerance Fault Locating Method is not influenced the fault localization, it can be achieved that degree of precision by fault type and ground resistance.
Detailed description of the invention
Fig. 1 is 10KV distribution system structure chart in the present invention;
Fig. 2 is PMU structure drawing of device in the present invention;
Fig. 3 is FTU hardware overall framework figure in the present invention;
Fig. 4 is TMS320LF 2407 and 232 communication interface circuit of RS-in the present invention;
Fig. 5 is the basic block diagram of fault detector FI in the present invention;
Fig. 6 is simple radial pattern distribution line system line chart in the present invention;
Fig. 7 is the overall procedure block diagram of distribution network failure positioning in the present invention;
Fig. 8 is location algorithm simulating, verifying line chart in the present invention;
Fig. 9 is the both-end distance measuring error curve diagram based on PMU in the present invention;
Figure 10 is the single end distance measurement error curve diagram based on PMU in the present invention.
Specific embodiment
In order to keep the object of the invention, technical solution and advantage clearer, with reference to the accompanying drawings and embodiments to the present invention It is described in further detail.
The embodiment of the present invention: Fig. 1 is 10KV distribution system structure chart, and BRK indicates substation's wire-outgoing breaker, S1~S4 Indicate that the block switch that feeder terminal unit (FTU) is housed on backbone, S5~S7 indicate that branch feeder does not fill line feed terminals dress Set the block switch of (FTU), FI1~FI3 indicates the fault detector (FI) for being installed in branch distribution feeder line head end, substation and A synchronous phasor measuring device (PMU) is respectively installed in trunk feeder end, and substation is as information processing substation.PMU1 and PMU2 provides a second pulse signal and a time tag, time by GPS receiver and can be the local time, be also possible to International standard time clock time, pulse signal divide the analog signal sampling pulse needed, simulation letter by phase locked crystal oscillator It number is the voltage and current signal after transformer and filter process.The fault current information of FTU and FI detection simultaneously passes through High-speed communication channel cable or optical fiber upload to information processing substation.The characteristics of in view of FI low cost and high reliability, use it to Realize that the fault location of a large amount of branch feeders present in power distribution network is practicable and both economical.According to this hair PMU, FTU and FI of bright proposition range unit combination carry out 10KV distribution system fixed point installation, guarantee distribution network failure compared with Outside high position precision, it is also able to achieve the economy of three kinds of equipment configurations.The apparatus structure of PMU is as shown in Fig. 2, PMU uses function Modular design philosophy is conducive to the versatility for improving device hardware in this way, i.e. the device of different function can be by identical Each functional unit combines configuration as needed, realizes the standardization of functional module.The device can be divided mainly into phasor measurement module, Measuring power angle module, GPS timing module, switch measurement module, local data switching control module, data management module, phase A few part compositions of position concentrator and man-machine interface etc., the corresponding device plug-in unit in every part.In addition, there are also be responsible for providing power supply And power insert, the AC plug-in unit etc. of signal conversion, such plug-in unit are free of CPU, referred to as non intelligent plug-in unit.Power insert passes through back Power supply line in plate bus provides power supply for each plug-in unit of device.Unless have in other modules outside chip card one it is multiple Miscellaneous programmable logic circuit (CPLD) generates sampling pulse and 20ms is interrupted, and GPS clock synchronization module receives the second arteries and veins that satellite is sent (lpps) and universal time (UTC) are rushed, and is that pulse per second (PPS) is output to other modules by the signal wire on backboard CPLD is interrupted with synchronizing the 20ms of each module, and each module synchronizes sampling pulse when 20ms is interrupted and arrived.It is all in this way Device sampled signal all synchronized by pulse per second (PPS), that is, the device of different location is all synchronized sampling.Between each module Communication utilizes dual port RAM.The basic function of PMU is to be analyzed using GPS signal voltage, current synchronization measuring, provides frequency Rate, phase and amplitude information obtain the phase angle difference between the whole network any two node, this is provided for accurate both-end synchronous range finding Technical support.Fig. 3 is the hardware configuration overall framework figure of FTU, the core using dsp chip TMS320LF2407 as FTU Processor, the chip are a kind of high performance 16 fixed DSPs, and supply voltage 3.3V reduces power consumption;Fixed-point calculation The execution speed of 30M1Ps makes the instruction cycle shorten to 33ns, improves real-time control capability.LF2407 has in abundant Resource, A/D converter in 10 16 dust pieces, conversion speed reach 500ns, and LF2407 also has 6 I/O mouthfuls of eight standards. In communications portion, using the serial communication interface SCI built in DSP by RS232/485 interface, may be implemented FTU and substation it Between data transmission.Fig. 4 is TMS320LF 2407 and 232 communication interface circuit of RS-, is connect using the serial communication built in DSP Mouth SCI realizes that the information between FTU and substation is transmitted by RS232/485 interface.It, can be to assuming that faulty electric current flows through Report and submit fault current information in substation.Fig. 5 is the basic block diagram of fault detector (FI), once it breaks down, in fault loop The fault detector installed has fault current and flows through and generate alarm signal, and by logic judgment, that you can get it is corresponding Fault section or fault branch.The present invention carries out the positioning of backbone section using based on FTU, eliminates branch's failure feelings using FI Single-ended impedance method bring pseudo-fault point problem under condition.Failure front and back is obtained by the PMU measurement installed at Fig. 6 median generatrix M and N High-precision synchronous electrical quantity, the phase-model transformation of electrical quantity before and after failure is carried out using symmetrical component method, is obtained mutually indepedent Three-phase component, electrical quantity after the failure measured at PMU is subtracted into electrical quantity under normal circumstances and obtains fault component, realizes three It is full decoupled between phase line, transformation matrix are as follows:
In above formula,Referred to as twiddle factor.Under three order components network of power distribution network, with based on M and N Locate the various short trouble rangings between the both-end synchronized phasor method realization backbone MN of PMU.It is fixed that Fig. 7 gives distribution network failure The overall procedure block diagram of position, basic thought is first to determine section, rear ranging.For the feasible validity for showing the invention, it is based on MATLAB Build simulation model as shown in Figure 8, constructed test macro include an equivalent power supply G, step-down transformer ZT~ZT3, Distribution trunk feeder and branched line HL between node M N.Simulation parameter is provided that voltage source voltage terminal is 35KV, and drop becomes Pressure ZT voltage rating is 35KV/10.5KV, and drop transformation ZT1~ZT3 voltage rating is 10.5KV/0.4KV.Line parameter circuit value is as follows: r1=0.45 Ω/km, r0=0.74 Ω/km;x1=0.293 Ω/km, x0=1.296 Ω/km;b1=0.0707 μ F/km, b0= 0.0478μF/km.Circuit model uses the equivalent circuit model of distribution parameter, avoids and is brought by the uncertain of line parameter circuit value Range error.Load uses quiescent voltage load model, is solved by steady state voltage before failure and electric current each negative Lotus impedance constant.Error calculation, which uses, is based on backbone overall length (L under ieee standardMN=18km) relative error formula, Fig. 9 table Show when fault resstance is 30 Ω, the range error precision curve of the mixed fault location algorithm based on both-end PMU, pictorial representation Be fault section, the range accuracy under other ground resistances is not much different with Fig. 9.Figure 10 indicates that fault resstance is respectively 30 Ω When with 100 Ω, the single-ended impedance range accuracy error curve based on PMU, with the increase of fault resstance, although ranging error Increasing, but still is keeping degree of precision.Comparison diagram 9 and Figure 10 it is found that the range accuracy of both-end method is higher, ensured backbone therefore Fault point can be quickly navigated to when barrier, be conducive to improve power supply reliability.

Claims (7)

1. a kind of power distribution network mixed fault distance measuring method based on PMU, it is characterised in that: pacify in each branch's head end of power distribution network It fills fault detector (FI), in each block switch installation feeder terminal unit (FTU) of backbone, in substation and backbone end One synchronous phasor measuring device (PMU) of each installation is held, by the PMU based on GPS signal to voltage, electricity before and after distribution network failure Stream carries out the measurement under same markers, and provides markers unified phase and amplitude information, obtain the whole network any two node it Between phase angle difference;In this way, FTU and FI in fault loop at each block switch can be faulty when power distribution network breaks down Electric current flows through and generates alarm signal, and the alarm signal is uploaded to subsystem in substation, then obtain accordingly by logic judgment Fault section or fault branch, if fault section between substation and N bus, using based on substation it is synchronous at N The both-end synchronized phasor method of measurement measures fault point to the distance of substation;If failure occurs to use base in branch feeder In the single-ended impedance method of both-end PMU measure fault point to substation distance.
2. the power distribution network mixed fault distance measuring method according to claim 1 based on PMU, it is characterised in that: the master The fault localization of main line is synchronous electrical quantity before and after the obtained failure of PMU measurement installed based on substation and at N, using symmetrical Component method carries out the phase-model transformation of electrical quantity before and after failure, obtains mutually independent three sequences phase component, after the failure that PMU is measured Electrical quantity subtracts electrical quantity under normal circumstances and obtains fault component.
3. the power distribution network mixed fault distance measuring method according to claim 1 based on PMU, it is characterised in that: described is double End synchronized phasor method is that the fault location of all fault types directly can be realized using positive sequence fault component, is not needed in advance Know that phase occurs for failure, and do not influenced by fault resstance, ensure that the accuracy of backbone fault localization.
4. the power distribution network mixed fault distance measuring method according to claim 1 based on PMU, it is characterised in that: the list Terminal impedance method is that all failure classes can be realized using three order components of voltage and current when failure at fault section upstream node Type positioning.
5. the power distribution network mixed fault distance measuring method according to claim 3 or 4 based on PMU, it is characterised in that: described Fault type includes single-phase grounding fault, two-phase phase fault, two-phase short circuit and ground fault and three phase short circuit fault.
6. a kind of power distribution network mixed fault ranging dress based on PMU of building of the method as described in Claims 1 to 5 any one It sets, including substation, the backbone being connect with substation and the branch line being connected on backbone, it is characterised in that: becoming It is provided with information processing substation in power station, feeder terminal unit (FTU) is mounted on each block switch of backbone, every The head end of branch line is equipped with fault detector (FI), while being equipped with synchronized phasor in substation and backbone end and being surveyed It measures device (PMU), the PMU of two sides carries out real-time communication with satellite by GPS and is transferred to the electric quantity information before and after failure Information processing substation, while channel is connect with information processing substation by wireless communication by FTU and FI.
7. the power distribution network mixed fault range unit according to claim 6 based on PMU, it is characterised in that: for 10KV The radial distribution system of multiple-limb only need to respectively install a synchronous phasor measuring device PMU in substation and backbone end The accurate fault localization of distribution feeder can be realized.
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