CN105464669B - Plenty water weak surrounding rock major long tunnel construction method - Google Patents

Plenty water weak surrounding rock major long tunnel construction method Download PDF

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Publication number
CN105464669B
CN105464669B CN201510731306.9A CN201510731306A CN105464669B CN 105464669 B CN105464669 B CN 105464669B CN 201510731306 A CN201510731306 A CN 201510731306A CN 105464669 B CN105464669 B CN 105464669B
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tunnel
construction
outlet
ventilation
arch
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CN105464669A (en
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谢江胜
吴应明
王平安
郭育红
冀胜利
仲维玲
崔文镇
马军山
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China Railway 20th Bureau Group Corp
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China Railway 20th Bureau Group Corp
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    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E21EARTH DRILLING; MINING
    • E21DSHAFTS; TUNNELS; GALLERIES; LARGE UNDERGROUND CHAMBERS
    • E21D9/00Tunnels or galleries, with or without linings; Methods or apparatus for making thereof; Layout of tunnels or galleries
    • E21D9/04Driving tunnels or galleries through loose materials; Apparatus therefor not otherwise provided for
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E21EARTH DRILLING; MINING
    • E21DSHAFTS; TUNNELS; GALLERIES; LARGE UNDERGROUND CHAMBERS
    • E21D9/00Tunnels or galleries, with or without linings; Methods or apparatus for making thereof; Layout of tunnels or galleries
    • E21D9/14Layout of tunnels or galleries; Constructional features of tunnels or galleries, not otherwise provided for, e.g. portals, day-light attenuation at tunnel openings

Abstract

The invention discloses a kind of plenty water weak surrounding rock major long tunnel construction method, the main tunnel side of institute's construction tunnel is provided with tunnel slope;Main tunnel is divided into entrance section of tunnel, tunnel outlet section and is connected to middle part linkage section therebetween, and middle part linkage section is divided into inclined shaft auxiliary construction inducer and inclined shaft auxiliary construction outlet section;When being constructed to entrance section of tunnel, tunnel outlet section, inclined shaft auxiliary construction inducer and inclined shaft auxiliary construction outlet section, respectively multiple segmental constructions;Any one segmental construction includes step:First, advance geologic prediction:When front has chip stream stratum, into step 2;Otherwise, into step 3;2nd, stability control is constructed;3rd, preliminary bracing scheme determines;4th, tunnel excavation and preliminary bracing construction;5th, Tunnel Second Lining Construction.The inventive method step is simple, reasonable in design and easy construction, using effect are good, can meet the construction requirement of plenty water weak surrounding rock major long tunnel, and the construction period is short, and work progress safety.

Description

Plenty water weak surrounding rock major long tunnel construction method
Technical field
The invention belongs to technical field of tunnel construction, more particularly, to a kind of plenty water weak surrounding rock major long tunnel construction party Method.
Background technology
Newly-built Lan-xing Railway the second double line (hereinafter referred to as Lanzhou-Xinjiang high ferro) total length 1776Km, from western Lanzhou western station to black Shandong Wooden neat station, is current height above sea level highest in the world, disposably builds up most long high-speed railway.Qilian mountains tunnel in the newly-built Lan-xing Railway It is height above sea level highest high ferro tunnel and be I grade of excessive risk Railway Tunnel in the world at present with big beam tunnel, two tunnels Between at a distance of 272m, be positioned proximate to, natural environment is identical residing for engineering, is in frozen ground regions.Qilian mountains tunnel is complete It is long 9490 meters, it is located in 3500 to 4300 meters of Qilian mountains of height above sea level Zhongshan District, Qilian mountains Leng Longling tomography gauffer bands, import height above rail surface For 3574 meters, maximum buried depth is up to 823 meters;Engineering geology and complicated hydrogeological conditions, inducer circuit with wide-angle pass through F6, F7 tomography chip streams area.Big 6550 meters of beam tunnel total length, is located in the crossbeam SUBMOUNTAINOUS AREA of 3600 to 4200 meters of height above sea level, rail level is most Elevation is 3607.4 meters;Norm al discharge rate is 1.53 ten thousand sides, the side of maximum flooding quantity 4.58 ten thousand;Barrel by sandstone, slate and F5 fault belts.Qilian mountains tunnel and big beam tunnel are respectively positioned between the Qilian mountains of eastern Tibetan north edge, and tunnel location position In Leng Longling fold belts, engineering geology construction is complicated, and depth of cut is big, and diastrophism is strong, construction, complex formation, Climate Dryness Dry, weathering is strong, and these features cause rock crushing, and shear-zone is distributed more, tomography joints development, and underground water is developed, The m of maximum flooding quantity 10.5 ten thousand3/ d, especially Qilian mountains entrance section of tunnel, it is strong rich water section, difficulty of construction is very big and constructs very It is high.
The construction Difficulties of Qilian mountains tunnel and big beam tunnel are mainly reflected in the following aspects:Firstth, tunnel is located in height Original, severe cold region, very cold, construction environment are severe;Secondth, it is soft to pass through tomography chip stream area, high-ground stress for major long tunnel The complicated bad geological sections such as rock large deformation stratum, water rich strata, water bursting factor, be do not run into tunnel construction history it is special Geological conditions, no successful experience are available for using for reference;3rd, tunnel is grown, and the duration is tight, and construction criteria is high.
The content of the invention
In view of the above-mentioned deficiencies in the prior art, the technical problem to be solved by the present invention is that it is weak to provide a kind of rich water Country rock major long tunnel construction method, its method and step is simple, reasonable in design and easy construction, using effect are good, can meet rich water The construction requirement of weak surrounding rock major long tunnel, the construction period is short, and work progress safety.
In order to solve the above technical problems, the technical solution adopted by the present invention is:A kind of plenty water weak surrounding rock major long tunnel is applied Work method, it is characterised in that:The length of institute's construction tunnel is more than 5km and its excavated section is more than 50m2;Institute's construction tunnel is just Hole side is provided with tunnel slope;The main tunnel is divided into entrance section of tunnel, tunnel outlet section and is connected to entrance section of tunnel and tunnel Middle part linkage section between road outlet section, the tunnel slope intersects with the middle part linkage section and intersection therebetween is Inclined shaft intersection, the middle part linkage section be inclined shaft auxiliary construction section and its be divided into by boundary of the inclined shaft intersection inclined shaft auxiliary Construction inducer and inclined shaft auxiliary construction outlet section, the entrance section of tunnel, inclined shaft auxiliary construction inducer, inclined shaft auxiliary construction Laid from the front to the back in the Longitudinal extending direction of outlet section and tunnel outlet section along main tunnel;
When being constructed to institute's construction tunnel, the inlet and outlet of institute's construction tunnel go into operation simultaneously, and to entrance section of tunnel and tunnel While road outlet section is constructed respectively, by tunnel slope respectively to inclined shaft auxiliary construction inducer and inclined shaft auxiliary construction Outlet section is constructed;The entrance section of tunnel, tunnel outlet section, inclined shaft auxiliary construction inducer and the outlet of inclined shaft auxiliary construction Section construction method all same, respectively multiple sections constructed by elder generation after, the construction method all same of multiple sections; When being constructed to any one section, comprise the following steps:
Step 1: advance geologic prediction:Advance geologic is carried out to current section of constructing using advanced geology prediction system Forecast, and according to advance geologic prediction result, judge that the front of tunnel heading of current section of constructing whether there is chip stream stratum: When judging to show that the front of tunnel heading has chip stream stratum, into step 2;Otherwise, into step 3;
Step 2: stability control is constructed:First on rear side of the face of current section of constructing, construction one is to the palm The block wall that sub- face is blocked;Afterwards, advance support is carried out to current section of constructing, and installed for reducing chip stream The advance water discharge passage of the head pressure of layer;The advance water discharge passage is gradually inclined upwardly from the front to the back, the advance water discharge The front end of passage stretches to chip stream stratum and its rear end and is located on rear side of the face;
Step 3: preliminary bracing scheme determines:Inside the rock mass strength Rb and country rock of current section country rock of constructing Maximum crustal stress σmaxTested respectively, and the strength-stress ratio of current section country rock of constructing is calculatedFurther according to The strength-stress ratio being calculatedThe preliminary bracing scheme of current section of constructing is determined:When When, used preliminary bracing scheme is grid steel frame and set arch combined supporting scheme;WhenIt is used first during > 0.3 Phase supporting scheme is profile steel frame supporting scheme;
Step 4: tunnel excavation and preliminary bracing construction:Along tunnel Longitudinal extending direction, from the front to the back to currently being constructed Section carries out excavation construction;During excavation construction, according to the preliminary bracing of identified current section of constructing in step 3 Scheme, preliminary bracing is carried out to excavating the Tunnel formed from the front to the back, and obtain Tunnel system;
Wherein, when identified preliminary bracing scheme is profile steel frame supporting scheme in step 3, the tunnel that is obtained Preliminary bracing system is profile steel frame support system;The profile steel frame support system is propped up the Tunnel including more Pin The profile steel frame of shield, the structure all same of profile steel frame described in more Pin and its carry out cloth from the front to the back along tunnel Longitudinal extending direction If;Profile steel frame described in more Pin is in uniformly laying;
When identified preliminary bracing scheme is that grid steel frame encircles combined supporting scheme with set in step 3, obtained Tunnel system is grid steel frame and set arch Composite Supporting System;The grid steel frame and set arch Composite Supporting System bag Include the shaped steel set that more Pin carry out the grid steel frame of supporting to the Tunnel and more Pin carry out supporting to the arch wall of the Tunnel Arch, the structure all same of grid steel frame described in more Pin and its laid from the front to the back along tunnel Longitudinal extending direction, more Pin institutes State the structure all same of shaped steel set arch and it is laid from the front to the back along tunnel Longitudinal extending direction;Grid steel frame described in more Pin Laid in uniform, and shaped steel set arch is in uniformly to lay described in more Pin, the spacing between shaped steel set arch described in front and rear adjacent two Pin is M times of spacing between grid steel frame described in front and rear adjacent two Pin, wherein M are positive integer and M=1,2 or 3;
Step 5: Tunnel Second Lining Construction:Branch at initial stage is carried out in step 4 to excavating the Tunnel formed from the front to the back During shield, Second Lining Construction is carried out to the Tunnel from the front to the back along tunnel Longitudinal extending direction, and be constructed into The Tunnel Second Lining structure of type;The Tunnel Second Lining structure is located on the inside of Tunnel system and it is mixed for reinforcing bar Coagulate native lining cutting.
Above-mentioned plenty water weak surrounding rock major long tunnel construction method, it is characterized in that:Current section of constructing is entered in step 2 After row advance support, advance support structure is obtained;The advance support structure includes carrying out the arch wall of current section of constructing The barrel vault advanced support structure and per-fore pouring liquid with small pipe ruggedized construction of supporting;The barrel vault advanced support structure includes multiple edges The current tube shed grouting pipe that the excavation contour line of section is laid from left to right of constructing, multiple tube shed grouting pipes are respectively positioned on together On one tunnel cross section and its length is 15m~25m, and the tube shed grouting pipe is steel pipe and its external diameter is Φ 100mm~Φ 120mm;Multiple tube shed grouting pipes include a middle part steel pipe on the tunnel center line, multiple are respectively positioned on the tunnel Left side steel pipe and multiple right side steel pipes being respectively positioned on the right side of the tunnel center line on the left of center line, multiple left side steel pipes Laid with multiple right side steel pipes in symmetrical;The per-fore pouring liquid with small pipe ruggedized construction includes multiple along current section of constructing The pre-grouting pipe that the excavation contour line of section is laid from left to right, multiple pre-grouting pipes are respectively positioned on same tunnel cross section Upper and its length is 6m~10m, the pre-grouting pipe be provided with tube wall multiple injected holes steel floral tube and its external diameter be Φ 38mm~Φ 45mm;The tube shed grouting pipe is in be laid staggeredly with pre-grouting pipe;Multiple tube shed grouting pipes and multiple The outer limb of the pre-grouting pipe is no more than 15 °;
The advance water discharge passage is laid in the first surpassing above current section arch of constructing from left to right including multiple Preceding drainpipe and multiple the second advance water discharge pipes being laid in from left to right above current section arch of constructing, multiple described the One advance water discharge pipe is respectively above multiple second advance water discharge pipes;Multiple first advance water discharge pipes and multiple institutes It is gradual acclivitous steel pipe from the front to the back to state the second advance water discharge pipe, multiple first advance water discharge pipes and multiple institutes The front end for stating the second advance water discharge pipe is stretched in chip stream stratum;The first advance water discharge pipe and the second advance water discharge pipe Outer limb be 40 °~50 °, the external diameter of the first advance water discharge pipe is Φ 100mm~Φ 120mm, and described second is advanced The external diameter of drainpipe is Φ 38mm~Φ 45mm.
Above-mentioned plenty water weak surrounding rock major long tunnel construction method, it is characterized in that:To the tunnel portal on rear side of entrance section of tunnel Each section in tunnel portal section on front side of section and tunnel outlet section is when being constructed, in step 5 Tunnel Second Lining Construction it Before, also construction waterproof heat-insulation layer, the Tunnel Second Lining structure it need to be located at the waterproof on the inside of Tunnel system On the inside of heat-insulation layer;The water-proof heat-insulation layer include one layer of form concrete branch sheath on the inside of the Tunnel system, One layer of geotextiles being pasted and fixed on the inside of form concrete branch sheath, the first splash guard on the inside of geotextiles of mating formation, it is located at Warming plate and the second splash guard mated formation on the inside of warming plate on the inside of first splash guard, the second splash guard bottom leads to Cross multiple arch supports laid from the front to the back along tunnel Longitudinal extending direction to be supported, the structure of multiple arch supports All same;The geotextiles are pasted and fixed on the inside of form concrete branch sheath by adhesive;On the inside of first splash guard It is provided with multiple tracks along the circumferential direction to lay and for the longitudinal steel wire of fix warming plate, longitudinal steel wire described in multiple tracks is indulged along tunnel Laid to bearing of trend, and warming plate is pasted and fixed on the inside of the first splash guard by the adhesive;Described second is anti- Water plate is pasted and fixed on the inside of warming plate by the adhesive.
Above-mentioned plenty water weak surrounding rock major long tunnel construction method, it is characterized in that:Formed from the front to the back to excavating in step 4 Tunnel carry out preliminary bracing during, also need from the front to the back to enter tunnel longitudinal reinforcement structure along tunnel Longitudinal extending direction Row construction;
The tunnel longitudinal reinforcement structure includes the longitudinal reinforcement beam that multiple tracks is laid along tunnel Longitudinal extending method, multiple tracks institute Arch wall excavation contour line of the longitudinal reinforcement beam along current section of constructing is stated to be laid from left to right;The longitudinal reinforcement beam is Shaped steel, and longitudinal reinforcement beam described in per pass is spliced from the front to the back by multiple longitudinal reinforcement girder segments;
When Tunnel system is the profile steel frame support system, longitudinal reinforcement beam described in per pass with more Pin The profile steel frame is fastenedly connected, and the longitudinal reinforcement beam as described in multiple tracks of profile steel frame described in more Pin is fastenedly connected and is integrated;
When Tunnel system is that the grid steel frame encircles Composite Supporting System with set, longitudinal reinforcement described in per pass Grid steel frame described in the more Pin of Liang Junyu is fastenedly connected, and the longitudinal reinforcement beam as described in multiple tracks of grid steel frame described in more Pin is fastenedly connected It is integrated;
When carrying out Second Lining Construction to the Tunnel in step 5, treat that the rate of deformation of the Tunnel is less than 5mm/ Constructed during d;The thickness of the Tunnel Second Lining structure is 50cm~60cm.
Above-mentioned plenty water weak surrounding rock major long tunnel construction method, it is characterized in that:It is calculated in step 3 and is currently constructed The strength-stress ratio of section country rockAfterwards, also need according to the strength-stress ratio being calculatedTo current section of constructing The extrusion pressing type large deformation grade of country rock is determined;The extrusion pressing type large deformation grade includes four grades, and four grades by As little as high is respectively without large deformation, slight large deformation, medium large deformation and serious large deformation;
When being determined to the extrusion pressing type large deformation grade of current section country rock of constructing, whenWhen, illustrate to work as The extrusion pressing type large deformation grade of preceding constructed section country rock is without large deformation;WhenWhen, illustrate currently to be applied The extrusion pressing type large deformation grade of work section country rock is slight large deformation;WhenWhen, illustrate section of currently constructing The extrusion pressing type large deformation grade of section country rock is medium large deformation;WhenWhen, illustrate section country rock of currently constructing Extrusion pressing type large deformation grade is serious large deformation.
Above-mentioned plenty water weak surrounding rock major long tunnel construction method, it is characterized in that:Tunnel excavation and supporting are carried out in step 4 Before construction, also need to be determined the tunnel deformation allowance of current section of constructing;Also, according to identified current institute The extrusion pressing type large deformation grade of construction section country rock, the deformation allowance of current section of constructing is determined;It is identified Deformation allowance includes tunnel arch deformation allowance C1With tunnel abutment wall deformation allowance C2;Wherein, tunnel arch prearrangement of deformation amount Measure C1=50mm~530mm, tunnel abutment wall deformation allowanceΔ C=1mm~30mm;Also, currently applied The extrusion pressing type large deformation higher grade of work section country rock, tunnel arch deformation allowance C1, tunnel abutment wall deformation allowance C2And Δ C value is bigger;
When carrying out excavation construction to current section of constructing from the front to the back in step 4, become according to identified tunnel is reserved Shape amount carries out excavation construction.
Above-mentioned plenty water weak surrounding rock major long tunnel construction method, it is characterized in that:Profile steel frame described in step 4 include pair The arch wall of the Tunnel carries out the shaped steel arch of supporting;Spacing between profile steel frame described in front and rear adjacent two Pin for 0.4m~ 0.8m, and the profile steel frame is the steelframe being bent to form by H profile steel;
Grid steel frame described in step 4 includes the grillage that supporting is carried out to the arch wall of the Tunnel;It is front and rear adjacent Spacing between grid steel frame described in two Pin is 0.4m~0.6m;The shape of the shaped steel set arch and the shape of grillage, and Shaped steel set arch is supported on the inside of grillage described in a Pin described in per Pin;
When being constructed in step 4 to the grid steel frame with set arch combined supporting scheme, along tunnel Longitudinal extending direction From the front to the back in the Tunnel Nei Zhili grillages;And during carrying out Zhi Li to grillage, along tunnel Longitudinal extending Direction covers in the Tunnel Nei Zhili shaped steel from the front to the back encircles;Also, shaped steel set arch is on its inside described in per Pin The vertical completion of grillage branch carries out Zhi Li after 7 days;
The left and right sides arch springing bottom of the shaped steel arch and grillage is provided with a support in horizontal layout Steel plate and the left and right sides of the two are locked pin anchor tubes by more and anchored.
Above-mentioned plenty water weak surrounding rock major long tunnel construction method, it is characterized in that:Profile steel frame described in step 4 is to institute The loopful shaped steel frame that Tunnel carries out supporting is stated, the profile steel frame also includes the tunnel that supporting is carried out to the bottom of the Tunnel Road bottom shape steel bracket, the both ends of the tunnel bottom shape steel bracket fasten with two arch springings of the shaped steel arch respectively to be connected Connect;
Grid steel frame described in step 4 is also located at shaped steel described in more Pin respectively with set arch Composite Supporting System including multiple The tunnel bottom steelframe of bottom progress supporting immediately below set arch and to the Tunnel, the both ends point of the tunnel bottom steelframe Two arch springings not with shaped steel set arch are fastenedly connected;Per shaped steel set arch described in Pin with the tunnel bottom steelframe immediately below it Form the loopful shaped steel frame that supporting is carried out to the Tunnel;
There is the empty slag that a layer thickness is 20cm~30cm the bottom of Tunnel described in step 4, from the front to the back to current During constructed section carries out excavation construction, along tunnel Longitudinal extending direction from the front to the back to described in the Tunnel bottom Empty slag is cleared up, and the concrete that a layer thickness is 20cm~30cm is laid in the Tunnel bottom, forms concrete mats Layer;The tunnel bottom steelframe is located on the concrete cushion.
Above-mentioned plenty water weak surrounding rock major long tunnel construction method, it is characterized in that:The inclined shaft auxiliary construction outlet section is to deposit In the prominent tunnel construction sections gushed a little, the inclined shaft auxiliary construction outlet section with it is roundabout put down to lead intersect, roundabout put down is led and inclined shaft Intersection is led in intersection between auxiliary construction outlet section to be flat, and prominent gush a little leads the distance between intersection no with described put down More than 200m;Roundabout flat lead is led and aided in positioned at inclined shaft including the inlet side positioned at inclined shaft auxiliary construction outlet section side is flat The outlet side of construction outlet section opposite side is flat to lead, and the inlet side is flat to lead and outlet side is flat leads internal communicate and company therebetween Intersection is led for described put down in the place of connecing;The inlet side is flat to lead and leads rear side positioned at outlet side is flat, the inlet side is flat lead to be trapezoidal and It is by the front side pilot tunnel in the middle part of being in the middle part pilot tunnel of parallel laying with main tunnel and being connected between pilot tunnel rear and front end and main tunnel Second with rear side pilot tunnel, flat the first pilot tunnel led by with main tunnel being in parallel laying of the outlet side and on rear side of the first pilot tunnel Pilot tunnel, second pilot tunnel are laid on the same line with front side pilot tunnel;The inclined shaft auxiliary construction outlet section side is provided with Drain cavern, the drain cavern intersects with inclined shaft auxiliary construction outlet section and intersection therebetween is drain cavern intersection, institute It is pilot tunnel intersection to state the intersection between the first pilot tunnel and inclined shaft auxiliary construction outlet section;The inclined shaft intersection, described let out Water hole intersection, the pilot tunnel intersection, prominent gush a little and described put down leads Longitudinal extending direction of the intersection along main tunnel from the front to the back Laid, the inclined shaft auxiliary construction outlet section is intersected with the inclined shaft intersection, the drain cavern intersection, the pilot tunnel Mouthful, prominent gush a little and the flat intersection of leading is that boundary is divided into the first main tunnel section, the second main tunnel section, the 3rd main tunnel section, the from the front to the back Four main tunnel sections and the 5th main tunnel section;
Wherein, during carrying out excavation construction to entrance section of tunnel, forced ventilation is carried out using inlet side ventilation blower, and The first ventilation duct excavated by being laid in entrance section of tunnel in the Tunnel of completion is blown;The inlet side ventilation Machine is located on the outside of the import of main tunnel;
During carrying out excavation construction to tunnel outlet section, forced ventilation is carried out using outlet side ventilation blower, and pass through The second ventilation duct being laid in the Tunnel that completion has been excavated in tunnel outlet section is blown;The outlet side ventilation seat in the plane On the outside of the outlet of main tunnel;
During carrying out excavation construction to tunnel slope, carried out using the first ventilation blower and/or the second ventilation blower forced Ventilation, and third venting pipe and/or the 4th ventilation duct by being laid in the Tunnel that completion has been excavated in tunnel slope enter Row air-supply, the air inlet of the third venting pipe is connected with the air outlet of the first ventilation blower, and the air inlet of the 4th ventilation duct and The air outlet connection of second ventilation blower;First ventilation blower and the second ventilation blower are respectively positioned on the outside of the hole of tunnel slope;
During carrying out excavation construction to inclined shaft auxiliary construction inducer, forced ventilation is carried out using the first ventilation blower, And the third venting pipe by being laid in the Tunnel that completion has been excavated in tunnel slope and inclined shaft auxiliary construction inducer enters Row air-supply;
When carrying out excavation construction to inclined shaft auxiliary construction outlet section, process is as follows:
Step 101, the first main tunnel section excavation construction:Excavation construction, excavation construction are carried out to the first main tunnel section from the front to the back During forced ventilation carried out using the second ventilation blower, and excavated by being laid in tunnel slope and the first main tunnel Duan Zhongyi Into Tunnel in the 4th ventilation duct blown;
Step 102, the construction of the first relay air compartment:After the completion for the treatment of the first main tunnel section excavation construction, intersect in the drain cavern Mouthful rear side construct the first relay air compartment, the first relay air compartment is built with the first relay air blower, the second relay air blower and the Three relay air blowers, the air outlet of the 4th ventilation duct inside the first relay air compartment with communicating;
Step 103, the second main tunnel section and drain cavern excavation construction:After the completion of the first relay air compartment construction, by backward It is preceding that excavation construction is carried out to the second main tunnel section, connect during excavation construction using the second ventilation blower and the first relay air blower or second Power blower fan carries out forced ventilation, and by the 4th ventilation duct being laid in tunnel slope and the first main tunnel section and is laid in the The 5th ventilation duct or the 7th ventilation duct in the Tunnel of two main tunnel Duan Zhongyi excavation completions are blown;5th ventilation duct Air inlet be connected with the air outlet of the first relay air blower, the air-supply of the air inlet and the second relay air blower of the 7th ventilation duct Mouth connection;
Meanwhile excavation construction is carried out to drain cavern from the front to the back, use the second ventilation blower and the 3rd during excavation construction Relay air blower carries out forced ventilation, and by being laid in tunnel slope and the 4th ventilation duct in the first main tunnel section and being laid in The 6th ventilation duct excavated in drain cavern in the Tunnel of completion is blown;The air inlet and the 3rd of 6th ventilation duct The air outlet connection of relay air blower;
Step 104, the 3rd main tunnel section and inlet side are flat to lead excavation construction:Excavation is carried out to the 3rd main tunnel section from the front to the back to apply Work, forced ventilation is carried out using the second ventilation blower and the second relay air blower during excavation construction, and by being laid in tunnel Inclined shaft is blown with the 4th ventilation duct in the first main tunnel section and the 7th ventilation duct being laid in the second main tunnel section;Described The air inlet of seven ventilation ducts is connected with the air outlet of the second relay air blower;
Meanwhile it is flat to inlet side from the front to the back lead carry out excavation construction, during excavation construction using the second ventilation blower and First relay air blower carries out forced ventilation, and the 4th ventilation duct and cloth by being laid in tunnel slope and the first main tunnel section Located at the second main tunnel section and inlet side are flat lead in excavated completion Tunnel in the 5th ventilation duct blown;
Step 105, outlet side are flat to lead and the 5th main tunnel section rear end section excavation construction:The inlet side is flat to lead excavation construction After the completion of, it is flat to outlet side from the front to the back to lead carry out excavation construction, connect during excavation construction using the second ventilation blower and second Power blower fan carries out forced ventilation, and by the 4th ventilation duct being laid in tunnel slope and the first main tunnel section and is laid in the Two main tunnel sections, inlet side be flat lead with outlet side is flat lead in excavated the 7th ventilation duct in the Tunnel of completion and blown;
The 5th main tunnel section is divided into rear end section and the front side section on front side of the rear end section;It is also, described Inlet side is flat lead excavation construction after the completion of, excavation construction is carried out to the rear end section from the front to the back, is adopted during excavation construction Forced ventilation is carried out with the second ventilation blower and the first relay air blower, and by being laid in tunnel slope and the first main tunnel section 4th ventilation duct and it is laid in that the second main tunnel section, inlet side are flat to lead in the Tunnel with having excavated completion in the rear end section 5th ventilation duct is blown;
Step 106, the construction of the second relay air compartment:After the completion for the treatment of rear end section excavation construction, end segment section in the rear The second relay air compartment of interior construction, the second relay air compartment is built with the 4th relay air blower and the 5th relay air blower, and the described 5th The air outlet of ventilation duct inside the second relay air compartment with communicating;The second relay air compartment positioned at it is described it is flat lead intersection before Side;The air outlet of 5th ventilation duct inside the second relay air compartment with communicating;
Section and the 4th main tunnel section excavation construction on front side of step 107, the 5th main tunnel section:The second relay air compartment has been constructed Cheng Hou, excavation construction is carried out to the front side section from the front to the back, the second ventilation blower, the first relay are used during excavation construction Blower fan and the 4th relay air blower carry out forced ventilation, and the 4th ventilation by being laid in tunnel slope and the first main tunnel section Manage, be laid in that the second main tunnel section, inlet side are flat to lead and the 5th ventilation duct in the rear end section and be laid in the front side and save The 8th ventilation duct that Duan Zhongyi is excavated in the Tunnel completed is blown;The air inlet of 8th ventilation duct and the 4th relay The air inlet connection of blower fan;
Meanwhile excavation construction is carried out to the 4th main tunnel section from the front to the back, using the second ventilation blower, the during excavation construction One relay air blower and the 5th relay air blower carry out forced ventilation, and the by being laid in tunnel slope and the first main tunnel section Four ventilation ducts, it is laid in that the second main tunnel section, inlet side are flat to lead and the 5th ventilation duct in the rear end section and be laid in described The 9th ventilation duct in the Tunnel completed is excavated with the 4th main tunnel Duan Zhongyi and is blown in rear end section;9th ventilation duct Air inlet be connected with the air inlet of the 5th relay air blower.
Above-mentioned plenty water weak surrounding rock major long tunnel construction method, it is characterized in that:First relay air compartment described in step 102 and Containment housing of the second relay air compartment described in step 106 to be welded by steel plate.
The present invention has advantages below compared with prior art:
1st, construction method step is simple, reasonable in design and realization is convenient, and workable, input construction cost is relatively low.
2nd, for chip stream formation tunnel, stability control construction is first carried out before excavating, can be met with passing through chip stream The construction requirement in layer tunnel, work progress safety.Also, used chip stream stability control construction method is simple, design Rationally and stability control effect is good, main to include to advance support structure, for reducing front of tunnel heading chip stream stratum The advance water discharge passage of head pressure and the block wall blocked to face, so by block wall to face carry out and When, effectively closure;Also, the current in chip stream stratum are drawn by advance water discharge passage, so as to reach reduction face The purpose of hydraulic pressure at excavation;Meanwhile using pipe canopy with per-fore pouring liquid with small pipe reinforce be combined by the way of to face week gusset Rock is effectively reinforced.During practice of construction, face is carried out by block wall in time, effectively to block to prevent that face generation is broken Consider stream to be worth doing and dash forward and gushes situation, and the hydraulic pressure at face excavation is reduced by advance water discharge passage, while led using pipe canopy with small in advance The mode that pipe grouting and reinforcing is combined effectively is reinforced to arch wall, thus can effectively control the stabilization of chip stream formation tunnel Property, safety coefficient is high, and difficulty of construction is smaller, and the construction period is short, and be particularly suitable for use in the non-full section of tunnel of chip flow point cloth area But distribution area accounts for tunnel cross section area more than 50% and constructing tunnel process of the longitudinal length less than 5 meters.
3rd, water-proof heat-insulation layer is laid to the Portal Section in tunnel, the constructing tunnel requirement of frigid plateau region can be met.Also, Water-proof heat-insulation layer is constructed using pasting to fix by the way of arch support is combined, speed of application is fast, efficiency of construction is high And construction quality is easy to ensure, can effectively solve due to being not provided with energy in Tunnel system or form concrete branch sheath The rigid element of waterproof thermal-insulated layer weight is effectively undertaken, causes the water-proof heat-insulation layer vault of construction molding to come to nothing and sinks seriously, And cause the mass defects such as the concrete thickness deficiency of secondary lining into secondary lining headroom.Meanwhile the construction matter of water-proof heat-insulation layer Amount is easy to ensure, construction quality is high and using effect is good, practical value is high, and the water-proof heat-insulation layer of construction molding is reasonable in design And using effect is good, using the structure of warming plate and inside and outside two splash guards, and one is laid on the inside of form concrete branch sheath Layer geotextiles so that secondary lining and form concrete branch sheath and preliminary bracing system are completely isolated, reduce in Tunnel Heat exchange between stratum, protection of permafrost is played, water seepage of tunnel is prevented, prevents frost failure etc. from acting on, can effectively be solved Country rock Frozen-thawed cycled is to disease problem caused by liner structure around the body of hole so that the tunnel lining structure durability of construction molding It can grow good and service life.
4th, used soft rock tunnel large deformation control method step is simple, reasonable in design and input cost is low, realization side Just, using effect is good, has by the way of " deformation is stopped, first soft rear firm, lining cutting is strengthened " is combined to soft rock large deformation Effect control, it is ensured that safety for tunnel engineering, construction risk is greatly lowered.Meanwhile taken in construction big arch springing, long lock pin anchor tube, A series of ancillary methods such as steel waistband, wet shotcreting, Second Lining Construction time control, inverted arch void slag altering fill, enter one Step control effectively to soft rock large deformation.Armored concrete secondary lining applies in good time according to Monitoring During The Access result, real The effect of part rock deformation pressure is now resisted, is collectively forming the control of the system serious deformation support system.Due to high-ground stress Soft rock tunnel to build difficulty big, work progress risk is high, and large deformation easily occurs in the presence of high-ground stress and water, uses The present invention can effectively solve the problem during high ground stress soft rock stress constructing tunnel, and energy is easy, is rapidly completed high-ground stress weakness The tunnel excavation and supporting construction process and work progress of surrounding rock tunnel are safe and reliable, be follow-up soft rock tunnel design with applying Work has been gained most valuable experience, and provides actual parameter for theoretical research.The present invention proposes point of soft rock tunnel large deformation Level standard, and the supporting principle of " resist when allowing, be first soft rear firm " is followed, effective supporting control measure are drawn, and proposition is reasonable Deformation allowance, overcome once perplex construction driving problem, ensured safety for tunnel engineering and progress.Tunnel-liner knot Structure is stable, and operation is steady, the abnormal conditions such as does not occur deforming, can effectively solve high ground stress soft rock stress large deformation Construction control hardly possible Topic, and soft rock large deformation can be control effectively, and work progress is safe and reliable.
During actual progress constructing tunnel, it is divided into multiple sections and is constructed respectively, and excavation construction is carried out to each section When, deformation allowance is determined all in accordance with the extrusion pressing type large deformation grade of identified current section of constructing;Determined Deformation allowance it is reasonable, and more meet engineering reality.Meanwhile according to the big change of extrusion pressing type of identified current section of constructing Shape grade is determined to Tunnel scheme, thus can meet the Tunnel demand of each section.
5th, before tunnel excavation construction, first country rock extrusion pressing type large deformation grade is determined, used extrusion pressing type is big Deformation grade scale is reasonable in design, and it is grading that the extrusion pressing type large deformation of country rock etc. is compared according to the strength stress tested and be calculated Row is determined, and the extrusion pressing type large deformation grade of country rock is divided into four grades, i.e., without large deformation, slight large deformation, medium big change Shape and serious large deformation, actual classification is easy, it is convenient, workable to realize, and identified extrusion pressing type large deformation grade Four kinds of degree large deformation situations of country rock can be accurately reflected, more meet engineering reality.
6th, used tunnel deformation allowance determine method it is simple, it is reasonable in design and use easy to operate, using effect Good, occupation mode is flexible, and the deformation allowance that can effectively solve high-ground stress Support System in Soft Rock Tunnels determines problem, can effectively be applicable Deformation allowance to high-ground stress and the large-deformation tunnel in soft rock under highly stress condition determines, identified reserved change Shape amount is reasonable, can effectively solve the problems such as tunnel deformation allowance is inadequate, tunnel is backbreak, safety for tunnel engineering can be effectively ensured, And construction cost can be greatly lowered.When being actually determined, the strength-stress ratio of measured in advance country rock is only needed, just can be accurately true Determine tunnel excavation deformation allowance, and can be by the actual large deformation situation of country rock with using excavation deformation allowance to be had Effect combines so that identified deformation allowance more meets engineering reality.Thus, easy, fast and accurately it can determine that tunnel is opened Dig deflection.
7th, the extrusion pressing type large deformation grade of current section country rock of constructing determined by basis, to current section of constructing Preliminary bracing scheme is determined;Wherein, when current section country rock of constructing extrusion pressing type large deformation grade for without large deformation or During slight large deformation, used preliminary bracing scheme is profile steel frame supporting scheme;When squeezing for current section country rock of constructing When die mould large deformation grade is medium large deformation or serious large deformation, used preliminary bracing scheme is that grid steel frame encircles with set Combined supporting scheme.Thus, using the present invention can not only the preliminary bracing scheme that suitably uses of easy, quick determination, and institute The preliminary bracing scheme of determination and the actual large deformation situation of country rock are adapted, thus supporting can be effectively carried out to Tunnel, just Phase supporting effect is more preferably.
8th, used grid steel frame encircles Composite Supporting System simple in construction, reasonable in design and easy construction, use with set Effect is good, can efficiently control serious deformation, ensure that tunnel structure safety.In being for country rock extrusion pressing type large deformation grade Deng the section of large deformation or serious large deformation, preliminary bracing is carried out with set arch Composite Supporting System using grid steel frame, after first soft Just, its structure stress is more reasonable, can provide drag in time, more adapts to deform during high ground stress soft rock stress constructing tunnel It is ageing the characteristics of;Saving steel material, cost are low simultaneously;It is that reasonable, effective control becomes anti-collapse measure.
9th, use that roundabout flat guide structure is simple, installation position is reasonable and easy for construction, using effect is good, by roundabout flat Lead service incline auxiliary construction outlet section and carry out excavation construction, energy simplicity avoids the prominent construction gushed and a present position is a little gushed to dashing forward It is placed on when the 3rd main tunnel section and the 4th main tunnel section penetrate and carries out, thus can effectively solves construction and be obstructed problem.Also, by described Roundabout flat lead can meet tunnel ventilation demand.
10th, work progress is easily controllable, and the construction period is short and efficiency of construction is high, can meet in the presence of the prominent long tunnel in plateau gushed a little Road is easy, rapid construction demand, and work progress is safe and reliable.Relay ventilation is carried out using two relay air compartments, two connect The installation position of power air compartment is reasonable, can meet multiple actual ventilation requirements for needing airway.Also, used relay air compartment It is convenient that simple in construction, reasonable in design and processing and fabricating and installation are laid, and using effect is good, can realize the multi-stage relay of blower fan.It is real When border is constructed, it can be that each scope of operation for needing airway supplies fresh air, excludes dust and various poisonous and harmful substances, create Good work situation, the health and safety of workmen is ensured, maintain the aerobic environment of electromechanical equipment normal operation.Also, Using forced ventilation, the foul atmosphere of working face can be soon excluded, dismounting is simple, and the used time is most short, to normal construction shadow Ring minimum.Using forced ventilation, using must assure that it is each need airway to have enough total ventilations as basic demand, with reference to More than unidirectional, only the characteristics of roadway construction of the plateau long distance tunnel, from variable speed air mover with strengthening plastic cement with diameter PVC Wind-distributing pipe, and the blower fan relay method for forgoing traditional, set the big air compartment of totally enclosed relay, in a manner of concentrating and connect, realize Every breathing line fan installation parallel with airduct, ventilation effect is good, energy-conserving and environment-protective, strong guarantee tunnel excavation construction It process normal progression, can effectively shorten the construction period, there is good social and economic benefit.
In summary, the inventive method step is simple, reasonable in design and easy construction, using effect are good, can meet rich water The construction requirement of weak surrounding rock major long tunnel, the construction period is short, and work progress safety.
Below by drawings and examples, technical scheme is described in further detail.
Brief description of the drawings
Fig. 1 is construction method FB(flow block) when being constructed using the present invention to tunnel section.
Fig. 2 by the present invention construction main tunnel and tunnel slope layout position illustration.
Fig. 3-1 is the Construction State schematic diagram when present invention carries out stability control construction.
Fig. 3-2 is tube shed grouting pipe of the present invention and layout position illustration of the pre-grouting pipe on face.
Fig. 3-3 is the layout position illustration of drainpipe distributed areas on face of the present invention.
Fig. 4-1 is the Construction State schematic diagram of water-proof heat-insulation layer of the present invention.
Fig. 4-2 is the partial approach schematic diagram at A in Fig. 4-1.
Fig. 5 is the structural representation of grid steel frame of the present invention and set arch Composite Supporting System.
Fig. 6 is the Construction State schematic diagram when present invention carries out excavation construction to inclined shaft auxiliary construction outlet section.
Fig. 7 is the ventilation state schematic diagram when present invention carries out excavation construction to inclined shaft auxiliary construction outlet section.
Description of reference numerals:
1-tunnel slope;2-main tunnel;2-1-entrance section of tunnel;
2-2-tunnel outlet section;2-3-inclined shaft auxiliary construction inducer;
2-4-inclined shaft auxiliary construction outlet section;The main tunnel sections of 2-41-first;The main tunnel sections of 2-42-second;
The main tunnel sections of 2-43-the 3rd;The main tunnel sections of 2-44-the 4th;The main tunnel sections of 2-45-the 5th;
3-dash forward and gush a little;4-drain cavern;5-inlet side is flat to lead;
5-1-middle part pilot tunnel;5-2-front side pilot tunnel;5-3-rear side pilot tunnel;
6-outlet side is flat to lead;The pilot tunnels of 6-1-first;The pilot tunnels of 6-2-second;
7-inlet side ventilation blower;8-outlet side ventilation blower;The ventilation blowers of 9-1-first;
The ventilation blowers of 9-2-second;The ventilation ducts of 10-1-first;The ventilation ducts of 10-2-second;
10-3-third venting pipe;The ventilation ducts of 10-4-the 4th;The ventilation ducts of 10-5-the 5th;
The ventilation ducts of 10-6-the 6th;The ventilation ducts of 10-7-the 7th;The ventilation ducts of 10-8-the 8th;
The ventilation ducts of 10-9-the 9th;11-the first relay air compartment;
The relay air blowers of 11-1-first;The relay air blowers of 11-2-second;
The relay air blowers of 11-3-the 3rd;12-the second relay air compartment;
The relay air blowers of 12-1-the 4th;The relay air blowers of 12-2-the 5th;
13-the first through-plane;14-the second through-plane;15-2-anchor pole;
15-3-tube shed grouting pipe;15-4-pre-grouting pipe;15-5-block wall;
The advance water discharge pipes of 15-6-first;The advance water discharge pipes of 15-7-second;
15-8-chip stream stratum;15-9-drainpipe distributed areas;
16-2-grillage;16-3-shaped steel set arch;
16-4-Tunnel system;The concrete ejection layers of 16-5-second;
16-6-second longitudinal direction connection reinforcing bar;16-7-tunnel bottom steelframe;
17-2-form concrete branch sheath;The splash guards of 17-3-first;17-4-warming plate;
The splash guards of 17-5-second;17-8-basal layer;17-10-geotextiles;
17-11-arch support.
Embodiment
As shown in Figure 1 and Figure 2, a kind of plenty water weak surrounding rock major long tunnel construction method of the present invention, institute's construction tunnel Length be more than 5km and its excavated section and be more than 50m2;The side of main tunnel 2 of institute's construction tunnel is provided with tunnel slope 1;It is described just Hole 2 is divided for entrance section of tunnel 2-1, tunnel outlet section 2-2 and is connected between entrance section of tunnel 2-1 and tunnel outlet section 2-2 Middle part linkage section, the tunnel slope 1 intersects with the middle part linkage section and intersection therebetween is inclined shaft intersection, institute State middle part linkage section be inclined shaft auxiliary construction section and its be divided into inclined shaft auxiliary construction inducer 2-3 by boundary of the inclined shaft intersection With inclined shaft auxiliary construction outlet section 2-4, the entrance section of tunnel 2-1, inclined shaft auxiliary construction inducer 2-3, inclined shaft auxiliary construction Outlet section 2-4 and tunnel outlet section 2-2 are laid in the Longitudinal extending direction along main tunnel 2 from the front to the back;
When being constructed to institute's construction tunnel, the inlet and outlet of institute's construction tunnel go into operation simultaneously, and to entrance section of tunnel 2-1 and While tunnel outlet section 2-2 is constructed respectively, by tunnel slope 1 respectively to inclined shaft auxiliary construction inducer 2-3 and tiltedly Well auxiliary construction outlet section 2-4 is constructed;The entrance section of tunnel 2-1, tunnel outlet section 2-2, inclined shaft auxiliary construction import Section 2-3 and inclined shaft auxiliary construction outlet section 2-4 construction method all same, respectively multiple sections constructed by elder generation after, it is more The construction method all same of the individual section;As shown in figure 1, when being constructed to any one section, comprise the following steps:
Step 1: advance geologic prediction:Advance geologic is carried out to current section of constructing using advanced geology prediction system Forecast, and according to advance geologic prediction result, judge that the front of tunnel heading of current section of constructing whether there is chip stream stratum 15-8:When judging to show that the front of tunnel heading has chip stream stratum 15-8, into step 2;Otherwise, into step 3;
Step 2: stability control is constructed:First on rear side of the face of current section of constructing, construction one is to the palm The block wall 15-5 that sub- face is blocked;Afterwards, advance support is carried out to current section of constructing, and installed for reducing chip Flow the advance water discharge passage of stratum 15-8 head pressure;The advance water discharge passage is gradually inclined upwardly from the front to the back, described The front end of advance water discharge passage stretches to chip stream stratum 15-8 and its rear end is located on rear side of the face;
Step 3: preliminary bracing scheme determines:Inside the rock mass strength Rb and country rock of current section country rock of constructing Maximum crustal stress σmaxTested respectively, and the strength-stress ratio of current section country rock of constructing is calculatedFurther according to The strength-stress ratio being calculatedThe preliminary bracing scheme of current section of constructing is determined:When When, used preliminary bracing scheme is grid steel frame and set arch combined supporting scheme;WhenIt is used first during > 0.3 Phase supporting scheme is profile steel frame supporting scheme;
Step 4: tunnel excavation and preliminary bracing construction:Along tunnel Longitudinal extending direction, from the front to the back to currently being constructed Section carries out excavation construction;During excavation construction, according to the preliminary bracing of identified current section of constructing in step 3 Scheme, preliminary bracing is carried out to excavating the Tunnel formed from the front to the back, and obtain Tunnel system 16-4;
Wherein, when identified preliminary bracing scheme is profile steel frame supporting scheme in step 3, the tunnel that is obtained Preliminary bracing system 16-4 is profile steel frame support system;The profile steel frame support system enters including more Pin to the Tunnel The profile steel frame of row supporting, the structure all same of profile steel frame described in more Pin and its enter from the front to the back along tunnel Longitudinal extending direction Row is laid;Profile steel frame described in more Pin is in uniformly laying;
When identified preliminary bracing scheme is that grid steel frame encircles combined supporting scheme with set in step 3, obtained Tunnel system 16-4 is grid steel frame and set arch Composite Supporting System;As shown in figure 5, the grid steel frame encircles with set Composite Supporting System includes more Pin and the grid steel frame of Tunnel progress supporting and more Pin is entered to the arch wall of the Tunnel Row supporting shaped steel set arch 16-3, the structure all same of grid steel frame described in more Pin and its along tunnel Longitudinal extending direction by backward Before laid, described in more Pin shaped steel set arch 16-3 structure all same and its carried out from the front to the back along tunnel Longitudinal extending direction Lay;Grid steel frame described in more Pin is in uniformly laying, and shaped steel set arch 16-3 described in more Pin is in uniformly laying, front and rear adjacent two Pin Spacing between the shaped steel set arch 16-3 is M times of spacing between grid steel frame described in front and rear adjacent two Pin, and wherein M is just whole Number and M=1,2 or 3;
Step 5: Tunnel Second Lining Construction:Branch at initial stage is carried out in step 4 to excavating the Tunnel formed from the front to the back During shield, Second Lining Construction is carried out to the Tunnel from the front to the back along tunnel Longitudinal extending direction, and be constructed into The Tunnel Second Lining structure of type;The Tunnel Second Lining structure is located on the inside of Tunnel system 16-4 and it is steel Reinforced concrete lining cutting.
In the present embodiment, the length of each section is 50m~1000m.
During practice of construction, the length of each section can be adjusted accordingly according to specific needs.
In the present embodiment, when carrying out excavation construction to current section of constructing from the front to the back, entered using three bench cut methods Row excavates.Also, it is specifically to use the interim inverted arch method of three steps.
As shown in Fig. 3-1, Fig. 3-2 and Fig. 3-3, after carrying out advance support to current section of constructing in step 2, obtain Advance support structure;The advance support structure includes carrying out the arch wall of current section of constructing the barrel vault advanced support of supporting Structure and per-fore pouring liquid with small pipe ruggedized construction;The barrel vault advanced support structure includes multiple opening along current constructed section The tube shed grouting pipe 15-3 that contour line is laid from left to right is dug, it is cross-section that multiple tube shed grouting pipe 15-3 are respectively positioned on same tunnel On face and its length is 15m~25m, and the tube shed grouting pipe 15-3 is steel pipe and its external diameter is Φ 100mm~Φ 120mm; Multiple tube shed grouting pipe 15-3 include a middle part steel pipe on the tunnel center line, multiple are respectively positioned in the tunnel Left side steel pipe and multiple right side steel pipes being respectively positioned on the right side of the tunnel center line on the left of heart line, multiple left side steel pipes and Multiple right side steel pipes are laid in symmetrical;The per-fore pouring liquid with small pipe ruggedized construction includes multiple along current constructed section Excavation contour line the pre-grouting pipe 15-4, multiple pre-grouting pipe 15-4 that lay from left to right be respectively positioned on same tunnel On cross section and its length is 6m~10m, and the pre-grouting pipe 15-4 is the steel floral tube that multiple injected holes are provided with tube wall And its external diameter is Φ 38mm~Φ 45mm;The tube shed grouting pipe 15-3 and pre-grouting pipe 15-4 is in be laid staggeredly;Multiple institutes Tube shed grouting pipe 15-3 and multiple pre-grouting pipe 15-4 outer limb are stated no more than 15 °;
The advance water discharge passage is laid in the first surpassing above current section arch of constructing from left to right including multiple Preceding drainpipe 15-6 and multiple the second advance water discharge pipe 15-7 being laid in from left to right above current section arch of constructing is more The individual first advance water discharge pipe 15-6 is respectively above multiple second advance water discharge pipe 15-7;It is multiple described the first to surpass Preceding drainpipe 15-6 and multiple second advance water discharge pipe 15-7 be from the front to the back gradually acclivitous steel pipe, Duo Gesuo The front end for stating the first advance water discharge pipe 15-6 and multiple second advance water discharge pipe 15-7 stretches to chip stream stratum 15-8 It is interior;The first advance water discharge pipe 15-6 and the second advance water discharge pipe 15-7 outer limb are 40 °~50 °, described the first to surpass Preceding drainpipe 15-6 external diameter is that Φ 100mm~Φ 120mm, the second advance water discharge pipe 15-7 external diameter are Φ 38mm~Φ 45mm。
With reference to Fig. 3-3, multiple first advance water discharge pipe 15-6 and multiple described second advanced rows on the face Water pipe 15-7 is laid in the 15-9 of drainpipe distributed areas, and the drainpipe distributed areas 15-9 is positioned at current section of being constructed Arc area above the arch of section.In the present embodiment, multiple first advance water discharge pipe 15-6 are distributed along the drainpipe Region 15-9 top edge line is laid from left to right, and multiple second advance water discharge pipe 15-7 are distributed along the drainpipe Region 15-9 lower edge line is laid from left to right.
In the present embodiment, the length of the first advance water discharge pipe 15-6 is 15m~25m, the second advance water discharge pipe 15-7 length is 6m~10m.
It is multiple described also, multiple first advance water discharge pipe 15-6 rear end is respectively positioned on same tunnel cross section Second advance water discharge pipe 15-7 rear end is respectively positioned on same tunnel cross section, and multiple first advance water discharge pipe 15-6 Rear end is respectively positioned on rear side of multiple second advance water discharge pipe 15-7 rear end.
In the present embodiment, the first advance water discharge pipe 15-6 and the second advance water discharge pipe 15-7 outer limb are 45 °. Also, the external diameter of the first advance water discharge pipe 15-6 is that Φ 108mm, the second advance water discharge pipe 15-7 external diameter are Φ 42mm。
, can according to specific needs, to the first advance water discharge pipe 15-6's and the second advance water discharge pipe 15-7 during practice of construction External diameter, length and outer limb adjust accordingly respectively.
In the present embodiment, multiple tube shed grouting pipe 15-3 are in uniformly laying, and multiple pre-grouting pipe 15-4 Laid in uniform, the ring spacing between the two neighboring tube shed grouting pipe 15-3 and the two neighboring pre-grouting pipe Ring spacing between 15-4 is identical.
Also, multiple tube shed grouting pipe 15-3 identical length is same, and multiple pre-grouting pipe 15-4 length Spend all same;Spacing and the two neighboring pre-grouting pipe between the two neighboring tube shed grouting pipe 15-3 rear ends Spacing between 15-4 rear ends is 50cm~80cm.In the present embodiment, the two neighboring tube shed grouting pipe 15-3 rear ends it Between spacing and the two neighboring pre-grouting pipe 15-4 rear ends between spacing be 60cm.
In the present embodiment, multiple tube shed grouting pipe 15-3 and multiple pre-grouting pipe 15-4 outer limb are 8 °~10 °.Multiple tube shed grouting pipe 15-3 and multiple pre-grouting pipe 15-4 are laid in the arch of institute's construction tunnel 1 On wall.
Also, multiple tube shed grouting pipe 15-3 and multiple pre-grouting pipe 15-4 outer limb all same.
In the present embodiment, the external diameter of the tube shed grouting pipe 15-3 is Φ 108mm, the external diameter of the pre-grouting pipe 15-4 For Φ 42mm.
Also, the wall thickness of the tube shed grouting pipe 15-3 is 4mm~6mm, the wall thickness of the pre-grouting pipe 15-4 is 3mm ~4mm.
, can according to specific needs, to tube shed grouting pipe 15-3 and pre-grouting pipe 15-4 external diameter and wall during practice of construction Thickness is adjusted respectively.
In the present embodiment, block wall 15-5 described in step 2 is concrete walls, and the concrete walls are divided into upper wall body With immediately below the upper wall body and the lower wall body that stretches to below the face, the cross section of the upper wall body Structure snd size are identical with the structure snd size of the face, and the height of the lower wall body is 0.5m~1.2m.Also, The thickness of the concrete wall 15-2 is 1.5m~2.5m.
More anchor pole 15-2 are provided with front side of the face, the more anchor pole 15-2 are along tunnel Longitudinal extending direction Laid and it is in parallel laying, the more anchor pole 15-2 are 8m~12m in quincunx laying and its length.
Also, the more anchor pole 15-2 are glass fibre anchor pole, the spacing between adjacent two anchor pole 15-2 It is 1m~1.5m.
In the present embodiment, the spacing between adjacent two anchor pole 15-2 is 1.2m.During practice of construction.Can be according to tool Body needs, and the spacing between anchor pole 15-2 described to adjacent two adjusts accordingly.
During practical stability control construction, first construct the more anchor pole 15-2 on the face, treats described in more After the completion of anchor pole 15-2 constructions, construct block wall 15-5 on rear side of the face, and by block wall 15-5 to the area Face is blocked;Afterwards, on rear side of the face, to the head for reducing the front of tunnel heading chip stream stratum 15-8 The advance water discharge passage of pressure is constructed;Then, the barrel vault advanced support structure and the per-fore pouring liquid with small pipe are added Fixing structure is constructed respectively.
In the present embodiment, to the tunnel portal section on rear side of entrance section of tunnel 2-1 and the Tunnel on front side of tunnel outlet section 2-2 , need to also be in Tunnel system in step 5 before Tunnel Second Lining Construction when each section in mouth section is constructed Construction waterproof heat-insulation layer on the inside of 16-4, the Tunnel Second Lining structure are located on the inside of the water-proof heat-insulation layer.Such as Fig. 4-1, figure Shown in 4-2, the water-proof heat-insulation layer includes one layer of form concrete branch sheath on the inside of Tunnel system 16-4 17-2, one layer of geotextiles 17-10 being pasted and fixed on the inside of form concrete branch sheath 17-2, mat formation in geotextiles 17-10 First splash guard 17-3 of side, the warming plate 17-4 on the inside of the first splash guard 17-3 and mat formation in warming plate 17-4 Second splash guard 17-5 of side, the second splash guard 17-5 bottoms are by multiple along tunnel Longitudinal extending direction cloth from the front to the back If arch support 17-11 be supported, multiple arch support 17-11 structure all same;The geotextiles 17-10 leads to Adhesive is crossed to be pasted and fixed on the inside of form concrete branch sheath 17-2;Multiple tracks edge is provided with the inside of the first splash guard 17-3 Circumferencial direction is laid and for fix warming plate 17-4 longitudinal steel wire, longitudinal steel wire described in multiple tracks is along tunnel Longitudinal extending side To being laid, and warming plate 17-4 is pasted and fixed on the inside of the first splash guard 17-3 by the adhesive;Described second is anti- Water plate 17-5 is pasted and fixed on the inside of warming plate 17-4 by the adhesive.
In the present embodiment, the length of the tunnel portal section is 400m~800m.
In the present embodiment, multiple plastic washers are provided with the inside of the geotextiles 17-10, multiple plastic washers are hung Loaded between geotextiles 17-10 and the first splash guard 17-3.
During practice of construction, multiple plastic washers divide multiple rows of laid from front to back along tunnel Longitudinal extending direction.
In the present embodiment, the arch support 17-11 is shape steel bracket.
Also, the spacing between the front and rear two neighboring arch support 17-11 is 1.5m~2.5m.
In the present embodiment, the spacing between the front and rear two neighboring arch support 17-11 is 2m.
During practice of construction, the spacing between the front and rear two neighboring arch support 17-11 can be entered according to specific needs The corresponding adjustment of row.
In the present embodiment, the warming plate 17-4 is by colligation silk banding fixed on the longitudinal steel wire.
Also, longitudinal steel wire described in per pass is fixed on form concrete branch sheath 17-2 by expansion bolt.
In the present embodiment, longitudinal steel wire described in per pass is spliced by multiple steel wire sections, multiple steel wire sections Laid from front to back along the Longitudinal extending direction of the tunnel portal section.
During actual laying installation, between adjacent two longitudinal steel wires on the inside of the arch of the tunnel portal section Spacing be 40cm~60cm, adjacent two longitudinal steel wires on the inside of the left and right sides arch wall of the tunnel portal section Between spacing be 80cm~120cm.
, can according to specific needs during practice of construction, adjacent two institutes being pointed on the inside of the arch of the tunnel portal section State the spacing between longitudinal steel wire and adjacent two longitudinal directions on the inside of the left and right sides arch wall of the tunnel portal section Spacing between steel wire adjusts accordingly.
In the present embodiment, the thickness of the form concrete branch sheath 17-2 is 25cm~35cm.
Also, the warming plate 17-4 is polyurethane thermal insulation board and its thickness is 3cm~8cm.
During practice of construction, the warming plate 17-4 can also use the warming plate of other materials.
In the present embodiment, the thickness of the warming plate 17-4 is 5cm., can according to specific needs, to insulation during practice of construction Plate 17-4 thickness adjusts accordingly.
Meanwhile the bottom of the tunnel portal section is provided with basal layer 17-8, the basal layer 17-8 and is provided with inverted arch, The left and right sides of the form concrete branch sheath 17-2 is supported on basal layer 17-8.
During practice of construction, after the completion of the water-proof heat-insulation layer construction, using working jumbo for tunnel lining from the front to the back The Tunnel Second Lining structure is constructed on the inside of the water-proof heat-insulation layer for completion of having constructed, the water-proof heat-insulation layer Between form concrete branch sheath 17-2 and Tunnel Second Lining structure.During practice of construction, to the steel of the longitudinal steel wire When silk section is fixed, the rear end of the steel wire section can be fixed on by construction molding by an expansion bolt Tunnel Second Lining structure on and the front end of the steel wire section be fixed on by expansion bolt another described constructed On the form concrete branch sheath 17-2 of shaping.
In the present embodiment, the length of the steel wire section is identical with the longitudinal length of the working jumbo for tunnel lining.It is more Longitudinal steel wire described in road is divided into multigroup steel wire section from the front to the back along tunnel Longitudinal extending direction, in steel wire section described in every group Including multiple steel wire sections along the circumferential direction laid.
During practice of construction, along tunnel Longitudinal extending direction, divide multiple construction sections from the front to the back to the water-proof heat-insulation layer To be constructed, the longitudinal length of each construction section is identical with the longitudinal length of the working jumbo for tunnel lining, and And the construction method all same of multiple construction sections.Wherein, the water-proof heat-insulation layer of any one construction section is carried out It is first clear to the dust on the form concrete branch sheath 17-2 inner surfaces of construction molding and water stain progress respectively during construction Reason, then one layer of adhesive is uniformly smeared on form concrete branch sheath 17-2 inner surface, and geotextiles 17-10 is entered Row laying;After the completion for the treatment of geotextiles 17-10 layings, multiple plastic washers, the plastics are laid on the inside of geotextiles 17-10 Packing ring is followed closely on form concrete branch sheath 17-2 by fastening nail, then one layer of glue is uniformly smeared on geotextiles 17-10 Stick, the first splash guard 17-3 is then laid on the inside of geotextiles 17-10;After the completion for the treatment of the first splash guard 17-3 layings, with tight Installation is fixed to multiple steel wire sections in longitudinal steel wire described in one group in line device respectively, and by one group of installation Longitudinal bracing of the longitudinal steel wire as warming plate 17-4 installation processes, is then installed to warming plate 17-4;Wait to be incubated After plate 17-4 installations, one layer of adhesive is uniformly smeared on warming plate 17-4 inner surface, then in warming plate 17-4 Lay the second splash guard 17-5 in inner side;After the completion for the treatment of the second splash guard 17-5 layings, pacify in the second splash guard 17-5 bottoms Dress arch support 17-11 is supported.
In the present embodiment, during carrying out preliminary bracing to the Tunnel for excavating formation from the front to the back in step 4, also need Tunnel longitudinal reinforcement structure is constructed from the front to the back along tunnel Longitudinal extending direction;
The tunnel longitudinal reinforcement structure includes the longitudinal reinforcement beam that multiple tracks is laid along tunnel Longitudinal extending method, multiple tracks institute Arch wall excavation contour line of the longitudinal reinforcement beam along current section of constructing is stated to be laid from left to right;The longitudinal reinforcement beam is Shaped steel, and longitudinal reinforcement beam described in per pass is spliced from the front to the back by multiple longitudinal reinforcement girder segments;
When Tunnel system 16-4 is the profile steel frame support system, longitudinal reinforcement beam described in per pass with Profile steel frame described in more Pin is fastenedly connected, and the longitudinal reinforcement beam as described in multiple tracks of profile steel frame described in more Pin is fastenedly connected as one Body;
When Tunnel system 16-4 is that the grid steel frame encircles Composite Supporting System with set, longitudinal direction described in per pass Reinforcement is fastenedly connected with grid steel frame described in more Pin, and the longitudinal reinforcement beam as described in multiple tracks of grid steel frame described in more Pin fastens Connect as one.
In the present embodiment, when carrying out Second Lining Construction to the Tunnel in step 5, the deformation of the Tunnel is treated Speed is constructed when being less than 5mm/d;The thickness of the Tunnel Second Lining structure is 50cm~60cm.
During actual progress tunnel deformation monitoring, complete just to proceed by monitoring from Tunnel system 16-4 constructions, And the monitoring time is no less than three months.Also, the tunnel deformation monitoring method according to routine is monitored.
The strength-stress ratio of current section country rock of constructing is calculated in the present embodiment, in step 3Afterwards, also need According to the strength-stress ratio being calculatedThe extrusion pressing type large deformation grade of current section country rock of constructing is determined; The extrusion pressing type large deformation grade includes four grades, and four grades be respectively from low to high without large deformation, slight large deformation, Medium large deformation and serious large deformation;
When being determined to the extrusion pressing type large deformation grade of current section country rock of constructing, whenWhen, illustrate to work as The extrusion pressing type large deformation grade of preceding constructed section country rock is without large deformation;WhenWhen, illustrate currently to be applied The extrusion pressing type large deformation grade of work section country rock is slight large deformation;WhenWhen, illustrate section of currently constructing The extrusion pressing type large deformation grade of section country rock is medium large deformation;WhenWhen, illustrate section country rock of currently constructing Extrusion pressing type large deformation grade is serious large deformation.
With reference to the statistics of field geology sketch and failure and deformation of surrounding rocks, extrusion pressing type large deformation grade scale table is drawn, is referred to Table 1:
The extrusion pressing type large deformation grade scale table of table 1
In the present embodiment, whenWhen, illustrate that current section of constructing is high ground stress soft rock stress tunnel.Correspondingly, whenWhen, illustrate that current section of constructing is not high ground stress soft rock stress tunnel.
Thus, high-ground stress is a relative concept, is with respect to for Surrounding Rock Strength (i.e. Rock Mass intensity). That is the ratio (i.e. strength-stress ratio) of the maximum crustal stress inside Surrounding Rock Strength and country rock just may be used when reaching certain level Soft rock large deformation can occur.Research shows, when strength-stress ratio is less than 0.3~0.5, can produce and is twice than normal tunnel Deformation above.Therefore, one be classified using the ratio (i.e. strength-stress ratio) of Surrounding Rock Strength and maximum crustal stress as large deformation Individual Appreciation gist is reasonable.Wherein, rock mass strength is denoted as Rb;Herein, rock mass strength is rock mass uniaxial compressive strength.Enclose Maximum crustal stress inside rock is denoted as σmax, also referred to as maximum principal stress.
Simple high-ground stress and simple soft rock all not necessarily produce the feature of large deformation, when both collective effects this One feature just emerges from, and only high ground stress soft rock stress tunnel can just produce extrusion pressing type large deformation." extrusion pressing type large deformation " occurs Relaxed the stage in country rock, deformation process is extremely complex.Wherein, the weak surrounding rock deformation with high stress background is referred to as " extrusion pressing type " The weak surrounding rock of large deformation, i.e. condition of high ground stress is deformed into extrusion pressing type large deformation.ISRM (abbreviation ISRM) " tunnel Country rock Squeezing ground is defined as below for road squeezing rock Professional Committee ":" extrusion pressing type " refers to that country rock has the big of timeliness Deformation;Its deformation has obvious advantage position and direction, can occur in the construction stage, it is also possible to continue the long period.Become The essence of shape is to shear to wriggle caused by the shear stress in rock mass transfinites, and these deformations can mainly be summarized as following several spies Point:Firstth, the speed of deformation is fast;Secondth, deflection is big;3rd, duration length is deformed;4th, deformation has obvious excellent Gesture position and direction.At present, the failure mechanism that extrusion pressing type large deformation tunnel compares accreditation has following three kinds:Complete failure by shear, Destruction is split in bending failure and shearing and slip.
In underground rock, the surrounding rock body of stress state change, referred to as country rock occur due to being influenceed by excavation. Rock mass strength is to evaluate an important indicator of rock mass mechanics, and its stability to evaluation engineering rock mass is significant.Now It is premised on the isotropism for assuming rock mass strength with more Mohr-Coulomb (i.e. Mohr-Coulomb) strength theory etc. , significant limitation be present in this application to this anisotropic material of slate.Hoek and Brown are strong in Mohr-Coulomb On the basis of topology degree, intensive parameter m and s were proposed respectively at 1980 and 1988, by the stress of the plane of fracture and c, p value phase Contact, instantaneous strength concept and rock mass non-linear criterion of strength are formed, is provided to research and analyse the different destructive process of slate Applicable criterion of strength (i.e. Hoek-Brown strength criterion).
In the present embodiment, when testing the rock mass strength Rb of current section country rock of constructing, by being taken to live Rock sample carries out laboratory test, and test draws the country rock basic mechanical parameter of current section of constructing, and is enclosed according to what test was drawn This mechanics parameter of batholith is calculated rock mass strength Rb;The rock mass strength Rb of current section country rock of constructing resists for rock mass single shaft Compressive Strength.
Also, when calculating rock mass strength Rb, according to Mohr-Coulomb strength theory or Hoek-Brown strength criterion Calculated.
Wherein, when being calculated according to Mohr-Coulomb strength theory rock mass strength Rb, first live country rock is taken Sample, then single shaft and triaxial compression test, triaxial compression test confined pressure are carried out to rock sample using RMT-150C rock mechanics experiment machines 1MPa, 2MPa, 4MPa, 8MPa and 16MPa are taken respectively.Again by carrying out analysis calculating to single shaft and triaxial compression test data, Obtain the rock mechanics parameters of tunnel surrounding.
In the present embodiment, according to formulaCountry rock uniaxial compressive strength σ is calculatedcm; In formula, c is the rock mass cohesive strength of country rock,For the rock mass internal friction angle of country rock, the σ being calculatedcm=rock mass strength Rb.Cause And by laboratory test, first test out the rock mass cohesive strength c and rock mass internal friction angle of current section country rock of constructingThe two Country rock basic mechanical parameter, country rock uniaxial compressive strength σ is calculated further according to formula (1-1)cm
And when being calculated according to Hoek-Brown strength criterion rock mass strength Rb, Hoek-Brown is by " strength stress Than " be named as " the extruding factor ", the extruding factor of country rockσcmFor rock mass uniaxial compressive strength, P0For country rock maximally Stress and P0max, using NcExtruding degree (deforming magnitude, speed and slip region scope) to country rock carries out sentencing knowledge.Its In, P0For country rock maximum crustal stress, also referred to as maximum principal stress.
Rock mass uniaxial compressive strength σcmThe parameter of an actually synthesis, generalization ground reflection rock mass strength, due to rock mass The complexity of structure, is overall merit rock mass strength, and Hoek-Brown gives the calculation formula of sillar uniaxial compressive strength:
In formula (1-2), σciFor sillar intensity and It uses point loading instrument to determine, thus σciThe also referred to as point load strength of country rock;miFor the intensive parameter of rock, miDepending on rock Frictional behavior between the material constant of stone property and its reflection rock each component;GSI be Geological stength index and its be that reflection is each Kind geological conditions weakens the parameter of degree to rock mass strength.
In practical engineering application, substantial amounts of rock mass strength test is not still carried out or had not been completed, in order to determine rock The intensive parameter m of stonei, provided by Hoek《Strength of intact rock parameter m is determined by rock groupi》M is searched in tableiApproximation;mi Value it is higher, the occlusion of corresponding crystalline particle is closer and friction is bigger.
GSI is the Geological stength index of Rock Mass, and GSI span is from 0 (extreme difference rock mass) to 100 (complete rocks Body).In the present embodiment, GSI carries out corresponding selection from the GSI values table (Roclab, 2002) of Hoek-Brown criterions.
In the present embodiment, to the maximum crustal stress σ inside country rock in step 1maxWhen being tested, using hydraulic fracturing Tested.
Also, after being tested using hydraulic fracturing the crustal stress inside current section country rock of constructing, according to survey Test result draws the maximum crustal stress inside current section country rock of constructing.
During practice of construction, to the maximum crustal stress σ inside country rockmaxWhen being tested, can also use stress restoration, Stress relief method (main to include drilling deformation method and borehole strain method), geophysical method are (mainly including wave velocity method, x-ray method And acoustic-emission), geological mapping method the methods of tested.
In the present embodiment, before carrying out tunnel excavation and supporting construction in step 4, also need to current section of constructing Tunnel deformation allowance is determined;Also, according to the extrusion pressing type large deformation grade of identified current section country rock of constructing, The deformation allowance of current section of constructing is determined;Identified deformation allowance includes tunnel arch deformation allowance C1With tunnel abutment wall deformation allowance C2;Wherein, tunnel arch deformation allowance C1=50mm~530mm, tunnel abutment wall is reserved to be become Shape amountΔ C=1mm~30mm;Also, the extrusion pressing type large deformation grade of current section country rock of constructing is got over Height, tunnel arch deformation allowance C1, tunnel abutment wall deformation allowance C2It is bigger with Δ C value;
When carrying out excavation construction to current section of constructing from the front to the back in step 4, become according to identified tunnel is reserved Shape amount carries out excavation construction.
In the present embodiment, when the extrusion pressing type large deformation grade of current section country rock of constructing is serious large deformation, tunnel Arch deformation allowance C1=470mm~530mm, tunnel abutment wall deformation allowance C2=260mm~275mm.
Herein, when the extrusion pressing type large deformation grade of current section country rock of constructing is serious large deformation, tunnel arch is pre- Stay deflection C1=500mm, tunnel abutment wall deformation allowance C2=270mm.
Also, when the extrusion pressing type large deformation grade of current section country rock of constructing is medium large deformation, tunnel arch is pre- Stay deflection C1=300mm~510mm.Correspondingly, tunnel abutment wall deformation allowance C2=240mm~255mm.In the present embodiment, Tunnel arch deformation allowance C1Specially 480mm, tunnel abutment wall deformation allowance C2=250mm.
In the present embodiment, when the extrusion pressing type large deformation grade of current section country rock of constructing is without large deformation, tunnel arch Portion deformation allowance C1=50mm~150mm;When the extrusion pressing type large deformation grade of current section country rock of constructing is slight big change During shape, tunnel arch deformation allowance C1=150mm~250mm.
Also, when the extrusion pressing type large deformation grade of current section country rock of constructing is without large deformation, tunnel abutment wall is reserved Deflection C2=30mm~80mm;When the extrusion pressing type large deformation grade of current section country rock of constructing is slight large deformation, tunnel Hole abutment wall deformation allowance C2=80mm~140mm.
, can according to specific needs, to tunnel arch deformation allowance C during practice of construction1With tunnel abutment wall deformation allowance C2 Value size adjust accordingly.
In the present embodiment, the deformation allowance of current section of constructing determined by basis in step 4, and indulged along tunnel When carrying out excavation construction to current section of constructing from the front to the back to bearing of trend, according to identified tunnel arch prearrangement of deformation amount Measure C1With tunnel abutment wall deformation allowance C2, excavation construction is carried out to current section of constructing from the front to the back.Also, due to tunnel Deformation allowance is the pre- allowance for suitably expanding design excavation line work.Thus, excavation construction is carried out to current section of constructing When, according to identified tunnel arch deformation allowance C1With tunnel abutment wall deformation allowance C2, to the tunnel arch being pre-designed Abutment wall excavation contour line outwards expands respectively at left and right sides of excavation contour line and tunnel.
In the present embodiment, to rock mass strength Rb and maximum crustal stress σmaxTested, test draws Rb and σmaxUnit The all same and unit of the two is MPa.
In the present embodiment, the shaped steel that profile steel frame described in step 4 includes carrying out the arch wall of the Tunnel supporting encircles Frame;Spacing between profile steel frame described in front and rear adjacent two Pin is 0.4m~0.8m, and the profile steel frame is to be bent by H profile steel The steelframe of formation;
Grid steel frame described in step 4 includes the grillage 16-2 that supporting is carried out to the arch wall of the Tunnel;It is front and rear Spacing between grid steel frame described in adjacent two Pin is 0.4m~0.6m;The shape and grillage of the shaped steel set arch 16-3 16-2 shape, and shaped steel set arch 16-3 is supported on the inside of grillage 16-2 described in a Pin described in per Pin;
When being constructed in step 4 to the grid steel frame with set arch combined supporting scheme, along tunnel Longitudinal extending direction From the front to the back in the Tunnel Nei Zhili grillages 16-2;And during carrying out Zhi Li to grillage 16-2, along tunnel Longitudinal extending direction covers arch 16-3 in the Tunnel Nei Zhili shaped steel from the front to the back;Also, shaped steel set arch 16-3 described in per Pin Zhi Li is carried out after grillage 16-2 branch on its inside stands completion 7 days.
In the present embodiment, the spacing between profile steel frame described in front and rear adjacent two Pin is 0.6m, described in front and rear adjacent two Pin Spacing between grid steel frame is 0.5m.Also, the H profile steel is H175 shaped steel.The grid steel frame is by a diameter of Φ 25mm Steel bar meter form.
Using country rock contact and the method for the test of steelframe internal stress and comparative analysis, to profile steel frame prop The supporting effect of system, grid steel frame support system and grid steel frame and set arch Composite Supporting System is analyzed, and is drawn:Firstth, In high ground stress soft rock stress tunnel support, profile steel frame support system is stronger to the effect of contraction of sedimentation and horizontal displacement, especially Initial stage is set up in supporting, its Deformation control is preferable.But elapse over time, the deformation of profile steel frame support system sets up two in supporting Still without obvious convergent tendency (before being performed to two linings) after individual month, and during step liter be repeatedly presented rise trend.Correspondingly, prop up It is larger that protection structure bears pressure from surrounding rock, and steelframe internal stress is larger;After secondary lining applies, surrouding rock deformation is still continuing, Two lining structures will also undertake part pressure from surrounding rock.Secondth, grid steel frame support system belongs to flexible support system, and its initial stage is propping up The accumulative maximum of arch deformation reaches 350mm after shield sets up 7d, and supporting deformation is obvious and quickly grows, and can preferably discharge highland should Surrouding rock stress and deformation under the conditions of power, its structural internal force and deformation will be sharply increased and can not restrained.3rd, grid steel frame supporting Shaped steel set arch 16-3 is set up after setting up 7d, using the rigid protection as later stage resistance to deformation, it deforms tense curve and presented substantially Convergent tendency.Contact actual measurement maximum is located at vault between section country rock-preliminary bracing, meets the tension of steel, resists The ultimate strength requirement of pressure, thus, grid steel frame has efficiently controlled deformation with set arch Composite Supporting System, ensure that tunnel knot Structure safety.
In the present embodiment, profile steel frame described in step 4 is that the loopful shaped steel frame of supporting, institute are carried out to the Tunnel State the tunnel bottom shape steel bracket that profile steel frame also includes carrying out the bottom of the Tunnel supporting, the tunnel bottom shaped steel The both ends of support are fastenedly connected with two arch springings of the shaped steel arch respectively;
Grid steel frame described in step 4 is also located at shaped steel described in more Pin respectively with set arch Composite Supporting System including multiple Tunnel bottom the steelframe 16-7, the tunnel bottom steelframe 16- of bottom progress supporting immediately below set arch 3 and to the Tunnel Two arch springings that 7 both ends cover arch 16-3 with shaped steel respectively are fastenedly connected;Per shaped steel set arch 16-3 described in Pin with positioned at it just The tunnel bottom steelframe 16-7 compositions of lower section carry out the loopful shaped steel frame of supporting to the Tunnel.In the present embodiment, the tunnel Road bottom steel frame 16-7 is shaped steel frame.
Also, profile steel frame support system described in step 4 also includes the first concrete spraying support structure;To described When profile steel frame support system is constructed, along tunnel Longitudinal extending direction from the front to the back in type described in the Tunnel Nei Zhili Steel steelframe;And during carrying out Zhi Li to the profile steel frame, sprayed from the front to the back to described first along tunnel Longitudinal extending direction Concrete supporting structure is penetrated to be constructed;The first concrete spraying support structure is included by being injected in the Tunnel inwall On the first concrete ejection layer for being formed of concrete, and profile steel frame described in more Pin is respectively positioned on the first concrete ejection layer Outside;
Shaped steel set arch 16-3 is supported on the inside of grid steel frame described in a Pin described in every Pin in step 4;The grid steel frame Also include the second concrete spraying support structure 5 with set arch Composite Supporting System;To the grid steel frame and set arch combined supporting When system is constructed, along tunnel Longitudinal extending direction from the front to the back in grid steel frame and shaped steel described in the Tunnel Nei Zhili Set encircles 16-3, and shaped steel set arch 3 described in every Pin carries out Zhi Li after grillage 16-2 branch on its inside stands completion 7 days; And during being stood to the grid steel frame and shaped steel set arch 3, sprayed from the front to the back to described second along tunnel Longitudinal extending direction Concrete supporting structure is penetrated to be constructed;The second concrete spraying support structure is included by being injected in the Tunnel inwall On the second concrete ejection layer 16-5 for being formed of concrete, and grid steel frame described in more Pin is both secured to the second concrete ejection In layer 16-5, shaped steel set arch 16-3 is respectively positioned on the inner side of the second concrete ejection layer 5 described in more Pin.
During practice of construction, the thickness of the second concrete ejection layer 16-5 is 28cm~32cm;Front and rear adjacent two Pin institutes It is 0.6m to state the spacing between profile steel frame, and the spacing between grid steel frame described in front and rear adjacent two Pin is 0.5m, and front and rear phase Spacing between neighbour shaped steel set arch 16-3 described in two Pin is 1m;Shaped steel set 3 bow member to be bent to form by I-steel of arch.Cause And M=2.
In the present embodiment, the thickness of the second concrete ejection layer 16-5 is 30cm.
In the present embodiment, when carrying out preliminary bracing to the high ground stress soft rock stress tunnel, the profile steel frame support system Also include the first longitudinal direction connection reinforcing bar that multiple tracks is attached to profile steel frame described in more Pin, first longitudinal direction described in multiple tracks connects steel Muscle is laid along tunnel Longitudinal extending direction, and arch of the first longitudinal direction connection reinforcing bar along current section of constructing described in multiple tracks Wall excavation contour line is laid from left to right;The first concrete spraying support structure is using concrete spraying method pair The Tunnel carries out tunneling boring and sprays the concrete ejection layer to be formed, first longitudinal direction described in profile steel frame described in more Pin and multiple tracks Connection reinforcing bar is both secured in the first concrete spraying support structure;
The grid steel frame also includes the 3rd concrete spraying support structure and multiple tracks to more with set arch Composite Supporting System Shaped steel set arch 16-3 connects reinforcing bar 16-6 with multiple tunnel bottom steelframe 16-7 second longitudinal directions being attached described in Pin, more Second longitudinal direction connection reinforcing bar 16-6 is laid along tunnel Longitudinal extending direction described in road, and second longitudinal direction described in multiple tracks connects Excavation contour lines of the reinforcing bar 16-6 along current constructed section is laid from left to right;The second concrete spraying support knot Structure 16-5 and the 3rd concrete spraying support structure are that the Tunnel is broken entirely using concrete spraying method The concrete ejection layer to be formed is sprayed in face, shaped steel set arch 16-3, multiple tunnel bottom steelframe 16-7 and multiple tracks described in more Pin The second longitudinal direction connection reinforcing bar 16-6 is both secured in the 3rd concrete spraying support structure.
Also, when current section of constructing is not high ground stress soft rock stress tunnel, by the first concrete spraying support structure Bolt-mesh-spurting supporting structure is replaced with the second concrete spraying support structure.
As shown in the above, for high ground stress soft rock stress tunnel, under the conditions of high ground stress soft rock stress extrusion pressing type large deformation, Effect of the anchor pole (also referred to as system anchor bolt) to control weak surrounding rock deformation be not it is obvious that and anchor pole axle power very little, only account for 2% effect of steel ultimate strength;Anchor pole is in high ground stress soft rock stress extrusion pressing type large deformation tunnel to the work of its structural stability With little.Also, according to site operation situation, anchor pole, which often circulates to apply, at least needs 2h, preliminary bracing often circulate complete it is total when Between need about 16h;If cancelling anchor bolt construction, country rock can be closed by gunite concrete in time, moreover it is possible to greatly shorten the duration.Meanwhile When in high ground stress soft rock stress tunnel, partial excavation method is constructed, because construction space is narrow and small, often anchor pole difficulty when arch performs It is larger, it can not radially apply, be generally near horizontality, design requirement can not be met.Applied in addition, system anchor bolt price accounts for tunnel 10.6% or so of work cost, engineering cost can be reduced if system anchor bolt is cancelled.
In the present embodiment, the longitudinal reinforcement structure is also referred to as steel waistband, can improve the general stability of support system, prevents Only linear deformation.
During actual processing, the profile steel frame and the grid steel frame are spliced by multiple steelframe sections, Duo Gesuo Excavation contour line of the steelframe section along the Tunnel is stated to be laid from left to right.
Also, stitching portion in the profile steel frame or the grid steel frame between the two neighboring steelframe section, Vault laid respectively with left and right sides haunch together with the longitudinal reinforcement beam.In the present embodiment, the longitudinal reinforcement beam is I18 types Steel.
In the present embodiment, in order to ensure tunnel clearance, huge deformation pressure is resisted, the secondary lining of high-ground stress section uses Reinforced concrete structure, concrete thickness 55cm.For large deformation surrounding rock tunnel, deflection is big, and convergence rate is slow, reaches far away To code requirement convergent deformation speed when preliminary bracing just unstable failure.Therefore, with reference to deformation monitoring law-analysing, really It is most important for large deformation surrounding rock tunnel that fixed rational secondary lining applies opportunity.
Also, the construction speed of the secondary lining allows secondary lining to bear partial deformation apart from face 35m~40m Pressure, effectively control the development of large deformation.
In the present embodiment, the left and right sides arch springing bottom of shaped steel arch and the grillage 16-2 is provided with one and is in The supporting steel plate of horizontal layout and the left and right sides of the two are locked pin anchor tubes by more and anchored.
During actual processing, the size of the supporting steel plate is 40cm × 50cm × 2cm, and the supporting steel plate causes shaped steel arch Big arch springing is formed with grillage 16-2, base bearing capacity can be effectively increased, reduces the sedimentation of steelframe.
In this city embodiment, to prevent the bottomed unstability of steelframe, the vault of shaped steel arch and the grillage 16-2 or so Both sides set one group of a diameter of Φ 42mm lock pin anchor tube slip casting anchoring respectively, lock a length of 6m of pin anchor tube;For in preventing, leave office When rank is excavated, upper, middle step steelframe sedimentation mutation, upper, middle bench floor both sides are respectively using 4 a diameter of Φ 42mm ductule Lock pin is carried out, lock pin anchor tube is reliably connected with steelframe.The lock pin anchor tube sets angle control at tiltedly lower 30 °~45 °.
In the present embodiment, there is the empty slag that a layer thickness is 20cm~30cm the bottom of Tunnel described in step 4, by During carrying out excavation construction to current section of constructing before backward, along tunnel Longitudinal extending direction from the front to the back to the tunnel The empty slag of hole bottom is cleared up, and the concrete that a layer thickness is 20cm~30cm is laid in the Tunnel bottom, Form concrete cushion;The tunnel bottom steelframe 7 is located on the concrete cushion.
During practice of construction, manual cleaning is carried out to the empty slag, changes and fills out C30 concrete, substrate changes that to fill out longitudinal length little In 3m, the left and right sides is staggered construction.Change and complete into rear progress inverted arch preliminary bracing steelframe (i.e. tunnel bottom steelframe 7) construction, protect Tunnel bottom is demonstrate,proved without empty slag, reduces tunnel subsidence, deformation.
In the present embodiment, the first concrete ejection layer, the second concrete ejection layer 16-5 and the 3rd concrete ejection Layer uses wet shot method, with reference to the characteristics of soft rock high-ground stress tunnel, to improve the early strength of gunite concrete, optimization spray Concrete mix is penetrated, by field test, realizes and the compression strength of institute's gunite concrete is reached into more than 5MPa and 8 in 3 hours Hour reaches more than 10MPa.
In the present embodiment, the inclined shaft auxiliary construction outlet section 2-4 gushes a little 3 tunnel construction sections to be dashed forward in the presence of one, described oblique Well auxiliary construction outlet section 2-4 intersects with roundabout flat lead, the roundabout flat friendship led between inclined shaft auxiliary construction outlet section 2-4 Prong leads intersection to be flat, and prominent gush a little 3 leads the distance between intersection and be not more than 200m with described put down;Roundabout put down is led 5 and another positioned at inclined shaft auxiliary construction outlet section 2-4 are led including the inlet side positioned at inclined shaft auxiliary construction outlet section 2-4 sides is flat The outlet side of side is flat to lead 6, the inlet side is flat lead 5 and flat lead of outlet side communicated inside 6 and junction therebetween is described It is flat to lead intersection;The inlet side is flat to lead 5 and leads 6 rear sides positioned at outlet side is flat, the inlet side is flat lead 5 for it is trapezoidal and its by with just Hole 2 is in the middle part pilot tunnel 5-1 of parallel laying and the front side pilot tunnel being connected between middle part pilot tunnel 5-1 rear and front ends and main tunnel 2 5-2 and rear side pilot tunnel 5-3, the outlet side is flat to lead 6 by being led with main tunnel 2 in the first pilot tunnel 6-1 of parallel laying and positioned at first The second pilot tunnel 6-2, the second pilot tunnel 6-2 and front side pilot tunnel 5-2 on rear side of the 6-1 of hole is laid on the same line;The inclined shaft Auxiliary construction outlet section 2-4 sides are provided with drain cavern 4, and the drain cavern 4 intersects and two with inclined shaft auxiliary construction outlet section 2-4 Intersection between person is drain cavern intersection, intersecting between the first pilot tunnel 6-1 and inclined shaft auxiliary construction outlet section 2-4 Mouth is pilot tunnel intersection;The inclined shaft intersection, the drain cavern intersection, the pilot tunnel intersection, prominent gush a little 3 and described are put down Lead Longitudinal extending direction of the intersection along main tunnel 2 to be laid from the front to the back, the inclined shaft auxiliary construction outlet section 2-4 is with described Inclined shaft intersection, the drain cavern intersection, the pilot tunnel intersection, it is prominent gush a little 3 and the flat intersection of leading be boundary by backward Before be divided into the first main tunnel section 2-41, the second main tunnel section 2-42, the 3rd main tunnel section 2-43, the 4th main tunnel section 2-44 and the 5th main tunnel section 2-45。
Wherein, during carrying out excavation construction to entrance section of tunnel 2-1, carried out using inlet side ventilation blower 7 forced logical Wind, and the first ventilation duct 10-1 excavated in entrance section of tunnel 2-1 by being laid in the Tunnel of completion is blown;Institute Inlet side ventilation blower 7 is stated to be located on the outside of the import of main tunnel 2.
During carrying out excavation construction to tunnel outlet section 2-2, forced ventilation is carried out using outlet side ventilation blower 8, and The the second ventilation duct 10-2 excavated by being laid in tunnel outlet section 2-2 in the Tunnel of completion is blown;It is described go out Mouth side ventilation blower 8 is on the outside of the outlet of main tunnel 2.
During carrying out excavation construction to tunnel slope 1, carried out using the first ventilation blower 9-1 and/or the second ventilation blower 9-2 Forced ventilation, and the third venting pipe 10-3 by being laid in the Tunnel that completion has been excavated in tunnel slope 1 and/or Four ventilation duct 10-4 are blown, and the air inlet of the third venting pipe 10-3 is connected with the first ventilation blower 9-1 air outlet, and 4th ventilation duct 10-4 air inlet is connected with the second ventilation blower 9-2 air outlet;The ventilations of the first ventilation blower 9-1 and second Machine 9-2 is respectively positioned on the outside of the hole of tunnel slope 1.
During carrying out excavation construction to inclined shaft auxiliary construction inducer 2-3, carried out using the first ventilation blower 9-1 forced Ventilation, and the 3rd in the Tunnel of completion has been excavated by being laid in tunnel slope 1 and inclined shaft auxiliary construction inducer 2-3 Ventilation duct 10-3 is blown.
When carrying out excavation construction to inclined shaft auxiliary construction outlet section 2-4, process is as follows:
Step 101, the first main tunnel section excavation construction:Excavation construction is carried out to the first main tunnel section 2-41 from the front to the back, excavated Forced ventilation is carried out using the second ventilation blower 9-2 in work progress, and by being laid in the main tunnel section 2- of tunnel slope 1 and first The 4th ventilation duct 10-4 excavated in 41 in the Tunnel of completion is blown;
Step 102, the construction of the first relay air compartment:After the completion for the treatment of the first main tunnel section 2-41 excavation constructions, in the drain cavern Rear side the first relay air compartment 11 of construction of intersection, the first relay air compartment 11 is built with the first relay air blower 11-1, second Inside relay air blower 11-2 and the 3rd relay air blower 11-3, the 4th ventilation duct 10-4 air outlet and the first relay air compartment 11 Communicate;
Step 103, the second main tunnel section and drain cavern excavation construction:After the completion of the first relay air compartment 11 is constructed, by rear Excavation construction is carried out to the second main tunnel section 2-42 forward, the second ventilation blower 9-2 and the first relay wind are used during excavation construction Machine 11-1 or the second relay air blower 11-2 carries out forced ventilation, and by being laid in the main tunnel section 2-41 of tunnel slope 1 and first The 4th interior ventilation duct 10-4 and the 5th ventilation duct 10- being laid in the Tunnel that completion has been excavated in the second main tunnel section 2-42 5 or the 7th ventilation duct 10-7 blown;The air-supply of the air inlet and the first relay air blower 11-1 of the 5th ventilation duct 10-5 Mouth connection, the air inlet of the 7th ventilation duct 10-7 are connected with the second relay air blower 11-2 air outlet;
Meanwhile excavation construction is carried out to drain cavern 4 from the front to the back, during excavation construction using the second ventilation blower 9-2 and 3rd relay air blower 11-3 carries out forced ventilation, and the by being laid in the main tunnel section 2-41 of tunnel slope 1 and first the 4th Ventilation duct 10-4 and the 6th ventilation duct 10-6 being laid in the Tunnel that completion has been excavated in drain cavern 4 are blown;It is described 6th ventilation duct 10-6 air inlet is connected with the 3rd relay air blower 11-3 air outlet;
Step 104, the 3rd main tunnel section and inlet side are flat to lead excavation construction:The 3rd main tunnel section 2-43 is opened from the front to the back Excavation construction, forced ventilation is carried out using the second ventilation blower 9-2 and the second relay air blower 11-2 during excavation construction, and passed through The 4th ventilation duct 10-4 being laid in the main tunnel section 2-41 of tunnel slope 1 and first and be laid in the second main tunnel section 2-42 Seven ventilation duct 10-7 are blown;The air inlet of the 7th ventilation duct 10-7 and the second relay air blower 11-2 air outlet connect Connect;
Meanwhile inlet side is put down lead 5 carry out excavation constructions from the front to the back, use the second ventilation blower 9- during excavation construction 2 and first relay air blower 11-1 carry out forced ventilation, and the by being laid in the main tunnel section 2-41 of tunnel slope 1 and first Four ventilation duct 10-4 and be laid in the second main tunnel section 2-42 and inlet side it is flat lead in the Tunnel that completion has been excavated in 5 it is the 5th logical Airduct 10-5 is blown;
Step 105, outlet side are flat to lead and the 5th main tunnel section rear end section excavation construction:The inlet side is flat to lead 5 excavations and applies It is flat to outlet side from the front to the back to lead 6 carry out excavation constructions after the completion of work, during excavation construction using the second ventilation blower 9-2 and Second relay air blower 11-2 carries out forced ventilation, and the by being laid in the main tunnel section 2-41 of tunnel slope 1 and first the 4th Ventilation duct 10-4 and be laid in the second main tunnel section 2-42, inlet side it is flat lead 5 with outlet side is flat leads the Tunnel that completion has been excavated in 6 The 7th interior ventilation duct 10-7 is blown;
The 5th main tunnel section 2-45 points are rear end section and the front side section on front side of the rear end section;Also, The inlet side is flat lead 5 excavation constructions after the completion of, excavation construction, excavation construction process are carried out to the rear end section from the front to the back It is middle that forced ventilation is carried out using the second ventilation blower 9-2 and the first relay air blower 11-1, and by being laid in tunnel slope 1 and the The 4th ventilation duct 10-4 in one main tunnel section 2-41 and be laid in the second main tunnel section 2-42, inlet side it is flat lead 5 with it is described after end segment The 5th ventilation duct 10-5 that Duan Zhongyi is excavated in the Tunnel completed is blown;
Step 106, the construction of the second relay air compartment:After the completion for the treatment of rear end section excavation construction, end segment section in the rear The second relay air compartment 12 of interior construction, the second relay air compartment 12 is built with the 4th relay air blower 12-1 and the 5th relay air blower 12-2, the 5th ventilation duct 10-5 air outlet inside the second relay air compartment 12 with communicating;The second relay air compartment 12 In the flat front side for leading intersection;The air outlet of the 5th ventilation duct 10-5 inside the second relay air compartment 12 with communicating;
Section and the 4th main tunnel section excavation construction on front side of step 107, the 5th main tunnel section:The second relay air compartment 12 is constructed After the completion of, excavation construction is carried out to the front side section from the front to the back, using the second ventilation blower 9-2, the during excavation construction One relay air blower 11-1 and the 4th relay air blower 12-1 carries out forced ventilation, and by being laid in tunnel slope 1 and first just The 4th ventilation duct 10-4 in the section 2-41 of hole, be laid in the second main tunnel section 2-42, inlet side it is flat lead 5 with the rear end section 5th ventilation duct 10-5 and the 8th ventilation duct 10-8 being laid in the Tunnel that completion has been excavated in the front side section are carried out Air-supply;The air inlet of the 8th ventilation duct 10-8 is connected with the 4th relay air blower 12-1 air inlet;
Meanwhile excavation construction is carried out to the 4th main tunnel section 2-44 from the front to the back, using the second ventilation during excavation construction Machine 9-2, the first relay air blower 11-1 and the 5th relay air blower 12-2 carry out forced ventilation, and by being laid in tunnel slope 1 With the 4th ventilation duct 10-4 in the first main tunnel section 2-41, be laid in that the second main tunnel section 2-42, inlet side are flat to lead 5 and the rear end The 5th ventilation duct 10-5 in section and the rear end section is laid in having excavated the tunnel of completion in the 4th main tunnel section 2-44 The 9th ventilation duct 10-9 in hole is blown;The 9th ventilation duct 10-9 air inlet and entering for the 5th relay air blower 12-2 Air port connects.
As shown in Fig. 2 when being aerated construction to constructed plateau long tunnel, first on the outside of the inlet and outlet of main tunnel 2 Inlet side ventilation blower 7 and outlet side ventilation blower 8 are installed respectively, and two inclined shaft holes are installed on the outside of the hole of tunnel slope 1 Ventilation blower, two inclined shaft hole ventilation blowers are respectively the first ventilation blower 9-1 and the second ventilation blower 9-2.
Wherein, entrance section of tunnel 2-1 and tunnel outlet section 2-2 ventilation Construction State refers to hollow in Fig. 2, Fig. 2 and Fig. 7 Arrow represents fresh air flow direction, and filled arrows represent foul atmosphere flow direction.
During practice of construction, because hydrogeology generation great change, the especially export direction such as multiple gushing water, prominent stone are once multiple Fairly large gushing water thumping stone event, which occurs, causes construction to be obstructed, and construction method as shown in Figure 2 need to be adjusted, and increases Open it is described it is roundabout it is flat lead, so as to increased it is multiple need airway, it is multiple it is described to need airway be dead face, and often Individual dead face is big apart from hole (being specifically the hole of tunnel slope 1) distance, fork branch wind loss, thus to accomplish Both energy-conserving and environment-protective, can not influence the normal construction at major long tunnel scene, and ventilation difficulty of construction is larger.Ventilation construction mainly has two Hang-up:First, high altitude anoxia internal combustion apparatus efficiency declines, vehicle fleet size increase;Mechanical fuel combustion is insufficient, emission Middle pernicious gas content increases, and adds environmental pollution, then increase ventilation difficulty;It is second, long under plateau, low pressure, anaerobic environment Tunnel Du Touduo tunnels are divulged information over long distances, and ventilation difficulty increases, and ventilation equipment performance indications reduce, and are increased using number of devices, Power increases.
In the present embodiment, the inlet side is flat to lead 5 left sides for being located at main tunnel 2.
In the present embodiment, the drain cavern 4 be high-order drain cavern and its flat with outlet side lead 6 and be located at the same side.
In the present embodiment, the tunnel outlet section 2-2 sides are additionally provided with that outlet section is flat to lead, the outlet section is flat lead for Tunnel outlet section 2-2 in parallel laying pilot tunnel and its be located along the same line with the first pilot tunnel 6-1;
During carrying out excavation construction to tunnel outlet section 2-2, synchronous put down from the front to the back to the outlet section is led out Excavation construction, carried out using the third venting machine being laid on the outside of the flat hole led of the outlet section during excavation construction forced Ventilation, and the tenth ventilation duct excavated in being led by being laid in that the outlet section is flat in the Tunnel of completion is blown.
In the present embodiment, the inlet side ventilation blower 7, outlet side ventilation blower 8, the first ventilation blower 9-1, the second ventilation blower 9- 2nd, the first relay air blower 11-1, the second relay air blower 11-2, the 3rd relay air blower 11-3, the 4th relay air blower 12-1 and the 5th connect Power blower fan 12-2 is axial fan, the air inlet of the first ventilation duct 10-1 and the air outlet of inlet side ventilation blower 7 Connection, the air inlet of the second ventilation duct 10-2 are connected with the air outlet of outlet side ventilation blower 8.
In the present embodiment, before carrying out excavation construction to inclined shaft auxiliary construction outlet section 2-4, to inclined shaft auxiliary construction just first Hole section, described roundabout flat lead, roundabout flat lead auxiliary main tunnel inducer, roundabout flat lead auxiliary main tunnel outlet section and the drain cavern 4 Ventilation length be respectively calculated, wherein the inclined shaft auxiliary construction main tunnel section is by the first main tunnel section 2-41, the second main tunnel section 2-42 and the 3rd main tunnel section 2-43 is formed by connecting and its length of divulging information is the main tunnel section 2-41 of tunnel slope 1 and first, the second main tunnel Section 2-42 and the 3rd main tunnel section 2-43 length sum, it is described it is roundabout it is flat lead by inlet side it is flat lead 5 and outlet side it is flat lead 6 connections and Into and its length of divulging information be tunnel slope 1 and inlet side it is flat lead 5 and outlet side it is flat lead 6 length sum, it is described it is roundabout it is flat lead it is auxiliary Help main tunnel inducer be the 4th main tunnel section 2-44 and its divulge information length be tunnel slope 1, the first main tunnel section 2-41, the second main tunnel section 2-42, inlet side be flat lead 5 and the 4th main tunnel section 2-44 length sum, the roundabout flat auxiliary main tunnel outlet section of leading is the 5th just Hole section 2-45 and its length of divulging information, which are that tunnel slope 1, the first main tunnel section 2-41, the second main tunnel section 2-42, inlet side are flat, leads 5 and the Five main tunnel section 2-45 length sum, the ventilation length of the drain cavern 4 is tunnel slope 1, the first main tunnel section 2-41 and sluicing The length sum in hole 4.
Also, before carrying out excavation construction to inclined shaft auxiliary construction outlet section 2-4, also need to the inclined shaft auxiliary construction just Hole section, described roundabout flat lead, described roundabout flat lead auxiliary main tunnel inducer, the roundabout flat auxiliary main tunnel outlet section and described of leading The ventilation volume of drain cavern 4 is calculated;The third venting pipe 10-3, the 4th ventilation duct 10-4, the 5th ventilation duct 10-5, Six ventilation duct 10-6, the 7th ventilation duct 10-7, the 8th ventilation duct 10-8 and the 9th ventilation duct 10-9 are flexible duct, and to oblique Before well auxiliary construction outlet section 2-4 carries out excavation construction, also need to calculate the blast of the flexible duct.
During practice of construction, the computational methods of the computational methods of the ventilation volume and the blast to the flexible duct, The conventional computational methods used for tunnel ventilation construction.
According to《Railway Tunnel Construction Technology guide》Operating environment standard, with reference to on-site actual situations, ventilation Four kinds of air volume meter point counting, i.e., by allowing minimum wind speed required airflow to calculate face air volume Q1 in hole, needed by most numbers in hole Wind Coverage Calculation face air volume Q2, by blasting fume required airflow evaluation work face air quantity Q3 is excluded, needed by engine exhaust gas in hole is excluded Total ventilation Q4 of Wind Coverage Calculation dilution internal combustion apparatus discharge waste gas, it is the most maximum logical to choose maximum in Q1, Q2, Q3 and Q4 Air quantity.Consider that plateau tunnel reduces with the increase of height above sea level, atmospheric pressure, the gas molecula number in unit volume is reduced, air Thin, rate and density such as reduce at the influence factor to air again, carry out rate amendment again to Maximum Ventilatory Volume, are specifically in rate amendment again Coefficient, it is described
In the present embodiment, the inclined shaft auxiliary construction main tunnel section, it is described it is roundabout it is flat lead, the roundabout flat auxiliary main tunnel of leading is entered Mouth section, the roundabout flat auxiliary main tunnel outlet section and the drain cavern 4 of leading are to need airway and its ventilation volume calculating side Method all same;
To when needing the ventilation volume in airway to calculate any one described, comprising the following steps:
Step 2011, face air volume Q1 are calculated:The face air volume Q1 for needing airway is calculated, it is described Face air volume Q1 is by the ventilation for allowing minimum wind speed to be calculated in the hole for needing airway;
Step 2012, face air volume Q2 are calculated:The face air volume Q2 for needing airway is calculated, it is described Face air volume Q2 is by the required airflow that most numbers are calculated in hole;
Step 2013, face air volume Q3 are calculated:The face air volume Q3 for needing airway is calculated, it is described Face air volume Q3 is by the required airflow that engine exhaust gas is calculated in exclusion hole;
Step 2014, face air volume Q4 are calculated:The face air volume Q4 for needing airway is calculated, it is described Face air volume Q4 is the total ventilation being calculated by dilution internal combustion apparatus discharge waste gas;
Step 2015, selection maximum is most used as maximum ventilation from face air volume Q1, Q2, Q3 and the Q4 being calculated Amount;
Step 2016, rate amendment again is carried out to the Maximum Ventilatory Volume drawn in step 2015.
The flowing resistance loss of the flexible duct includes friction loss and local resistance loss two parts.Wherein, When calculating friction loss, pipeline air quantity should take the geometrical mean of ventilation blower and face air volume.Herein, by local resistance Loss is reduced to the 12% of friction loss.Full design pressure >=1000Pa of used axial fan.
Wherein, axial fan, also referred to as axial flow blower.
In the present embodiment, a diameter of Φ 1.8m of the flexible duct, the flexible duct is made up of PVC enhancing plastic cloths Airduct, its surface smoothness is high, and flowing frictional resistance coefficient is small, high-strength, low-resistance.Laying is flat, straight, suitable, particularly by diverging Mouth enters the pipeline in each tunnel, and smoothness is hung at turning, does not turn dead angle.Divide time point by construction content difference during field operation Duan Yici substitutes, and has both reached energy-conserving and environment-protective, has reduced the purpose leaked out, in turn ensure that normal construction is unaffected.
In the present embodiment, the inclined shaft auxiliary construction main tunnel section, it is described it is roundabout it is flat lead, the roundabout flat auxiliary main tunnel of leading is entered Mouth section, the roundabout flat auxiliary main tunnel outlet section and the drain cavern 4 of leading are to need airway;Inclined shaft auxiliary construction is exported Before section 2-4 carries out excavation construction, according to five the be calculated ventilation volumes for needing airway and ventilation length, and With reference to the blast of the flexible duct, the inlet side ventilation blower 7, outlet side ventilation blower 8, the first ventilation blower 9-1, second are led to Blower fan 9-2, the first relay air blower 11-1, the second relay air blower 11-2, the 3rd relay air blower 11-3, the 4th relay air blower 12-1 and The quantity of axial fan and the power of each axial fan are determined employed in 5th relay air blower 12-2.
As shown in fig. 7, relay air feed in airway is needed to each by the first relay air compartment 11.According to the first relay wind Room 11 needs wind supply quantity, from hole outside (i.e. the hole of tunnel slope 1) be to the wind supply quantity that needs of the air feed of the first relay air compartment 11 11944m3/ min, air loss 7993Pa, thus set on the outside of the hole of tunnel slope 1 two power be 2 × 200kw axial flow blowers, maximum wind pressure 10648Pa;Requirement is met to face air feed by relay outside from hole.Thus, First ventilation blower 9-1 and the second ventilation blower 9-2 power are 2 × 200Kw, it is possible to provide maximum quantity of wind 12584m3/min。
For the inclined shaft auxiliary construction main tunnel section, specifically the second main tunnel section 2-42 and the 3rd main tunnel section 2-43 is carried out It is 370m away from face maximum ventilation distance by the air feed of the first relay air compartment 11 during ventilation construction, needs the wind supply quantity to be 4349m3/ min, air loss 1000Pa.The axle stream wind that 1 power is 2 × 110kw is laid in the first relay air compartment 11 Machine, blower fan can provide maximum quantity of wind 4682m3/ min > 4349m3/min;Maximum wind pressure 4069Pa > 1000Pa, meet to use and want Ask.Thus, the second relay air blower 11-2 includes the axial flow blower that 1 power is 2 × 110kw.
For it is described it is roundabout it is flat lead auxiliary main tunnel inducer, the second relay air compartment 12 away from the first relay air compartment 11 away from From for 600m, and the wind supply quantity that needs between the second relay air compartment 12 and the first relay air compartment 11 is 4514m3/ min, blast damage Lose as 4004Pa.Thus, it is 2 × 110kw axial flow blowers (i.e. the first relay wind to lay 1 power in the first relay air compartment 11 Machine 11-1 includes the axial flow blower that 1 power is 2 × 110kw), blower fan can provide maximum quantity of wind 4682m3/ min, most strong wind Press as 4069Pa, meet requirement.Meanwhile second the ventilation distance (length of also referred to as divulging information) of relay air compartment 12 be 134m, need Wind supply quantity is 4192m3/ min, air loss 845Pa.Thus, it is 2 × 110kw to lay 1 power in the second relay air compartment 12 Axial flow blower, from hole outside by relay to face air feed, meet requirement, i.e. the 5th relay air blower 12-2 includes 1 Power is 2 × 110kw axial flow blower.
Main tunnel outlet section is aided in for roundabout flat lead, the ventilation distance of the second relay air compartment 12 is 295m, needs air feed Measure as 4298m3/ min, air loss 1907Pa.Thus, it is 2 × 110kw to lay 1 power in the second relay air compartment 12 Axial flow blower, from hole outside by relay to face air feed, meet requirement, i.e. the 4th relay air blower 12-1 includes 1 Power is 2 × 110kw axial flow blower.
Led for roundabout put down, the ventilation distance (length of also referred to as divulging information) of the first relay air compartment 11 is 900m, is needed Wind supply quantity is 2569m3/ min, air loss 1881Pa.Thus, laid in the first relay air compartment 11 1 power be 2 × 110Kw axial flow blowers, i.e. the second relay air blower 11-2 include the axial flow blower that 1 power is 2 × 110kw.
For the drain cavern 4, the ventilation distance of the first relay air compartment 11 is that to need wind supply quantity be 727m3/ min, wind It is 2452Pa that crushing, which loses,.Thus, the axial flow blower that 1 power is 2 × 55kw is laid in the first relay air compartment 11, blower fan can carry It is 1399m for maximum quantity of wind3/ min, maximum wind pressure 2533Pa.Thus, the 3rd relay air blower 11-3 includes 1 power For 2 × 55kw axial flow blower.
In the present embodiment, to improve air circulation circuit in hole, accelerate air circulation effect, the inclined shaft intersection is set It is equipped with jet blower.
Also, the power of the jet blower is 55kw.
During actual use, second relay air compartment 12 is equal described in the first relay air compartment 11 described in step 102 and step 106 For the containment housing being welded by steel plate.
Also, the first relay air compartment 11 and the second relay air compartment 12 are in parallel laying with ventilation shaft.Pass through One relay air compartment 11 and the second relay air compartment 12, realize the series connection of axial fan, realize blower fan multi-stage relay, by hole outside (i.e. tunnel it is flat lead 1 hole) by concentrate the relay air compartment (i.e. the first relay air compartment 11 and the second relay air compartment 12) of series connection to Face air feed, meets requirement.
During actual processing, the containment housing is rectangular box body, and the length of the rectangular box body is 8m~10m, width It is 4m~5m to spend for 2m~3m and its height.
In the present embodiment, the length of the rectangular box body is 9m, width is 2.5m and its height is 4.5m, and the length Cube casing is welded by the steel plate that thickness is 2cm.
As shown in fig. 6, the through-plane between the tunnel outlet section 2-2 and the 5th main tunnel section 2-45 is the first through-plane 13, the flat through-plane led between the first pilot tunnel 6-1 of the outlet section is the second through-plane 14.
In the present embodiment, prominent gush 3 is a little generation tunnel gushing water and/or the location point of prominent mud.Also, described dash forward is gushed a little Through-plane of 3 present positions between the 3rd main tunnel section 2-43 and the 4th main tunnel section 2-44, to the prominent construction for gushing a little 3 present positions It is placed on when the 3rd main tunnel section 2-43 and the 4th main tunnel section 2-44 are penetrated and carries out, thus can effectively solves construction and be obstructed problem.Also, Tunnel ventilation demand can be met by roundabout flat lead.
It is described above, only it is presently preferred embodiments of the present invention, not the present invention is imposed any restrictions, it is every according to the present invention Any simple modification, change and the equivalent structure change that technical spirit is made to above example, still fall within skill of the present invention In the protection domain of art scheme.

Claims (9)

  1. A kind of 1. plenty water weak surrounding rock major long tunnel construction method, it is characterised in that:The length of institute's construction tunnel be more than 5km and its Excavated section is more than 50m2;Main tunnel (2) side of institute's construction tunnel is provided with tunnel slope (1);The main tunnel (2) is divided into tunnel Inducer (2-1), tunnel outlet section (2-2) and the middle part being connected between entrance section of tunnel (2-1) and tunnel outlet section (2-2) Linkage section, the tunnel slope (1) is intersected with the middle part linkage section and intersection therebetween is inclined shaft intersection, described Middle part linkage section be inclined shaft auxiliary construction section and its be divided into inclined shaft auxiliary construction inducer (2-3) by boundary of the inclined shaft intersection It is auxiliary with inclined shaft auxiliary construction outlet section (2-4), the entrance section of tunnel (2-1), inclined shaft auxiliary construction inducer (2-3), inclined shaft Construction outlet section (2-4) and Longitudinal extending direction of the tunnel outlet section (2-2) along main tunnel (2) is helped to be laid from the front to the back;
    When being constructed to institute's construction tunnel, the inlet and outlet of institute's construction tunnel go into operation simultaneously, and to entrance section of tunnel (2-1) and tunnel While road outlet section (2-2) is constructed respectively, by tunnel slope (1) respectively to inclined shaft auxiliary construction inducer (2-3) Constructed with inclined shaft auxiliary construction outlet section (2-4);The entrance section of tunnel (2-1), tunnel outlet section (2-2), inclined shaft are auxiliary Help construction inducer (2-3) and inclined shaft auxiliary construction outlet section (2-4) construction method all same, respectively multiple sections by elder generation extremely After constructed, the construction method all same of multiple sections;When being constructed to any one section, comprise the following steps:
    Step 1: advance geologic prediction:Advance geologic prediction is carried out to current section of constructing using advanced geology prediction system, And according to advance geologic prediction result, judge that the front of tunnel heading of current section of constructing whether there is chip stream stratum (15- 8):When judging to show that the front of tunnel heading has chip stream stratum (15-8), into step 2;Otherwise, into step 3;
    Step 2: stability control is constructed:First on rear side of the face of current section of constructing, construction one is to the face The block wall (15-5) blocked;Afterwards, advance support is carried out to current section of constructing, and installed for reducing chip stream The advance water discharge passage of the head pressure on stratum (15-8);The advance water discharge passage is gradually inclined upwardly from the front to the back, described The front end of advance water discharge passage stretches to chip stream stratum (15-8) and its rear end and is located on rear side of the face;
    Step 3: preliminary bracing scheme determines:To the maximum inside the rock mass strength Rb and country rock of current section country rock of constructing Crustal stress σmaxTested respectively, and the strength-stress ratio of current section country rock of constructing is calculatedFurther according to calculating The strength-stress ratio drawnThe preliminary bracing scheme of current section of constructing is determined:WhenWhen, Used preliminary bracing scheme is grid steel frame and set arch combined supporting scheme;WhenWhen, used initial stage Supporting scheme is profile steel frame supporting scheme;
    Step 4: tunnel excavation and preliminary bracing construction:Along tunnel Longitudinal extending direction, from the front to the back to current section of constructing Carry out excavation construction;During excavation construction, according to the preliminary bracing scheme of identified current section of constructing in step 3, Preliminary bracing is carried out to excavating the Tunnel formed from the front to the back, and obtains Tunnel system (16-4);
    Wherein, when identified preliminary bracing scheme is profile steel frame supporting scheme in step 3, the tunnel initial-stage that is obtained Support system (16-4) is profile steel frame support system;The profile steel frame support system includes more Pin to be carried out to the Tunnel The profile steel frame of supporting, the structure all same of profile steel frame described in more Pin and its carried out from the front to the back along tunnel Longitudinal extending direction Lay;Profile steel frame described in more Pin is in uniformly laying;
    When in step 3 identified preliminary bracing scheme be grid steel frame with set arch combined supporting scheme when, the tunnel that is obtained Preliminary bracing system (16-4) is grid steel frame and set arch Composite Supporting System;The grid steel frame and set arch Composite Supporting System The grid steel frame of supporting is carried out to the Tunnel including more Pin and more Pin carry out the shaped steel of supporting to the arch wall of the Tunnel Set arch (16-3), the structure all same of grid steel frame described in more Pin and its carry out cloth from the front to the back along tunnel Longitudinal extending direction If shaped steel set described in more Pin encircles the structure all same of (16-3) and it is laid from the front to the back along tunnel Longitudinal extending direction; Grid steel frame described in more Pin is in uniformly laying, and shaped steel set arch (16-3) described in more Pin is in uniformly laying, front and rear adjacent two Pin institutes M times that the spacing between shaped steel set arch (16-3) is spacing between grid steel frame described in front and rear adjacent two Pin is stated, wherein M is just whole Number and M=1,2 or 3;
    Step 5: Tunnel Second Lining Construction:Preliminary bracing is carried out in step 4 to excavating the Tunnel formed from the front to the back Cheng Zhong, Second Lining Construction is carried out to the Tunnel from the front to the back along tunnel Longitudinal extending direction, and obtain construction molding Tunnel Second Lining structure;The Tunnel Second Lining structure is located on the inside of Tunnel system (16-4) and it is reinforcing bar Concrete lining;
    After carrying out advance support to current section of constructing in step 2, advance support structure is obtained;The advance support structure Barrel vault advanced support structure and per-fore pouring liquid with small pipe ruggedized construction including carrying out supporting to the arch wall of current section of constructing; The barrel vault advanced support structure includes the pipe canopy note that multiple excavation contour lines along current constructed section are laid from left to right Slurry pipe (15-3), multiple tube shed grouting pipes (15-3) be respectively positioned on same tunnel cross section and its length be 15m~ 25m, the tube shed grouting pipe (15-3) is steel pipe and its external diameter is Φ 100mm~Φ 120mm;Multiple tube shed grouting pipes (15-3) includes middle part steel pipe, a multiple left side steel being respectively positioned on the left of the tunnel center line on tunnel center line Pipe and multiple right side steel pipes being respectively positioned on the right side of the tunnel center line, multiple left side steel pipes and multiple right side steel pipes Laid in symmetrical;The per-fore pouring liquid with small pipe ruggedized construction includes multiple excavation contour lines along current constructed section by a left side To the pre-grouting pipe (15-4) of right laying, multiple pre-grouting pipes (15-4) are respectively positioned on same tunnel cross section and it Length is 6m~10m, the pre-grouting pipe (15-4) be provided with tube wall multiple injected holes steel floral tube and its external diameter be Φ 38mm~Φ 45mm;The tube shed grouting pipe (15-3) is in be laid staggeredly with pre-grouting pipe (15-4);Multiple pipe canopies The outer limb of Grouting Pipe (15-3) and multiple pre-grouting pipes (15-4) is no more than 15 °;
    The advance water discharge passage includes multiple the first advanced rows being laid in from left to right above current section arch of constructing Water pipe (15-6) and multiple the second advance water discharge pipes (15-7) being laid in from left to right above current section arch of constructing are more The individual first advance water discharge pipe (15-6) is respectively above multiple second advance water discharge pipes (15-7);Multiple described One advance water discharge pipe (15-6) and multiple second advance water discharge pipes (15-7) be from the front to the back gradually acclivitous steel The front end of pipe, multiple first advance water discharge pipes (15-6) and multiple second advance water discharge pipes (15-7) stretches to broken In bits stream stratum (15-8);The outer limb of the first advance water discharge pipe (15-6) and the second advance water discharge pipe (15-7) is 40 °~50 °, the external diameter of the first advance water discharge pipe (15-6) is Φ 100mm~Φ 120mm, the second advance water discharge pipe The external diameter of (15-7) is Φ 38mm~Φ 45mm.
  2. 2. according to the plenty water weak surrounding rock major long tunnel construction method described in claim 1, it is characterised in that:To entrance section of tunnel When each section in the tunnel portal section on front side of tunnel portal section and tunnel outlet section (2-2) on rear side of (2-1) is constructed, step , need to also be in construction waterproof heat-insulation layer on the inside of Tunnel system (16-4), institute in rapid five before Tunnel Second Lining Construction Tunnel Second Lining structure is stated to be located on the inside of the water-proof heat-insulation layer;The water-proof heat-insulation layer is located at tunnel initial-stage branch including one layer Form concrete branch sheath (17-2) on the inside of watch box system (16-4), one layer be pasted and fixed on form concrete branch sheath (17-2) It is the geotextiles (17-10) of inner side, the first splash guard (17-3) on the inside of geotextiles (17-10) of mating formation, anti-positioned at described first Warming plate (17-4) on the inside of water plate (17-3) and the second splash guard (17-5) mated formation on the inside of warming plate (17-4), described Two splash guards (17-5) bottom is carried out by multiple arch supports (17-11) laid from the front to the back along tunnel Longitudinal extending direction Support, the structure all same of multiple arch supports (17-11);The geotextiles (17-10) are pasted by adhesive fixes On the inside of form concrete branch sheath (17-2);Multiple tracks is provided with the inside of first splash guard (17-3) along the circumferential direction to lay And for the longitudinal steel wire of fix warming plate (17-4), longitudinal steel wire described in multiple tracks carries out cloth along tunnel Longitudinal extending direction And if warming plate (17-4) is pasted and fixed on the inside of the first splash guard (17-3) by the adhesive;Second splash guard (17-5) is pasted and fixed on the inside of warming plate (17-4) by the adhesive.
  3. 3. according to the plenty water weak surrounding rock major long tunnel construction method described in claim 1, it is characterised in that:By rear in step 4 During carrying out preliminary bracing to the Tunnel for excavating formation forward, also need along tunnel Longitudinal extending direction from the front to the back to tunnel Longitudinal reinforcement structure is constructed;
    The tunnel longitudinal reinforcement structure includes the longitudinal reinforcement beam that multiple tracks is laid along tunnel Longitudinal extending method, is indulged described in multiple tracks Arch wall excavation contour line to reinforcement along current section of constructing is laid from left to right;The longitudinal reinforcement beam is type Steel, and longitudinal reinforcement beam described in per pass is spliced from the front to the back by multiple longitudinal reinforcement girder segments;
    When Tunnel system (16-4) is the profile steel frame support system, longitudinal reinforcement beam described in per pass with it is more Profile steel frame is fastenedly connected described in Pin, and the longitudinal reinforcement beam as described in multiple tracks of profile steel frame described in more Pin is fastenedly connected and is integrated;
    When Tunnel system (16-4) is that the grid steel frame encircles Composite Supporting System with set, longitudinally add described in per pass Gu Liang is fastenedly connected with grid steel frame described in more Pin, and the longitudinal reinforcement beam fastening as described in multiple tracks of grid steel frame described in more Pin connects It is connected in one;
    When carrying out Second Lining Construction to the Tunnel in step 5, when the rate of deformation of the Tunnel is less than 5mm/d Constructed;The thickness of the Tunnel Second Lining structure is 50cm~60cm.
  4. 4. according to the plenty water weak surrounding rock major long tunnel construction method described in claim 1, it is characterised in that:Calculated in step 3 Draw the strength-stress ratio of current section country rock of constructingAfterwards, also need according to the strength-stress ratio being calculatedIt is right The extrusion pressing type large deformation grade of current section country rock of constructing is determined;The extrusion pressing type large deformation grade includes four etc. Level, and four grades are respectively without large deformation, slight large deformation, medium large deformation and serious large deformation from low to high;
    When being determined to the extrusion pressing type large deformation grade of current section country rock of constructing, when When, illustrate current institute The extrusion pressing type large deformation grade of construction section country rock is without large deformation;When When, illustrate currently to be constructed The extrusion pressing type large deformation grade of section country rock is slight large deformation;WhenWhen, illustrate section of currently constructing The extrusion pressing type large deformation grade of section country rock is medium large deformation;WhenWhen, illustrate section country rock of currently constructing Extrusion pressing type large deformation grade is serious large deformation.
  5. 5. according to the plenty water weak surrounding rock major long tunnel construction method described in claim 4, it is characterised in that:Carried out in step 4 Before tunnel excavation and supporting construction, also need to be determined the tunnel deformation allowance of current section of constructing;Also, according to The extrusion pressing type large deformation grade of identified current section country rock of constructing, is carried out to the deformation allowance of current section of constructing It is determined that;Identified deformation allowance includes tunnel arch deformation allowance C1With tunnel abutment wall deformation allowance C2;Wherein, tunnel Road arch deformation allowance C1=50mm~530mm, tunnel abutment wall deformation allowanceΔ C=1mm~ 30mm;Also, the extrusion pressing type large deformation higher grade of current section country rock of constructing, tunnel arch deformation allowance C1, tunnel Abutment wall deformation allowance C2It is bigger with Δ C value;
    When carrying out excavation construction to current section of constructing from the front to the back in step 4, according to identified tunnel deformation allowance Carry out excavation construction.
  6. 6. according to the plenty water weak surrounding rock major long tunnel construction method described in claim 1, it is characterised in that:Described in step 4 Profile steel frame includes carrying out the arch wall of the Tunnel shaped steel arch of supporting;Between profile steel frame described in front and rear adjacent two Pin Spacing be 0.4m~0.8m, and the profile steel frame is the steelframe being bent to form by H profile steel;
    Grid steel frame described in step 4 includes the grillage (16-2) that supporting is carried out to the arch wall of the Tunnel;Front and rear phase Spacing between neighbour's grid steel frame described in two Pin is 0.4m~0.6m;The shape and grillage of the shaped steel set arch (16-3) The shape of (16-2), and shaped steel set arch (16-3) is supported on the inside of grillage (16-2) described in a Pin described in per Pin;
    When being constructed in step 4 to the grid steel frame with set arch combined supporting scheme, along tunnel Longitudinal extending direction by rear Forward in the Tunnel Nei Zhili grillages (16-2);And during carrying out Zhi Li to grillage (16-2), along tunnel Longitudinal extending direction covers arch (16-3) in the Tunnel Nei Zhili shaped steel from the front to the back;Also, shaped steel set arch described in per Pin (16-3) carries out Zhi Li after grillage (16-2) branch on its inside stands completion 7 days;
    The left and right sides arch springing bottom of the shaped steel arch and grillage (16-2) is provided with a branch in horizontal layout Support steel plate and the left and right sides of the two are locked pin anchor tubes by more and anchored.
  7. 7. according to the plenty water weak surrounding rock major long tunnel construction method described in claim 6, it is characterised in that:Described in step 4 Profile steel frame is that the loopful shaped steel frame of supporting is carried out to the Tunnel, and the profile steel frame also includes the bottom to the Tunnel Portion carries out the tunnel bottom shape steel bracket of supporting, the both ends of the tunnel bottom shape steel bracket respectively with the shaped steel arch two Individual arch springing is fastenedly connected;
    Grid steel frame described in step 4 also encircles positioned at shaped steel set described in more Pin respectively with set arch Composite Supporting System including multiple The tunnel bottom steelframe (16-7) of bottom progress supporting immediately below (16-3) and to the Tunnel, the tunnel bottom steelframe Two arch springings that the both ends of (16-7) cover arch (16-3) with shaped steel respectively are fastenedly connected;Per shaped steel set arch (16-3) described in Pin with Tunnel bottom steelframe (16-7) composition immediately below it carries out the loopful shaped steel frame of supporting to the Tunnel;
    There is the empty slag that a layer thickness is 20cm~30cm the bottom of Tunnel described in step 4, from the front to the back to currently being applied During work section carries out excavation construction, along tunnel Longitudinal extending direction from the front to the back to the empty slag of the Tunnel bottom Cleared up, and the concrete that a layer thickness is 20cm~30cm is laid in the Tunnel bottom, form concrete cushion;Institute Tunnel bottom steelframe (16-7) is stated to be located on the concrete cushion.
  8. 8. according to the plenty water weak surrounding rock major long tunnel construction method described in claim 1, it is characterised in that:The inclined shaft auxiliary Construction outlet section (2-4) be in the presence of the prominent tunnel construction sections for gushing point (3), the inclined shaft auxiliary construction outlet section (2-4) with it is roundabout Flat to lead intersecting, intersection is led in the roundabout flat intersection led between inclined shaft auxiliary construction outlet section (2-4) to be flat, described prominent Point (3) is gushed flat to lead the distance between intersection with described and be not more than 200m;Roundabout put down is led including positioned at inclined shaft auxiliary construction The inlet side of outlet section (2-4) side is flat to lead (5) and the outlet side positioned at inclined shaft auxiliary construction outlet section (2-4) opposite side flat is led (6), the inlet side is flat leads (5) and flat lead of outlet side communicates and intersection is led in junction therebetween for described put down inside (6) Mouthful;The inlet side is flat to lead (5) and be located at that outlet side is flat to lead on rear side of (6), the inlet side is flat lead (5) be trapezoidal and its by with main tunnel (2) before being in the middle part pilot tunnel (5-1) of parallel laying and being connected between middle part pilot tunnel (5-1) rear and front end and main tunnel (2) Side pilot tunnel (5-2) and rear side pilot tunnel (5-3), flat lead (6) of the outlet side are by the first pilot tunnel with main tunnel (2) in parallel laying (6-1) and the second pilot tunnel (6-2) on rear side of the first pilot tunnel (6-1), second pilot tunnel (6-2) and front side pilot tunnel (5-2) Lay on the same line;Inclined shaft auxiliary construction outlet section (2-4) side is provided with drain cavern (4), the drain cavern (4) Intersect with inclined shaft auxiliary construction outlet section (2-4) and intersection therebetween is drain cavern intersection, the first pilot tunnel (6- 1) intersection between inclined shaft auxiliary construction outlet section (2-4) is pilot tunnel intersection;The inclined shaft intersection, the drain cavern Intersection, the pilot tunnel intersection, prominent gush point (3) and described put down leads Longitudinal extending direction of the intersection along main tunnel (2) by backward Before laid, the inclined shaft auxiliary construction outlet section (2-4) is with the inclined shaft intersection, the drain cavern intersection, described Pilot tunnel intersection, the prominent point (3) and the flat intersection of leading of gushing are that boundary is divided into the first main tunnel section (2-41), the second main tunnel from the front to the back Section (2-42), the 3rd main tunnel section (2-43), the 4th main tunnel section (2-44) and the 5th main tunnel section (2-45);
    Wherein, during carrying out excavation construction to entrance section of tunnel (2-1), carried out using inlet side ventilation blower (7) forced logical Wind, and the first ventilation duct (10-1) by being laid in the Tunnel that completion has been excavated in entrance section of tunnel (2-1) is sent Wind;The inlet side ventilation blower (7) is located on the outside of the import of main tunnel (2);
    During carrying out excavation construction to tunnel outlet section (2-2), forced ventilation is carried out using outlet side ventilation blower (8), and Blown by the second ventilation duct (10-2) being laid in the Tunnel that completion has been excavated in tunnel outlet section (2-2);Institute Outlet side ventilation blower (8) is stated to be located on the outside of the outlet of main tunnel (2);
    During carrying out excavation construction to tunnel slope (1), entered using the first ventilation blower (9-1) and/or the second ventilation blower (9-2) Row forced ventilation, and the third venting pipe (10-3) by being laid in the Tunnel that completion has been excavated in tunnel slope (1) And/or the 4th ventilation duct (10-4) blown, the air inlet of the third venting pipe (10-3) and the first ventilation blower (9-1) Air outlet is connected, and the air inlet of the 4th ventilation duct (10-4) is connected with the air outlet of the second ventilation blower (9-2);Described first is logical Blower fan (9-1) and the second ventilation blower (9-2) are respectively positioned on the outside of the hole of tunnel slope (1);
    During carrying out excavation construction to inclined shaft auxiliary construction inducer (2-3), carried out using the first ventilation blower (9-1) forced Ventilation, and excavated in tunnel slope (1) and inclined shaft auxiliary construction inducer (2-3) by being laid in the Tunnel of completion Third venting pipe (10-3) is blown;
    When carrying out excavation construction to inclined shaft auxiliary construction outlet section (2-4), process is as follows:
    Step 101, the first main tunnel section excavation construction:Excavation construction is carried out to the first main tunnel section (2-41) from the front to the back, excavation is applied Forced ventilation is carried out using the second ventilation blower (9-2) during work, and by being laid in tunnel slope (1) and the first main tunnel section The 4th ventilation duct (10-4) excavated in (2-41) in the Tunnel of completion is blown;
    Step 102, the construction of the first relay air compartment:After the completion for the treatment of first main tunnel section (2-41) excavation construction, handed in the drain cavern The rear side of prong is constructed the first relay air compartment (11), the first relay air compartment (11) built with the first relay air blower (11-1), Second relay air blower (11-2) and the 3rd relay air blower (11-3), the air outlet of the 4th ventilation duct (10-4) and the first relay Communicated inside air compartment (11);
    Step 103, the second main tunnel section and drain cavern excavation construction:After the completion of first relay air compartment (11) construction, by backward It is preceding that excavation construction is carried out to the second main tunnel section (2-42), use the second ventilation blower (9-2) and the first relay during excavation construction Blower fan (11-1) or the second relay air blower (11-2) carry out forced ventilation, and by being laid in tunnel slope (1) and first just The 4th ventilation duct (10-4) in hole section (2-41) and it is laid in the Tunnel that completion has been excavated in the second main tunnel section (2-42) The 5th ventilation duct (10-5) or the 7th ventilation duct (10-7) blown;The air inlet of 5th ventilation duct (10-5) and The air outlet connection of one relay air blower (11-1), the air inlet and the second relay air blower (11-2) of the 7th ventilation duct (10-7) Air outlet connection;
    Meanwhile excavation construction is carried out to drain cavern (4) from the front to the back, during excavation construction using the second ventilation blower (9-2) and 3rd relay air blower (11-3) carries out forced ventilation, and interior with the first main tunnel section (2-41) by being laid in tunnel slope (1) The 4th ventilation duct (10-4) and the 6th ventilation duct (10-6) that is laid in the Tunnel that completion has been excavated in drain cavern (4) enter Row air-supply;The air inlet of 6th ventilation duct (10-6) is connected with the air outlet of the 3rd relay air blower (11-3);
    Step 104, the 3rd main tunnel section and inlet side are flat to lead excavation construction:The 3rd main tunnel section (2-43) is excavated from the front to the back Construct, forced ventilation is carried out using the second ventilation blower (9-2) and the second relay air blower (11-2) during excavation construction, and it is logical Cross the 4th ventilation duct (10-4) being laid in tunnel slope (1) and the first main tunnel section (2-41) and be laid in the second main tunnel section The 7th ventilation duct (10-7) in (2-42) is blown;The air inlet and the second relay air blower of 7th ventilation duct (10-7) The air outlet connection of (11-2);
    Meanwhile lead (5) flat to inlet side carry out excavation construction from the front to the back, and the second ventilation blower (9- is used during excavation construction 2) and the first relay air blower (11-1) carries out forced ventilation, and by being laid in tunnel slope (1) and the first main tunnel section (2- 41) the 4th ventilation duct (10-4) in and it is laid in the second main tunnel section (2-42) and has excavated completion with flat lead in (5) of inlet side The 5th ventilation duct (10-5) in Tunnel is blown;
    Step 105, outlet side are flat to lead and the 5th main tunnel section rear end section excavation construction:The inlet side is flat to lead (5) excavation construction After the completion of, lead (6) flat to outlet side carry out excavation construction from the front to the back, and the second ventilation blower (9-2) is used during excavation construction Forced ventilation is carried out with the second relay air blower (11-2), and by being laid in tunnel slope (1) and the first main tunnel section (2-41) Interior the 4th ventilation duct (10-4) and it is laid in that the second main tunnel section (2-42), inlet side are flat to lead (5) and outlet side is flat leads in (6) The 7th ventilation duct (10-7) excavated in the Tunnel completed is blown;
    The 5th main tunnel section (2-45) is divided into rear end section and the front side section on front side of the rear end section;Also, institute After the completion of stating that inlet side is flat and leading (5) excavation construction, excavation construction, excavation construction process are carried out to the rear end section from the front to the back It is middle that forced ventilation is carried out using the second ventilation blower (9-2) and the first relay air blower (11-1), and by being laid in tunnel slope (1) with the 4th ventilation duct (10-4) in the first main tunnel section (2-41) and being laid in that the second main tunnel section (2-42), inlet side are flat to lead (5) the 5th ventilation duct (10-5) in the Tunnel with having excavated completion in the rear end section is blown;
    Step 106, the construction of the second relay air compartment:After the completion for the treatment of rear end section excavation construction, applied in the rear in end segment section Work the second relay air compartment (12), the second relay air compartment (12) is built with the 4th relay air blower (12-1) and the 5th relay air blower (12-2), the air outlet of the 5th ventilation duct (10-5) inside the second relay air compartment (12) with communicating;The second relay wind Room (12) is positioned at the flat front side for leading intersection;The air outlet of 5th ventilation duct (10-5) and the second relay air compartment (12) Inside communicates;
    Section and the 4th main tunnel section excavation construction on front side of step 107, the 5th main tunnel section:The second relay air compartment (12) has been constructed Cheng Hou, excavation construction is carried out to the front side section from the front to the back, using the second ventilation blower (9-2), the during excavation construction One relay air blower (11-1) and the 4th relay air blower (12-1) carry out forced ventilation, and by be laid in tunnel slope (1) with The 4th ventilation duct (10-4) in first main tunnel section (2-41), it is laid in that the second main tunnel section (2-42), inlet side are flat to lead (5) and institute For stating the 5th ventilation duct (10-5) in the section of rear end and being laid in the Tunnel that completion has been excavated in the front side section Eight ventilation ducts (10-8) are blown;The air inlet of 8th ventilation duct (10-8) and the air intake of the 4th relay air blower (12-1) Mouth connection;
    Meanwhile excavation construction is carried out to the 4th main tunnel section (2-44) from the front to the back, use the second ventilation blower during excavation construction (9-2), the first relay air blower (11-1) and the 5th relay air blower (12-2) carry out forced ventilation, and oblique by being laid in tunnel Well (1) and the 4th ventilation duct (10-4) in the first main tunnel section (2-41), it is laid in that the second main tunnel section (2-42), inlet side are flat to lead (5) with the 5th ventilation duct (10-5) in the rear end section and being laid in the rear end section and the 4th main tunnel section (2-44) The 9th ventilation duct (10-9) excavated in the Tunnel of completion is blown;The air inlet of 9th ventilation duct (10-9) with The air inlet connection of 5th relay air blower (12-2).
  9. 9. according to the plenty water weak surrounding rock major long tunnel construction method described in claim 8, it is characterised in that:Institute in step 102 The closed box that the second relay air compartment (12) described in the first relay air compartment (11) and step 106 is stated to be welded by steel plate Body.
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CN105822311B (en) * 2016-05-17 2018-01-02 中铁十五局集团有限公司 The Super-large-section tunnel enlarging constructing structure in situ and construction method of the inside opening increase scope of operation
CN106014423B (en) * 2016-06-24 2018-05-11 西安科技大学 The excavation and method for protecting support of a kind of shallow coal level lane
CN106801405B (en) * 2017-02-28 2019-01-01 中国电建集团华东勘测设计研究院有限公司 A kind of method of the underground rich water with the multiple issue pre-treatments of hole section
CN108119162B (en) * 2017-12-18 2019-05-14 西安科技大学 A kind of unsymmetrial loading tunnel sidewall stability control construction method
CN108086983B (en) * 2017-12-18 2019-05-14 西安科技大学 A kind of unsymmetrial loading tunnel construction method
CN108222979B (en) * 2017-12-29 2019-11-22 中铁二局第一工程有限公司 Rich water karst waterproof and Drainage Construction of Tunnel method
CN108166981B (en) * 2017-12-31 2019-10-15 中铁十九局集团第二工程有限公司 Tunnel soft rock large deformation section construction technology
CN108536927B (en) * 2018-03-22 2019-01-29 广西信达高速公路有限公司 A method of estimation deep tunnel equivalent cross-section is prominent to gush disaster earthquake intensity
CN110318762A (en) * 2019-07-25 2019-10-11 中冶建工集团有限公司 Advanced support method in hole at shallow buried covered excavation unsymmetrial loading tunnel roof fall
CN110905530A (en) * 2019-12-10 2020-03-24 中铁二十局集团第二工程有限公司 Stability control construction method for water-rich soft rock tunnel penetrating fault fracture zone
CN110905562A (en) * 2019-12-18 2020-03-24 黄河勘测规划设计研究院有限公司 Advanced drainage support reinforcing method for surrounding rock of soil tunnel

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CN101798930B (en) * 2010-03-24 2012-05-23 中铁十二局集团有限公司 Rapid construction method of high-pressure water-rich fault zone of tunnel
CN102278142B (en) * 2011-05-04 2014-08-13 中铁隧道集团二处有限公司 Vacuum lightweight well-point dewatering method
CN102996133B (en) * 2012-07-02 2014-08-06 中铁二十三局集团第四工程有限公司 Construction method applicable to intersection between inclined shaft and slant hole of weak surrounding rock tunnel
CN103628915A (en) * 2013-11-28 2014-03-12 中铁十三局集团有限公司 Dewatering and drainage method for large-section water-rich saturation fine-silt tunnel

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